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News Release Information

22-882-PHI
Tuesday, May 17, 2022

Contacts Technical information: Media contact:

Business Employment Dynamics in Pennsylvania — Third Quarter 2021

From June 2021 to September 2021, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector establishments in Pennsylvania were 309,749, while gross job losses from closing and contracting private-sector establishments were 260,551, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Alexandra Hall Bovee noted that the difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 49,198 jobs in the private sector during the third quarter of 2021. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 11,325. (See chart 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all private businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private-sector establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See Technical Note.)

Gross job gains

In the third quarter of 2021, gross job gains represented 6.2 percent of private-sector employment in Pennsylvania; nationally, gross job gains accounted for 7.2 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 2.) Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment due to expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. In Pennsylvania, gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 260,371 in the third quarter of 2021, an increase of 26,013 jobs compared to the previous quarter. (See table 1.) Opening establishments accounted for 49,378 jobs gained in the third quarter of 2021, an increase of 6,405 jobs from the previous quarter.

Gross job losses

In the third quarter of 2021, gross job losses represented 5.3 percent of private-sector employment in Pennsylvania; nationally, gross job losses accounted for 6.2 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 3.) Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. In Pennsylvania, contracting establishments lost 222,866 jobs in the third quarter of 2021, a decrease of 11,758 jobs from the prior quarter. Closing establishments lost 37,685 jobs, an increase of 6,303 jobs from the previous quarter.

Industries

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 8 of the 11 industry sectors in Pennsylvania in the third quarter of 2021. Leisure and hospitality had the largest over-the-quarter net job increase, with a gain of 23,667 jobs. This was the result of 66,816 gross job gains and 43,149 gross job losses. The professional and business services industry had a net gain of 9,192 jobs. The transportation and warehousing industry had a net gain of 7,448 jobs. Retail trade showed a net loss of 4,611 jobs, the largest loss of any sector in the state.

For more information

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses by industry subsector, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size class. BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. Additional information is available online at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics for Fourth Quarter 2021 are scheduled to be released on Wednesday, July 27, 2022.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Effect on Business Employment Dynamics

Data collection and processing methods have been impacted because of the COVID-19 pandemic. More detail can be found at www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-on-business-employment-dynamics.htm.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either units with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either units with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

The full Technical Note for the Business Employment Dynamics program, which includes information on coverage, concepts, and methodology, can be found in the current quarterly news release online at www.bls.gov/news.release/cewbd.htm.

Information in this release will be made available to individuals with sensory impairments upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Telecommunications Relay Service: 7-1-1.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Pennsylvania, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains and losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Sept.
2020
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
June
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
June
2021
Sept.
2021

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

487,751 298,990 318,356 277,331 309,749 10.3 6.2 6.4 5.6 6.2

At expanding establishments

388,732 252,371 271,810 234,358 260,371 8.2 5.2 5.5 4.7 5.2

At opening establishments

99,019 46,619 46,546 42,973 49,378 2.1 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0

Gross job losses

232,669 258,653 227,213 266,006 260,551 4.9 5.3 4.6 5.3 5.3

At contracting establishments

197,271 218,308 193,458 234,624 222,866 4.2 4.5 3.9 4.7 4.5

At closing establishments

35,398 40,345 33,755 31,382 37,685 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.8

Net employment change (2)

255,082 40,337 91,143 11,325 49,198 5.4 0.9 1.8 0.3 0.9

Construction

Gross job gains

27,503 24,656 22,940 21,369 20,069 11.5 10.0 9.0 8.4 8.0

At expanding establishments

21,490 20,210 18,535 17,772 15,987 9.0 8.2 7.3 7.0 6.4

At opening establishments

6,013 4,446 4,405 3,597 4,082 2.5 1.8 1.7 1.4 1.6

Gross job losses

20,142 19,155 20,016 20,091 20,884 8.4 7.7 7.9 7.9 8.3

At contracting establishments

16,978 15,491 17,011 17,348 17,149 7.1 6.2 6.7 6.8 6.8

At closing establishments

3,164 3,664 3,005 2,743 3,735 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.5

Net employment change (2)

7,361 5,501 2,924 1,278 -815 3.1 2.3 1.1 0.5 -0.3

Manufacturing

Gross job gains

24,296 19,675 18,905 16,088 18,442 4.5 3.6 3.5 3.0 3.4

At expanding establishments

22,532 18,432 18,024 15,003 17,306 4.2 3.4 3.3 2.8 3.2

At opening establishments

1,764 1,243 881 1,085 1,136 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Gross job losses

19,587 14,830 14,109 17,430 15,549 3.7 2.8 2.7 3.2 2.9

At contracting establishments

18,023 13,990 12,696 16,671 14,436 3.4 2.6 2.4 3.1 2.7

At closing establishments

1,564 840 1,413 759 1,113 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2

Net employment change (2)

4,709 4,845 4,796 -1,342 2,893 0.8 0.8 0.8 -0.2 0.5

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

11,892 9,277 8,898 8,925 10,156 5.9 4.5 4.4 4.4 5.0

At expanding establishments

10,074 7,805 7,450 7,654 8,713 5.0 3.8 3.7 3.8 4.3

At opening establishments

1,818 1,472 1,448 1,271 1,443 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7

Gross job losses

7,991 7,235 7,214 7,724 8,005 4.0 3.5 3.5 3.8 3.9

At contracting establishments

6,526 5,714 5,714 6,584 6,278 3.3 2.8 2.8 3.2 3.1

At closing establishments

1,465 1,521 1,500 1,140 1,727 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.8

Net employment change (2)

3,901 2,042 1,684 1,201 2,151 1.9 1.0 0.9 0.6 1.1

Retail trade

Gross job gains

66,882 32,532 37,905 33,572 34,430 11.9 5.7 6.4 5.6 5.8

At expanding establishments

57,383 29,216 33,555 30,408 29,659 10.2 5.1 5.7 5.1 5.0

At opening establishments

9,499 3,316 4,350 3,164 4,771 1.7 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.8

Gross job losses

28,502 31,709 27,058 35,252 39,041 5.0 5.5 4.7 5.9 6.6

At contracting establishments

25,623 27,557 23,821 32,230 36,408 4.5 4.8 4.1 5.4 6.2

At closing establishments

2,879 4,152 3,237 3,022 2,633 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

Net employment change (2)

38,380 823 10,847 -1,680 -4,611 6.9 0.2 1.7 -0.3 -0.8

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

24,602 28,989 19,021 11,650 19,242 9.5 10.6 6.8 4.2 7.0

At expanding establishments

20,139 24,557 17,734 10,165 16,877 7.8 9.0 6.3 3.7 6.1

At opening establishments

4,463 4,432 1,287 1,485 2,365 1.7 1.6 0.5 0.5 0.9

Gross job losses

15,939 12,305 19,511 17,646 11,794 6.1 4.5 6.9 6.4 4.2

At contracting establishments

14,814 10,584 18,591 16,613 10,655 5.7 3.9 6.6 6.0 3.8

At closing establishments

1,125 1,721 920 1,033 1,139 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.4

Net employment change (2)

8,663 16,684 -490 -5,996 7,448 3.4 6.1 -0.1 -2.2 2.8

Information

Gross job gains

6,244 3,724 5,731 4,863 10,204 7.8 4.6 6.9 5.8 11.6

At expanding establishments

5,146 2,864 4,482 3,589 6,771 6.4 3.5 5.4 4.3 7.7

At opening establishments

1,098 860 1,249 1,274 3,433 1.4 1.1 1.5 1.5 3.9

Gross job losses

3,470 4,463 4,177 4,405 4,654 4.3 5.5 5.1 5.2 5.3

At contracting establishments

2,808 3,638 3,620 3,559 3,831 3.5 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.4

At closing establishments

662 825 557 846 823 0.8 1.0 0.7 1.0 0.9

Net employment change (2)

2,774 -739 1,554 458 5,550 3.5 -0.9 1.8 0.6 6.3

Financial activities

Gross job gains

13,997 11,287 12,480 11,646 13,743 4.3 3.5 3.8 3.6 4.2

At expanding establishments

11,302 9,069 9,799 9,334 11,177 3.5 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.4

At opening establishments

2,695 2,218 2,681 2,312 2,566 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8

Gross job losses

11,109 11,839 10,226 12,964 13,391 3.5 3.6 3.2 4.0 4.1

At contracting establishments

9,227 9,808 8,068 11,050 11,045 2.9 3.0 2.5 3.4 3.4

At closing establishments

1,882 2,031 2,158 1,914 2,346 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7

Net employment change (2)

2,888 -552 2,254 -1,318 352 0.8 -0.1 0.6 -0.4 0.1

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

59,771 64,237 47,949 51,842 55,246 8.0 8.4 6.1 6.6 7.0

At expanding establishments

48,816 54,573 39,313 41,626 45,183 6.5 7.1 5.0 5.3 5.7

At opening establishments

10,955 9,664 8,636 10,216 10,063 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.3

Gross job losses

44,970 40,271 43,136 48,924 46,054 6.0 5.3 5.5 6.2 5.8

At contracting establishments

36,954 31,967 35,629 41,767 36,699 4.9 4.2 4.5 5.3 4.6

At closing establishments

8,016 8,304 7,507 7,157 9,355 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2

Net employment change (2)

14,801 23,966 4,813 2,918 9,192 2.0 3.1 0.6 0.4 1.2

Education and health services

Gross job gains

62,899 41,485 43,953 40,014 42,365 5.4 3.5 3.7 3.4 3.6

At expanding establishments

52,682 36,576 38,684 35,218 37,592 4.5 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.2

At opening establishments

10,217 4,909 5,269 4,796 4,773 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

Gross job losses

37,278 41,865 37,424 46,164 43,195 3.2 3.5 3.2 3.9 3.7

At contracting establishments

32,719 36,874 32,055 41,496 38,124 2.8 3.1 2.7 3.5 3.3

At closing establishments

4,559 4,991 5,369 4,668 5,071 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4

Net employment change (2)

25,621 -380 6,529 -6,150 -830 2.2 0.0 0.5 -0.5 -0.1

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

141,502 45,412 82,054 59,577 66,816 36.7 10.8 19.0 12.9 13.8

At expanding establishments

112,849 35,598 69,961 49,067 55,621 29.3 8.5 16.2 10.6 11.5

At opening establishments

28,653 9,814 12,093 10,510 11,195 7.4 2.3 2.8 2.3 2.3

Gross job losses

28,007 57,927 30,155 41,154 43,149 7.2 13.9 7.0 8.9 8.9

At contracting establishments

21,358 48,886 24,791 35,149 36,773 5.5 11.7 5.8 7.6 7.6

At closing establishments

6,649 9,041 5,364 6,005 6,376 1.7 2.2 1.2 1.3 1.3

Net employment change (2)

113,495 -12,515 51,899 18,423 23,667 29.5 -3.1 12.0 4.0 4.9

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

43,508 13,015 14,363 13,463 14,872 27.9 7.7 8.3 7.7 8.3

At expanding establishments

22,300 9,665 10,672 10,861 11,833 14.3 5.7 6.2 6.2 6.6

At opening establishments

21,208 3,350 3,691 2,602 3,039 13.6 2.0 2.1 1.5 1.7

Gross job losses

10,543 12,764 10,110 9,746 10,757 6.8 7.5 5.9 5.5 6.0

At contracting establishments

7,907 10,191 7,931 8,009 8,283 5.1 6.0 4.6 4.5 4.6

At closing establishments

2,636 2,573 2,179 1,737 2,474 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.4

Net employment change (2)

32,965 251 4,253 3,717 4,115 21.1 0.2 2.4 2.2 2.3

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Sept.
2020
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
June
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
June
2021
Sept.
2021

United States(1)

9.5 7.4 6.8 6.7 7.2 6.0 5.7 5.4 5.9 6.2

Alabama

7.8 7.6 5.9 6.2 6.6 5.9 5.5 5.9 6.0 6.7

Alaska

12.2 13.4 11.0 9.5 10.4 9.8 7.7 9.4 9.2 9.5

Arizona

7.8 7.3 6.3 6.8 6.9 6.1 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.0

Arkansas

7.6 7.2 5.9 5.5 6.6 5.7 5.2 5.1 5.6 5.9

California

8.9 8.5 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.1 6.1 5.9 6.4 6.3

Colorado

10.1 7.5 8.6 7.8 8.1 6.4 7.2 5.6 6.4 7.0

Connecticut

11.4 6.6 6.3 6.6 6.8 5.1 5.9 5.3 5.9 6.0

Delaware

10.3 6.8 6.8 6.4 7.2 6.4 6.0 6.0 6.4 7.0

District of Columbia

8.2 5.3 5.5 7.0 7.9 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.4 4.8

Florida

9.5 8.0 6.9 7.8 9.2 6.7 6.0 5.8 6.2 6.0

Georgia

9.3 7.9 6.7 6.9 7.4 6.5 5.2 5.7 6.2 6.2

Hawaii

7.5 14.7 8.5 10.7 7.2 12.2 4.6 5.9 5.6 6.6

Idaho

8.4 8.7 8.1 7.2 7.7 6.4 6.1 5.7 7.2 7.3

Illinois

9.7 6.5 7.2 6.0 6.3 5.6 6.1 4.9 5.6 6.0

Indiana

8.3 6.8 6.0 5.7 6.3 5.2 5.0 5.1 6.0 5.8

Iowa

7.5 6.8 6.1 6.0 6.2 5.5 5.1 5.4 6.0 6.0

Kansas

7.9 7.0 6.2 6.2 6.6 5.9 5.9 5.5 6.1 6.6

Kentucky

9.0 7.3 7.3 6.4 6.6 5.1 6.1 5.1 6.5 6.5

Louisiana

9.1 8.7 6.4 6.8 6.9 7.0 5.6 5.9 6.2 8.6

Maine

12.3 8.5 9.0 7.7 7.8 6.0 6.3 6.3 7.8 8.0

Maryland

11.2 7.3 6.3 6.6 7.5 5.5 5.8 5.5 6.6 6.7

Massachusetts

12.4 7.0 6.6 6.9 7.2 5.4 5.5 5.0 5.7 5.9

Michigan

10.9 6.7 8.5 6.2 6.6 4.8 6.9 4.9 5.6 6.1

Minnesota

9.0 6.9 9.2 6.1 6.4 5.4 6.8 4.9 5.5 6.8

Mississippi

8.7 8.0 5.6 6.4 7.5 5.5 4.9 6.6 6.5 6.2

Missouri

8.5 7.1 6.3 6.0 6.7 5.7 5.2 5.3 6.3 6.1

Montana

9.9 9.4 8.8 8.3 8.4 7.2 6.8 6.9 8.1 8.3

Nebraska

8.2 6.8 6.5 6.2 6.2 5.8 5.5 6.2 6.0 6.6

Nevada

12.9 8.8 7.3 9.5 8.9 6.4 5.7 5.5 5.7 5.8

New Hampshire

11.8 7.4 7.4 7.0 7.0 5.3 6.4 5.4 6.4 6.8

New Jersey

15.7 8.1 7.0 7.2 7.4 5.6 5.9 5.6 5.7 6.1

New Mexico

8.5 7.3 8.5 7.1 7.9 6.1 7.5 5.7 6.6 6.3

New York

13.3 7.4 6.9 7.1 7.5 5.9 6.3 5.4 5.7 6.0

North Carolina

8.7 7.9 6.6 6.4 6.8 5.6 5.0 5.4 5.8 6.4

North Dakota

8.9 7.2 7.8 6.9 7.5 6.9 7.1 6.5 6.5 6.7

Ohio

7.8 6.6 6.1 5.9 6.1 5.3 5.2 5.0 5.8 6.0

Oklahoma

7.1 7.9 6.1 6.5 7.1 6.6 5.8 6.1 6.0 7.0

Oregon

9.0 7.4 8.5 6.6 7.0 6.3 6.5 5.6 6.6 6.5

Pennsylvania

10.3 6.2 6.4 5.6 6.2 4.9 5.3 4.6 5.3 5.3

Rhode Island

13.0 7.6 9.8 7.0 7.6 5.3 7.1 5.5 6.4 6.6

South Carolina

8.8 8.0 6.2 6.3 7.2 5.9 5.2 6.1 6.5 6.6

South Dakota

8.6 7.2 7.3 6.8 6.6 5.5 6.2 6.0 5.8 6.5

Tennessee

8.1 7.5 5.6 5.9 6.8 5.5 4.6 5.0 5.8 5.5

Texas

7.3 7.6 5.7 6.7 7.1 6.1 4.8 5.0 5.4 5.4

Utah

9.1 8.1 7.1 6.9 7.3 6.3 5.6 6.1 6.0 6.8

Vermont

12.9 7.6 8.2 8.4 7.9 5.8 8.0 6.1 6.8 7.5

Virginia

10.4 7.0 6.0 6.2 6.8 5.4 5.3 5.4 6.0 6.1

Washington

8.9 7.2 7.9 6.7 7.2 6.3 6.1 5.4 5.8 5.7

West Virginia

8.9 7.4 7.2 6.5 6.7 6.9 6.2 5.8 6.4 6.5

Wisconsin

7.6 6.3 5.8 5.8 5.5 5.1 5.1 4.7 5.4 5.8

Wyoming

10.8 10.0 9.1 8.8 8.9 7.7 7.7 8.3 8.5 8.6

Puerto Rico

11.1 6.6 6.6 7.7 8.3 5.1 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1

Virgin Islands

7.8 9.9 7.4 10.6 7.4 12.5 5.8 10.8 6.2 8.5

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Tuesday, May 17, 2022