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Table 2. Long run labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data






Table 2. Long run labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2019
Employment
(thousands)
Average annual percent change, 1987-2019
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours worked Labor compensation

Utilities

Utilities

22

549.4 2.2 1.5 1.4 -0.7 2.9

Utilities

221

549.4 2.2 1.5 1.4 -0.7 2.9

Power generation and supply

2211

386.0 2.9 0.8 1.9 -0.9 2.7

Natural gas distribution

2212

110.1 1.2 3.0 0.3 -0.9 3.3

Water, sewage and other systems

2213

53.3 -1.7 4.8 0.7 2.4 5.5

Transportation and Warehousing

Air transportation

481

494.4 3.0 1.0 2.8 -0.2 3.8

Line-haul railroads

482111

158.8 3.4 -0.4 1.7 -1.7 1.3

Truck transportation(1)

484

1,763.5 0.8 1.0 2.2 1.4 3.3

General freight trucking(1)

4841

1,271.5 1.3 1.1 2.5 1.3 3.6

General freight trucking, local(1)

48411

341.2 2.8 0.1 4.0 1.2 4.1

General freight trucking, long-distance

48412

930.3 1.3 0.6 2.4 1.0 3.0

Specialized freight trucking(2)

4842

492.0 1.0 1.8 2.2 1.2 4.1

Used household and office goods moving

48421

100.9 -0.8 2.8 -0.3 0.5 2.5

Other specialized trucking, local(2)

48422

246.8 0.6 2.2 2.2 1.7 4.5

Other specialized trucking, long-distance(2)

48423

144.3 1.9 1.2 3.6 1.7 4.8

Postal service(3)

491

607.2 0.0 3.2 -0.7 -0.6 2.5

Postal service(3)

4911

607.2 0.0 3.2 -0.7 -0.6 2.5

Couriers and messengers

492

883.6 -2.3 3.5 0.7 3.1 4.2

Warehousing and storage(1)

493

1,238.8 1.3 0.5 5.7 4.4 6.2

Warehousing and storage(1)

4931

1,238.8 1.3 0.5 5.7 4.4 6.2

General warehousing and storage(1)

49311

1,106.8 2.3 -0.2 7.0 4.6 6.8

Refrigerated warehousing and storage(1)

49312

67.2 0.5 1.1 3.6 3.0 4.7

Information

Publishing

511

795.8 4.3 1.3 4.0 -0.3 5.3

Newspaper, book, and directory publishers

5111

329.8 0.2 3.9 -2.8 -2.9 1.0

Newspaper publishers

51111

145.1 -0.5 3.8 -4.3 -3.9 -0.6

Periodical publishers

51112

90.2 -0.1 4.4 -1.8 -1.7 2.6

Book publishers

51113

59.8 -0.1 4.5 -1.1 -1.0 3.3

Software publishers

5112

466.0 10.7 -5.2 17.5 6.1 11.3

Motion picture and video exhibition

51213

149.0 1.1 2.4 1.5 0.4 4.0

Broadcasting, except Internet

515

278.0 3.0 1.4 3.0 0.0 4.4

Radio and television broadcasting

5151

222.0 2.2 1.4 1.9 -0.3 3.4

Radio broadcasting

51511

84.9 3.6 1.2 2.4 -1.2 3.6

Cable and other subscription programming

5152

56.0 4.9 2.5 6.2 1.2 8.9

Wired and wireless telecommunications carriers

5173

631.4 6.6 -2.6 5.7 -0.9 2.9

Wired telecommunications carriers

517311

523.7 3.8 -0.2 2.4 -1.4 2.2

Wireless telecommunications carriers

517312

107.7 12.0 -6.7 17.6 5.0 9.7

Finance and Insurance

Commercial banking

52211

1,392.8 2.8 2.2 2.7 -0.1 4.9

Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

Passenger car rental

532111

128.4 2.0 1.7 3.0 1.0 4.8

Truck, trailer, and RV rental and leasing

53212

91.4 2.2 1.1 3.2 1.0 4.4

Video tape and disc rental

532282

7.3 5.6 -0.8 -3.6 -8.7 -4.4

Professional and Technical Services

Accounting and bookkeeping services(4)

5412

1,186.3 2.0 1.7 2.7 0.7 4.4

Accounting and bookkeeping services(4)

54121

1,186.3 2.0 1.7 2.7 0.7 4.4

Offices of certified public accountants(4)

541211

505.4 2.1 2.0 3.1 1.1 5.2

Tax preparation services

541213

137.7 0.6 2.4 1.9 1.4 4.4

Other accounting services(4)

541219

366.2 3.3 -0.4 3.4 0.1 2.9

Architectural services

54131

216.0 1.5 1.8 2.7 1.2 4.5

Engineering services

54133

1,047.4 1.0 2.8 2.7 1.7 5.6

Advertising agencies

54181

227.6 2.0 1.8 2.6 0.6 4.5

Photography studios, portrait

541921

52.3 1.4 1.2 1.6 0.2 2.8

Veterinary services(5)

54194

418.7 -1.2 4.7 1.5 2.7 6.2

Administrative and Waste Services

Employment placement and executive search(6)

56131

299.8 4.2 0.0 5.1 0.9 5.2

Travel arrangement and reservation services(4)

5615

248.1 7.1 -2.0 5.1 -1.8 3.0

Travel agencies

56151

107.3 7.4 -2.1 6.1 -1.2 3.9

Janitorial services

56172

1,374.1 2.6 0.9 4.1 1.5 5.0

Health Care and Social Assistance

Medical and diagnostic laboratories(6)

6215

298.7 2.1 0.6 5.0 2.9 5.7

Medical laboratories(6)

621511

211.5 2.0 0.5 5.0 2.9 5.5

Diagnostic imaging centers(6)

621512

87.2 2.2 0.9 5.1 2.8 6.0

Hospitals, except psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals(7)

6221,3

5001.7 0.3 3.2 1.8 1.5 5.1

Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

Amusement parks and arcades(8)

7131

228.0 0.7 4.6 0.4 -0.3 5.1

Amusement and theme parks

71311

195.4 0.1 4.1 1.8 1.7 5.9

Gambling industries(4)

7132

124.9 2.2 2.0 1.7 -0.4 3.8

Golf courses and country clubs(2)

71391

386.5 -1.1 4.2 -0.1 1.0 4.1

Fitness and recreational sports centers(2)

71394

707.4 3.7 -0.2 4.3 0.6 4.1

Bowling centers

71395

71.8 0.6 2.6 -0.8 -1.4 1.8

Accommodation and Food Services

Accommodation and food services

72

14,407.4 0.8 2.7 2.4 1.6 5.1

Accommodation

721

2,116.0 1.9 1.9 2.7 0.8 4.6

Traveler accommodation

7211

2,024.2 1.9 1.8 2.8 0.8 4.7

Hotels and motels, except casino hotels

72111

1,698.2 1.3 2.6 2.1 0.8 4.7

Food services and drinking places

722

12,291.4 0.5 3.0 2.2 1.7 5.3

Special food services

7223

873.8 1.0 1.7 2.4 1.3 4.1

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

7224

417.2 -0.5 3.3 -0.1 0.4 3.2

Restaurants and other eating places

72251

11,000.4 0.5 3.2 2.4 1.8 5.6

Full-service restaurants

722511

5,573.4 0.7 3.5 2.4 1.7 5.9

Limited-service eating places

722513,4,5

5,427.0 0.4 2.8 2.4 2.0 5.3

Other Services

Automotive repair and maintenance

8111

1,163.3 1.2 2.1 1.6 0.4 3.7

Reupholstery and furniture repair

81142

22.4 -1.5 4.3 -3.0 -1.5 1.2

Personal care services

8121

1,314.9 2.2 1.7 3.5 1.2 5.2

Hair, nail, and skin care services

81211

1,079.3 2.1 1.7 3.1 1.0 4.9

Funeral homes and funeral services

81221

112.3 -0.4 4.1 -0.5 -0.1 3.5

Drycleaning and laundry services

8123

305.9 1.9 1.6 1.0 -0.8 2.6

Coin-operated laundries and drycleaners

81231

42.9 2.2 2.2 0.3 -1.9 2.5

Drycleaning and laundry services (except coin-operated)

81232

129.2 0.7 2.2 -1.3 -2.0 0.9

Linen and uniform supply

81233

133.8 2.1 1.0 3.1 0.9 4.1

Photofinishing

81292

9.1 2.0 2.4 -4.8 -6.7 -2.6

Footnotes
(1) For NAICS industries 484, 4841, 48411, 493, 4931, 49311, and 49312, average annual percent changes are for 1992-2019.
(2) For NAICS industries 4842, 48422, 48423, 71391, and 71394, average annual percent changes are for 2002-2019.
(3) For NAICS industries 491 and 4911, average annual percent changes are for the fiscal year ending in September.
(4) For NAICS industries 5412, 54121, 541211, 541219, 5615, and 7132, average annual percent changes are for 1997-2019.
(5) For NAICS industry 54194, average annual percent changes are for 2004-2019.
(6) For NAICS industries 56131, 6215, 621511, and 621512, average annual percent changes are for 1994-2019.
(7) For NAICS industry 6221,3, average annual percent changes are for 1993-2018. Employment is for 2018.
(8) For NAICS industry 7131, average annual percent changes are for 2007-2019.

Table of Contents

Last Modified Date: June 11, 2021