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Employment Projections
Bureau of Labor Statistics > Employment Projections > Data > Inter-Industry Relationships

Inter-industry relationships (Input-Output matrix)

This page contains links to files of input-output data for the U.S. economy for the historical years 1997–2021, and for the projected year 2031. Input-output data show the flow of commodities from production through intermediate use by industries to purchases by final users. These data are developed as a set of matrices or tables for each year. The input-output tables produced by the BLS are derived from input-output data initially developed by the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Data for Researchers

Input-output data for the U.S. economy for the historical years 1997–2021, and for the projected year 2031 (ZIP, 7.6 MB)

This file includes:

  • Input-output layout and description
  • Final demand sectoring plan
  • Industry sectoring plan
  • Nominal dollar input-output data for 1997–2021
  • Chain-weighted (2012 dollar based) input-output data for 1997–2021
  • Projected 2031 chain-weighted (2012 dollar based) input-output data

How to Decompress ZIP Files

Note: Corrections were made to the "REAL_USE_2021.csv" file and "REAL_MAKE_2021.csv" file. All other files remain unchanged from prior release.

Previous version of the .zip files, published on September 8, 2022, contained incorrectly aggregated detailed industries data for summary sector 284 (State and local general government), which included only detailed industry sectors 186 and 187. The correct aggregation should have included detailed industries 186-188. The 2021 nominal make table was incorrectly oriented with rows summing to commodity output and columns summing to industry output. The rows and columns now correctly sum to industry and commodity outputs, respectively. Apart from the transposition, the data is unchanged. The industry sectoring plan contained outdated detailed industry titles for summary sector 283 (State and local government) in the “Industry Commodity Sectors” tab and incorrect mapping for NAICS 491 (Postal service) in the “Stubs” tab. The latest files, published on October 21, 2022, includes all of these corrections.

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Last Modified Date: February 21, 2023