Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, April 11, 2017	USDL-17-0416

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – FEBRUARY 2017

The number of job openings was little changed at 5.7 million on the last business day of February, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were also little 
changed at 5.3 million and 5.1 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate was little changed 
at 2.1 percent, and the layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 1.1 percent. This release includes 
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by 
industry and by four geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of February, there were 5.7 million job openings, little changed from January. 
The job openings rate was 3.8 percent in February. The number of job openings was little changed for 
total private and for government. Job openings increased in a number of industries, with the largest 
changes occurring in health care and social assistance (+73,000), accommodation and food services 
(+66,000), and finance and insurance (+47,000). Job openings decreased in real estate and rental and 
leasing (-63,000) and mining and logging (-7,000). Job openings increased in the Northeast region. (See 
table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires was essentially unchanged at 5.3 million in February. The hires rate was 3.6 
percent. The number of hires was little changed for total private and for government. Hires increased in 
retail trade (+74,000) and mining and logging (+9,000), but decreased in federal government (-13,000). 
The number of hires was little changed in all four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

There were 5.1 million total separations in February, little changed from January. The total separations 
rate in February was 3.5 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and 
for government. Total separations decreased in health care and social assistance (-54,000), educational 
services (-22,000), and federal government (-6,000). The number of total separations was little changed 
in all four regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits was essentially unchanged at 3.1 million in February. The quits rate was 2.1 
percent. The number of quits was little changed for total private and for government. Quits increased in 
transportation, warehousing, and utilities (+25,000) and mining and logging (+5,000). The number of 
quits decreased in health care and social assistance (-53,000), wholesale trade (-34,000), and finance and 
insurance (-22,000). In the regions, the number of quits decreased in the West. (See table 4.)

There were 1.6 million layoffs and discharges in February, little changed from January. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.1 percent in February. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed for 
total private and for government. The layoffs and discharges level increased in retail trade (+57,000) and 
state and local government education (+12,000). The number of layoffs and discharges decreased in 
transportation, warehousing, and utilities (-44,000), educational services (-15,000), and federal 
government (-3,000). Layoffs and discharges decreased in the Midwest region. (See table 5.)

In February, the number of other separations was little changed for total nonfarm, total private, and 
government. Other separations increased in accommodation and food services (+15,000) and state and 
local government education (+6,000), but decreased in information (-7,000) and educational services
(-4,000). The number of other separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in February, hires totaled 63.0 million 
and separations totaled 60.6 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.4 million. These totals 
include workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for March 2017 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, May 9, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

5,566 5,625 5,743 5,447 5,424 5,314 5,183 5,247 5,071

Total private

5,092 5,133 5,235 5,094 5,067 4,968 4,844 4,908 4,730

Mining and logging(1)

8 25 18 21 30 39 43 32 35

Construction(1)

193 142 169 347 387 369 334 361 334

Manufacturing

306 361 364 287 304 305 307 304 292

Durable goods(1)

158 206 209 170 165 156 189 163 155

Nondurable goods(1)

148 155 155 117 139 149 118 141 137

Trade, transportation, and utilities

988 959 910 1,160 1,023 1,089 1,047 1,012 1,035

Wholesale trade(1)

197 201 193 142 140 136 137 150 125

Retail trade

612 581 541 831 682 756 742 670 739

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

180 177 175 187 201 196 167 192 171

Information(1)

86 73 69 82 80 85 73 87 85

Financial activities

344 388 372 234 220 188 225 198 182

Finance and insurance

253 248 295 165 150 121 163 133 128

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

90 140 77 70 70 67 61 65 54

Professional and business services

1,107 1,056 1,002 1,076 1,128 1,068 1,072 1,068 1,036

Education and health services

1,050 1,158 1,257 648 646 624 567 639 563

Educational services(1)

110 93 120 108 79 78 94 82 60

Health care and social assistance

940 1,065 1,138 540 567 546 473 557 503

Leisure and hospitality

775 729 808 1,051 1,015 989 1,018 987 974

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

68 83 96 151 146 151 128 135 139

Accommodation and food services

706 646 712 900 869 838 889 852 835

Other services(1)

235 241 267 188 233 211 160 219 194

Government

474 492 507 353 357 346 339 339 341

Federal(1)

87 82 78 44 46 33 39 38 32

State and local

387 410 430 309 312 313 300 301 309

State and local education

145 161 147 147 159 155 160 151 166

State and local, excluding education(1)

242 249 283 162 153 158 140 149 144





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5

Total private

4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8

Mining and logging(1)

1.1 3.5 2.6 3.0 4.4 5.8 6.0 4.8 5.2

Construction(1)

2.8 2.0 2.4 5.2 5.7 5.4 5.0 5.3 4.9

Manufacturing

2.4 2.8 2.9 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4

Durable goods(1)

2.0 2.6 2.6 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.1 2.0

Nondurable goods(1)

3.1 3.2 3.2 2.5 3.0 3.2 2.5 3.0 2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3.5 3.4 3.2 4.3 3.7 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.8

Wholesale trade(1)

3.3 3.3 3.2 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.1

Retail trade

3.7 3.5 3.3 5.3 4.3 4.8 4.7 4.2 4.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

3.2 3.1 3.0 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.0 3.4 3.0

Information(1)

3.0 2.6 2.4 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.6 3.2 3.1

Financial activities

4.0 4.4 4.2 2.9 2.6 2.2 2.7 2.4 2.2

Finance and insurance

4.0 3.8 4.5 2.7 2.4 1.9 2.7 2.1 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

4.1 6.0 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 2.9 3.0 2.5

Professional and business services

5.3 4.9 4.7 5.4 5.5 5.2 5.4 5.2 5.1

Education and health services

4.5 4.8 5.2 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.8 2.5

Educational services(1)

3.0 2.5 3.2 3.1 2.2 2.2 2.7 2.3 1.6

Health care and social assistance

4.7 5.2 5.6 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.5 2.9 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

4.8 4.4 4.9 6.8 6.4 6.3 6.6 6.3 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3.0 3.6 4.1 6.8 6.5 6.7 5.8 6.0 6.2

Accommodation and food services

5.1 4.6 5.0 6.8 6.4 6.2 6.7 6.3 6.2

Other services(1)

4.0 4.0 4.5 3.3 4.1 3.7 2.8 3.8 3.4

Government

2.1 2.2 2.2 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Federal(1)

3.0 2.8 2.7 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.1

State and local

2.0 2.1 2.2 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6

State and local education

1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.6

State and local, excluding education(1)

2.6 2.7 3.0 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.6

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

5,566 5,587 5,631 5,539 5,625 5,743 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,092 5,103 5,056 5,065 5,133 5,235 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1

Mining and logging(3)

8 12 16 17 25 18 1.1 1.7 2.4 2.5 3.5 2.6

Construction(3)

193 196 178 140 142 169 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.0 2.0 2.4

Manufacturing

306 314 319 342 361 364 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.9

Durable goods(3)

158 199 186 194 206 209 2.0 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6

Nondurable goods(3)

148 115 133 148 155 155 3.1 2.4 2.8 3.1 3.2 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

988 1,021 1,017 1,014 959 910 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.2

Wholesale trade(3)

197 185 203 182 201 193 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.2

Retail trade

612 650 636 650 581 541 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.5 3.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

180 186 178 182 177 175 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0

Information(3)

86 74 73 81 73 69 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.4

Financial activities

344 317 324 357 388 372 4.0 3.7 3.7 4.1 4.4 4.2

Finance and insurance

253 242 263 272 248 295 4.0 3.8 4.1 4.2 3.8 4.5

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

90 75 61 85 140 77 4.1 3.4 2.7 3.8 6.0 3.4

Professional and business services

1,107 1,083 1,047 989 1,056 1,002 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.9 4.7

Education and health services

1,050 1,161 1,135 1,158 1,158 1,257 4.5 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.8 5.2

Educational services(3)

110 107 86 93 93 120 3.0 2.9 2.3 2.5 2.5 3.2

Health care and social assistance

940 1,054 1,048 1,065 1,065 1,138 4.7 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.6

Leisure and hospitality

775 731 756 730 729 808 4.8 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

68 96 96 89 83 96 3.0 4.1 4.1 3.8 3.6 4.1

Accommodation and food services

706 636 660 640 646 712 5.1 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.6 5.0

Other services(3)

235 194 192 236 241 267 4.0 3.3 3.2 4.0 4.0 4.5

Government

474 484 575 474 492 507 2.1 2.1 2.5 2.1 2.2 2.2

Federal(3)

87 74 82 110 82 78 3.0 2.6 2.8 3.8 2.8 2.7

State and local

387 410 494 364 410 430 2.0 2.1 2.5 1.8 2.1 2.2

State and local education

145 126 150 143 161 147 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4

State and local, excluding education(3)

242 284 344 220 249 283 2.6 3.0 3.6 2.4 2.7 3.0

REGION(4)

Northeast

866 983 942 967 998 1,116 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.6 4.0

South

2,138 1,978 2,079 2,008 2,024 2,080 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.8

Midwest

1,265 1,278 1,263 1,253 1,324 1,293 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.8

West

1,297 1,349 1,347 1,312 1,279 1,254 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

5,447 5,200 5,263 5,303 5,424 5,314 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,094 4,870 4,912 4,984 5,067 4,968 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.0

Mining and logging

21 28 30 22 30 39 3.0 4.3 4.5 3.2 4.4 5.8

Construction

347 343 337 400 387 369 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.9 5.7 5.4

Manufacturing

287 279 284 293 304 305 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5

Durable goods

170 161 169 171 165 156 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.0

Nondurable goods

117 118 115 122 139 149 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6 3.0 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,160 1,083 1,016 1,009 1,023 1,089 4.3 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.7 4.0

Wholesale trade

142 128 135 130 140 136 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.3

Retail trade

831 740 666 672 682 756 5.3 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

187 214 215 208 201 196 3.4 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5

Information

82 72 71 79 80 85 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.1

Financial activities

234 170 175 190 220 188 2.9 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.2

Finance and insurance

165 104 114 126 150 121 2.7 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.4 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

70 66 61 64 70 67 3.3 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.1

Professional and business services

1,076 1,092 1,082 1,140 1,128 1,068 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.6 5.5 5.2

Education and health services

648 638 652 642 646 624 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7

Educational services

108 75 81 78 79 78 3.1 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2

Health care and social assistance

540 563 571 564 567 546 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,051 986 1,056 1,031 1,015 989 6.8 6.3 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

151 159 151 162 146 151 6.8 7.1 6.7 7.2 6.5 6.7

Accommodation and food services

900 827 904 869 869 838 6.8 6.1 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.2

Other services

188 180 210 178 233 211 3.3 3.2 3.7 3.1 4.1 3.7

Government

353 330 351 319 357 346 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.5

Federal

44 41 40 45 46 33 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.2

State and local

309 289 311 275 312 313 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.6

State and local education

147 118 142 137 159 155 1.4 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.5

State and local, excluding education

162 171 169 137 153 158 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

831 876 835 849 898 866 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.2

South

2,113 2,066 2,021 2,074 2,091 2,095 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9

Midwest

1,270 1,140 1,192 1,176 1,162 1,148 4.0 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5

West

1,232 1,118 1,214 1,205 1,273 1,205 3.8 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

5,183 5,041 5,075 5,084 5,247 5,071 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,844 4,699 4,720 4,754 4,908 4,730 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.0 3.8

Mining and logging

43 30 25 22 32 35 6.0 4.5 3.7 3.3 4.8 5.2

Construction

334 322 323 369 361 334 5.0 4.8 4.8 5.4 5.3 4.9

Manufacturing

307 282 286 287 304 292 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.4

Durable goods

189 159 165 163 163 155 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0

Nondurable goods

118 123 121 124 141 137 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.7 3.0 2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,047 1,049 1,018 958 1,012 1,035 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.8

Wholesale trade

137 122 129 142 150 125 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.1

Retail trade

742 732 698 631 670 739 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

167 196 191 185 192 171 3.0 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.0

Information

73 76 73 82 87 85 2.6 2.7 2.6 3.0 3.2 3.1

Financial activities

225 161 160 162 198 182 2.7 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.4 2.2

Finance and insurance

163 99 120 107 133 128 2.7 1.6 1.9 1.7 2.1 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

61 62 40 55 65 54 2.9 2.9 1.9 2.5 3.0 2.5

Professional and business services

1,072 1,051 1,069 1,132 1,068 1,036 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.5 5.2 5.1

Education and health services

567 592 610 596 639 563 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.5

Educational services

94 73 72 73 82 60 2.7 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.3 1.6

Health care and social assistance

473 520 539 522 557 503 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

1,018 966 986 974 987 974 6.6 6.2 6.3 6.2 6.3 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

128 155 144 156 135 139 5.8 6.9 6.4 7.0 6.0 6.2

Accommodation and food services

889 811 842 817 852 835 6.7 6.0 6.2 6.1 6.3 6.2

Other services

160 170 170 172 219 194 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.8 3.4

Government

339 342 355 330 339 341 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5

Federal

39 35 43 41 38 32 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.1

State and local

300 307 313 289 301 309 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6

State and local education

160 136 155 133 151 166 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.6

State and local, excluding education

140 170 158 156 149 144 1.5 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

824 796 848 812 840 848 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.1

South

2,005 1,951 1,947 1,966 1,991 1,986 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.7

Midwest

1,167 1,141 1,113 1,128 1,177 1,097 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.4

West

1,186 1,153 1,166 1,178 1,239 1,140 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

2,984 3,078 3,080 3,085 3,186 3,084 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,826 2,912 2,909 2,915 3,011 2,916 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4

Mining and logging

12 12 13 12 13 18 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.7

Construction

97 127 150 134 151 166 1.5 1.9 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.4

Manufacturing

161 165 164 165 177 182 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.5

Durable goods

94 88 93 89 96 94 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

Nondurable goods

66 76 71 75 82 88 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

633 681 655 623 657 654 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4

Wholesale trade

85 73 87 94 103 69 1.5 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.2

Retail trade

464 493 460 432 469 474 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.9 3.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

84 114 108 97 85 110 1.5 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.5 2.0

Information

41 42 35 49 42 49 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.8 1.5 1.8

Financial activities

138 91 85 78 123 87 1.7 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.0

Finance and insurance

101 65 66 59 80 58 1.7 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.3 0.9

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

37 27 19 19 43 28 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.9 2.0 1.3

Professional and business services

597 617 635 672 625 610 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.0

Education and health services

383 396 395 409 438 382 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.7

Educational services

43 43 44 41 45 41 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1

Health care and social assistance

340 353 351 367 394 341 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

676 668 693 688 662 663 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

72 69 77 73 70 72 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.2

Accommodation and food services

604 600 616 615 593 591 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.4

Other services(3)

88 112 83 86 123 106 1.6 2.0 1.5 1.5 2.1 1.8

Government

158 167 171 170 175 168 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

Federal

14 12 17 15 15 14 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local

144 155 154 155 161 154 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

State and local education

73 75 80 70 75 72 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7

State and local, excluding education

71 80 73 85 86 82 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

428 434 475 440 430 428 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.6

South

1,166 1,229 1,207 1,250 1,248 1,244 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.3

Midwest

717 692 695 664 719 731 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.3

West

673 723 703 730 789 681 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

1,834 1,593 1,660 1,624 1,659 1,584 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,713 1,482 1,539 1,525 1,555 1,475 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2

Mining and logging(3)

28 11 8 6 16 13 3.9 1.7 1.2 0.9 2.4 1.9

Construction

226 180 153 214 177 146 3.4 2.7 2.3 3.2 2.6 2.1

Manufacturing

119 94 99 100 103 86 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7

Durable goods

80 56 57 57 55 45 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6

Nondurable goods

38 38 42 43 48 41 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

307 268 293 247 289 303 1.1 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.1

Wholesale trade(3)

42 35 32 36 39 41 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7

Retail trade

194 167 188 142 155 212 1.2 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

71 66 73 69 94 50 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.7 0.9

Information

21 20 27 23 27 25 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9

Financial activities

61 54 53 61 50 66 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.8

Finance and insurance

40 22 32 29 30 45 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

21 32 21 32 19 21 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 0.9 1.0

Professional and business services

420 377 384 401 383 363 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.8

Education and health services

155 162 183 142 132 130 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6

Educational services

48 26 26 28 31 16 1.4 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.4

Health care and social assistance

106 136 157 114 102 114 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

312 268 259 256 296 269 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.9 1.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

54 84 66 81 60 64 2.4 3.7 2.9 3.6 2.7 2.8

Accommodation and food services

259 184 194 175 235 205 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.5

Other services

65 47 79 75 83 74 1.1 0.8 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3

Government

122 111 121 99 104 109 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5

Federal

13 11 13 13 13 10 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3

State and local

108 100 108 86 91 99 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5

State and local education

64 39 50 40 51 63 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6

State and local, excluding education

44 61 57 46 39 37 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4

REGION(4)

Northeast

350 299 307 310 340 350 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3

South

700 576 608 566 573 576 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1

Midwest

388 362 355 387 383 292 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 0.9

West

396 357 390 361 362 366 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

365 370 334 375 402 404 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

305 305 272 314 342 339 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Mining and logging

3 6 4 4 3 4 0.4 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.6

Construction(3)

12 15 19 20 32 23 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3

Manufacturing

28 23 23 23 24 24 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

15 15 16 17 13 16 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

13 8 8 6 11 8 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106 100 69 88 66 78 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

Wholesale trade

10 13 9 13 7 15 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3

Retail trade

84 71 49 57 46 52 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

12 15 10 18 13 11 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Information(3)

11 14 11 10 18 11 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.4

Financial activities

25 16 23 23 26 29 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

22 12 22 20 23 25 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

3 3 1 4 3 4 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.2

Professional and business services

55 56 50 59 61 62 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

29 34 32 45 68 52 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2

Educational services(3)

2 3 2 4 7 3 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1

Health care and social assistance(3)

27 31 30 41 61 49 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

29 30 34 30 29 42 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

3 2 2 3 5 3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Accommodation and food services(3)

26 28 33 27 24 39 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

Other services(3)

7 11 7 12 14 15 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3

Government

59 64 63 62 60 65 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

12 13 12 13 10 8 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3

State and local

48 52 51 49 49 56 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

State and local education

23 23 24 23 25 31 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

State and local, excluding education

24 29 27 26 24 26 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

46 63 66 62 70 70 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

South

139 147 132 150 171 166 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Midwest

62 87 63 77 75 74 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

117 73 73 86 87 94 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

5,412 5,557 5,592 3.7 3.7 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,957 5,086 5,104 4.0 4.0 4.0

Mining and logging

8 25 18 1.2 3.6 2.7

Construction

193 142 169 3.0 2.2 2.5

Manufacturing

306 361 364 2.4 2.9 2.9

Durable goods

158 206 209 2.0 2.6 2.6

Nondurable goods

148 155 155 3.1 3.3 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

935 887 843 3.4 3.2 3.0

Wholesale trade

197 201 193 3.3 3.3 3.2

Retail trade

559 508 474 3.5 3.1 2.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

180 177 175 3.2 3.1 3.1

Information

86 73 69 3.0 2.6 2.4

Financial activities

312 409 346 3.7 4.7 4.0

Finance and insurance

221 268 270 3.5 4.1 4.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

90 140 77 4.2 6.1 3.5

Professional and business services

1,106 1,070 985 5.3 5.1 4.6

Education and health services

1,003 1,236 1,218 4.3 5.2 5.0

Educational services

110 93 120 2.9 2.6 3.1

Health care and social assistance

893 1,143 1,099 4.5 5.6 5.4

Leisure and hospitality

773 643 825 4.9 4.1 5.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

63 80 89 3.1 3.9 4.2

Accommodation and food services

710 563 736 5.2 4.1 5.3

Other services

235 241 267 4.0 4.1 4.5

Government

455 470 489 2.0 2.1 2.1

Federal

87 82 78 3.0 2.8 2.7

State and local

368 388 411 1.8 2.0 2.0

State and local education

126 139 129 1.2 1.3 1.2

State and local, excluding education

242 249 283 2.6 2.7 3.0

REGION(3)

Northeast

804 973 1,069 3.0 3.5 3.9

South

2,111 2,031 2,052 3.9 3.7 3.8

Midwest

1,237 1,270 1,260 3.8 3.8 3.8

West

1,260 1,282 1,211 3.7 3.8 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

4,521 5,226 4,408 3.2 3.6 3.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,262 4,908 4,152 3.6 4.1 3.4

Mining and logging

17 35 32 2.4 5.4 4.8

Construction

298 356 315 4.8 5.6 4.9

Manufacturing

252 322 270 2.0 2.6 2.2

Durable goods

153 180 138 2.0 2.3 1.8

Nondurable goods

99 142 132 2.2 3.1 2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

895 862 848 3.3 3.2 3.1

Wholesale trade

124 154 119 2.1 2.6 2.0

Retail trade

636 520 592 4.1 3.3 3.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

135 188 138 2.5 3.4 2.5

Information

66 94 70 2.4 3.5 2.5

Financial activities

190 245 151 2.3 2.9 1.8

Finance and insurance

138 170 101 2.3 2.7 1.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

52 75 50 2.5 3.5 2.4

Professional and business services

969 1,239 954 4.9 6.2 4.7

Education and health services

543 675 520 2.4 3.0 2.3

Educational services

85 75 63 2.3 2.2 1.7

Health care and social assistance

458 600 457 2.4 3.1 2.4

Leisure and hospitality

869 848 797 5.8 5.6 5.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

98 109 98 5.0 5.5 4.9

Accommodation and food services

770 740 699 6.0 5.7 5.3

Other services

164 230 194 2.9 4.1 3.4

Government

259 318 256 1.2 1.4 1.1

Federal

35 43 25 1.3 1.5 0.9

State and local

225 275 231 1.1 1.4 1.2

State and local education

109 153 117 1.0 1.5 1.1

State and local, excluding education

116 122 114 1.3 1.4 1.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

642 825 676 2.4 3.1 2.5

South

1,823 2,139 1,815 3.5 4.1 3.5

Midwest

1,014 1,074 909 3.2 3.4 2.8

West

1,043 1,188 1,008 3.2 3.6 3.1

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

4,226 5,776 4,138 3.0 4.0 2.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,018 5,453 3,930 3.4 4.5 3.2

Mining and logging

40 33 32 5.8 5.0 4.7

Construction

280 403 276 4.5 6.3 4.3

Manufacturing

268 310 249 2.2 2.5 2.0

Durable goods

170 174 132 2.2 2.3 1.7

Nondurable goods

98 136 117 2.1 3.0 2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

896 1,365 884 3.4 5.0 3.3

Wholesale trade

121 158 109 2.1 2.7 1.9

Retail trade

649 856 646 4.2 5.4 4.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

125 351 129 2.3 6.3 2.3

Information

61 110 72 2.2 4.0 2.6

Financial activities

177 231 146 2.2 2.8 1.7

Finance and insurance

121 155 97 2.0 2.5 1.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

56 76 49 2.7 3.6 2.3

Professional and business services

942 1,172 905 4.8 5.8 4.5

Education and health services

452 657 461 2.0 2.9 2.0

Educational services

50 75 33 1.4 2.2 0.9

Health care and social assistance

402 582 429 2.1 3.0 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

758 957 727 5.1 6.4 4.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

74 106 76 3.7 5.3 3.8

Accommodation and food services

684 851 651 5.3 6.5 5.0

Other services

144 214 177 2.6 3.8 3.1

Government

208 323 208 0.9 1.5 0.9

Federal

30 68 24 1.1 2.4 0.8

State and local

177 255 184 0.9 1.3 0.9

State and local education

77 120 81 0.7 1.2 0.7

State and local, excluding education

101 135 104 1.1 1.5 1.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

625 965 649 2.4 3.6 2.4

South

1,670 2,170 1,651 3.2 4.2 3.1

Midwest

951 1,316 899 3.0 4.1 2.8

West

980 1,325 938 3.0 4.1 2.8

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

2,465 3,172 2,550 1.7 2.2 1.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,353 3,019 2,432 2.0 2.5 2.0

Mining and logging

10 12 16 1.5 1.8 2.3

Construction

74 132 134 1.2 2.1 2.1

Manufacturing

130 166 153 1.1 1.4 1.2

Durable goods

75 94 77 1.0 1.2 1.0

Nondurable goods

54 73 76 1.2 1.6 1.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

530 697 547 2.0 2.6 2.0

Wholesale trade

73 110 57 1.3 1.9 1.0

Retail trade

391 506 401 2.5 3.2 2.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

66 81 89 1.2 1.5 1.6

Information

34 48 43 1.2 1.8 1.6

Financial activities

114 127 72 1.4 1.5 0.9

Finance and insurance

77 84 44 1.3 1.3 0.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

37 43 28 1.8 2.0 1.3

Professional and business services

522 636 531 2.7 3.2 2.6

Education and health services

322 458 319 1.4 2.0 1.4

Educational services

27 42 24 0.7 1.2 0.6

Health care and social assistance

295 416 296 1.6 2.2 1.5

Leisure and hospitality

527 621 512 3.5 4.1 3.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

46 54 46 2.3 2.7 2.3

Accommodation and food services

481 567 467 3.7 4.3 3.5

Other services

88 123 106 1.6 2.2 1.9

Government

112 153 117 0.5 0.7 0.5

Federal

12 16 12 0.4 0.6 0.4

State and local

100 137 106 0.5 0.7 0.5

State and local education

42 62 41 0.4 0.6 0.4

State and local, excluding education

58 75 64 0.6 0.8 0.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

341 446 333 1.3 1.7 1.2

South

973 1,256 1,041 1.9 2.4 2.0

Midwest

582 682 607 1.8 2.1 1.9

West

569 787 569 1.8 2.4 1.7

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

1,427 2,133 1,217 1.0 1.5 0.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,370 2,029 1,168 1.1 1.7 1.0

Mining and logging

28 16 13 4.0 2.5 1.9

Construction

193 239 119 3.1 3.7 1.8

Manufacturing

113 116 74 0.9 0.9 0.6

Durable goods

82 63 42 1.1 0.8 0.5

Nondurable goods

31 52 33 0.7 1.1 0.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

258 585 259 1.0 2.1 1.0

Wholesale trade

42 39 41 0.7 0.7 0.7

Retail trade

169 289 188 1.1 1.8 1.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

47 257 30 0.9 4.6 0.5

Information

16 44 19 0.6 1.6 0.7

Financial activities

44 68 51 0.5 0.8 0.6

Finance and insurance

28 38 35 0.5 0.6 0.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

16 30 16 0.8 1.4 0.8

Professional and business services

367 446 313 1.9 2.2 1.5

Education and health services

101 131 91 0.4 0.6 0.4

Educational services

21 26 6 0.6 0.7 0.2

Health care and social assistance

80 105 85 0.4 0.5 0.4

Leisure and hospitality

202 307 173 1.4 2.0 1.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

25 47 28 1.3 2.4 1.4

Accommodation and food services

176 260 146 1.4 2.0 1.1

Other services

49 78 57 0.9 1.4 1.0

Government

57 104 49 0.3 0.5 0.2

Federal

9 34 6 0.3 1.2 0.2

State and local

48 70 43 0.2 0.4 0.2

State and local education

24 39 25 0.2 0.4 0.2

State and local, excluding education

23 31 18 0.3 0.3 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

241 432 249 0.9 1.6 0.9

South

566 721 459 1.1 1.4 0.9

Midwest

313 534 230 1.0 1.7 0.7

West

307 446 280 0.9 1.4 0.8

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Feb.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)

Total

335 471 371 0.2 0.3 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

296 404 329 0.2 0.3 0.3

Mining and logging

2 4 3 0.3 0.7 0.5

Construction

12 32 23 0.2 0.5 0.4

Manufacturing

26 28 22 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

13 17 14 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods

13 11 8 0.3 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

108 83 78 0.4 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

7 9 12 0.1 0.2 0.2

Retail trade

89 60 56 0.6 0.4 0.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

12 13 11 0.2 0.2 0.2

Information

11 18 11 0.4 0.7 0.4

Financial activities

19 36 23 0.2 0.4 0.3

Finance and insurance

16 33 18 0.3 0.5 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

3 3 4 0.2 0.1 0.2

Professional and business services

53 90 61 0.3 0.5 0.3

Education and health services

29 68 52 0.1 0.3 0.2

Educational services

2 7 3 0.1 0.2 0.1

Health care and social assistance

27 61 49 0.1 0.3 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

29 29 42 0.2 0.2 0.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3 5 3 0.2 0.3 0.1

Accommodation and food services

26 24 39 0.2 0.2 0.3

Other services

7 14 15 0.1 0.2 0.3

Government

39 66 41 0.2 0.3 0.2

Federal

9 18 6 0.3 0.6 0.2

State and local

30 49 35 0.2 0.3 0.2

State and local education

10 20 14 0.1 0.2 0.1

State and local, excluding education

20 29 21 0.2 0.3 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

44 86 67 0.2 0.3 0.2

South

131 193 152 0.3 0.4 0.3

Midwest

56 100 63 0.2 0.3 0.2

West

104 92 89 0.3 0.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: April 11, 2017