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Economic News Release
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Occupational Requirements Survey Summary

For release 10:00 A.M. (ET) Thursday, November 17, 2022					              USDL-22-2178

Technical information: 	(202) 691-6199  *  orsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ors
Media contact:	  	(202) 691-5902  *  pressoffice@bls.gov

			     OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES Ė 2022

Constant verbal interactions, meaning every few minutes, were required for 27.4 percent of workers in 2022,
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. For the average worker, sitting was required for 43.6
percent of the workday. A work pace that varied, indicating fluctuations on a daily, weekly, or seasonal
basis, was present for 54.5 percent of workers. (See table 1.)

Constant verbal interactions were required for 77.4 percent of cashiers. On average, sitting was required for
5.1 percent of the workday for these workers. 

Constant verbal interactions were required for 67.4 percent of waiters and waitresses. On average, sitting
was required for 2.6 percent of the workday for these workers. 

Constant verbal interactions were required for 43.4 percent of hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks. On
average, sitting was required for 29.1 percent of the workday for these workers. 

Constant verbal interactions were required for 38.8 percent of retail salespersons. On average, sitting was
required for 13.1 percent of the workday for these workers. 

Environmental conditions  

Extreme heat exposure was present for 4.5 percent of civilian workers, 5.5 percent were exposed to extreme
cold, 32.9 percent were exposed to outdoors, and 33.5 percent were exposed to wetness. (See table 2.)

	*For firefighters, 96.9 percent of workers were exposed to extreme heat, and all firefighters were
	 exposed to the outdoors. 
	*For restaurant cooks, 55.6 percent of workers were exposed to extreme heat, and 13.5 percent were
	 exposed to the outdoors. 
	*For industrial machinery mechanics, 20.4 percent of workers were exposed to extreme heat, and 48.9
	 percent were exposed to the outdoors. 

Cognitive and mental requirements 

The ability to telework was available to 10.6 percent of civilian workers, 56.2 percent had the ability to
pause work, 61.2 percent required more than basic people skills, and 63.8 percent had a supervisor present.
(See table 3.)

	*For web developers, 78.2 percent of workers had the option to telework, and all of these workers
	 had the ability to pause their work. 
	*For lawyers, 61.6 percent of workers had the option to telework, and 94.8 percent had the ability
	 to pause their work. 
	*For customer service representatives, 21.2 percent of workers had the option to telework, and 56.9
	 percent had the ability to pause their work. 

Education, training, and experience

A bachelorís degree was the highest degree required for 19.0 percent of civilian workers, a credential was
required for 45.2 percent, prior work experience was required for 47.5 percent, and on-the-job training was
required for 79.0 percent. (See table 4.)

	*For civil engineers, 99.7 percent of workers were required to have a bachelorís degree. Prior work 
	 experience was required for 63.9 percent of these workers. 
	*For graphic designers, a bachelorís degree was the highest degree required for 53.3 percent of
	 workers, and 78.5 percent were required to have prior work experience. 
	*For pharmacists, a bachelorís degree was the highest degree required for 26.7 percent of workers,
	 and 25.4 percent were required to have prior work experience. 

Physical demands

Reaching overhead was required for 44.7 percent of civilian workers, 57.6 percent were required to perform
critical work tasks in low postures, 94.8 percent required speaking as part of their critical tasks, and 98.7
percent were required to perform fine manipulation. (See table 5.)

	*For paramedics, 88.1 percent of workers were required to reach overhead, and all paramedics were
	 required to work in low postures. 
	*For dishwashers, 72.7 percent of workers were required to reach overhead, and 74.2 percent were
	 required to work in low postures. 
	*For chemists, 50.0 percent of workers were required to reach overhead, and 36.7 percent were
	 required to work in low postures. 

Table 1. Percentage of workers with selected job requirements, 2022
Occupation and occupational groupConstant verbal interactionsAverage percent of workday spentVarying work pace
YesStandard errorSittingStandingStandard errorYesStandard error

All workers

27.40.543.656.4[1]54.5[1]

Computer and mathematical occupations

5.80.988.611.4[1]50.42.6

Web developers

--95.14.90.557.216.1

Architecture and engineering occupations

3.11.274.825.21.554.24.3

Civil engineers

--80.619.41.945.47.8

Life, physical, and social science occupations

11.11.963.336.71.854.44.2

Chemists

--46.653.45.863.79.0

Legal occupations

9.41.583.716.30.742.33.7

Lawyers

9.82.380.519.51.742.56.0

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

22.72.369.630.42.355.44.9

Graphic designers

--89.310.72.255.28.5

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

32.51.536.463.60.848.61.8

Pharmacists

45.58.529.670.44.258.16.7

Paramedics

37.314.5---67.614.1

Protective service occupations

28.92.643.656.41.469.94.1

Firefighters

24.45.1---83.25.5

Food preparation and serving related occupations

56.41.42.897.2[1]69.42.3

Cooks, restaurant

30.22.21.998.10.765.14.5

Waiters and waitresses

67.41.72.697.40.972.22.6

Dishwashers

--1.198.9[1]68.83.8

Sales and related occupations

46.21.530.869.20.774.61.3

Cashiers

77.42.05.194.90.683.61.3

Retail salespersons

38.84.013.186.91.785.41.6

Office and administrative support occupations

31.70.779.021.00.655.41.0

Customer service representatives

60.64.584.016.01.747.86.2

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

43.44.729.170.92.979.29.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5.90.920.579.5[1]58.92.2

Industrial machinery mechanics

9.32.315.684.41.349.43.4

[1] Standard error is less than 0.5.

[2] The standard error is not available for this estimate.

Note: Dashes indicate that the estimate was not publishable or there are no workers with the requirement. Due to rounding sum of estimates may not equal 100 percent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

Table 2. Percentage of workers with environmental conditions, 2022
Occupation and occupational groupExtreme heatExtreme coldOutdoorsWetness
YesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard error

All workers

4.595.5[1]5.594.5[1]32.967.1[1]33.566.5[1]

Computer and mathematical occupations

-100.0[1]-100.0[2]1.898.20.7[1]100.0[1]

Web developers

-100.0[2]-100.0[2]-99.6[1]-100.0[2]

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.797.30.81.099.0[1]31.568.52.76.094.01.9

Civil engineers

-97.52.3-100.0[2]75.824.26.4-96.22.3

Life, physical, and social science occupations

3.696.41.15.095.01.337.063.04.034.865.24.9

Chemists

-91.74.87.992.13.1-97.01.668.831.28.2

Legal occupations

-100.0[2]-100.0[2]-98.01.1-100.0[2]

Lawyers

-100.0[2]-100.0[2]-96.62.0-100.0[2]

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

[1]99.9[1]-99.40.530.869.23.17.192.92.1

Graphic designers

-100.0[2]-100.0[2]-98.80.7-100.0[2]

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

[1]99.6[1]0.599.5[1]7.692.40.574.125.91.7

Pharmacists

-100.0[2]-100.0[2]-100.0[2]54.545.56.3

Paramedics

11.488.64.93.496.61.798.0-1.380.8-11.1

Protective service occupations

13.986.11.01.198.9[1]89.510.51.130.869.21.2

Firefighters

96.93.10.54.096.01.3100.0-[2]97.42.61.3

Food preparation and serving related occupations

24.175.91.834.965.11.332.367.71.691.38.70.5

Cooks, restaurant

55.644.44.566.633.42.813.586.51.596.9-2.6

Waiters and waitresses

-98.11.08.491.62.027.672.44.794.25.81.9

Dishwashers

15.984.13.216.783.35.134.265.83.999.4-0.6

Sales and related occupations

[1]99.6[1]3.496.60.528.871.21.521.978.10.9

Cashiers

0.699.4[1]8.791.31.524.775.31.350.749.33.9

Retail salespersons

-99.9[1]-99.50.534.165.94.513.986.12.6

Office and administrative support occupations

[1]100.0[1][1]99.7[1]4.995.1[1]2.897.2[1]

Customer service representatives

-100.0[2]-100.0[2]3.496.60.81.698.40.6

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

-100.0[2]-100.0[2]-94.34.6-93.25.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

9.091.00.84.495.61.280.119.91.450.149.91.6

Industrial machinery mechanics

20.479.63.69.490.62.848.951.15.747.252.83.3

[1] Standard error is less than 0.5.

[2] The standard error is not available for this estimate.

Note: Dashes indicate that the estimate was not publishable or there are no workers with the requirement. Due to rounding sum of estimates may not equal 100 percent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

Table 3. Percentage of workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2022
Occupation and occupational groupTeleworkPause controlMore than basic people skillsSupervisor present
YesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard error

All workers

10.689.4[1]56.243.80.561.238.80.563.836.20.5

Computer and mathematical occupations

52.547.54.495.74.30.795.84.20.655.444.61.3

Web developers

78.221.86.6100.0-[2]93.66.42.262.038.013.0

Architecture and engineering occupations

30.569.52.194.85.21.992.37.70.967.132.92.2

Civil engineers

24.475.65.2---100.0-[2]70.429.66.9

Life, physical, and social science occupations

16.183.92.782.217.85.092.97.11.748.351.74.4

Chemists

---72.627.413.0---72.227.811.6

Legal occupations

48.851.24.595.0-2.8---56.243.85.6

Lawyers

61.638.46.094.8-2.9100.0-[2]42.657.45.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

25.274.82.475.724.33.184.915.12.958.941.12.1

Graphic designers

30.169.96.1100.0-[2]81.518.58.381.518.56.4

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

1.798.3[1]41.258.81.492.47.60.764.435.61.4

Pharmacists

---66.133.95.4---61.538.56.8

Paramedics

-100.0[2]---100.0-[2]---

Protective service occupations

-100.0[1]13.386.71.380.919.11.737.162.91.8

Firefighters

-100.0[2]-100.0[2]95.05.01.376.623.42.3

Food preparation and serving related occupations

---22.877.21.026.074.00.590.59.51.0

Cooks, restaurant

-100.0[2]18.381.71.69.690.41.294.15.92.2

Waiters and waitresses

-100.0[2]24.575.52.543.456.63.996.53.51.6

Dishwashers

-100.0[2]25.674.42.7---97.12.91.0

Sales and related occupations

10.989.10.744.455.61.857.942.11.772.927.10.7

Cashiers

-100.0[2]4.795.31.210.989.11.790.59.52.2

Retail salespersons

-99.3[1]35.564.52.456.343.75.486.513.51.6

Office and administrative support occupations

11.089.01.071.728.30.867.332.71.281.318.71.1

Customer service representatives

21.278.83.356.943.13.971.928.12.287.212.82.8

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

-100.0[2]15.184.92.961.738.36.080.119.96.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

-99.4[1]70.329.72.253.246.82.953.047.01.5

Industrial machinery mechanics

-100.0[2]62.537.53.651.348.75.472.727.34.2

[1] Standard error is less than 0.5.

[2] The standard error is not available for this estimate.

Note: Dashes indicate that the estimate was not publishable or there are no workers with the requirement. Due to rounding sum of estimates may not equal 100 percent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

Table 4. Percentage of workers with education, training, and experience requirements, 2022
Occupation and occupational groupBachelor's degreeCredentialsPrior work experienceOn-the-job training
YesStandard errorYesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard error

All workers

19.0[1]45.254.8[1]47.552.50.579.021.0[1]

Computer and mathematical occupations

66.03.215.884.21.982.817.20.961.638.41.8

Web developers

63.113.6-99.30.674.7-18.178.5-11.8

Architecture and engineering occupations

69.03.741.458.62.266.233.83.469.530.53.2

Civil engineers

99.7[1]77.822.27.363.936.16.959.540.56.2

Life, physical, and social science occupations

53.14.152.647.44.072.127.94.370.329.72.4

Chemists

80.013.8-91.34.559.540.512.570.929.18.0

Legal occupations

10.11.177.922.13.156.343.75.063.436.63.8

Lawyers

-----45.854.28.249.850.24.3

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

45.22.636.563.53.165.134.91.967.332.74.4

Graphic designers

53.312.18.191.93.078.521.57.455.344.79.0

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

22.71.392.47.60.940.060.01.073.027.01.2

Pharmacists

26.75.5100.0-[2]25.474.67.268.531.58.0

Paramedics

--100.0-[2]---83.416.67.2

Protective service occupations

3.60.988.611.41.331.968.11.576.523.50.8

Firefighters

--100.0-[2]26.673.42.548.551.54.8

Food preparation and serving related occupations

[1][1]39.061.01.025.075.01.295.34.7[1]

Cooks, restaurant

--50.549.53.851.049.06.994.45.61.8

Waiters and waitresses

--36.963.12.025.274.83.997.52.50.8

Dishwashers

--27.472.66.9-97.81.291.09.04.5

Sales and related occupations

7.30.627.872.21.432.567.51.393.66.40.6

Cashiers

--6.493.61.34.595.52.0---

Retail salespersons

--15.684.42.315.284.81.496.23.81.4

Office and administrative support occupations

5.6[1]10.889.20.559.440.61.088.411.60.6

Customer service representatives

2.40.94.495.61.051.748.33.892.08.03.3

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

-----28.971.14.7100.0-[2]

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

1.40.673.426.62.267.732.31.074.925.12.1

Industrial machinery mechanics

--47.352.73.874.026.04.483.816.22.1

[1] Standard error is less than 0.5.

[2] The standard error is not available for this estimate.

Note: Dashes indicate that the estimate was not publishable or there are no workers with the requirement. Due to rounding sum of estimates may not equal 100 percent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

Table 5. Percentage of workers with physical demands, 2022
Occupation and occupational groupReaching overheadLow posturesSpeakingFine manipulation
YesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard errorYesStandard errorYesStandard error

All workers

44.755.30.557.642.4[1]94.8[1]98.7[1]

Computer and mathematical occupations

11.588.50.820.979.11.599.9[1]98.30.6

Web developers

-98.01.0-97.81.0100.0[2]99.5[1]

Architecture and engineering occupations

18.481.63.025.674.42.699.9[1]100.0[2]

Civil engineers

7.492.62.226.373.74.4100.0[2]100.0[2]

Life, physical, and social science occupations

36.263.83.746.953.12.598.9[1]99.6[1]

Chemists

50.050.010.936.763.311.0100.0[2]100.0[2]

Legal occupations

5.894.22.67.892.22.1100.0[2]100.0[1]

Lawyers

5.594.52.4-94.73.0100.0[2]100.0[2]

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

28.671.43.137.462.64.299.20.598.9[1]

Graphic designers

1.898.20.7-98.21.0100.0[2]99.10.9

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

63.336.71.775.424.61.199.9[1]99.9[1]

Pharmacists

73.626.46.279.320.74.6100.0[2]97.22.8

Paramedics

88.1-11.0100.0-[2]100.0[2]100.0[2]

Protective service occupations

54.345.72.673.826.22.299.10.698.30.5

Firefighters

98.91.1[1]98.31.70.8100.0[2]100.0[2]

Food preparation and serving related occupations

66.733.30.979.520.51.395.00.798.9[1]

Cooks, restaurant

77.722.34.584.515.54.591.62.898.41.1

Waiters and waitresses

47.952.11.764.435.62.599.6[1]98.40.7

Dishwashers

72.727.32.774.225.84.151.45.389.62.4

Sales and related occupations

46.153.91.560.739.31.0100.0[1]99.9[1]

Cashiers

38.062.02.374.725.31.7100.0[1]99.7[1]

Retail salespersons

78.321.73.085.114.91.0100.0[1]100.0[2]

Office and administrative support occupations

14.385.70.722.277.80.698.60.699.3[1]

Customer service representatives

4.695.41.111.188.91.699.9[1]96.71.9

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

17.682.44.636.263.84.6100.0[2]100.0[2]

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

89.610.41.195.54.50.695.70.7100.0[1]

Industrial machinery mechanics

86.313.72.595.0-3.397.40.8100.0[2]

[1] Standard error is less than 0.5.

[2] The standard error is not available for this estimate.

Note: Dashes indicate that the estimate was not publishable or there are no workers with the requirement. Due to rounding sum of estimates may not equal 100 percent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

Last Modified Date: November 17, 2022