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News Release Information

23-695-PHI
Monday, April 10, 2023

Contacts Technical information: Media contact:

Women’s Earnings in Virginia— 2021

In 2021, Virginia women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings of $994, or 80.4 percent of the $1,237 median usual weekly earnings of their male counterparts, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Alexandra Hall Bovee noted that the 2021 women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio of 80.4 percent compared to 79.5 percent in 2020. Nationwide, women earned $912 per week, or 83.1 percent of the $1,097 median for men. (See chart 1 and table 1.) The earnings comparisons in this release are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization.

In Virginia, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio has ranged from a low of 72.4 percent in 2000 to a high of 83.6 percent in 2014. (Data for the states began in 1997.)        

   

Among the 50 states, median weekly earnings of women in full-time wage and salary positions in 2021 ranged from $722 in Mississippi to $1,157 in Massachusetts. Women’s earnings in eight states and the District of Columbia exceeded $1,000 per week. (See map 1.)

Map 1. Women's median usual weekly earnings for full-time wage and salary workers by state, 2021 annual averages

(U.S. average = $912)

Median weekly earnings for men were lowest in Mississippi at $864 and highest in Massachusetts at $1,386. Thirty-four states and the District of Columbia had weekly wages above $1,000 for full-time male workers.

Rhode Island had the highest women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio among the states, 91.5 percent, and Utah had the lowest, 74.6 percent. The District of Columbia had a ratio of 83.2 percent. (See map 2.) The differences among the states reflect, in part, variation in the occupations and industries found in each state and differences in the demographic composition of each state’s labor force. In addition, sampling error for state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates. Consequently, earnings comparisons between states should be made with caution.

Map 2. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's for full-time wage and salary workers by state, 2021 annual averages

(U.S. average = 83.1%)


Technical Note

The estimates in this release were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), which provides information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau using a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible households representing all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The survey data on earnings are based on one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers, both incorporated and unincorporated, are excluded from the data presented in this release.

Statistics based on the CPS data are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. Further information about the reliability of data from the CPS is available on the CPS Technical Documentation page of the BLS website.

The principal concepts and definitions used in connection with the earnings data in this release are described briefly below.

Wage and salary workers are people age 16 and older who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payments-in-kind, or piece rates on their sole or principal job. This group includes employees in both the public and private sectors. All self-employed workers are excluded whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

Full-time workers are defined for the purposes of these estimates as those who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job.

Usual weekly earnings reflect earnings before taxes and other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders). Respondents are asked to identify the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly, annually, or other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term “usual” is determined by each respondent’s own understanding of the term.

Median earnings reflect the midpoint in a given earnings distribution, with half of workers having earnings above the median and the other half having earnings below the median.

For more information on the median weekly earnings of women and men, see Bureau of Labor Statistics Report 1102, Highlights of women’s earnings in 2021.

Information in this release will be made available to individuals with sensory impairments upon request. Voice phone: (202)-691-5200; Telecommunications Relay Service: 7-1-1.

Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by state, 2021 annual averages
State Total Women Men Women’s
earnings as a
percentage
of men’s
Number of
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error of
median
Number of
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error of
median
Number of
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error of
median

United States

114,316 $998 $2 51,388 $912 $3 62,928 $1,097 $5 83.1

Alabama

1,693 901 13 772 788 20 921 1,011 22 77.9

Alaska

249 1,104 22 112 967 27 137 1,223 30 79.1

Arizona

2,595 977 14 1,115 860 15 1,479 1,068 28 80.5

Arkansas

1,003 859 15 462 800 19 541 918 24 87.1

California

12,875 1,111 12 5,559 1,020 15 7,316 1,157 10 88.2

Colorado

2,086 1,142 17 888 1,035 31 1,198 1,212 30 85.4

Connecticut

1,230 1,205 41 570 1,089 44 660 1,272 67 85.6

Delaware

370 952 18 177 894 23 193 987 13 90.6

District of Columbia

323 1,710 42 163 1,565 29 160 1,880 29 83.2

Florida

7,536 896 8 3,465 818 10 4,071 956 12 85.6

Georgia

3,779 926 15 1,770 855 17 2,009 992 20 86.2

Hawaii

448 952 20 204 880 29 244 1,018 29 86.4

Idaho

633 893 11 257 796 11 376 979 18 81.3

Illinois

4,451 1,084 18 2,040 968 17 2,410 1,200 25 80.7

Indiana

2,390 955 18 1,033 859 27 1,357 1,079 44 79.6

Iowa

1,179 924 17 532 840 33 648 1,013 38 82.9

Kansas

1,070 941 23 481 846 17 588 1,065 27 79.4

Kentucky

1,463 878 17 656 820 20 808 928 25 88.4

Louisiana

1,479 889 18 707 783 20 772 1,002 24 78.1

Maine

450 975 21 202 903 26 247 1,070 32 84.4

Maryland

2,297 1,204 34 1,087 1,134 27 1,210 1,328 45 85.4

Massachusetts

2,626 1,279 29 1,204 1,157 16 1,421 1,386 28 83.5

Michigan

3,292 1,042 19 1,497 910 15 1,795 1,195 25 76.2

Minnesota

2,110 1,116 26 906 997 21 1,205 1,231 22 81.0

Mississippi

949 785 15 464 722 17 486 864 32 83.6

Missouri

2,199 933 15 1,034 845 22 1,165 1,013 21 83.4

Montana

343 905 15 151 822 19 192 997 20 82.4

Nebraska

738 957 16 333 871 19 405 1,049 22 83.0

Nevada

1,034 882 14 462 828 16 571 937 21 88.4

New Hampshire

530 1,107 21 237 963 20 293 1,262 38 76.3

New Jersey

3,179 1,206 26 1,417 1,075 27 1,763 1,352 20 79.5

New Mexico

642 899 19 289 801 30 353 990 27 80.9

New York

6,504 1,093 17 3,000 979 15 3,504 1,174 18 83.4

North Carolina

3,620 883 14 1,695 803 15 1,925 954 17 84.2

North Dakota

290 953 16 127 848 22 163 1,067 23 79.5

Ohio

4,036 966 10 1,813 872 15 2,223 1,070 24 81.5

Oklahoma

1,324 838 19 582 738 16 741 952 25 77.5

Oregon

1,445 1,051 17 624 967 26 821 1,128 31 85.7

Pennsylvania

4,409 1,042 16 1,992 925 17 2,417 1,145 18 80.8

Rhode Island

382 1,115 26 178 1,058 27 204 1,156 27 91.5

South Carolina

1,797 875 18 837 756 19 960 964 19 78.4

South Dakota

325 905 13 145 809 15 181 976 17 82.9

Tennessee

2,405 885 12 1,105 781 24 1,300 976 28 80.0

Texas

10,370 948 10 4,517 869 12 5,853 1,016 11 85.5

Utah

1,115 940 16 442 825 18 674 1,106 29 74.6

Vermont

213 1,009 14 101 945 30 112 1,086 36 87.0

Virginia

3,184 1,106 25 1,528 994 27 1,656 1,237 23 80.4

Washington

2,741 1,139 20 1,202 1,024 26 1,538 1,237 35 82.8

West Virginia

582 867 17 265 756 13 317 989 18 76.4

Wisconsin

2,140 1,004 16 904 950 13 1,236 1,063 28 89.4

Wyoming

193 969 24 85 822 24 108 1,093 26 75.2

Note: In general, the sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates; thus, comparisons of state estimates should be made with caution. Data shown are based on workers' state of residence; workers' reported earnings, however, may or may not be from a job located in the same state.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Last Modified Date: Monday, April 10, 2023