Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	      USDL-19-0565
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, April 5, 2019

Technical information: 
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov
	

                 THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MARCH 2019

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 196,000 in March, and the
unemployment rate was unchanged at 3.8 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. Notable job gains occurred in health care and
in professional and technical services. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household
survey measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic
characteristics. The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours,
and earnings by industry. For more information about the concepts and
statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note. 

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate remained at 3.8 percent in March, and the number of
unemployed persons was essentially unchanged at 6.2 million. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men
(3.6 percent), adult women (3.3 percent), teenagers (12.8 percent), Whites
(3.4 percent), Blacks (6.7 percent), Asians (3.1 percent), and Hispanics
(4.7 percent) showed little or no change in March. (See tables A-1, A-2,
and A-3.)

In March, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks
or more) was essentially unchanged at 1.3 million and accounted for 21.1
percent of the unemployed. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 63.0 percent, was little changed
over the month and has shown little movement on net over the past 12 months.
The employment-population ratio was 60.6 percent in March and has been
either 60.6 percent or 60.7 percent since October 2018. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes
referred to as involuntary part-time workers) was little changed at 4.5
million in March. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced
or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In March, 1.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force,
little different from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.)
These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available
for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They
were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in
the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 412,000 discouraged workers in
March, about unchanged from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally
adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work
because they believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 944,000
persons marginally attached to the labor force in March had not searched
for work for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities.
(See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 196,000 in March, with notable
gains in health care and in professional and technical services. Employment
growth averaged 180,000 per month in the first quarter of 2019, compared
with 223,000 per month in 2018. (See table B-1.)

Health care added 49,000 jobs in March and 398,000 over the past 12 months.
Over the month, employment increased in ambulatory health care services (+27,000),
hospitals (+14,000), and nursing and residential care facilities (+9,000).  

Employment in professional and technical services grew by 34,000 in March
and 311,000 over the past 12 months. In March, computer systems design and
related services added 12,000 jobs. Employment continued to trend up in
architectural and engineering services (+6,000) and in management and technical
consulting services (+6,000). 

In March, employment in food services and drinking places continued its
upward trend (+27,000), in line with its average monthly gain over the prior
12 months.  
 
Employment in construction showed little change in March (+16,000) but has
increased by 246,000 over the past 12 months. 
 
Manufacturing employment changed little for the second month in a row (-6,000
in March, following +1,000 in February). In the 12 months prior to February,
manufacturing had added an average of 22,000 jobs per month. Within the
industry, employment in motor vehicles and parts declined in March (-6,000). 

Employment in other major industries, including mining, wholesale trade,
retail trade, transportation and warehousing, information, financial
activities, and government, showed little change over the month. 
 
The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased
by 0.1 hour to 34.5 hours in March, offsetting a decline of 0.1 hour in
February. In manufacturing, the average workweek was unchanged in March at
40.7 hours, while overtime decreased by 0.1 hour to 3.4 hours. The average
workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm
payrolls rose by 0.1 hour to 33.7 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.) 
 
In March, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm
payrolls rose by 4 cents to $27.70, following a 10-cent gain in February.
Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 3.2 percent.
Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory
employees increased by 6 cents to $23.24 in March. (See tables B-3 and B-8.) 
 
The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for January was revised up from
+311,000 to +312,000, and the change for February was revised up from +20,000
to +33,000. With these revisions, employment gains in January and February
combined were 14,000 more than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result
from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies since
the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)
After revisions, job gains have averaged 180,000 per month over the last 3 months.  

_____________
The Employment Situation for April is scheduled to be released on Friday,
May 3, 2019, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Change from:
Feb.
2019-
Mar.
2019

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

257,097 258,239 258,392 258,537 145

Civilian labor force

161,646 163,229 163,184 162,960 -224

Participation rate

62.9 63.2 63.2 63.0 -0.2

Employed

155,160 156,694 156,949 156,748 -201

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.7 60.7 60.6 -0.1

Unemployed

6,486 6,535 6,235 6,211 -24

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.0 3.8 3.8 0.0

Not in labor force

95,451 95,010 95,208 95,577 369

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.0 4.0 3.8 3.8 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.7 3.7 3.5 3.6 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.6 3.6 3.4 3.3 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.4 12.9 13.4 12.8 -0.6

White

3.6 3.5 3.3 3.4 0.1

Black or African American

6.8 6.8 7.0 6.7 -0.3

Asian

3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 0.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.1 4.9 4.3 4.7 0.4

Total, 25 years and over

3.3 3.3 3.1 3.1 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

5.6 5.7 5.3 5.9 0.6

High school graduates, no college

4.3 3.8 3.8 3.7 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

3.5 3.4 3.2 3.4 0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.2 2.4 2.2 2.0 -0.2

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,107 3,082 2,857 2,837 -20

Job leavers

860 805 840 779 -61

Reentrants

1,966 1,945 1,905 2,007 102

New entrants

615 606 623 614 -9

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,266 2,325 2,194 2,126 -68

5 to 14 weeks

1,976 2,013 1,810 1,815 5

15 to 26 weeks

900 902 942 950 8

27 weeks and over

1,337 1,252 1,271 1,305 34

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,969 5,147 4,310 4,499 189

Slack work or business conditions

2,989 3,451 2,792 2,909 117

Could only find part-time work

1,620 1,419 1,347 1,329 -18

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,439 20,949 21,153 21,297 144

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,454 1,614 1,424 1,357 -

Discouraged workers

450 426 428 412 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

182 312 33 196

Total private

173 297 28 182

Goods-producing

30 80 -28 12

Mining and logging

8 7 -4 2

Construction

2 56 -25 16

Manufacturing

20 17 1 -6

Durable goods(1)

21 19 1 -7

Motor vehicles and parts

3.6 -1.1 1.3 -6.3

Nondurable goods

-1 -2 0 1

Private service-providing

143 217 56 170

Wholesale trade

7.5 7.8 10.2 -2.0

Retail trade

1.2 9.3 -20.2 -11.7

Transportation and warehousing

22.5 30.2 -3.7 7.3

Utilities

-0.2 0.3 -1.1 1.3

Information

12 -12 -4 10

Financial activities

9 6 6 11

Professional and business services(1)

42 5 54 37

Temporary help services

-0.8 -26.3 3.1 -5.4

Education and health services(1)

37 68 13 70

Health care and social assistance

41.6 41.7 31.2 61.2

Leisure and hospitality

11 93 -1 33

Other services

1 9 3 14

Government

9 15 5 14

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

228 245 191 180

Total private

221 240 183 169

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.6 49.7 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.2 48.3 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.5 34.4 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.84 $27.56 $27.66 $27.70

Average weekly earnings

$925.98 $950.82 $951.50 $955.65

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

109.0 110.9 110.6 111.1

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.2 -0.3 0.5

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

139.8 146.1 146.3 147.1

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.3 0.1 0.5

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

65.3 59.1 59.3 60.5

Manufacturing (76 industries)

67.1 57.9 55.3 54.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 142,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 689,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

257,097 258,392 258,537 257,097 258,708 258,888 258,239 258,392 258,537

Civilian labor force

161,548 162,793 162,823 161,646 162,821 163,240 163,229 163,184 162,960

Participation rate

62.8 63.0 63.0 62.9 62.9 63.1 63.2 63.2 63.0

Employed

154,877 156,167 156,441 155,160 156,803 156,945 156,694 156,949 156,748

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.4 60.5 60.4 60.6 60.6 60.7 60.7 60.6

Unemployed

6,671 6,625 6,382 6,486 6,018 6,294 6,535 6,235 6,211

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8

Not in labor force

95,549 95,599 95,714 95,451 95,886 95,649 95,010 95,208 95,577

Persons who currently want a job

4,793 5,196 4,887 5,112 5,397 5,327 5,254 5,222 5,227

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,331 124,965 125,037 124,331 125,137 125,227 124,890 124,965 125,037

Civilian labor force

85,924 86,056 86,286 86,104 86,330 86,441 86,577 86,439 86,442

Participation rate

69.1 68.9 69.0 69.3 69.0 69.0 69.3 69.2 69.1

Employed

82,151 82,311 82,606 82,598 83,194 83,041 83,031 83,095 83,034

Employment-population ratio

66.1 65.9 66.1 66.4 66.5 66.3 66.5 66.5 66.4

Unemployed

3,773 3,745 3,681 3,506 3,136 3,401 3,545 3,343 3,408

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.4 4.3 4.1 3.6 3.9 4.1 3.9 3.9

Not in labor force

38,407 38,909 38,750 38,227 38,807 38,785 38,313 38,527 38,595

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

115,832 116,513 116,586 115,832 116,646 116,739 116,436 116,513 116,586

Civilian labor force

83,162 83,435 83,603 83,149 83,408 83,500 83,599 83,632 83,573

Participation rate

71.8 71.6 71.7 71.8 71.5 71.5 71.8 71.8 71.7

Employed

79,810 80,117 80,295 80,091 80,633 80,501 80,472 80,712 80,564

Employment-population ratio

68.9 68.8 68.9 69.1 69.1 69.0 69.1 69.3 69.1

Unemployed

3,352 3,318 3,308 3,059 2,775 2,999 3,126 2,920 3,009

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.0 4.0 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.6

Not in labor force

32,670 33,078 32,983 32,683 33,238 33,239 32,837 32,881 33,013

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

132,766 133,427 133,500 132,766 133,571 133,662 133,350 133,427 133,500

Civilian labor force

75,624 76,737 76,536 75,542 76,492 76,798 76,652 76,746 76,518

Participation rate

57.0 57.5 57.3 56.9 57.3 57.5 57.5 57.5 57.3

Employed

72,726 73,857 73,835 72,562 73,609 73,904 73,663 73,854 73,715

Employment-population ratio

54.8 55.4 55.3 54.7 55.1 55.3 55.2 55.4 55.2

Unemployed

2,898 2,880 2,701 2,980 2,883 2,894 2,990 2,892 2,803

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.8 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.7

Not in labor force

57,142 56,690 56,964 57,224 57,079 56,864 56,697 56,681 56,982

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,491 125,177 125,252 124,491 125,299 125,393 125,099 125,177 125,252

Civilian labor force

72,780 73,942 73,658 72,580 73,478 73,769 73,691 73,760 73,525

Participation rate

58.5 59.1 58.8 58.3 58.6 58.8 58.9 58.9 58.7

Employed

70,178 71,396 71,259 69,946 70,949 71,218 71,049 71,221 71,072

Employment-population ratio

56.4 57.0 56.9 56.2 56.6 56.8 56.8 56.9 56.7

Unemployed

2,602 2,546 2,399 2,634 2,529 2,550 2,642 2,540 2,453

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.3

Not in labor force

51,711 51,235 51,594 51,910 51,821 51,624 51,408 51,417 51,727

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,774 16,702 16,698 16,774 16,763 16,756 16,704 16,702 16,698

Civilian labor force

5,606 5,416 5,562 5,916 5,935 5,971 5,939 5,792 5,862

Participation rate

33.4 32.4 33.3 35.3 35.4 35.6 35.6 34.7 35.1

Employed

4,889 4,655 4,887 5,123 5,221 5,226 5,172 5,017 5,113

Employment-population ratio

29.1 27.9 29.3 30.5 31.1 31.2 31.0 30.0 30.6

Unemployed

717 761 675 793 714 745 767 776 748

Unemployment rate

12.8 14.0 12.1 13.4 12.0 12.5 12.9 13.4 12.8

Not in labor force

11,169 11,286 11,137 10,858 10,828 10,785 10,765 10,909 10,837

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

199,871 200,447 200,508 199,871 200,690 200,774 200,382 200,447 200,508

Civilian labor force

125,508 126,102 126,290 125,642 126,334 126,680 126,351 126,313 126,404

Participation rate

62.8 62.9 63.0 62.9 63.0 63.1 63.1 63.0 63.0

Employed

120,946 121,628 121,929 121,180 122,036 122,318 121,880 122,168 122,143

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.7 60.8 60.6 60.8 60.9 60.8 60.9 60.9

Unemployed

4,562 4,475 4,362 4,461 4,299 4,362 4,471 4,144 4,261

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.4

Not in labor force

74,363 74,345 74,218 74,229 74,355 74,094 74,030 74,134 74,104

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,889 65,925 66,029 65,877 65,961 66,110 66,051 66,052 66,014

Participation rate

72.0 71.8 71.9 72.0 71.8 71.9 72.0 72.0 71.9

Employed

63,507 63,636 63,742 63,698 63,960 64,046 63,890 64,088 63,936

Employment-population ratio

69.4 69.3 69.4 69.6 69.6 69.6 69.6 69.8 69.6

Unemployed

2,382 2,289 2,287 2,179 2,000 2,064 2,161 1,964 2,078

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,271 56,042 55,893 55,172 55,819 55,995 55,740 55,814 55,806

Participation rate

57.5 58.1 58.0 57.4 57.9 58.0 57.8 57.9 57.9

Employed

53,543 54,365 54,293 53,381 54,023 54,226 53,959 54,151 54,140

Employment-population ratio

55.7 56.4 56.3 55.6 56.0 56.2 56.0 56.2 56.1

Unemployed

1,727 1,677 1,600 1,791 1,796 1,769 1,781 1,663 1,666

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.0 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,348 4,135 4,368 4,593 4,554 4,575 4,560 4,447 4,585

Participation rate

35.3 33.7 35.6 37.2 37.0 37.2 37.2 36.3 37.4

Employed

3,895 3,627 3,894 4,101 4,052 4,047 4,031 3,929 4,067

Employment-population ratio

31.6 29.6 31.8 33.3 32.9 32.9 32.9 32.0 33.2

Unemployed

453 508 474 492 502 528 530 518 517

Unemployment rate

10.4 12.3 10.9 10.7 11.0 11.6 11.6 11.6 11.3

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,638 32,897 32,925 32,638 32,923 32,956 32,868 32,897 32,925

Civilian labor force

20,347 20,441 20,328 20,452 20,451 20,460 20,628 20,575 20,432

Participation rate

62.3 62.1 61.7 62.7 62.1 62.1 62.8 62.5 62.1

Employed

18,955 18,944 18,965 19,063 19,232 19,107 19,220 19,137 19,073

Employment-population ratio

58.1 57.6 57.6 58.4 58.4 58.0 58.5 58.2 57.9

Unemployed

1,392 1,497 1,364 1,389 1,219 1,353 1,408 1,437 1,359

Unemployment rate

6.8 7.3 6.7 6.8 6.0 6.6 6.8 7.0 6.7

Not in labor force

12,291 12,457 12,597 12,186 12,472 12,496 12,240 12,322 12,493

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,258 9,333 9,344 9,317 9,310 9,284 9,367 9,414 9,399

Participation rate

67.8 67.6 67.6 68.2 67.4 67.2 67.9 68.2 68.0

Employed

8,670 8,595 8,675 8,752 8,771 8,709 8,705 8,734 8,753

Employment-population ratio

63.5 62.3 62.8 64.1 63.5 63.0 63.1 63.3 63.3

Unemployed

588 738 669 565 539 575 662 680 646

Unemployment rate

6.4 7.9 7.2 6.1 5.8 6.2 7.1 7.2 6.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,335 10,358 10,324 10,319 10,303 10,359 10,419 10,366 10,316

Participation rate

62.7 62.3 62.1 62.6 62.0 62.2 62.8 62.4 62.0

Employed

9,720 9,793 9,777 9,718 9,789 9,749 9,847 9,822 9,777

Employment-population ratio

59.0 58.9 58.8 59.0 58.9 58.6 59.3 59.1 58.8

Unemployed

616 565 547 600 515 611 572 544 539

Unemployment rate

6.0 5.5 5.3 5.8 5.0 5.9 5.5 5.3 5.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

754 750 660 816 837 817 842 795 717

Participation rate

30.1 30.3 26.7 32.6 33.6 32.8 34.0 32.1 29.0

Employed

566 556 513 592 672 650 669 582 542

Employment-population ratio

22.6 22.5 20.7 23.6 27.0 26.1 27.0 23.5 21.9

Unemployed

189 194 148 224 165 167 173 213 174

Unemployment rate

25.0 25.9 22.4 27.4 19.7 20.5 20.6 26.8 24.3

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,983 16,055 16,245 15,983 16,096 16,138 16,034 16,055 16,245

Civilian labor force

10,138 10,383 10,447 10,097 10,334 10,262 10,298 10,369 10,402

Participation rate

63.4 64.7 64.3 63.2 64.2 63.6 64.2 64.6 64.0

Employed

9,833 10,053 10,133 9,786 10,050 9,929 9,978 10,045 10,082

Employment-population ratio

61.5 62.6 62.4 61.2 62.4 61.5 62.2 62.6 62.1

Unemployed

305 329 314 311 284 334 321 324 320

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.2 3.0 3.1 2.7 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.1

Not in labor force

5,845 5,672 5,798 5,886 5,762 5,876 5,736 5,686 5,843

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,419 43,127 43,205 42,419 43,146 43,234 43,044 43,127 43,205

Civilian labor force

27,926 28,631 28,900 27,939 28,820 28,963 28,985 28,724 28,929

Participation rate

65.8 66.4 66.9 65.9 66.8 67.0 67.3 66.6 67.0

Employed

26,463 27,270 27,479 26,528 27,524 27,701 27,579 27,480 27,566

Employment-population ratio

62.4 63.2 63.6 62.5 63.8 64.1 64.1 63.7 63.8

Unemployed

1,463 1,361 1,421 1,412 1,296 1,261 1,406 1,245 1,363

Unemployment rate

5.2 4.8 4.9 5.1 4.5 4.4 4.9 4.3 4.7

Not in labor force

14,493 14,496 14,305 14,479 14,326 14,271 14,060 14,403 14,277

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,369 15,628 15,836 15,369 15,595 15,651 15,699 15,675 15,832

Participation rate

80.3 80.3 81.2 80.3 80.1 80.2 80.8 80.5 81.2

Employed

14,624 14,953 15,114 14,694 15,063 15,107 15,066 15,117 15,187

Employment-population ratio

76.4 76.8 77.5 76.8 77.3 77.4 77.6 77.7 77.9

Unemployed

744 675 722 674 533 544 633 557 646

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.3 4.6 4.4 3.4 3.5 4.0 3.6 4.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,270 11,806 11,842 11,248 11,857 12,002 11,968 11,798 11,839

Participation rate

58.2 59.9 60.0 58.1 60.2 60.8 60.9 59.9 60.0

Employed

10,711 11,328 11,318 10,695 11,308 11,487 11,396 11,331 11,321

Employment-population ratio

55.3 57.5 57.3 55.2 57.4 58.2 58.0 57.5 57.4

Unemployed

559 478 524 553 550 515 572 466 518

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.0 4.4 4.9 4.6 4.3 4.8 4.0 4.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,287 1,197 1,222 1,322 1,367 1,310 1,318 1,252 1,257

Participation rate

32.9 30.2 30.8 33.8 34.5 33.0 33.3 31.6 31.7

Employed

1,128 988 1,048 1,138 1,154 1,107 1,117 1,031 1,058

Employment-population ratio

28.8 24.9 26.4 29.1 29.1 27.9 28.2 26.0 26.6

Unemployed

159 209 175 184 214 202 201 221 199

Unemployment rate

12.4 17.4 14.3 13.9 15.6 15.4 15.2 17.6 15.9

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,180 9,903 10,064 10,246 10,191 10,283 10,065 10,267 10,142

Participation rate

45.5 45.4 45.8 45.8 46.7 46.1 45.2 47.0 46.1

Employed

9,519 9,243 9,374 9,676 9,619 9,683 9,489 9,720 9,548

Employment-population ratio

42.5 42.4 42.6 43.2 44.0 43.4 42.6 44.5 43.4

Unemployed

661 660 689 570 572 600 576 548 594

Unemployment rate

6.5 6.7 6.9 5.6 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.3 5.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,969 36,153 36,015 35,848 35,901 36,154 36,301 36,230 35,983

Participation rate

57.3 58.1 57.9 57.1 57.6 58.1 58.5 58.2 57.9

Employed

34,290 34,632 34,571 34,305 34,631 34,776 34,937 34,863 34,654

Employment-population ratio

54.6 55.6 55.6 54.6 55.6 55.9 56.3 56.0 55.8

Unemployed

1,679 1,521 1,444 1,543 1,271 1,377 1,363 1,367 1,329

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.2 4.0 4.3 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,550 37,234 37,204 37,617 37,471 37,175 37,339 37,213 37,268

Participation rate

65.5 65.4 65.1 65.6 65.3 65.7 65.5 65.3 65.2

Employed

36,175 35,956 35,895 36,285 36,293 35,954 36,071 36,040 36,012

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.1 62.8 63.3 63.2 63.5 63.2 63.3 63.0

Unemployed

1,375 1,278 1,309 1,332 1,178 1,222 1,268 1,173 1,256

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

57,097 59,139 58,984 56,734 58,451 58,701 58,472 58,497 58,593

Participation rate

74.6 74.3 74.2 74.1 73.8 73.6 74.0 73.5 73.7

Employed

55,846 57,860 57,789 55,500 57,150 57,442 57,078 57,220 57,409

Employment-population ratio

73.0 72.7 72.7 72.5 72.1 72.0 72.2 71.9 72.2

Unemployed

1,251 1,279 1,195 1,234 1,301 1,260 1,395 1,277 1,184

Unemployment rate

2.2 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,313 18,933 17,453 17,055 1,860 1,878

Civilian labor force

9,617 9,351 8,483 8,208 1,134 1,143

Participation rate

49.8 49.4 48.6 48.1 60.9 60.9

Employed

9,225 9,081 8,112 7,968 1,113 1,113

Employment-population ratio

47.8 48.0 46.5 46.7 59.9 59.3

Unemployed

392 269 372 240 20 30

Unemployment rate

4.1 2.9 4.4 2.9 1.8 2.6

Not in labor force

9,696 9,582 8,970 8,847 726 735

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,089 4,231 3,385 3,540 704 691

Civilian labor force

3,362 3,425 2,865 2,941 497 485

Participation rate

82.2 81.0 84.6 83.1 70.6 70.1

Employed

3,195 3,319 2,706 2,854 489 465

Employment-population ratio

78.2 78.5 80.0 80.6 69.5 67.3

Unemployed

166 106 158 87 8 19

Unemployment rate

5.0 3.1 5.5 2.9 1.7 4.0

Not in labor force

727 806 520 599 207 207

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,101 3,123 2,621 2,596 480 527

Civilian labor force

2,442 2,437 2,072 2,072 370 365

Participation rate

78.8 78.0 79.1 79.8 77.0 69.3

Employed

2,367 2,391 2,004 2,031 363 360

Employment-population ratio

76.3 76.6 76.4 78.2 75.7 68.3

Unemployed

76 46 69 40 7 5

Unemployment rate

3.1 1.9 3.3 1.9 1.8 1.5

Not in labor force

659 686 549 525 110 162

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,750 7,332 7,487 7,080 263 252

Civilian labor force

1,646 1,443 1,587 1,370 59 72

Participation rate

21.2 19.7 21.2 19.4 22.4 28.7

Employed

1,585 1,403 1,526 1,330 59 72

Employment-population ratio

20.4 19.1 20.4 18.8 22.4 28.7

Unemployed

62 40 62 40 0 0

Unemployment rate

3.7 2.8 3.9 2.9 - -

Not in labor force

6,104 5,889 5,900 5,710 204 180

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,373 4,247 3,960 3,839 413 408

Civilian labor force

2,166 2,046 1,959 1,825 208 221

Participation rate

49.5 48.2 49.5 47.5 50.3 54.2

Employed

2,078 1,968 1,876 1,752 202 216

Employment-population ratio

47.5 46.3 47.4 45.6 49.0 52.9

Unemployed

88 78 83 73 5 5

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.8 4.2 4.0 2.5 2.4

Not in labor force

2,207 2,201 2,001 2,014 205 187

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

228,782 230,736 102,363 103,460 126,419 127,276

Civilian labor force

149,929 151,634 76,505 77,174 73,424 74,459

Participation rate

65.5 65.7 74.7 74.6 58.1 58.5

Employed

143,951 145,758 73,269 73,845 70,682 71,913

Employment-population ratio

62.9 63.2 71.6 71.4 55.9 56.5

Unemployed

5,978 5,875 3,237 3,329 2,742 2,546

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.9 4.2 4.3 3.7 3.4

Not in labor force

78,853 79,102 25,858 26,286 52,996 52,816

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,415 30,575 226,683 227,962

Civilian labor force

6,526 6,570 155,022 156,253

Participation rate

21.5 21.5 68.4 68.5

Employed

5,991 6,049 148,885 150,392

Employment-population ratio

19.7 19.8 65.7 66.0

Unemployed

535 521 6,136 5,860

Unemployment rate

8.2 7.9 4.0 3.8

Not in labor force

23,889 24,005 71,661 71,709

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,882 2,921 77,606 77,724

Participation rate

37.4 38.0 82.7 82.8

Employed

2,624 2,623 74,254 74,535

Employment-population ratio

34.1 34.1 79.1 79.4

Unemployed

259 298 3,352 3,188

Unemployment rate

9.0 10.2 4.3 4.1

Not in labor force

4,818 4,774 16,270 16,136

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,547 2,427 68,597 69,297

Participation rate

32.2 30.5 70.8 71.7

Employed

2,321 2,250 66,100 66,925

Employment-population ratio

29.3 28.3 68.3 69.2

Unemployed

226 177 2,497 2,372

Unemployment rate

8.9 7.3 3.6 3.4

Not in labor force

5,371 5,523 28,237 27,405

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,097 1,222 8,819 9,232

Participation rate

7.4 8.2 24.5 24.7

Employed

1,046 1,175 8,531 8,932

Employment-population ratio

7.1 7.9 23.7 23.9

Unemployed

50 46 288 300

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.8 3.3 3.2

Not in labor force

13,700 13,709 27,154 28,168

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,358 43,562 21,128 21,216 22,230 22,346

Civilian labor force

28,441 28,893 16,387 16,564 12,054 12,329

Participation rate

65.6 66.3 77.6 78.1 54.2 55.2

Employed

27,280 27,775 15,763 15,981 11,517 11,794

Employment-population ratio

62.9 63.8 74.6 75.3 51.8 52.8

Unemployed

1,161 1,118 624 583 536 535

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.9 3.8 3.5 4.4 4.3

Not in labor force

14,918 14,669 4,741 4,652 10,177 10,017

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

213,739 214,975 103,203 103,821 110,535 111,154

Civilian labor force

133,107 133,930 69,537 69,722 63,570 64,207

Participation rate

62.3 62.3 67.4 67.2 57.5 57.8

Employed

127,597 128,666 66,388 66,625 61,209 62,041

Employment-population ratio

59.7 59.9 64.3 64.2 55.4 55.8

Unemployed

5,510 5,264 3,149 3,098 2,362 2,166

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.9 4.5 4.4 3.7 3.4

Not in labor force

80,632 81,045 33,667 34,099 46,965 46,947

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,266 2,344 2,243 2,331 2,556 2,522 2,576 2,510 2,332

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,409 1,572 1,558 1,499 1,772 1,747 1,778 1,741 1,687

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

840 757 667 801 768 752 787 764 644

Unpaid family workers

17 15 18 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

152,611 153,824 154,197 152,664 154,297 154,520 154,177 154,446 154,358

Wage and salary workers(1)

143,601 145,148 145,493 143,668 145,313 145,478 145,251 145,674 145,609

Government

21,368 21,032 21,077 20,973 21,054 20,677 20,614 20,588 20,677

Private industries

122,233 124,116 124,417 122,699 124,365 124,787 124,657 125,042 124,948

Private households

781 796 808 - - - - - -

Other industries

121,452 123,321 123,609 121,932 123,512 123,904 123,861 124,243 124,153

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,959 8,638 8,659 8,983 8,889 9,031 8,855 8,780 8,727

Unpaid family workers

50 38 45 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,080 4,561 4,621 4,969 4,781 4,657 5,147 4,310 4,499

Slack work or business conditions

3,023 2,986 2,949 2,989 2,882 2,891 3,451 2,792 2,909

Could only find part-time work

1,738 1,295 1,413 1,620 1,562 1,496 1,419 1,347 1,329

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,817 21,807 21,738 21,439 20,909 21,234 20,949 21,153 21,297

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,975 4,477 4,548 4,867 4,726 4,580 5,079 4,244 4,439

Slack work or business conditions

2,966 2,933 2,895 2,934 2,843 2,816 3,418 2,763 2,854

Could only find part-time work

1,726 1,291 1,410 1,613 1,571 1,473 1,401 1,339 1,327

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,382 21,411 21,434 21,022 20,521 20,826 20,548 20,761 20,995

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

154,877 156,167 156,441 155,160 156,803 156,945 156,694 156,949 156,748

16 to 19 years

4,889 4,655 4,887 5,123 5,221 5,226 5,172 5,017 5,113

16 to 17 years

1,701 1,565 1,601 1,868 1,915 1,784 1,674 1,756 1,759

18 to 19 years

3,188 3,090 3,285 3,269 3,295 3,441 3,459 3,249 3,356

20 years and over

149,988 151,512 151,554 150,036 151,582 151,720 151,522 151,932 151,635

20 to 24 years

14,158 13,821 13,925 14,335 13,942 13,885 13,911 14,018 14,064

25 years and over

135,830 137,691 137,629 135,802 137,615 137,786 137,605 137,942 137,685

25 to 54 years

100,015 100,574 100,750 100,030 100,844 100,833 100,787 100,840 100,792

25 to 34 years

35,105 35,512 35,686 35,111 35,672 35,689 35,665 35,584 35,695

35 to 44 years

32,410 32,965 32,785 32,465 32,796 32,881 32,902 33,101 32,855

45 to 54 years

32,500 32,098 32,279 32,454 32,376 32,263 32,221 32,156 32,241

55 years and over

35,814 37,117 36,879 35,772 36,771 36,954 36,817 37,102 36,893

Men, 16 years and over

82,151 82,311 82,606 82,598 83,194 83,041 83,031 83,095 83,034

16 to 19 years

2,341 2,194 2,311 2,507 2,561 2,540 2,559 2,384 2,470

16 to 17 years

771 751 793 873 848 848 805 860 882

18 to 19 years

1,570 1,443 1,518 1,639 1,711 1,686 1,735 1,535 1,594

20 years and over

79,810 80,117 80,295 80,091 80,633 80,501 80,472 80,712 80,564

20 to 24 years

7,325 7,006 7,015 7,446 7,089 7,044 7,101 7,148 7,120

25 years and over

72,485 73,111 73,280 72,711 73,519 73,435 73,398 73,566 73,520

25 to 54 years

53,460 53,539 53,825 53,624 53,933 53,774 53,808 53,858 53,968

25 to 34 years

18,900 19,002 19,294 18,942 19,201 19,165 19,132 19,119 19,314

35 to 44 years

17,492 17,760 17,635 17,573 17,664 17,701 17,772 17,899 17,720

45 to 54 years

17,069 16,777 16,897 17,110 17,068 16,908 16,904 16,840 16,933

55 years and over

19,025 19,572 19,455 19,087 19,587 19,661 19,591 19,708 19,553

Women, 16 years and over

72,726 73,857 73,835 72,562 73,609 73,904 73,663 73,854 73,715

16 to 19 years

2,548 2,461 2,576 2,616 2,660 2,686 2,613 2,633 2,643

16 to 17 years

930 813 808 995 1,067 936 869 896 877

18 to 19 years

1,618 1,648 1,767 1,631 1,584 1,755 1,723 1,714 1,762

20 years and over

70,178 71,396 71,259 69,946 70,949 71,218 71,049 71,221 71,072

20 to 24 years

6,834 6,815 6,910 6,889 6,853 6,841 6,810 6,870 6,944

25 years and over

63,344 64,580 64,349 63,091 64,096 64,352 64,206 64,377 64,164

25 to 54 years

46,555 47,035 46,925 46,406 46,912 47,059 46,979 46,983 46,824

25 to 34 years

16,206 16,510 16,392 16,169 16,471 16,524 16,533 16,465 16,381

35 to 44 years

14,918 15,205 15,151 14,892 15,132 15,180 15,130 15,202 15,135

45 to 54 years

15,431 15,321 15,382 15,344 15,308 15,355 15,317 15,316 15,308

55 years and over

16,789 17,545 17,424 16,686 17,184 17,293 17,227 17,394 17,340

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,870 45,664 45,865 45,878 46,204 45,984 45,819 45,893 45,867

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,912 36,731 36,841 35,636 36,220 36,379 36,504 36,574 36,566

Women who maintain families(2)

9,595 9,596 9,708 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

126,424 128,836 128,819 127,523 129,774 129,913 129,837 130,159 129,969

Part-time workers(4)

28,453 27,331 27,622 27,793 27,017 26,994 26,752 26,878 26,938

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,771 7,823 8,047 7,605 7,749 7,866 7,850 7,641 7,853

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.0 5.1 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,891 6,072 5,991 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,799 9,395 9,326 9,783 9,657 9,783 9,642 9,544 9,371

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Mar.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,486 6,235 6,211 4.0 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8

16 to 19 years

793 776 748 13.4 12.0 12.5 12.9 13.4 12.8

16 to 17 years

328 335 254 14.9 13.2 13.8 14.4 16.0 12.6

18 to 19 years

464 453 486 12.4 11.5 12.1 12.2 12.2 12.7

20 years and over

5,693 5,459 5,463 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.5

20 to 24 years

1,023 1,090 1,095 6.7 6.6 7.2 7.6 7.2 7.2

25 years and over

4,699 4,372 4,359 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1

25 to 54 years

3,556 3,331 3,373 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2

25 to 34 years

1,520 1,495 1,487 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0

35 to 44 years

1,064 886 930 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.8

45 to 54 years

971 950 955 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9

55 years and over

1,166 1,029 1,012 3.2 2.9 2.9 3.2 2.7 2.7

Men, 16 years and over

3,506 3,343 3,408 4.1 3.6 3.9 4.1 3.9 3.9

16 to 19 years

447 423 398 15.1 12.3 13.7 14.1 15.1 13.9

16 to 17 years

174 189 116 16.7 14.8 14.9 15.6 18.0 11.7

18 to 19 years

274 251 274 14.3 11.1 13.7 13.1 14.0 14.7

20 years and over

3,059 2,920 3,009 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.6

20 to 24 years

599 589 690 7.4 7.3 7.8 8.4 7.6 8.8

25 years and over

2,466 2,333 2,327 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,849 1,762 1,765 3.3 2.9 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2

25 to 34 years

810 767 750 4.1 3.3 3.7 4.0 3.9 3.7

35 to 44 years

536 479 505 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.8

45 to 54 years

503 515 510 2.9 2.6 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.9

55 years and over

617 571 562 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.3 2.8 2.8

Women, 16 years and over

2,980 2,892 2,803 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.7

16 to 19 years

346 352 350 11.7 11.7 11.3 11.7 11.8 11.7

16 to 17 years

153 146 137 13.3 11.9 12.9 13.3 14.0 13.5

18 to 19 years

190 203 212 10.5 12.0 10.5 11.2 10.6 10.7

20 years and over

2,634 2,540 2,453 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.3

20 to 24 years

425 501 404 5.8 5.8 6.5 6.7 6.8 5.5

25 years and over

2,233 2,040 2,032 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,707 1,570 1,608 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.3

25 to 34 years

710 728 737 4.2 4.1 4.2 3.9 4.2 4.3

35 to 44 years

529 407 426 3.4 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.7

45 to 54 years

468 435 445 3.0 2.7 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.8

55 years and over

550 461 463 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

988 907 912 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

951 866 892 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.4

Women who maintain families(2)

569 496 479 5.6 5.4 4.5 5.4 4.9 4.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,228 5,087 5,026 3.9 3.5 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.7

Part-time workers(4)

1,302 1,135 1,224 4.5 4.5 4.8 4.2 4.1 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,375 3,300 3,098 3,107 2,842 2,903 3,082 2,857 2,837

On temporary layoff

1,007 1,088 1,029 865 804 762 937 820 878

Not on temporary layoff

2,368 2,212 2,069 2,242 2,038 2,141 2,144 2,037 1,960

Permanent job losers

1,696 1,406 1,470 1,602 1,337 1,432 1,427 1,300 1,379

Persons who completed temporary jobs

672 806 599 640 701 710 717 737 580

Job leavers

850 840 763 860 697 839 805 840 779

Reentrants

1,912 1,908 1,982 1,966 1,880 1,958 1,945 1,905 2,007

New entrants

534 577 539 615 577 588 606 623 614

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

50.6 49.8 48.5 47.4 47.4 46.2 47.9 45.9 45.5

On temporary layoff

15.1 16.4 16.1 13.2 13.4 12.1 14.6 13.2 14.1

Not on temporary layoff

35.5 33.4 32.4 34.2 34.0 34.1 33.3 32.7 31.4

Job leavers

12.7 12.7 12.0 13.1 11.6 13.3 12.5 13.5 12.5

Reentrants

28.7 28.8 31.1 30.0 31.4 31.1 30.2 30.6 32.2

New entrants

8.0 8.7 8.4 9.4 9.6 9.3 9.4 10.0 9.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.7

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,994 2,085 1,868 2,266 2,128 2,126 2,325 2,194 2,126

5 to 14 weeks

2,203 2,137 2,017 1,976 1,842 2,027 2,013 1,810 1,815

15 weeks and over

2,475 2,403 2,496 2,237 2,124 2,203 2,153 2,214 2,256

15 to 26 weeks

1,059 1,031 1,111 900 865 897 902 942 950

27 weeks and over

1,416 1,371 1,385 1,337 1,259 1,306 1,252 1,271 1,305

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

24.8 21.5 22.9 24.2 21.7 21.8 20.5 21.7 22.2

Median duration, in weeks

10.2 9.5 10.8 9.2 9.0 9.1 8.9 9.3 9.6

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

29.9 31.5 29.3 35.0 34.9 33.4 35.8 35.3 34.3

5 to 14 weeks

33.0 32.3 31.6 30.5 30.2 31.9 31.0 29.1 29.3

15 weeks and over

37.1 36.3 39.1 34.5 34.9 34.7 33.2 35.6 36.4

15 to 26 weeks

15.9 15.6 17.4 13.9 14.2 14.1 13.9 15.2 15.3

27 weeks and over

21.2 20.7 21.7 20.6 20.7 20.5 19.3 20.4 21.1

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

154,877 156,441 6,671 6,382 4.1 3.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

63,067 64,299 1,310 1,289 2.0 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,992 26,898 520 552 2.0 2.0

Professional and related occupations

37,074 37,401 790 736 2.1 1.9

Service occupations

26,564 26,351 1,447 1,442 5.2 5.2

Sales and office occupations

32,896 33,050 1,428 1,379 4.2 4.0

Sales and related occupations

15,413 15,365 731 739 4.5 4.6

Office and administrative support occupations

17,482 17,685 697 640 3.8 3.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,860 14,060 999 827 6.7 5.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

992 1,130 137 207 12.1 15.5

Construction and extraction occupations

7,966 8,367 712 503 8.2 5.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,902 4,562 150 118 3.0 2.5

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,490 18,681 933 889 4.8 4.5

Production occupations

8,539 8,635 382 375 4.3 4.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,952 10,046 551 514 5.2 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,671 6,382 4.1 3.9

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,136 4,869 4.0 3.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

55 26 6.9 3.6

Construction

696 490 7.4 5.2

Manufacturing

511 475 3.3 2.9

Durable goods

304 254 3.1 2.5

Nondurable goods

208 221 3.6 3.6

Wholesale and retail trade

960 917 4.8 4.7

Transportation and utilities

241 262 3.6 3.6

Information

108 105 4.1 4.0

Financial activities

181 280 1.8 2.8

Professional and business services

714 678 4.2 3.9

Education and health services

619 583 2.6 2.3

Leisure and hospitality

808 827 5.8 5.8

Other services

242 224 3.6 3.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

147 195 9.7 11.5

Government workers

522 405 2.4 1.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

333 375 3.3 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.7

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.1 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.4 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.1 4.1

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.0 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.7 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.1 7.7 7.5 7.9 7.6 7.6 8.1 7.3 7.3

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2019

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,549 95,714 38,407 38,750 57,142 56,964

Persons who currently want a job

4,793 4,887 2,272 2,267 2,521 2,620

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,454 1,357 770 680 684 677

Discouraged workers(2)

450 412 271 237 179 176

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,004 944 498 443 506 501

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,771 8,047 3,991 3,863 3,781 4,184

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.1 4.9 4.7 5.2 5.7

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,272 4,473 2,396 2,309 1,877 2,164

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,040 2,197 766 826 1,274 1,371

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

307 282 199 185 109 96

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,108 1,027 612 522 496 505

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)
Change from:
Feb.2019 - Mar.2019(p)

Total nonfarm

147,368 148,295 149,143 149,867 148,279 150,587 150,620 150,816 196

Total private

124,601 125,932 126,360 126,989 125,870 128,087 128,115 128,297 182

Goods-producing

20,195 20,557 20,572 20,686 20,527 21,041 21,013 21,025 12

Mining and logging

704 745 744 746 714 759 755 757 2

Logging

48.7 47.1 45.8 45.3 50.1 48.2 46.4 46.7 0.3

Mining

655.5 698.0 697.8 700.6 664.0 710.3 708.8 709.9 1.1

Oil and gas extraction

142.0 148.6 150.5 151.8 142.8 150.0 151.9 152.6 0.7

Mining, except oil and gas

184.7 188.6 189.0 191.3 189.5 195.4 195.5 196.1 0.6

Coal mining

50.6 52.6 52.5 52.5 50.9 52.6 52.6 52.7 0.1

Metal ore mining

41.1 40.7 40.8 40.8 41.3 41.0 41.1 41.1 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

93.0 95.3 95.7 98.0 97.3 101.8 101.8 102.3 0.5

Support activities for mining

328.8 360.8 358.3 357.5 331.7 364.9 361.4 361.2 -0.2

Construction

6,933 7,071 7,066 7,172 7,201 7,456 7,431 7,447 16

Construction of buildings

1,565.0 1,603.4 1,603.1 1,615.8 1,605.2 1,655.9 1,654.6 1,656.4 1.8

Residential building

765.6 805.2 806.7 815.0 789.9 832.5 833.6 838.3 4.7

Nonresidential building

799.4 798.2 796.4 800.8 815.3 823.4 821.0 818.1 -2.9

Heavy and civil engineering construction

960.2 969.7 971.1 1,000.9 1,034.1 1,086.5 1,075.9 1,076.5 0.6

Specialty trade contractors

4,408.2 4,498.2 4,492.0 4,555.7 4,561.3 4,714.0 4,700.8 4,713.8 13.0

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,938.9 1,971.0 1,962.2 1,992.2 2,006.8 2,063.8 2,054.6 2,062.1 7.5

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,469.3 2,527.2 2,529.8 2,563.5 2,554.5 2,650.2 2,646.2 2,651.7 5.5

Manufacturing

12,558 12,741 12,762 12,768 12,612 12,826 12,827 12,821 -6

Durable goods

7,870 8,023 8,032 8,034 7,886 8,055 8,056 8,049 -7

Wood products

402.4 404.1 405.9 403.5 406.2 408.2 410.2 407.2 -3.0

Nonmetallic mineral products

408.1 408.0 404.1 405.8 414.0 420.0 414.0 411.6 -2.4

Primary metals

376.2 382.8 383.9 384.0 376.3 382.7 383.7 383.7 0.0

Fabricated metal products

1,451.9 1,480.3 1,477.5 1,478.7 1,455.2 1,484.6 1,481.9 1,482.0 0.1

Machinery

1,102.7 1,137.9 1,141.9 1,140.5 1,104.4 1,139.6 1,141.7 1,142.3 0.6

Computer and electronic products

1,047.5 1,068.7 1,070.7 1,074.4 1,049.4 1,071.9 1,073.6 1,075.7 2.1

Computer and peripheral equipment

155.4 159.2 159.8 159.8 155.7 159.6 160.2 159.8 -0.4

Communications equipment

86.1 85.1 85.3 86.0 86.1 85.5 85.8 86.0 0.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

367.4 373.6 375.1 376.6 367.9 375.3 376.0 376.8 0.8

Electronic instruments

405.1 417.7 417.6 419.1 405.7 418.2 418.3 419.8 1.5

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.5 33.1 32.9 32.9 33.8 33.4 33.3 33.3 0.0

Electrical equipment and appliances

392.9 403.1 401.4 402.7 394.0 404.3 403.5 404.0 0.5

Transportation equipment(1)

1,691.0 1,733.9 1,740.5 1,739.3 1,686.1 1,734.6 1,738.6 1,734.1 -4.5

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,001.4 1,003.8 1,007.8 1,003.6 995.5 1,004.0 1,005.3 999.0 -6.3

Furniture and related products

394.2 393.2 395.1 393.2 394.8 395.0 394.9 393.9 -1.0

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

602.8 610.6 611.1 611.7 605.3 614.4 613.4 614.3 0.9

Nondurable goods

4,688 4,718 4,730 4,734 4,726 4,771 4,771 4,772 1

Food manufacturing

1,589.8 1,607.2 1,611.6 1,610.6 1,613.0 1,632.1 1,632.2 1,634.8 2.6

Textile mills

112.2 111.8 111.9 112.8 112.3 112.2 112.0 112.8 0.8

Textile product mills

116.4 114.2 113.8 114.6 116.9 114.9 114.7 115.0 0.3

Apparel

115.1 108.5 106.8 107.7 115.1 109.5 106.8 107.6 0.8

Paper and paper products

363.8 368.2 370.2 370.3 364.4 369.7 370.0 370.6 0.6

Printing and related support activities

432.5 422.4 420.5 420.1 433.3 424.6 423.1 421.2 -1.9

Petroleum and coal products

111.0 112.4 112.9 112.9 114.5 116.6 117.3 116.6 -0.7

Chemicals

828.3 846.8 854.5 854.7 828.9 850.7 857.0 855.4 -1.6

Plastics and rubber products

727.5 731.5 734.5 733.0 728.0 735.9 735.4 733.5 -1.9

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

291.6 294.7 292.8 297.4 299.2 304.7 302.7 304.9 2.2

Private service-providing

104,406 105,375 105,788 106,303 105,343 107,046 107,102 107,272 170

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,283 27,711 27,462 27,485 27,591 27,836 27,821 27,816 -5

Wholesale trade

5,812.3 5,869.1 5,888.0 5,893.5 5,834.8 5,909.1 5,919.3 5,917.3 -2.0

Durable goods

3,126.5 3,178.0 3,190.3 3,196.0 3,134.4 3,195.1 3,201.2 3,204.5 3.3

Nondurable goods

2,143.5 2,139.5 2,143.5 2,147.3 2,155.8 2,160.7 2,161.7 2,160.3 -1.4

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

542.3 551.6 554.2 550.2 544.6 553.3 556.4 552.5 -3.9

Retail trade

15,610.8 15,753.5 15,555.4 15,563.4 15,834.3 15,830.3 15,810.1 15,798.4 -11.7

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,004.8 2,012.6 2,021.3 2,031.7 2,013.6 2,034.1 2,038.1 2,040.8 2.7

Automobile dealers

1,293.3 1,296.6 1,300.7 1,304.9 1,296.6 1,304.3 1,306.6 1,308.1 1.5

Other motor vehicle dealers

155.5 150.1 151.2 153.7 158.7 160.0 158.4 157.4 -1.0

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

556.0 565.9 569.4 573.1 558.2 569.9 573.1 575.3 2.2

Furniture and home furnishings stores

474.9 494.8 483.7 484.6 479.4 487.3 486.1 488.6 2.5

Electronics and appliance stores

490.7 479.5 471.6 468.9 495.0 471.6 474.0 472.7 -1.3

Building material and garden supply stores

1,321.5 1,239.4 1,263.2 1,310.4 1,315.3 1,302.8 1,305.3 1,303.9 -1.4

Food and beverage stores

3,047.9 3,094.5 3,090.2 3,082.2 3,080.0 3,109.5 3,113.7 3,113.0 -0.7

Health and personal care stores

1,058.7 1,068.5 1,040.0 1,032.6 1,062.7 1,059.1 1,046.9 1,039.2 -7.7

Gasoline stations

922.1 934.7 933.0 937.1 932.6 947.0 945.8 947.2 1.4

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,322.6 1,359.5 1,311.7 1,305.6 1,368.7 1,353.2 1,354.5 1,351.5 -3.0

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

573.2 568.2 546.5 544.1 594.4 559.8 559.8 562.5 2.7

General merchandise stores

3,021.1 3,112.4 3,005.3 2,982.2 3,089.1 3,090.7 3,071.5 3,064.3 -7.2

Department stores

1,105.3 1,167.1 1,099.5 1,084.1 1,144.4 1,142.7 1,130.6 1,128.5 -2.1

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,915.8 1,945.3 1,905.8 1,898.1 1,944.7 1,948.0 1,940.9 1,935.8 -5.1

Miscellaneous store retailers

811.2 815.2 817.4 815.9 833.7 838.6 837.5 838.6 1.1

Nonstore retailers

562.1 574.2 571.5 568.1 569.8 576.6 576.9 576.1 -0.8

Transportation and warehousing

5,305.7 5,535.7 5,467.7 5,474.1 5,365.6 5,541.2 5,537.5 5,544.8 7.3

Air transportation

495.6 506.5 509.9 512.4 497.9 510.5 513.9 514.3 0.4

Rail transportation

211.4 213.5 212.4 212.4 212.2 215.4 214.1 213.3 -0.8

Water transportation

61.8 62.9 62.3 63.2 63.8 65.0 65.2 65.2 0.0

Truck transportation

1,463.4 1,489.6 1,492.7 1,491.8 1,486.4 1,516.0 1,516.1 1,514.9 -1.2

Transit and ground passenger transportation

500.9 494.6 500.1 506.1 487.2 485.4 489.1 492.0 2.9

Pipeline transportation

49.2 47.5 46.8 47.0 49.2 47.6 47.1 47.1 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

28.0 25.4 24.7 26.7 35.3 35.6 33.8 33.7 -0.1

Support activities for transportation

705.6 715.2 715.5 720.2 707.7 721.3 719.8 722.4 2.6

Couriers and messengers

682.4 804.5 726.4 719.9 708.5 763.5 753.6 755.4 1.8

Warehousing and storage

1,107.4 1,176.0 1,176.9 1,174.4 1,117.4 1,180.9 1,184.8 1,186.5 1.7

Utilities

554.4 553.1 550.7 553.6 555.8 554.9 553.8 555.1 1.3

Information

2,814 2,769 2,799 2,810 2,824 2,815 2,811 2,821 10

Publishing industries, except Internet

730.1 730.8 731.4 731.9 732.3 733.5 733.7 734.1 0.4

Motion picture and sound recording industries

424.6 394.3 413.1 421.6 429.6 427.5 420.9 428.7 7.8

Broadcasting, except Internet

271.0 270.1 270.8 271.6 270.1 271.0 271.3 270.5 -0.8

Telecommunications

760.2 730.0 732.5 731.2 760.9 733.4 731.3 731.2 -0.1

Data processing, hosting and related services

329.1 325.8 331.0 333.0 329.9 329.4 331.9 333.5 1.6

Other information services

299.2 318.4 320.0 320.6 300.7 320.1 321.6 322.5 0.9

Financial activities

8,491 8,561 8,571 8,590 8,537 8,621 8,627 8,638 11

Finance and insurance

6,285.9 6,303.5 6,311.2 6,317.1 6,300.7 6,323.5 6,325.2 6,331.9 6.7

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.3 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.4 19.6 19.7 19.7 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,638.4 2,631.2 2,630.6 2,626.3 2,645.4 2,637.9 2,636.3 2,633.9 -2.4

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,713.4 1,712.3 1,712.9 1,709.2 1,714.5 1,714.4 1,714.8 1,710.5 -4.3

Commercial banking

1,322.4 1,313.8 1,313.4 1,311.0 1,322.3 1,315.3 1,313.7 1,310.7 -3.0

Nondepository credit intermediation

616.0 611.2 609.1 608.7 620.9 614.8 612.4 614.0 1.6

Activities related to credit intermediation

309.0 307.7 308.6 308.4 310.0 308.7 309.0 309.4 0.4

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

947.2 959.6 964.0 964.8 951.6 965.4 967.7 969.4 1.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,681.0 2,693.1 2,697.0 2,706.4 2,684.3 2,700.6 2,701.5 2,708.9 7.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,205.0 2,257.5 2,260.0 2,273.0 2,236.0 2,297.3 2,301.8 2,305.8 4.0

Real estate

1,633.3 1,665.6 1,670.3 1,674.8 1,649.0 1,686.6 1,690.9 1,691.6 0.7

Rental and leasing services

549.1 569.3 567.1 575.6 563.9 587.5 587.8 591.1 3.3

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.6 22.6 22.6 22.6 23.1 23.2 23.1 23.1 0.0

Professional and business services

20,566 20,841 20,994 21,092 20,816 21,259 21,313 21,350 37

Professional and technical services

9,235.0 9,434.1 9,525.5 9,548.9 9,207.2 9,456.7 9,484.0 9,518.1 34.1

Legal services

1,134.4 1,134.2 1,133.7 1,138.2 1,139.4 1,142.0 1,141.7 1,143.3 1.6

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,101.8 1,088.5 1,144.1 1,144.4 1,001.2 1,033.3 1,037.8 1,041.7 3.9

Architectural and engineering services

1,441.8 1,477.8 1,484.6 1,494.1 1,460.9 1,500.2 1,506.9 1,513.2 6.3

Specialized design services

141.0 145.6 147.5 147.8 142.6 147.8 149.2 149.3 0.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,077.6 2,159.8 2,167.8 2,162.9 2,096.3 2,163.9 2,168.8 2,180.3 11.5

Management and technical consulting services

1,447.7 1,492.7 1,506.0 1,509.2 1,464.7 1,512.2 1,520.0 1,526.1 6.1

Scientific research and development services

677.9 709.0 713.2 716.3 681.7 713.4 717.2 720.4 3.2

Advertising and related services

487.5 484.1 487.3 488.9 489.6 491.0 490.9 490.9 0.0

Other professional and technical services

725.3 742.4 741.3 747.1 730.8 752.9 751.5 753.0 1.5

Management of companies and enterprises

2,339.7 2,389.1 2,392.4 2,396.7 2,350.0 2,398.4 2,404.6 2,407.6 3.0

Administrative and waste services

8,991.3 9,017.6 9,075.9 9,146.3 9,259.0 9,403.8 9,424.5 9,423.8 -0.7

Administrative and support services

8,566.8 8,575.7 8,632.8 8,701.6 8,827.7 8,955.2 8,974.2 8,972.5 -1.7

Office administrative services

508.3 520.2 519.9 521.4 510.8 522.2 522.5 524.1 1.6

Facilities support services

151.9 153.6 155.3 155.8 152.0 155.1 156.1 156.0 -0.1

Employment services(1)

3,533.6 3,542.1 3,573.2 3,589.0 3,649.3 3,710.7 3,715.1 3,711.8 -3.3

Temporary help services

2,887.1 2,886.0 2,911.2 2,924.4 2,986.3 3,033.5 3,036.6 3,031.2 -5.4

Business support services

895.6 897.8 895.7 890.5 898.4 895.6 894.6 894.1 -0.5

Travel arrangement and reservation services

218.1 212.6 212.8 214.0 219.0 217.3 215.8 215.3 -0.5

Investigation and security services

933.4 932.6 936.5 944.0 940.1 945.1 948.5 951.1 2.6

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,003.3 1,991.2 2,008.7 2,054.4 2,134.5 2,177.6 2,187.0 2,187.0 0.0

Other support services

322.6 325.6 330.7 332.5 323.4 331.7 334.7 333.0 -1.7

Waste management and remediation services

424.5 441.9 443.1 444.7 431.3 448.6 450.3 451.3 1.0

Education and health services

23,656 23,802 24,125 24,206 23,518 23,980 23,993 24,063 70

Educational services

3,866.3 3,653.3 3,912.5 3,927.3 3,701.2 3,772.2 3,754.3 3,763.2 8.9

Health care and social assistance

19,790.1 20,148.9 20,212.5 20,278.4 19,816.3 20,207.8 20,239.0 20,300.2 61.2

Health care(3)

15,866.0 16,175.8 16,221.1 16,269.0 15,907.6 16,226.7 16,256.0 16,305.1 49.1

Ambulatory health care services

7,416.8 7,613.7 7,649.0 7,675.2 7,440.6 7,644.9 7,667.0 7,694.0 27.0

Offices of physicians

2,601.5 2,645.2 2,651.2 2,658.2 2,607.9 2,653.4 2,656.5 2,663.5 7.0

Offices of dentists

944.3 972.3 974.8 979.0 948.5 974.4 977.1 982.2 5.1

Offices of other health practitioners

912.0 952.6 956.4 957.7 916.1 956.9 959.7 962.1 2.4

Outpatient care centers

924.4 955.1 963.2 964.5 924.5 957.2 963.6 964.3 0.7

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

274.2 286.1 287.7 289.1 274.6 286.9 287.8 289.0 1.2

Home health care services

1,451.6 1,498.6 1,509.6 1,517.5 1,458.7 1,507.9 1,514.8 1,522.8 8.0

Other ambulatory health care services

308.8 303.8 306.1 309.2 310.3 308.0 307.5 310.1 2.6

Hospitals

5,111.9 5,199.0 5,203.8 5,220.0 5,114.9 5,207.0 5,209.8 5,223.4 13.6

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,337.3 3,363.1 3,368.3 3,373.8 3,352.1 3,374.8 3,379.2 3,387.7 8.5

Nursing care facilities

1,601.7 1,601.8 1,601.7 1,601.4 1,610.3 1,605.1 1,606.4 1,608.9 2.5

Residential mental health facilities

638.6 643.2 645.6 650.1 639.9 646.0 647.5 651.3 3.8

Community care facilities for the elderly

932.7 949.9 951.0 952.0 936.1 953.8 954.4 956.0 1.6

Other residential care facilities

164.3 168.2 170.0 170.3 165.8 169.9 170.8 171.4 0.6

Social assistance

3,924.1 3,973.1 3,991.4 4,009.4 3,908.7 3,981.1 3,983.0 3,995.1 12.1

Individual and family services

2,446.7 2,491.9 2,498.1 2,510.8 2,446.5 2,500.7 2,501.0 2,511.0 10.0

Emergency and other relief services

173.0 176.0 176.8 176.9 172.0 175.8 175.8 176.2 0.4

Vocational rehabilitation services

327.2 324.6 325.9 327.4 330.1 329.7 329.5 330.4 0.9

Child day care services

977.2 980.6 990.6 994.3 960.1 974.9 976.7 977.5 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

15,818 15,880 16,001 16,249 16,244 16,647 16,646 16,679 33

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,195.9 2,193.1 2,222.3 2,292.3 2,371.2 2,474.5 2,466.2 2,472.5 6.3

Performing arts and spectator sports

477.0 447.3 470.0 492.0 499.9 514.6 516.1 517.1 1.0

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

158.3 160.0 158.6 165.0 167.9 175.3 174.0 175.1 1.1

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,560.6 1,585.8 1,593.7 1,635.3 1,703.4 1,784.6 1,776.1 1,780.3 4.2

Accommodation and food services

13,622.5 13,687.2 13,778.2 13,957.0 13,872.7 14,172.3 14,179.5 14,206.3 26.8

Accommodation

1,952.5 1,940.3 1,956.4 1,977.1 2,020.4 2,042.7 2,045.8 2,045.3 -0.5

Food services and drinking places

11,670.0 11,746.9 11,821.8 11,979.9 11,852.3 12,129.6 12,133.7 12,161.0 27.3

Other services

5,778 5,811 5,836 5,871 5,813 5,888 5,891 5,905 14

Repair and maintenance

1,320.1 1,324.2 1,331.8 1,347.3 1,321.1 1,340.1 1,339.8 1,348.1 8.3

Personal and laundry services

1,479.1 1,498.7 1,508.2 1,516.8 1,493.2 1,522.6 1,528.7 1,531.9 3.2

Membership associations and organizations

2,979.2 2,987.9 2,996.4 3,006.7 2,998.3 3,025.6 3,022.6 3,025.3 2.7

Government

22,767 22,363 22,783 22,878 22,409 22,500 22,505 22,519 14

Federal

2,774.0 2,785.0 2,785.0 2,779.0 2,792.0 2,797.0 2,798.0 2,796.0 -2.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,168.8 2,182.0 2,180.1 2,173.6 2,184.8 2,191.4 2,192.2 2,190.7 -1.5

U.S. Postal Service

605.2 603.3 604.6 605.6 607.3 605.9 605.6 605.6 0.0

State government

5,311.0 5,081.0 5,315.0 5,346.0 5,160.0 5,184.0 5,190.0 5,194.0 4.0

State government education

2,639.4 2,399.4 2,627.6 2,655.4 2,479.9 2,487.5 2,489.4 2,495.2 5.8

State government, excluding education

2,671.4 2,681.9 2,687.5 2,690.3 2,679.8 2,696.1 2,700.6 2,698.5 -2.1

Local government

14,682.0 14,497.0 14,683.0 14,753.0 14,457.0 14,519.0 14,517.0 14,529.0 12.0

Local government education

8,281.5 8,095.0 8,269.7 8,319.4 7,950.0 7,984.2 7,981.3 7,989.5 8.2

Local government, excluding education

6,400.7 6,402.1 6,413.2 6,433.2 6,507.0 6,534.6 6,535.7 6,539.4 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.5 34.4 34.5

Goods-producing

40.5 40.7 40.3 40.5

Mining and logging

45.7 46.2 46.2 46.2

Construction

39.3 39.9 38.9 39.4

Manufacturing

40.9 40.8 40.7 40.7

Durable goods

41.3 41.1 41.0 41.0

Nondurable goods

40.2 40.3 40.2 40.2

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.3 34.2 34.3

Wholesale trade

39.1 39.0 39.0 39.0

Retail trade

31.1 30.7 30.6 30.6

Transportation and warehousing

38.9 38.7 38.6 38.8

Utilities

42.1 42.3 42.4 42.2

Information

36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3

Financial activities

37.5 37.8 37.7 37.7

Professional and business services

36.2 36.2 36.2 36.3

Education and health services

32.9 33.0 33.0 33.1

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 26.1 26.0 26.1

Other services

31.7 31.9 31.9 32.0

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4

Durable goods

3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4

Nondurable goods

3.5 3.6 3.6 3.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)

Total private

$26.84 $27.56 $27.66 $27.70 $925.98 $950.82 $951.50 $955.65

Goods-producing

27.99 28.54 28.67 28.68 1,133.60 1,161.58 1,155.40 1,161.54

Mining and logging

32.39 32.86 33.05 33.06 1,480.22 1,518.13 1,526.91 1,527.37

Construction

29.47 30.28 30.40 30.45 1,158.17 1,208.17 1,182.56 1,199.73

Manufacturing

26.89 27.26 27.43 27.38 1,099.80 1,112.21 1,116.40 1,114.37

Durable goods

28.17 28.71 28.90 28.92 1,163.42 1,179.98 1,184.90 1,185.72

Nondurable goods

24.70 24.76 24.88 24.74 992.94 997.83 1,000.18 994.55

Private service-providing

26.57 27.32 27.42 27.47 884.78 909.76 913.09 914.75

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.09 23.82 23.94 24.01 796.61 817.03 818.75 823.54

Wholesale trade

30.15 30.89 31.06 31.26 1,178.87 1,204.71 1,211.34 1,219.14

Retail trade

18.49 19.33 19.39 19.40 575.04 593.43 593.33 593.64

Transportation and warehousing

24.28 24.46 24.59 24.67 944.49 946.60 949.17 957.20

Utilities

40.28 41.36 41.68 41.74 1,695.79 1,749.53 1,767.23 1,761.43

Information

39.30 41.62 41.58 41.71 1,414.80 1,502.48 1,505.20 1,514.07

Financial activities

34.39 35.40 35.52 35.54 1,289.63 1,338.12 1,339.10 1,339.86

Professional and business services

32.25 33.01 33.17 33.32 1,167.45 1,194.96 1,200.75 1,209.52

Education and health services

26.85 27.47 27.49 27.45 883.37 906.51 907.17 908.60

Leisure and hospitality

15.81 16.27 16.38 16.39 412.64 424.65 425.88 427.78

Other services

24.41 24.97 24.96 24.83 773.80 796.54 796.22 794.56

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2019 - Mar.
2019(p)
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2019 - Mar.
2019(p)

Total private

109.0 110.9 110.6 111.1 0.5 139.8 146.1 146.3 147.1 0.5

Goods-producing

94.7 97.6 96.5 97.0 0.5 119.8 125.9 125.0 125.8 0.6

Mining and logging

102.5 110.2 109.6 109.9 0.3 133.3 145.4 145.4 145.9 0.3

Construction

97.6 102.6 99.6 101.1 1.5 124.9 134.9 131.6 133.8 1.7

Manufacturing

92.8 94.1 93.9 93.9 0.0 116.0 119.3 119.8 119.5 -0.3

Durable goods

91.7 93.2 93.0 92.9 -0.1 114.7 118.8 119.4 119.3 -0.1

Nondurable goods

94.8 96.0 95.7 95.8 0.1 118.9 120.6 120.9 120.2 -0.6

Private service-providing

112.9 114.7 114.7 114.9 0.2 145.7 152.3 152.9 153.4 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.8 104.1 103.8 104.0 0.2 129.2 133.7 133.9 134.6 0.5

Wholesale trade

100.6 101.7 101.8 101.8 0.0 126.9 131.3 132.3 133.1 0.6

Retail trade

100.0 98.7 98.2 98.2 0.0 122.2 126.1 125.9 125.9 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

119.3 122.6 122.2 123.0 0.7 146.9 152.1 152.4 153.9 1.0

Utilities

101.2 101.6 101.6 101.3 -0.3 134.7 138.8 139.9 139.8 -0.1

Information

92.8 92.8 92.9 93.5 0.6 129.9 137.5 137.6 138.9 0.9

Financial activities

104.8 106.7 106.5 106.7 0.2 140.6 147.4 147.6 147.8 0.1

Professional and business services

118.1 120.7 121.0 121.5 0.4 154.3 161.3 162.5 163.9 0.9

Education and health services

126.3 129.2 129.3 130.1 0.6 163.2 170.8 171.0 171.7 0.4

Leisure and hospitality

121.0 124.0 123.5 124.2 0.6 154.3 162.7 163.2 164.2 0.6

Other services

106.2 108.3 108.4 108.9 0.5 142.1 148.2 148.2 148.3 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)

Total nonfarm

73,520 74,890 74,985 75,119 49.6 49.7 49.8 49.8

Total private

60,639 61,899 61,999 62,113 48.2 48.3 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,518 4,671 4,673 4,683 22.0 22.2 22.2 22.3

Mining and logging

91 96 96 96 12.7 12.6 12.7 12.7

Construction

920 961 960 964 12.8 12.9 12.9 12.9

Manufacturing

3,507 3,614 3,617 3,623 27.8 28.2 28.2 28.3

Durable goods

1,853 1,914 1,919 1,925 23.5 23.8 23.8 23.9

Nondurable goods

1,654 1,700 1,698 1,698 35.0 35.6 35.6 35.6

Private service-providing

56,121 57,228 57,326 57,430 53.3 53.5 53.5 53.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,070 11,155 11,152 11,140 40.1 40.1 40.1 40.0

Wholesale trade

1,732.4 1,775.2 1,775.6 1,775.7 29.7 30.0 30.0 30.0

Retail trade

7,885.4 7,863.0 7,858.9 7,844.8 49.8 49.7 49.7 49.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,323.5 1,386.2 1,385.2 1,387.0 24.7 25.0 25.0 25.0

Utilities

128.8 130.8 132.0 132.6 23.2 23.6 23.8 23.9

Information

1,115 1,112 1,117 1,121 39.5 39.5 39.7 39.7

Financial activities

4,826 4,871 4,879 4,890 56.5 56.5 56.6 56.6

Professional and business services

9,396 9,643 9,683 9,707 45.1 45.4 45.4 45.5

Education and health services

18,119 18,503 18,528 18,576 77.0 77.2 77.2 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

8,516 8,797 8,819 8,841 52.4 52.8 53.0 53.0

Other services

3,079 3,147 3,148 3,155 53.0 53.4 53.4 53.4

Government

12,881 12,991 12,986 13,006 57.5 57.7 57.7 57.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)

Total private

103,703 105,520 105,532 105,674

Goods-producing

14,756 15,129 15,099 15,092

Mining and logging

530 565 562 564

Construction

5,379 5,563 5,533 5,537

Manufacturing

8,847 9,001 9,004 8,991

Durable goods

5,416 5,559 5,563 5,551

Nondurable goods

3,431 3,442 3,441 3,440

Private service-providing

88,947 90,391 90,433 90,582

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,330 23,566 23,537 23,527

Wholesale trade

4,686.0 4,753.0 4,761.1 4,759.0

Retail trade

13,535.7 13,527.8 13,506.8 13,494.5

Transportation and warehousing

4,662.1 4,840.9 4,827.1 4,831.1

Utilities

446.3 444.4 441.7 442.4

Information

2,269 2,269 2,268 2,271

Financial activities

6,618 6,678 6,682 6,689

Professional and business services

16,949 17,339 17,397 17,441

Education and health services

20,667 21,059 21,058 21,125

Leisure and hospitality

14,302 14,603 14,613 14,643

Other services

4,812 4,877 4,878 4,886

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.8 33.6 33.7

Goods-producing

41.5 41.6 40.9 41.3

Mining and logging

46.8 46.5 46.7 46.8

Construction

40.0 40.6 39.0 39.9

Manufacturing

42.2 42.0 41.7 41.7

Durable goods

42.5 42.3 42.0 42.1

Nondurable goods

41.6 41.4 41.3 41.2

Private service-providing

32.4 32.5 32.4 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 34.0 33.8 33.8

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.8 38.7 38.7

Retail trade

30.4 30.5 30.3 30.4

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 38.1 37.9 37.9

Utilities

42.8 42.6 42.3 42.5

Information

35.9 35.5 35.6 35.7

Financial activities

37.0 37.1 37.0 37.1

Professional and business services

35.3 35.5 35.4 35.4

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.2 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.9 24.8 24.9

Other services

30.7 30.8 30.8 30.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3

Durable goods

4.7 4.5 4.4 4.3

Nondurable goods

4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)

Total private

$22.49 $23.11 $23.18 $23.24 $757.91 $781.12 $778.85 $783.19

Goods-producing

23.76 24.41 24.40 24.49 986.04 1,015.46 997.96 1,011.44

Mining and logging

27.76 29.11 29.06 29.18 1,299.17 1,353.62 1,357.10 1,365.62

Construction

27.40 28.15 28.17 28.29 1,096.00 1,142.89 1,098.63 1,128.77

Manufacturing

21.39 21.85 21.91 21.93 902.66 917.70 913.65 914.48

Durable goods

22.33 22.81 22.86 22.92 949.03 964.86 960.12 964.93

Nondurable goods

19.87 20.28 20.34 20.30 826.59 839.59 840.04 836.36

Private service-providing

22.22 22.83 22.92 22.98 719.93 741.98 742.61 746.85

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.65 20.22 20.33 20.49 666.14 687.48 687.15 692.56

Wholesale trade

24.77 25.55 25.76 26.05 966.03 991.34 996.91 1,008.14

Retail trade

15.68 16.21 16.27 16.44 476.67 494.41 492.98 499.78

Transportation and warehousing

21.70 22.14 22.26 22.33 831.11 843.53 843.65 846.31

Utilities

36.88 36.80 36.93 36.53 1,578.46 1,567.68 1,562.14 1,552.53

Information

31.59 33.05 33.15 33.22 1,134.08 1,173.28 1,180.14 1,185.95

Financial activities

26.82 27.27 27.46 27.30 992.34 1,011.72 1,016.02 1,012.83

Professional and business services

26.57 27.18 27.28 27.40 937.92 964.89 965.71 969.96

Education and health services

23.46 24.08 24.11 24.14 755.41 775.38 776.34 779.72

Leisure and hospitality

13.69 14.23 14.29 14.34 340.88 354.33 354.39 357.07

Other services

20.63 21.21 21.21 21.02 633.34 653.27 653.27 649.52

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2019 - Mar.
2019(p)
Mar.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Mar.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2019 - Mar.
2019(p)

Total private

116.4 118.8 118.1 118.7 0.5 175.0 183.5 183.0 184.3 0.7

Goods-producing

93.6 96.2 94.4 95.2 0.8 136.1 143.8 141.0 142.8 1.3

Mining and logging

131.8 139.6 139.5 140.3 0.6 212.8 236.4 235.7 238.0 1.0

Construction

107.7 113.1 108.0 110.6 2.4 159.4 171.9 164.3 169.0 2.9

Manufacturing

85.7 86.8 86.2 86.1 -0.1 119.9 124.0 123.5 123.4 -0.1

Durable goods

86.5 88.3 87.8 87.8 0.0 120.5 125.8 125.3 125.6 0.2

Nondurable goods

84.1 84.0 83.7 83.5 -0.2 118.1 120.3 120.4 119.8 -0.5

Private service-providing

122.7 125.1 124.8 125.4 0.5 187.0 195.9 196.1 197.6 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

110.4 111.9 111.1 111.0 -0.1 154.9 161.5 161.2 162.4 0.7

Wholesale trade

108.5 109.4 109.4 109.3 -0.1 158.6 165.1 166.3 168.1 1.1

Retail trade

104.1 104.4 103.6 103.8 0.2 139.9 145.0 144.4 146.2 1.2

Transportation and warehousing

134.3 138.7 137.6 137.7 0.1 184.8 194.8 194.3 195.0 0.4

Utilities

97.7 96.8 95.6 96.2 0.6 150.4 148.7 147.3 146.6 -0.5

Information

93.0 91.9 92.2 92.5 0.3 145.4 150.4 151.2 152.2 0.7

Financial activities

115.3 116.6 116.4 116.8 0.3 190.2 195.7 196.6 196.2 -0.2

Professional and business services

133.8 137.6 137.7 138.0 0.2 211.4 222.4 223.4 224.9 0.7

Education and health services

141.9 144.6 144.6 145.5 0.6 219.7 229.8 230.1 231.8 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

130.4 133.2 132.7 133.6 0.7 202.8 215.2 215.4 217.5 1.0

Other services

103.6 105.3 105.4 105.9 0.5 155.7 162.8 162.8 162.2 -0.4

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: April 05, 2019