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Economic News Release
PRINT:Print

Productivity and Costs by Industry: Manufacturing and Mining Industries News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Thursday, April 27, 2023                            USDL-23-0797

Technical information: (202) 691-5606  *  productivity@bls.gov   *  www.bls.gov/productivity
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

                  PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS BY INDUSTRY
              MANUFACTURING AND MINING INDUSTRIES  2022

Labor productivity declines were widespread among manufacturing industries in 2022, with 
decreases in 66 of the 86 four-digit NAICS manufacturing industries, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Of the 51 industries in durable manufacturing, 37 had productivity 
decreases in 2022 led by a decline of 11.7 percent in the motor vehicle industry. Nondurable 
manufacturing also had widespread declines in 2022 with productivity falling in 29 of 35 
industries, led by a 16.9-percent decline in the cut and sew apparel industry. Productivity 
fell in 3 of the 5 mining industries in 2022 with the greatest decrease occurring in the coal 
mining industry (-12.2 percent).

Increases in hours worked were widespread among manufacturing and mining industries in 2022. 
Hours worked rose in 79 of the 91 industries in 2022. Forty-one industries increased both 
output and hours worked in 2022. Within this set of industries, just over a third had rising 
labor productivity.
  
Labor Productivity Trends in Three-Digit NAICS Industries, 2022

Manufacturing
        * Labor productivity decreased in 19 of the 21 three-digit NAICS manufacturing 
          industries in 2022. All 21 industries had growth in hours worked.
        * Output increased in 11 industries. Four industries had increases of over 3.0 percent 
          in both output and hours worked.
        * The petroleum and coal products industry had the largest productivity gain 
          (+3.3 percent).
        * Apparel had the largest productivity decline (-15.2 percent).

Mining
        * Labor productivity declined in 2 of the 3 three-digit NAICS mining industries in 2022.
        * The productivity gain of 6.3 percent in support activities for mining was caused by 
          output increasing 23.8 percent while hours worked rose 16.5 percent.
        * Increases in hours worked outpaced output growth in both oil and gas extraction and 
          mining, except oil and gas. 

Trends in Unit Labor Costs in 2022

Unit labor costs reflect the total labor costs required to produce a unit of output. Unit labor 
costs increase when hourly compensation growth exceeds productivity growth.

Manufacturing
        * In manufacturing, unit labor costs increased in all 21 three-digit NAICS industries 
          in 2022. Ten industries had growth of unit labor costs greater than 10.0 percent, and 
          each of these industries had declining labor productivity. 
        * Unit labor costs increased in 82 out of 86 four-digit NAICS manufacturing industries. 
          Nearly every manufacturing industry recorded growth in labor compensation in 2022, 
          with the only decline occurring in audio and video equipment.

Mining
       * Unit labor costs increased in all 3 three-digit NAICS mining industries. The greatest 
         growth in unit labor costs occurred in oil and gas extraction (+10.3 percent), which 
         also had the largest drop in labor productivity in 2022 (-6.9 percent).
 
2019 to 2022 Trends

Productivity increased in half of the NAICS four-digit manufacturing industries from 2019 to 
2022. Over this period, four of the five NAICS four-digit mining industries experienced 
productivity growth. Note that the percent changes referring to periods of more than one year 
in this section and the following section are compound annual growth rates.

Manufacturing
        * The two industries with the greatest gains in productivity from 2019 to 2022 were 
          audio and video equipment (+12.4 percent per year) and metalworking machinery (+9.6 
          percent per year). The largest productivity decline occurred in the iron and steel 
          mills and ferroalloys industry (-7.7 percent).
        * Output increased in just under half of the NAICS four-digit manufacturing industries 
          from 2019 to 2022. Audio and video equipment manufacturing was the industry with the 
          greatest output growth (+8.7 percent per year) while the largest decline occurred in 
          the iron and steel mills and ferroalloys industry (-10.1 percent).
        * Hours worked fell in 51 out of 86 NAICS four-digit manufacturing industries from 2019
          to 2022. Apparel knitting mills recorded the largest drop in hours worked (-9.9 
          percent per year). However, three industries had growth in hours worked greater than 
          5.0 percent over this period: other transportation equipment (+8.2 percent), beverages 
          (+7.2 percent), and motor vehicles (+7.0 percent).
          
Mining
        * In 2022, hours worked remained below pre-pandemic levels in all five of the NAICS 
          four-digit mining industries. The largest decline in hours worked occurred in support 
          activities for mining which decreased by 7.9 percent per year from 2019 to 2022.
        * Output decreased from 2019 to 2022 in four mining industries. The greatest drop in 
          output occurred in coal mining which fell by 6.6 percent per year. Only nonmetallic 
          mineral mining and quarrying returned to its pre-pandemic level of output with an 
          average increase of 0.3 percent from 2019 to 2022.
          
Long-Term Trends in Labor Productivity and Unit Labor Costs 
 
Labor Productivity
        * Over the entire 1987-2022 period, labor productivity rose in 82 of the 91 manufacturing 
          and mining industries. Output rose in 50 industries while hours worked increased in 
          only 19. In the 19 industries where hours worked increased, they rose at a slow pace, 
          0.7 percent per year on average.
        * During the 2007-2019 period, productivity increased in 35 industries. Of these 
          industries, only five had simultaneous growth in output as well as hours worked. Oil 
          and gas extraction had the greatest average growth in output over this period (+7.1 
          percent per year).
        * In the most recent 2019-2022 period, productivity increased in 47 industries. Hours 
          worked grew in 33 industries which is more than the other selected time periods. Other 
          transportation had the highest average growth in hours worked from 2019 to 2022 
          (+8.2 percent). 

Unit Labor Costs
        * From 1987 to 2022, unit labor costs increased in 81 of the 86 four-digit NAICS 
          manufacturing industries and in all five mining industries.
        * In both the 2007-2019 and 2019-2022 time periods, unit labor costs increased in 82 out 
          of 86 manufacturing industries, but in just 3 of the 5 mining industries. From 2007 to 
          2019, unit labor costs rose the most in the resin, rubber, and artificial fibers 
          industry. From 2019 to 2022, unit labor costs rose the most in the plywood and 
          engineered wood products industry (+15.0 percent per year).
          
The computer and peripheral equipment industry recorded the largest productivity gain (+12.4 
percent per year) as well as the largest unit labor costs decline (-10.7 percent) during the 
1987-2022 period. However, between 2019 and 2022, the audio and video equipment industry posted 
the greatest productivity growth (+12.4 percent) and the largest unit labor costs decline 
(-15.4 percent).

Additional Information

Measures of hours worked for all industries reflect a change in methods and are revised 
historically. The new method of determining hours worked uses all-employee hours data from the 
BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey as the main source of data. This is an improvement 
upon the prior method which instead used the CES production worker hours data. Another improvement 
is the use of BLS Current Population Survey (CPS) data to adjust CES all-employee hours paid to 
account for hours worked but not paid, also known as off-the-clock hours. Hours worked data also 
now incorporate all-employee based hours-worked-to-hours-paid ratios from the National Compensation 
Survey, rather than ratios based only on production workers. For more information on the new hours 
worked methodology, see 
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2022/article/improving-estimates-of-hours-worked-for-us-productivity-measurement.htm.

Manufacturing industry output measures for 2021 and earlier years are constructed primarily using 
data from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the U.S. Census Bureau together with data on 
price changes primarily from BLS. These measures have been revised due to the release of the 2021 
Annual Survey of Manufactures. Manufacturing industry output for 2022 is estimated based on historical 
relationships between BLS sectoral output, BLS price indexes, and data on industrial production from 
the Federal Reserve Board.

Mining industry output measures are constructed primarily using data from the U.S. Energy Information 
Administration and the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Commodity Summaries and Mineral Yearbooks. The 
data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration are usually revised on a monthly schedule while the 
U.S. Geological Survey's publications are released annually.

Access productivity data at www.bls.gov/productivity/tables/labor-productivity-detailed-industries.xlsx 
for:
        * Additional industries and sectors
        * Detailed data series: indexes of productivity and related measures; rates of change; and 
          levels of industry employment, hours worked, sectoral output, and labor compensation
          
Subscribe to productivity news releases on the BLS website at https://public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new.

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access 
telecommunications relay services.

                                Technical Note

Labor Productivity: Labor productivity describes the relationship between output and the labor
hours involved in its production. These measures show the changes from period to period in the 
amount of goods and services produced per hour worked. Although the labor productivity measures
relate real output in an industry to hours worked of all persons in that industry, they do not 
measure the specific contribution of labor to growth in output. Rather, they reflect the joint 
effects of many influences, including: changes in technology; capital investment; utilization 
of capacity, energy, and materials; the use of purchased services inputs, including contract 
employment services; the organization of production; the characteristics and effort of the 
workforce; and managerial skill. 

Unit Labor Costs: Unit labor costs represent the cost of labor required to produce one unit of 
output. The unit labor cost indexes are computed by dividing an index of nominal industry labor 
compensation by an index of real industry output. Unit labor costs also describe the relationship 
between compensation per hour worked (hourly compensation) and real output per hour worked (labor 
productivity). When hourly compensation growth outpaces productivity, unit labor costs increase. 
Alternatively, when productivity growth exceeds hourly compensation, unit labor costs decrease. 

Output: Industry output is measured as an annual-weighted index of the changes in the various 
products (in real terms) provided for sale outside the industry. Real industry output is usually 
derived by deflating nominal sales or values of production using BLS price indexes, but for some 
industries it is measured by physical quantities of output. Output is the measure of what is 
produced by an industry, derived by adjusting shipments for changes in inventories and removing 
intra-industry transactions. Industry output measures are constructed primarily using data from 
the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, 
together with data on price changes primarily from BLS. Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis
at the U.S. Department of Commerce is used in part to construct intra-industry transactions. Other 
data sources include the Energy Information Administration at the U.S. Department of Energy and 
the U.S. Geological Survey at the U.S. Department of the Interior. Manufacturing industry output 
for 2022 is estimated based on historical relationships between BLS sectoral output, BLS price 
indexes, and data on industrial production from the Federal Reserve Board.

Labor Hours: Labor hours are measured as annual hours worked by all employed persons in an 
industry. Data on industry employment and hours come primarily from the BLS Current Employment 
Statistics (CES) survey and Current Population Survey (CPS). CES data on the number of total and 
production worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments are supplemented 
with CPS data on self-employed and unpaid family workers to estimate industry employment. Hours 
worked estimates are derived using CES and CPS employment, CES data on the average weekly hours 
paid of all employees, CPS data on hours of self-employed and unpaid family workers, and ratios 
of hours worked to hours paid based on data from both the CPS and the National Compensation 
Survey (NCS). For some industries, employment and hours data are supplemented or further 
disaggregated using data from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), the Census 
Bureau, or other sources. Hours worked are estimated separately for different types of workers 
and then are directly aggregated; no adjustments for labor composition are made.

Labor Compensation: Labor compensation, defined as payroll plus supplemental payments, is a 
measure of the cost to the employer of securing the services of labor. Payroll includes salaries, 
wages, commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation and sick leave pay, and compensation in kind. 
Supplemental payments include both legally required expenditures and payments for voluntary 
programs. The legally required portion consists primarily of federal old age and survivors' 
insurance, unemployment compensation, and workers' compensation. Payments for voluntary programs 
include all programs not specifically required by legislation, such as the employer portion of 
private health insurance and pension plans. Industry compensation measures are constructed 
primarily using data from the BLS QCEW and the economic censuses of the Census Bureau at the U.S. 
Department of Commerce.

Compound Annual Growth Rate: The compound annual growth rate, referred to in the release tables 
as "average annual percent change," is the annualized average rate of change in an index series 
over a period of more than one year. In reality, the annual change of an index series is different 
from year to year. However, the compound annual growth rate equals the rate that can be applied 
each year from the start to the end that would give the same final period result if every year's 
growth was exactly the same. It is calculated as (Ending Value/Starting Value)^(1/Number of Years)-1.






Table 1. Recent labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2022
Employment
(thousands)
Percent change, 2021-2022
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours
worked
Labor compen-
sation
Hourly compen-
sation

Mining

Mining

21

574.2 -7.0 13.2 4.6 12.4 18.3 5.3

Oil and gas extraction

211

119.3 -6.9 10.3 5.1 12.9 15.9 2.7

Oil and gas extraction

2111

119.3 -6.9 10.3 5.1 12.9 15.9 2.7

Mining, except oil and gas

212

184.6 -3.7 9.9 1.8 5.8 11.9 5.8

Coal mining

2121

40.7 -12.2 14.8 3.2 17.7 18.5 0.7

Metal ore mining

2122

43.4 -6.0 8.1 -0.8 5.5 7.2 1.6

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

100.5 1.7 8.3 3.1 1.3 11.6 10.2

Support activities for mining

213

270.3 6.3 1.4 23.8 16.5 25.5 7.8

Support activities for mining

2131

270.3 6.3 1.4 23.8 16.5 25.5 7.8

Nondurable Manufacturing

Food

311

1,748.5 -2.2 12.1 -0.9 1.3 11.1 9.6

Animal food

3111

76.8 -11.0 15.3 -1.4 10.8 13.7 2.6

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

63.7 -5.8 12.5 -3.0 3.0 9.1 6.0

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

84.9 -7.5 12.3 -1.1 7.0 11.1 3.9

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

179.9 -0.1 9.3 -2.0 -1.8 7.1 9.2

Dairy products

3115

160.8 -3.2 11.5 -2.3 1.0 9.0 7.9

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

533.3 3.6 11.3 0.7 -2.8 12.0 15.3

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

33.2 23.7 6.4 3.2 -16.6 9.8 31.6

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

360.1 -4.9 15.1 -1.7 3.4 13.2 9.5

Other food products

3119

255.8 -8.0 11.8 -0.3 8.4 11.5 2.9

Beverages and tobacco products

312

340.4 -12.1 14.7 -2.2 11.2 12.1 0.8

Beverages

3121

329.3 -10.9 13.0 -0.6 11.5 12.3 0.7

Tobacco

3122

11.1 -7.6 15.1 -5.9 1.8 8.3 6.4

Textile mills

313

101.9 -1.9 8.1 -1.7 0.2 6.2 6.0

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

26.7 -5.2 11.1 -5.8 -0.6 4.7 5.3

Fabric mills

3132

49.4 -4.8 9.0 -2.8 2.0 6.0 3.8

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

25.8 4.8 5.3 2.5 -2.2 8.0 10.4

Textile product mills

314

119.5 -10.0 16.2 -6.4 4.0 8.7 4.5

Textile furnishings mills

3141

49.0 -10.8 17.0 -9.5 1.5 5.9 4.3

Other textile product mills

3149

70.5 -8.2 14.2 -2.7 6.0 11.1 4.8

Apparel

315

120.6 -15.2 17.7 -2.2 15.4 15.2 -0.2

Apparel knitting mills

3151

7.7 6.8 7.2 3.1 -3.4 10.6 14.5

Cut and sew apparel

3152

96.6 -16.9 17.8 -3.4 16.2 13.8 -2.1

Accessories and other apparel

3159

16.3 -16.1 24.0 2.9 22.6 27.6 4.0

Leather and allied products

316

31.7 -1.4 16.5 1.5 3.0 18.3 14.9

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

4.4 8.2 5.2 6.3 -1.7 11.9 13.9

Footwear

3162

12.3 -4.5 15.3 0.4 5.1 15.7 10.1

Other leather products

3169

15.0 -2.9 23.9 -0.4 2.6 23.4 20.3

Paper

322

361.4 -4.3 12.5 -3.0 1.4 9.1 7.6

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

88.6 -3.6 8.2 -3.3 0.3 4.6 4.3

Converted paper products

3222

272.8 -4.5 14.3 -2.8 1.8 11.0 9.1

Printing and related support activities

323

402.7 -1.6 9.9 0.4 2.0 10.4 8.2

Printing and related support activities

3231

402.7 -1.6 9.9 0.4 2.0 10.4 8.2

Petroleum and coal products

324

106.1 3.3 5.6 3.8 0.5 9.6 9.0

Petroleum and coal products

3241

106.1 3.3 5.6 3.8 0.5 9.6 9.0

Chemicals

325

922.8 -6.2 11.2 -1.1 5.4 9.9 4.4

Basic chemicals

3251

152.5 -10.1 17.0 -4.5 6.2 11.7 5.2

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

97.3 -4.1 14.8 -0.8 3.5 14.0 10.1

Agricultural chemicals

3253

36.9 -1.2 14.1 -0.8 0.3 13.1 12.8

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

353.5 -2.3 8.3 0.1 2.5 8.4 5.8

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

71.0 -7.8 6.1 6.9 15.9 13.4 -2.2

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

127.7 -7.8 6.4 -1.0 7.4 5.4 -1.9

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

83.9 -8.0 10.9 1.0 9.8 12.1 2.1

Plastics and rubber products

326

760.5 -3.5 11.0 0.5 4.1 11.5 7.1

Plastics products

3261

623.8 -3.8 11.2 0.3 4.3 11.5 6.9

Rubber products

3262

136.7 -2.2 10.3 1.2 3.5 11.6 7.9

Durable Manufacturing

Wood products

321

452.2 -2.4 17.7 -0.5 1.9 17.1 14.9

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

100.2 -3.3 14.0 -0.8 2.6 13.1 10.3

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

86.3 -8.3 21.1 -3.2 5.5 17.2 11.1

Other wood products

3219

265.7 0.6 17.7 0.9 0.3 18.7 18.3

Nonmetallic mineral products

327

434.7 0.1 4.3 6.1 6.1 10.7 4.4

Clay products and refractories

3271

43.1 -4.9 1.0 9.7 15.4 10.8 -3.9

Glass and glass products

3272

86.3 -3.8 12.9 -2.7 1.1 9.9 8.7

Cement and concrete products

3273

205.9 1.3 2.0 8.6 7.2 10.8 3.4

Lime and gypsum products

3274

16.3 -8.4 13.7 -0.8 8.3 12.8 4.2

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

83.1 5.8 1.3 9.5 3.5 10.9 7.1

Primary metals

331

367.3 -6.6 17.9 -2.1 4.8 15.3 10.1

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

83.2 -10.1 24.7 -5.5 5.1 17.8 12.1

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

55.6 -9.6 22.3 -6.6 3.3 14.2 10.5

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

60.3 -7.1 19.5 -2.4 5.0 16.6 11.1

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

59.6 1.6 5.1 8.8 7.1 14.4 6.8

Foundries

3315

108.6 -1.8 10.6 2.0 3.9 12.8 8.6

Fabricated metal products

332

1,456.7 -2.2 9.0 1.4 3.7 10.5 6.6

Forging and stamping

3321

92.7 -3.1 16.0 -4.7 -1.7 10.5 12.5

Cutlery and handtools

3322

38.0 -1.9 10.2 -0.8 1.1 9.3 8.0

Architectural and structural metals

3323

406.4 -3.3 12.8 -0.4 3.1 12.4 9.1

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

93.0 -7.5 12.6 -0.1 7.9 12.4 4.2

Hardware

3325

25.1 -4.9 13.1 -2.4 2.7 10.4 7.5

Spring and wire products

3326

41.3 0.4 7.4 1.2 0.8 8.7 7.8

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

348.7 -2.6 6.5 3.7 6.5 10.4 3.7

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

129.6 6.7 7.0 4.5 -2.1 11.8 14.2

Other fabricated metal products

3329

281.9 -0.5 2.7 4.6 5.2 7.4 2.1

Machinery

333

1,120.8 -1.1 6.1 5.5 6.8 11.9 4.9

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

218.2 5.7 0.8 17.2 10.9 18.2 6.6

Industrial machinery

3332

134.6 -3.9 8.5 4.0 8.2 12.8 4.2

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

89.2 0.3 6.3 3.6 3.3 10.1 6.7

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

145.1 -9.6 18.0 -6.8 3.1 10.0 6.7

Metalworking machinery

3335

162.9 5.4 -0.4 8.0 2.4 7.6 5.0

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

87.8 -0.8 4.2 3.9 4.8 8.2 3.3

Other general purpose machinery

3339

283.0 -6.7 9.9 2.0 9.4 12.2 2.6

Computer and electronic products

334

1,095.9 -4.2 7.0 -1.3 3.0 5.7 2.6

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

164.6 -1.6 2.9 1.6 3.3 4.6 1.2

Communications equipment

3342

86.2 -1.1 3.0 2.8 3.9 5.9 2.0

Audio and video equipment

3343

20.2 -10.7 -16.0 -8.0 3.0 -22.7 -25.0

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

390.5 -6.0 10.1 -2.1 4.2 7.8 3.4

Electronic instruments

3345

421.4 -3.4 8.3 -1.7 1.7 6.4 4.7

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

13.0 -5.3 9.5 -1.7 3.7 7.6 3.7

Electrical equipment and appliances

335

406.0 -1.7 8.6 0.3 2.1 8.9 6.7

Electric lighting equipment

3351

40.3 2.7 0.0 0.2 -2.4 0.1 2.7

Household appliances

3352

70.0 -7.2 14.8 -5.6 1.7 8.3 6.6

Electrical equipment

3353

142.5 1.4 7.3 3.0 1.6 10.4 8.7

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

153.2 -2.6 8.6 1.4 4.0 10.1 5.8

Transportation equipment

336

1,742.3 -1.6 7.5 5.1 6.8 13.0 5.8

Motor vehicles

3361

291.8 -11.7 14.2 8.0 22.4 23.3 0.8

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

172.1 -1.7 17.9 -1.7 0.0 15.9 15.8

Motor vehicle parts

3363

559.9 3.1 4.2 6.5 3.3 11.0 7.4

Aerospace products and parts

3364

502.8 -3.1 8.2 1.9 5.2 10.4 4.9

Railroad rolling stock

3365

19.7 -1.2 10.2 1.3 2.6 11.6 8.8

Ship and boat building

3366

153.4 -3.3 8.9 0.6 4.1 9.6 5.3

Other transportation equipment

3369

42.6 -6.8 8.0 3.8 11.3 12.1 0.7

Furniture and related products

337

407.6 -0.4 7.3 1.8 2.3 9.2 6.8

Household and institutional furniture

3371

266.7 -2.8 10.1 -0.1 2.8 10.0 7.0

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

104.3 8.4 -0.8 11.6 3.0 10.7 7.5

Other furniture related products

3379

36.6 -10.9 16.4 -13.6 -3.0 0.6 3.7

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

684.2 -0.4 7.6 3.4 3.8 11.2 7.2

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

342.9 1.1 4.3 5.6 4.5 10.1 5.4

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

341.3 -2.5 12.4 0.5 3.0 13.0 9.7






Table 2. Long run labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2022
Employment
(thousands)
Average annual percent change, 1987-2022
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours
worked
Labor compen-
sation
Hourly compen-
sation

Mining

Mining

21

574.2 1.8 1.9 1.5 -0.3 3.4 3.7

Oil and gas extraction

211

119.3 3.3 1.6 1.8 -1.4 3.4 4.9

Oil and gas extraction

2111

119.3 3.3 1.6 1.8 -1.4 3.4 4.9

Mining, except oil and gas

212

184.6 1.1 1.9 -0.2 -1.2 1.8 3.0

Coal mining

2121

40.7 1.4 1.2 -1.9 -3.3 -0.7 2.6

Metal ore mining

2122

43.4 -0.1 3.7 0.5 0.6 4.1 3.5

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

100.5 1.1 2.4 0.9 -0.3 3.3 3.6

Support activities for mining

213

270.3 2.4 1.7 3.6 1.2 5.4 4.2

Support activities for mining

2131

270.3 2.4 1.7 3.6 1.2 5.4 4.2

Nondurable Manufacturing

Food

311

1,748.5 0.6 2.3 1.1 0.6 3.4 2.9

Animal food

3111

76.8 0.9 2.5 1.5 0.6 4.0 3.4

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

63.7 1.5 1.6 0.9 -0.6 2.5 3.1

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

84.9 0.7 2.3 0.6 -0.1 2.9 3.0

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

179.9 0.7 2.2 0.7 0.0 2.9 2.9

Dairy products

3115

160.8 1.1 2.3 1.2 0.1 3.5 3.4

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

533.3 0.5 2.6 1.4 0.9 4.0 3.1

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

33.2 1.4 2.8 0.0 -1.4 2.9 4.3

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

360.1 0.0 2.2 0.3 0.3 2.5 2.2

Other food products

3119

255.8 -0.3 2.5 2.0 2.3 4.6 2.2

Beverages and tobacco products

312

340.4 -0.8 3.2 -0.3 0.5 2.9 2.4

Beverages

3121

329.3 -0.1 2.5 1.0 1.1 3.6 2.4

Tobacco

3122

11.1 2.1 2.2 -2.8 -4.8 -0.7 4.4

Textile mills

313

101.9 1.8 0.7 -2.7 -4.4 -2.0 2.6

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

26.7 1.2 0.6 -2.6 -3.7 -2.0 1.7

Fabric mills

3132

49.4 2.2 0.8 -2.8 -4.9 -2.1 3.0

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

25.8 1.0 1.4 -3.2 -4.2 -1.8 2.4

Textile product mills

314

119.5 0.3 2.7 -1.8 -2.1 0.8 3.0

Textile furnishings mills

3141

49.0 0.1 2.6 -2.5 -2.6 0.0 2.7

Other textile product mills

3149

70.5 1.1 2.3 -0.6 -1.6 1.8 3.4

Apparel

315

120.6 -0.2 1.9 -6.0 -5.8 -4.2 1.7

Apparel knitting mills

3151

7.7 0.4 1.9 -6.9 -7.2 -5.1 2.3

Cut and sew apparel

3152

96.6 0.0 1.8 -5.9 -6.0 -4.3 1.8

Accessories and other apparel

3159

16.3 -2.9 3.0 -5.4 -2.5 -2.5 0.0

Leather and allied products

316

31.7 1.2 2.4 -3.5 -4.7 -1.1 3.7

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

4.4 1.5 1.4 -2.6 -4.0 -1.2 2.9

Footwear

3162

12.3 1.1 2.7 -4.7 -5.7 -2.1 3.8

Other leather products

3169

15.0 0.8 2.8 -2.6 -3.4 0.1 3.6

Paper

322

361.4 1.1 1.9 -0.5 -1.6 1.5 3.1

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

88.6 1.7 1.3 -0.9 -2.6 0.4 3.1

Converted paper products

3222

272.8 0.6 2.7 -0.4 -1.0 2.2 3.3

Printing and related support activities

323

402.7 1.0 1.5 -0.9 -2.0 0.5 2.6

Printing and related support activities

3231

402.7 1.0 1.5 -0.9 -2.0 0.5 2.6

Petroleum and coal products

324

106.1 1.9 2.6 0.9 -1.0 3.5 4.5

Petroleum and coal products

3241

106.1 1.9 2.6 0.9 -1.0 3.5 4.5

Chemicals

325

922.8 0.8 2.5 0.6 -0.2 3.1 3.3

Basic chemicals

3251

152.5 1.7 1.8 0.4 -1.3 2.3 3.6

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

97.3 1.2 2.7 -0.1 -1.3 2.6 3.9

Agricultural chemicals

3253

36.9 1.5 2.3 0.6 -0.9 2.9 3.8

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

353.5 -0.9 4.0 1.1 1.9 5.1 3.1

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

71.0 0.3 2.7 0.1 -0.3 2.8 3.0

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

127.7 0.6 1.7 0.7 0.1 2.4 2.3

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

83.9 1.7 1.5 0.0 -1.6 1.6 3.2

Plastics and rubber products

326

760.5 1.2 1.8 1.1 -0.1 2.9 3.0

Plastics products

3261

623.8 1.1 1.9 1.3 0.2 3.3 3.0

Rubber products

3262

136.7 1.6 1.5 0.3 -1.3 1.8 3.1

Durable Manufacturing

Wood products

321

452.2 0.8 2.7 0.0 -0.8 2.6 3.5

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

100.2 1.5 1.9 0.2 -1.3 2.0 3.4

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

86.3 0.0 2.9 -0.4 -0.4 2.5 2.9

Other wood products

3219

265.7 0.9 2.8 0.1 -0.8 3.0 3.8

Nonmetallic mineral products

327

434.7 0.8 1.9 0.3 -0.5 2.3 2.8

Clay products and refractories

3271

43.1 1.1 1.5 -1.0 -2.1 0.5 2.6

Glass and glass products

3272

86.3 1.3 1.4 -0.2 -1.4 1.2 2.7

Cement and concrete products

3273

205.9 0.2 2.3 0.5 0.3 2.9 2.5

Lime and gypsum products

3274

16.3 0.8 3.2 -0.4 -1.1 2.9 4.0

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

83.1 1.2 1.8 1.3 0.1 3.1 3.0

Primary metals

331

367.3 1.3 1.5 -0.4 -1.7 1.1 2.9

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

83.2 1.8 0.9 -0.4 -2.1 0.5 2.7

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

55.6 0.2 2.5 -0.4 -0.6 2.1 2.7

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

60.3 1.2 2.0 -0.4 -1.6 1.5 3.2

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

59.6 1.4 2.3 -0.3 -1.7 1.9 3.7

Foundries

3315

108.6 1.2 1.6 -0.8 -1.9 0.8 2.7

Fabricated metal products

332

1,456.7 0.9 2.0 0.6 -0.3 2.5 2.8

Forging and stamping

3321

92.7 1.6 1.3 0.3 -1.3 1.6 2.9

Cutlery and handtools

3322

38.0 1.0 1.7 -1.0 -1.9 0.7 2.7

Architectural and structural metals

3323

406.4 0.4 2.6 0.7 0.3 3.4 3.1

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

93.0 0.6 1.9 0.2 -0.4 2.1 2.5

Hardware

3325

25.1 0.5 1.8 -1.9 -2.4 -0.1 2.3

Spring and wire products

3326

41.3 1.6 1.7 -0.4 -1.9 1.3 3.3

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

348.7 1.5 1.5 1.9 0.4 3.4 3.0

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

129.6 2.1 1.1 1.9 -0.3 2.9 3.2

Other fabricated metal products

3329

281.9 0.5 2.0 0.0 -0.5 2.0 2.5

Machinery

333

1,120.8 1.4 1.4 0.9 -0.5 2.3 2.9

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

218.2 1.8 1.1 1.9 0.1 3.0 2.9

Industrial machinery

3332

134.6 0.9 1.7 0.8 -0.1 2.5 2.6

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

89.2 1.4 1.2 0.0 -1.4 1.1 2.5

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

145.1 0.5 2.1 0.3 -0.2 2.4 2.7

Metalworking machinery

3335

162.9 2.1 0.7 0.6 -1.5 1.3 2.9

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

87.8 1.2 1.0 0.6 -0.6 1.7 2.2

Other general purpose machinery

3339

283.0 1.3 2.1 0.9 -0.3 3.0 3.4

Computer and electronic products

334

1,095.9 7.4 -4.2 5.5 -1.8 1.1 2.9

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

164.6 12.4 -10.7 8.9 -3.1 -2.7 0.4

Communications equipment

3342

86.2 4.5 -1.1 1.6 -2.8 0.5 3.4

Audio and video equipment

3343

20.2 2.5 -0.3 -0.2 -2.7 -0.5 2.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

390.5 10.8 -7.1 9.5 -1.2 1.8 3.0

Electronic instruments

3345

421.4 2.4 0.8 1.1 -1.3 1.9 3.3

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

13.0 -0.4 0.1 -3.2 -2.8 -3.1 -0.4

Electrical equipment and appliances

335

406.0 1.6 1.7 0.0 -1.5 1.7 3.3

Electric lighting equipment

3351

40.3 1.7 1.5 -0.4 -2.0 1.1 3.2

Household appliances

3352

70.0 2.4 0.3 0.5 -1.9 0.8 2.7

Electrical equipment

3353

142.5 1.5 1.9 -0.2 -1.7 1.6 3.4

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

153.2 0.9 2.3 0.0 -0.9 2.3 3.2

Transportation equipment

336

1,742.3 1.9 0.6 1.3 -0.6 1.9 2.5

Motor vehicles

3361

291.8 1.7 0.8 1.7 0.0 2.4 2.4

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

172.1 1.4 2.6 1.9 0.5 4.6 4.1

Motor vehicle parts

3363

559.9 2.4 -0.5 2.1 -0.3 1.6 1.8

Aerospace products and parts

3364

502.8 1.0 1.8 -0.4 -1.5 1.4 2.9

Railroad rolling stock

3365

19.7 1.9 1.4 1.5 -0.5 2.8 3.3

Ship and boat building

3366

153.4 1.6 1.8 1.0 -0.6 2.8 3.4

Other transportation equipment

3369

42.6 2.5 0.1 3.4 0.8 3.5 2.7

Furniture and related products

337

407.6 1.0 2.0 -0.3 -1.3 1.6 2.9

Household and institutional furniture

3371

266.7 0.8 2.1 -0.6 -1.4 1.4 2.9

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

104.3 1.1 1.9 -0.1 -1.2 1.8 3.1

Other furniture related products

3379

36.6 1.2 1.5 0.3 -0.8 1.9 2.7

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

684.2 1.5 1.7 1.4 -0.2 3.0 3.2

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

342.9 2.0 1.4 2.8 0.8 4.2 3.4

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

341.3 1.0 1.9 0.1 -0.9 2.0 2.9






Table 3. Labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data, 2019-2022
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2022
Employment
(thousands)
Average annual percent change, 2019-2022
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours
worked
Labor compen-
sation
Hourly compen-
sation

Mining

Mining

21

574.2 6.0 -2.2 -0.5 -6.2 -2.7 3.8

Oil and gas extraction

211

119.3 6.5 -2.8 -0.2 -6.2 -3.0 3.5

Oil and gas extraction

2111

119.3 6.5 -2.8 -0.2 -6.2 -3.0 3.5

Mining, except oil and gas

212

184.6 1.2 4.7 -2.0 -3.1 2.6 5.9

Coal mining

2121

40.7 0.8 3.4 -6.6 -7.3 -3.4 4.2

Metal ore mining

2122

43.4 -0.4 7.1 -1.3 -0.9 5.7 6.7

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

100.5 2.3 4.2 0.3 -1.9 4.5 6.6

Support activities for mining

213

270.3 4.2 -1.6 -4.0 -7.9 -5.5 2.6

Support activities for mining

2131

270.3 4.2 -1.6 -4.0 -7.9 -5.5 2.6

Nondurable Manufacturing

Food

311

1,748.5 -0.5 7.0 0.5 0.9 7.5 6.5

Animal food

3111

76.8 -4.4 8.6 0.5 5.1 9.1 3.8

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

63.7 -2.2 5.2 0.2 2.4 5.4 2.9

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

84.9 -2.8 5.5 0.9 3.8 6.5 2.6

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

179.9 0.2 5.7 0.0 -0.2 5.7 5.9

Dairy products

3115

160.8 -0.9 6.0 0.5 1.4 6.5 5.0

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

533.3 1.0 9.9 -0.2 -1.2 9.7 11.0

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

33.2 2.5 3.9 -1.4 -3.8 2.4 6.5

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

360.1 -0.1 6.0 0.7 0.8 6.7 5.9

Other food products

3119

255.8 -2.9 5.9 1.5 4.5 7.5 2.8

Beverages and tobacco products

312

340.4 -7.6 9.0 -1.1 7.0 7.8 0.7

Beverages

3121

329.3 -6.7 7.9 0.1 7.2 8.0 0.7

Tobacco

3122

11.1 -4.5 9.2 -3.7 0.9 5.2 4.3

Textile mills

313

101.9 -0.3 5.7 -3.5 -3.2 1.9 5.3

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

26.7 -4.2 8.7 -6.7 -2.5 1.5 4.1

Fabric mills

3132

49.4 1.0 4.3 -1.7 -2.7 2.6 5.4

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

25.8 -0.4 7.0 -5.3 -5.0 1.3 6.6

Textile product mills

314

119.5 0.0 6.1 -1.7 -1.7 4.4 6.2

Textile furnishings mills

3141

49.0 1.0 5.6 -2.0 -2.9 3.6 6.7

Other textile product mills

3149

70.5 -0.6 6.5 -1.4 -0.8 5.0 5.8

Apparel

315

120.6 -0.6 5.4 -2.9 -2.3 2.3 4.7

Apparel knitting mills

3151

7.7 7.6 2.2 -3.1 -9.9 -0.9 10.0

Cut and sew apparel

3152

96.6 -1.1 5.4 -3.7 -2.7 1.5 4.3

Accessories and other apparel

3159

16.3 -0.9 6.4 4.4 5.3 11.1 5.5

Leather and allied products

316

31.7 2.1 6.0 0.5 -1.6 6.6 8.3

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

4.4 5.3 6.3 0.2 -4.9 6.4 11.9

Footwear

3162

12.3 -2.3 6.6 -5.1 -2.9 1.1 4.2

Other leather products

3169

15.0 5.9 5.3 6.7 0.8 12.4 11.5

Paper

322

361.4 -2.0 6.0 -2.0 0.1 3.9 3.9

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

88.6 -1.8 4.5 -3.8 -2.1 0.5 2.6

Converted paper products

3222

272.8 -1.6 6.5 -0.7 0.9 5.7 4.7

Printing and related support activities

323

402.7 1.0 4.7 -2.9 -3.8 1.7 5.7

Printing and related support activities

3231

402.7 1.0 4.7 -2.9 -3.8 1.7 5.7

Petroleum and coal products

324

106.1 1.0 3.9 -1.4 -2.4 2.4 4.9

Petroleum and coal products

3241

106.1 1.0 3.9 -1.4 -2.4 2.4 4.9

Chemicals

325

922.8 -1.0 5.4 0.5 1.5 5.9 4.3

Basic chemicals

3251

152.5 2.2 4.0 0.3 -1.9 4.3 6.2

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

97.3 -0.8 7.6 -2.4 -1.7 5.0 6.8

Agricultural chemicals

3253

36.9 0.7 2.4 2.1 1.4 4.5 3.1

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

353.5 -1.1 5.9 2.3 3.5 8.3 4.7

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

71.0 0.4 4.5 3.7 3.3 8.3 4.9

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

127.7 -6.7 5.9 -3.4 3.6 2.3 -1.3

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

83.9 0.6 4.6 0.7 0.1 5.3 5.3

Plastics and rubber products

326

760.5 -0.9 6.1 -0.1 0.8 6.0 5.2

Plastics products

3261

623.8 -0.9 6.2 0.2 1.1 6.4 5.2

Rubber products

3262

136.7 -0.7 6.0 -1.2 -0.5 4.7 5.3

Durable Manufacturing

Wood products

321

452.2 0.6 9.4 0.6 -0.1 10.0 10.1

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

100.2 2.2 5.6 0.8 -1.4 6.4 8.0

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

86.3 -7.5 15.0 -4.1 3.7 10.3 6.4

Other wood products

3219

265.7 3.9 8.0 3.2 -0.7 11.4 12.2

Nonmetallic mineral products

327

434.7 2.2 2.9 2.1 0.0 5.1 5.2

Clay products and refractories

3271

43.1 4.9 0.3 3.5 -1.3 3.8 5.2

Glass and glass products

3272

86.3 -4.2 6.7 -5.2 -1.1 1.1 2.2

Cement and concrete products

3273

205.9 4.0 2.2 4.3 0.3 6.6 6.3

Lime and gypsum products

3274

16.3 1.5 4.0 2.1 0.5 6.1 5.6

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

83.1 2.8 2.7 3.6 0.8 6.5 5.6

Primary metals

331

367.3 -4.0 9.1 -6.3 -2.5 2.2 4.7

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

83.2 -7.7 14.2 -10.1 -2.6 2.7 5.5

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

55.6 -4.2 9.7 -6.9 -2.8 2.1 5.1

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

60.3 -2.8 7.6 -3.7 -0.9 3.7 4.6

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

59.6 3.9 1.2 1.1 -2.7 2.4 5.2

Foundries

3315

108.6 -1.6 5.3 -4.5 -3.0 0.5 3.6

Fabricated metal products

332

1,456.7 0.5 4.7 -1.2 -1.7 3.5 5.2

Forging and stamping

3321

92.7 -4.6 8.1 -6.8 -2.4 0.7 3.2

Cutlery and handtools

3322

38.0 -0.6 3.6 0.1 0.7 3.8 3.0

Architectural and structural metals

3323

406.4 -0.5 7.3 -1.5 -1.0 5.7 6.8

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

93.0 -2.3 6.8 -3.2 -0.9 3.4 4.3

Hardware

3325

25.1 0.1 7.8 -2.0 -2.1 5.6 7.9

Spring and wire products

3326

41.3 2.4 4.9 -1.2 -3.5 3.7 7.5

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

348.7 1.5 3.2 -1.0 -2.5 2.2 4.7

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

129.6 6.2 1.5 1.4 -4.5 3.0 7.9

Other fabricated metal products

3329

281.9 1.7 1.9 1.3 -0.3 3.3 3.6

Machinery

333

1,120.8 0.7 3.5 0.4 -0.3 3.9 4.1

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

218.2 4.3 1.2 3.8 -0.5 5.0 5.5

Industrial machinery

3332

134.6 -3.7 5.0 0.6 4.4 5.6 1.2

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

89.2 5.4 1.3 3.4 -2.0 4.7 6.8

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

145.1 -5.4 9.0 -3.2 2.4 5.5 3.0

Metalworking machinery

3335

162.9 9.6 -2.6 4.0 -5.0 1.3 6.7

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

87.8 0.8 3.4 -2.5 -3.2 0.8 4.2

Other general purpose machinery

3339

283.0 -2.8 5.6 -1.8 1.1 3.7 2.6

Computer and electronic products

334

1,095.9 0.5 1.9 0.4 -0.2 2.3 2.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

164.6 1.5 4.1 -0.5 -2.0 3.6 5.6

Communications equipment

3342

86.2 -2.6 0.4 -0.3 2.4 0.1 -2.3

Audio and video equipment

3343

20.2 12.4 -15.4 8.7 -3.2 -8.0 -4.9

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

390.5 2.6 -0.1 3.3 0.7 3.2 2.5

Electronic instruments

3345

421.4 -0.8 4.1 -1.3 -0.5 2.7 3.3

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

13.0 8.4 -4.4 7.9 -0.5 3.1 3.7

Electrical equipment and appliances

335

406.0 0.8 5.3 0.4 -0.4 5.7 6.1

Electric lighting equipment

3351

40.3 2.9 0.8 -1.2 -4.0 -0.4 3.7

Household appliances

3352

70.0 -2.7 6.6 0.7 3.6 7.4 3.7

Electrical equipment

3353

142.5 2.0 7.1 0.6 -1.4 7.7 9.2

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

153.2 0.3 4.8 0.3 -0.1 5.1 5.2

Transportation equipment

336

1,742.3 -1.6 5.3 -1.7 -0.1 3.5 3.6

Motor vehicles

3361

291.8 -7.0 8.9 -0.5 7.0 8.3 1.3

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

172.1 1.4 6.1 1.4 0.0 7.6 7.6

Motor vehicle parts

3363

559.9 0.9 2.1 -1.0 -1.9 1.0 3.0

Aerospace products and parts

3364

502.8 -5.0 10.0 -7.3 -2.5 2.0 4.6

Railroad rolling stock

3365

19.7 -2.0 6.4 -7.2 -5.3 -1.3 4.2

Ship and boat building

3366

153.4 1.9 3.3 2.9 0.9 6.2 5.2

Other transportation equipment

3369

42.6 -5.6 3.7 2.1 8.2 5.9 -2.1

Furniture and related products

337

407.6 -1.5 4.4 -1.5 0.0 2.9 2.9

Household and institutional furniture

3371

266.7 -0.7 4.4 0.5 1.2 5.0 3.7

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

104.3 0.1 3.7 -3.3 -3.4 0.3 3.8

Other furniture related products

3379

36.6 -6.4 6.0 -4.3 2.2 1.4 -0.8

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

684.2 2.2 3.8 1.6 -0.6 5.5 6.1

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

342.9 2.2 3.5 2.2 0.0 5.8 5.8

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

341.3 1.9 4.3 0.7 -1.2 5.0 6.3

Last Modified Date: April 27, 2023