Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                  USDL-18-0024
8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 5, 2018

Technical information:
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2017


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 148,000 in December, and the unemployment
rate was unchanged at 4.1 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Employment gains occurred in health care, construction, and manufacturing.

   __________________________________________________________________________________
  |                                                                                  |
  |                   Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data          |
  |                                                                                  |
  |Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using updated seasonal|
  |adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each calendar year. Seasonally |
  |adjusted estimates back to January 2013 were subject to revision. The unemployment|
  |rates for January 2017 through November 2017 (as originally published and as      |
  |revised) appear in table A, along with additional information about the revisions.|
  |__________________________________________________________________________________|

Household Survey Data

In December, the unemployment rate was 4.1 percent for the third consecutive month. The
number of unemployed persons, at 6.6 million, was essentially unchanged over the month.
Over the year, the unemployment rate and the number of unemployed persons were down by
0.6 percentage point and 926,000, respectively. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for teenagers declined to 13.6
percent in December, offsetting an increase in November. In December, the unemployment
rates for adult men (3.8 percent), adult women (3.7 percent), Whites (3.7 percent),
Blacks (6.8 percent), Asians (2.5 percent), and Hispanics (4.9 percent) showed little
or no change. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of new entrants decreased by 116,000 in December. New
entrants are unemployed persons who never previously worked. (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little
changed at 1.5 million in December and accounted for 22.9 percent of the unemployed.
Over the year, the number of long-term unemployed declined by 354,000. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 62.7 percent, was unchanged over the month and
over the year. The employment-population ratio was unchanged at 60.1 percent in December
but was up by 0.3 percentage point over the year. (See table A-1.) 

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as
involuntary part-time workers) was essentially unchanged at 4.9 million in December but
was down by 639,000 over the year. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time
employment, were working part time because their hours had been cut back or because they
were unable to find a full-time job. (See table A-8.)

In December, 1.6 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, about
unchanged from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job
sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not
searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 474,000 discouraged workers in December, little
changed from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers
are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available
for them. The remaining 1.1 million persons marginally attached to the labor force in
December had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or family
responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 148,000 in December. Job gains occurred in health
care, construction, and manufacturing. In 2017, payroll employment growth totaled 2.1
million, compared with a gain of 2.2 million in 2016. (See table B-1.)

Employment in health care increased by 31,000 in December. Employment continued to trend
up in ambulatory health care services (+15,000) and hospitals (+12,000). Health care
added 300,000 jobs in 2017, compared with a gain of 379,000 jobs in 2016.

Construction added 30,000 jobs in December, with most of the increase among specialty
trade contractors (+24,000). In 2017, construction employment increased by 210,000,
compared with a gain of 155,000 in 2016.

In December, manufacturing employment rose by 25,000, largely reflecting a gain in
durable goods industries (+21,000). Manufacturing added 196,000 jobs in 2017, following
little net change in 2016 (-16,000).

Employment in food services and drinking places changed little in December (+25,000).
Over the year, the industry added 249,000 jobs, about in line with an increase of
276,000 in 2016.

In December, employment changed little in professional and business services (+19,000).
In 2017, the industry added an average of 44,000 jobs per month, in line with its
average monthly gain in 2016.

Employment in retail trade was about unchanged in December (-20,000). Within the industry,
employment in general merchandise stores declined by 27,000 over the month. Retail trade
employment edged down in 2017 (-67,000), after increasing by 203,000 in 2016.

Employment in other major industries, including mining, wholesale trade, transportation
and warehousing, information, financial activities, and government, changed little over
the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at
34.5 hours in December. In manufacturing, the workweek edged down by 0.1 hour to 40.8
hours, while overtime remained at 3.5 hours. The average workweek for production and
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 33.8 hours. (See
tables B-2 and B-7.)

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose
by 9 cents to $26.63. Over the year, average hourly earnings have risen by 65 cents, or
2.5 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory
employees increased by 7 cents to $22.30 in December. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised down from
+244,000 to +211,000, and the change for November was revised up from +228,000 to
+252,000. With these revisions, employment gains in October and November combined were
9,000 less than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports
received from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and
from the recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged
204,000 over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday,
February 2, 2018, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).

   __________________________________________________________________________________
  |                                                                                  |
  |                       Upcoming Changes to the Household Survey                   |
  |                                                                                  |
  |Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2018 on        |
  |February 2, 2018, new population controls will be used in the household survey    |
  |estimation process. These new controls reflect the annual updating of intercensal |
  |population estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau. In accordance with usual practice,|
  |historical data will not be revised to incorporate the new controls; consequently,|
  |household survey data for January 2018 will not be directly comparable with data  |
  |for December 2017 or earlier periods. A table showing the effects of the new      |
  |controls on the major labor force series will be included in the January 2018     |
  |release.                                                                          |
  |__________________________________________________________________________________|

   ____________________________________________________________________________________
  |                                                                                    |
  |                                                                                    |
  |                   Upcoming Changes to Establishment Survey Data                    |
  |                                                                                    |
  |Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2018 on          |
  |February 2, 2018, the establishment survey will introduce revisions to nonfarm      |
  |payroll employment, hours, and earnings data to reflect the annual benchmark        |
  |adjustment for March 2017 and updated seasonal adjustment factors. Not seasonally   |
  |adjusted data beginning with April 2016 and seasonally adjusted data beginning with |
  |January 2013 are subject to revision. Consistent with standard practice, some       |
  |historical data may be subject to revisions resulting from issues identified during |
  |the benchmark process.                                                              |
  |                                                                                    |
  |The establishment survey will also revise the basis for industry classification     |
  |from the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to the 2017     |
  |NAICS. The conversion will result in minor revisions reflecting content changes     |
  |within the mining and logging, retail trade, information, financial activities, and |
  |professional and business services sectors. Additionally, some smaller industries   |
  |will be combined within the mining and logging, durable goods manufacturing, retail |
  |trade, and information sectors. Several industry titles and descriptions also will  |
  |be updated.                                                                         |
  |                                                                                    |
  |Approximately 4 percent of employment will be reclassified into different industries|
  |as a result of the revision. Details of new, discontinued, and combined industries  |
  |due to the 2017 NAICS update, as well as changes due to the annual benchmarking     |
  |process, are available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesnewseries.htm.                  |
  |                                                                                    |
  |For more information on the 2017 NAICS update, visit www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/. |
  |____________________________________________________________________________________|

   ____________________________________________________________________________________
  |                                                                                    |
  |                Upcoming Changes to The Employment Situation News Release           |
  |                                                                                    |
  |Effective with the release of January 2018 data on February 2, 2018, the U.S. Bureau|
  |of Labor Statistics will introduce a minor change to The Employment Situation news  |
  |release table B-1. As a result of the update to the 2017 NAICS, the industry title  |
  |for general merchandise stores will change to general merchandise stores, including |
  |warehouse clubs and supercenters. A listing of all series changes as a result of the|
  |the 2017 NAICS update, including the industries published in news release table B-1,|
  |are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesnewseries.htm.        |
  |____________________________________________________________________________________|


                 Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data

At the end of each calendar year, BLS routinely updates the seasonal adjustment factors
for the labor force series derived from the Current Population Survey (CPS), or household
survey. As a result of this process, seasonally adjusted data for January 2013 through
November 2017 were subject to revision. (Not seasonally adjusted data were not subject
to revision.)

Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2017 through November 2017, as first
published and as revised. The rates changed by one-tenth of a percentage point in 1 of
the 11 months and were unchanged in the remaining 10 months. Revised seasonally adjusted
data for other major labor force series beginning in December 2016 appear in table B.

An article describing the seasonal adjustment methodology for the household survey
data and revised data for January 2017 through November 2017 is available at
www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-seas-adjustment-methodology.pdf.

Historical data for the household series contained in the A tables of this release
can be accessed at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Revised historical seasonally
adjusted data are available at www.bls.gov/cps/data.htm and
https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/ln/.


Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2017 and changes due to revision
January - November 2017

       Month              As first published         As revised            Change

January.............            4.8                      4.8                 0.0
February............            4.7                      4.7                  .0
March...............            4.5                      4.5                  .0
April...............            4.4                      4.4                  .0
May.................            4.3                      4.3                  .0
June................            4.4                      4.3                 -.1
July................            4.3                      4.3                  .0
August..............            4.4                      4.4                  .0
September...........            4.2                      4.2                  .0
October.............            4.1                      4.1                  .0
November............            4.1                      4.1                  .0




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age 2016 2017
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

254,742 254,082 254,246 254,414 254,588 254,767 254,957 255,151 255,357 255,562 255,766 255,949 256,109

Civilian labor force

159,736 159,718 159,997 160,235 160,181 159,729 160,214 160,467 160,598 161,082 160,371 160,533 160,597

Participation rate

62.7 62.9 62.9 63.0 62.9 62.7 62.8 62.9 62.9 63.0 62.7 62.7 62.7

Employed

152,233 152,076 152,511 153,064 153,161 152,892 153,250 153,511 153,471 154,324 153,846 153,917 154,021

Employment-population ratio

59.8 59.9 60.0 60.2 60.2 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.1 60.4 60.2 60.1 60.1

Unemployed

7,502 7,642 7,486 7,171 7,021 6,837 6,964 6,956 7,127 6,759 6,524 6,616 6,576

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

114,603 114,297 114,375 114,455 114,538 114,627 114,721 114,817 114,918 115,020 115,120 115,212 115,292

Civilian labor force

81,996 82,051 82,054 82,007 82,054 81,915 82,022 82,128 82,297 82,561 82,366 82,375 82,548

Participation rate

71.5 71.8 71.7 71.7 71.6 71.5 71.5 71.5 71.6 71.8 71.5 71.5 71.6

Employed

78,396 78,448 78,515 78,548 78,839 78,794 78,753 78,863 78,887 79,393 79,248 79,324 79,431

Employment-population ratio

68.4 68.6 68.6 68.6 68.8 68.7 68.6 68.7 68.6 69.0 68.8 68.9 68.9

Unemployed

3,600 3,603 3,539 3,459 3,215 3,120 3,269 3,266 3,410 3,168 3,118 3,050 3,117

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.4 4.3 4.2 3.9 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

123,383 123,052 123,131 123,212 123,296 123,386 123,480 123,577 123,679 123,781 123,882 123,975 124,057

Civilian labor force

71,898 71,720 72,050 72,233 72,144 71,979 72,187 72,499 72,406 72,497 72,187 72,302 72,293

Participation rate

58.3 58.3 58.5 58.6 58.5 58.3 58.5 58.7 58.5 58.6 58.3 58.3 58.3

Employed

68,835 68,572 68,978 69,337 69,218 69,087 69,289 69,586 69,502 69,692 69,576 69,665 69,614

Employment-population ratio

55.8 55.7 56.0 56.3 56.1 56.0 56.1 56.3 56.2 56.3 56.2 56.2 56.1

Unemployed

3,062 3,148 3,072 2,896 2,927 2,892 2,898 2,912 2,903 2,804 2,611 2,637 2,679

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.4 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

16,756 16,734 16,740 16,747 16,754 16,754 16,756 16,757 16,759 16,761 16,763 16,762 16,760

Civilian labor force

5,842 5,947 5,894 5,995 5,983 5,836 6,006 5,840 5,895 6,024 5,818 5,857 5,757

Participation rate

34.9 35.5 35.2 35.8 35.7 34.8 35.8 34.9 35.2 35.9 34.7 34.9 34.4

Employed

5,002 5,056 5,018 5,179 5,104 5,010 5,209 5,062 5,082 5,238 5,022 4,928 4,977

Employment-population ratio

29.9 30.2 30.0 30.9 30.5 29.9 31.1 30.2 30.3 31.3 30.0 29.4 29.7

Unemployed

840 891 876 816 879 825 797 778 813 786 796 929 780

Unemployment rate

14.4 15.0 14.9 13.6 14.7 14.1 13.3 13.3 13.8 13.0 13.7 15.9 13.6

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.

NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Change from:
Nov.
2017-
Dec.
2017

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,742 255,766 255,949 256,109 160

Civilian labor force

159,736 160,371 160,533 160,597 64

Participation rate

62.7 62.7 62.7 62.7 0.0

Employed

152,233 153,846 153,917 154,021 104

Employment-population ratio

59.8 60.2 60.1 60.1 0.0

Unemployed

7,502 6,524 6,616 6,576 -40

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.1 4.1 4.1 0.0

Not in labor force

95,006 95,395 95,416 95,512 96

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.7 4.1 4.1 4.1 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.4 3.8 3.7 3.8 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.3 3.6 3.6 3.7 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

14.4 13.7 15.9 13.6 -2.3

White

4.2 3.5 3.7 3.7 0.0

Black or African American

7.9 7.3 7.2 6.8 -0.4

Asian

2.8 3.0 3.0 2.5 -0.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.9 4.8 4.8 4.9 0.1

Total, 25 years and over

3.9 3.3 3.3 3.4 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

7.6 6.1 5.2 6.3 1.1

High school graduates, no college

5.1 4.3 4.3 4.2 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6 0.0

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.5 2.0 2.1 2.1 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,627 3,214 3,149 3,254 105

Job leavers

896 731 739 715 -24

Reentrants

2,202 2,001 2,025 2,003 -22

New entrants

791 626 697 581 -116

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,359 2,128 2,253 2,235 -18

5 to 14 weeks

2,136 1,943 1,894 1,994 100

15 to 26 weeks

1,191 856 921 882 -39

27 weeks and over

1,869 1,645 1,593 1,515 -78

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,554 4,880 4,851 4,915 64

Slack work or business conditions

3,387 2,960 2,995 3,097 102

Could only find part-time work

1,871 1,615 1,558 1,570 12

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,253 20,897 21,022 21,122 100

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,684 1,535 1,481 1,623 -

Discouraged workers

426 524 469 474 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

155 211 252 148

Total private

150 222 239 146

Goods-producing

32 38 63 55

Mining and logging

2 0 5 0

Construction

12 15 27 30

Manufacturing

18 23 31 25

Durable goods(1)

13 13 26 21

Motor vehicles and parts

0.9 -0.5 1.5 1.3

Nondurable goods

5 10 5 4

Private service-providing

118 184 176 91

Wholesale trade

1.6 6.8 5.9 9.8

Retail trade

13.3 -20.1 26.4 -20.3

Transportation and warehousing

13.4 3.7 11.1 1.8

Utilities

0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.9

Information

-6 -1 1 7

Financial activities

22 8 7 6

Professional and business services(1)

36 47 49 19

Temporary help services

-17.4 14.3 16.9 7.0

Education and health services(1)

50 17 50 28

Health care and social assistance

39.2 31.5 38.9 29.2

Leisure and hospitality

5 104 17 29

Other services

-17 18 9 12

Government

5 -11 13 2

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

148 152 167 204

Total private

153 152 170 202

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.6 49.5 49.5 49.5

Total private women employees

48.2 48.1 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.4 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$25.98 $26.51 $26.54 $26.63

Average weekly earnings

$893.71 $911.94 $915.63 $918.74

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

106.2 107.6 108.1 108.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.2 0.5 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

131.9 136.4 137.2 137.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.7 0.1 0.6 0.4

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (261 industries)

60.0 62.6 68.0 64.2

Manufacturing (78 industries)

53.8 66.7 64.7 65.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 147,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 634,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 120,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-70,000 to +170,000 (50,000 +/- 120,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,742 255,949 256,109 254,742 255,357 255,562 255,766 255,949 256,109

Civilian labor force

158,968 160,466 159,880 159,736 160,598 161,082 160,371 160,533 160,597

Participation rate

62.4 62.7 62.4 62.7 62.9 63.0 62.7 62.7 62.7

Employed

151,798 154,180 153,602 152,233 153,471 154,324 153,846 153,917 154,021

Employment-population ratio

59.6 60.2 60.0 59.8 60.1 60.4 60.2 60.1 60.1

Unemployed

7,170 6,286 6,278 7,502 7,127 6,759 6,524 6,616 6,576

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.9 3.9 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1

Not in labor force

95,774 95,483 96,230 95,006 94,759 94,480 95,395 95,416 95,512

Persons who currently want a job

5,449 4,877 5,071 5,674 5,809 5,626 5,232 5,265 5,308

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,099 123,707 123,786 123,099 123,413 123,516 123,617 123,707 123,786

Civilian labor force

84,463 84,943 84,831 85,001 85,177 85,519 85,247 85,221 85,354

Participation rate

68.6 68.7 68.5 69.1 69.0 69.2 69.0 68.9 69.0

Employed

80,368 81,535 81,300 80,897 81,342 81,902 81,667 81,666 81,821

Employment-population ratio

65.3 65.9 65.7 65.7 65.9 66.3 66.1 66.0 66.1

Unemployed

4,095 3,408 3,531 4,104 3,836 3,617 3,580 3,555 3,533

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.0 4.2 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.1

Not in labor force

38,636 38,764 38,955 38,097 38,236 37,996 38,370 38,486 38,432

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,603 115,212 115,292 114,603 114,918 115,020 115,120 115,212 115,292

Civilian labor force

81,640 82,257 82,193 81,996 82,297 82,561 82,366 82,375 82,548

Participation rate

71.2 71.4 71.3 71.5 71.6 71.8 71.5 71.5 71.6

Employed

77,984 79,349 79,025 78,396 78,887 79,393 79,248 79,324 79,431

Employment-population ratio

68.0 68.9 68.5 68.4 68.6 69.0 68.8 68.9 68.9

Unemployed

3,656 2,909 3,168 3,600 3,410 3,168 3,118 3,050 3,117

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.5 3.9 4.4 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.8

Not in labor force

32,963 32,954 33,099 32,607 32,621 32,459 32,755 32,837 32,745

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

131,643 132,242 132,323 131,643 131,943 132,047 132,149 132,242 132,323

Civilian labor force

74,505 75,523 75,048 74,735 75,420 75,563 75,124 75,312 75,243

Participation rate

56.6 57.1 56.7 56.8 57.2 57.2 56.8 57.0 56.9

Employed

71,430 72,645 72,301 71,336 72,129 72,422 72,179 72,251 72,200

Employment-population ratio

54.3 54.9 54.6 54.2 54.7 54.8 54.6 54.6 54.6

Unemployed

3,075 2,877 2,747 3,398 3,291 3,142 2,945 3,061 3,043

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.8 3.7 4.5 4.4 4.2 3.9 4.1 4.0

Not in labor force

57,138 56,719 57,275 56,909 56,523 56,484 57,026 56,930 57,080

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,383 123,975 124,057 123,383 123,679 123,781 123,882 123,975 124,057

Civilian labor force

71,794 72,673 72,237 71,898 72,406 72,497 72,187 72,302 72,293

Participation rate

58.2 58.6 58.2 58.3 58.5 58.6 58.3 58.3 58.3

Employed

68,984 70,163 69,775 68,835 69,502 69,692 69,576 69,665 69,614

Employment-population ratio

55.9 56.6 56.2 55.8 56.2 56.3 56.2 56.2 56.1

Unemployed

2,810 2,509 2,462 3,062 2,903 2,804 2,611 2,637 2,679

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.5 3.4 4.3 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.7

Not in labor force

51,589 51,302 51,820 51,485 51,273 51,284 51,696 51,673 51,764

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,756 16,762 16,760 16,756 16,759 16,761 16,763 16,762 16,760

Civilian labor force

5,534 5,536 5,449 5,842 5,895 6,024 5,818 5,857 5,757

Participation rate

33.0 33.0 32.5 34.9 35.2 35.9 34.7 34.9 34.4

Employed

4,831 4,668 4,801 5,002 5,082 5,238 5,022 4,928 4,977

Employment-population ratio

28.8 27.8 28.6 29.9 30.3 31.3 30.0 29.4 29.7

Unemployed

704 868 648 840 813 786 796 929 780

Unemployment rate

12.7 15.7 11.9 14.4 13.8 13.0 13.7 15.9 13.6

Not in labor force

11,221 11,226 11,311 10,914 10,864 10,737 10,945 10,906 11,003

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

198,845 199,386 199,458 198,845 199,082 199,191 199,298 199,386 199,458

Civilian labor force

124,081 124,966 124,594 124,688 125,030 125,397 124,757 125,110 125,200

Participation rate

62.4 62.7 62.5 62.7 62.8 63.0 62.6 62.7 62.8

Employed

118,992 120,749 120,148 119,401 120,242 120,754 120,400 120,514 120,551

Employment-population ratio

59.8 60.6 60.2 60.0 60.4 60.6 60.4 60.4 60.4

Unemployed

5,090 4,217 4,446 5,287 4,788 4,643 4,356 4,596 4,649

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.4 3.6 4.2 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

74,764 74,420 74,864 74,157 74,053 73,794 74,541 74,276 74,258

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,895 65,297 65,263 65,133 65,298 65,348 65,244 65,394 65,511

Participation rate

71.4 71.6 71.6 71.7 71.7 71.8 71.6 71.7 71.8

Employed

62,194 63,327 62,964 62,534 62,997 63,159 63,155 63,282 63,307

Employment-population ratio

68.4 69.5 69.0 68.8 69.2 69.4 69.3 69.4 69.4

Unemployed

2,700 1,971 2,299 2,599 2,301 2,189 2,090 2,112 2,204

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.0 3.5 4.0 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,856 55,365 55,061 54,965 55,231 55,447 55,014 55,147 55,161

Participation rate

57.4 57.7 57.4 57.5 57.7 57.9 57.4 57.5 57.5

Employed

52,966 53,729 53,356 52,892 53,276 53,538 53,298 53,342 53,275

Employment-population ratio

55.4 56.0 55.6 55.3 55.7 55.9 55.6 55.6 55.5

Unemployed

1,890 1,635 1,705 2,072 1,955 1,909 1,715 1,805 1,886

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.0 3.1 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,330 4,304 4,270 4,591 4,500 4,602 4,499 4,569 4,528

Participation rate

35.1 34.9 34.6 37.2 36.5 37.3 36.5 37.0 36.7

Employed

3,832 3,693 3,828 3,975 3,968 4,057 3,947 3,891 3,970

Employment-population ratio

31.0 29.9 31.0 32.2 32.2 32.9 32.0 31.5 32.2

Unemployed

499 611 442 616 532 545 552 678 559

Unemployment rate

11.5 14.2 10.4 13.4 11.8 11.8 12.3 14.8 12.3

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,105 32,404 32,436 32,105 32,296 32,333 32,370 32,404 32,436

Civilian labor force

19,779 20,218 20,050 19,890 20,090 20,254 20,134 20,175 20,153

Participation rate

61.6 62.4 61.8 62.0 62.2 62.6 62.2 62.3 62.1

Employed

18,307 18,779 18,791 18,310 18,571 18,838 18,654 18,718 18,790

Employment-population ratio

57.0 58.0 57.9 57.0 57.5 58.3 57.6 57.8 57.9

Unemployed

1,472 1,439 1,260 1,579 1,519 1,416 1,479 1,457 1,362

Unemployment rate

7.4 7.1 6.3 7.9 7.6 7.0 7.3 7.2 6.8

Not in labor force

12,327 12,186 12,385 12,216 12,206 12,079 12,236 12,230 12,283

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,023 9,210 9,128 9,072 9,213 9,294 9,218 9,225 9,178

Participation rate

67.4 68.0 67.3 67.8 68.3 68.8 68.2 68.1 67.7

Employed

8,337 8,552 8,537 8,378 8,500 8,668 8,539 8,552 8,576

Employment-population ratio

62.3 63.1 63.0 62.6 63.0 64.2 63.1 63.1 63.2

Unemployed

686 658 591 695 713 626 679 673 601

Unemployment rate

7.6 7.1 6.5 7.7 7.7 6.7 7.4 7.3 6.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,088 10,310 10,236 10,114 10,127 10,166 10,204 10,219 10,252

Participation rate

62.2 63.1 62.5 62.4 62.1 62.3 62.5 62.5 62.6

Employed

9,459 9,703 9,707 9,411 9,487 9,550 9,560 9,622 9,657

Employment-population ratio

58.4 59.3 59.3 58.1 58.2 58.5 58.5 58.8 59.0

Unemployed

629 607 529 703 639 616 644 597 595

Unemployment rate

6.2 5.9 5.2 7.0 6.3 6.1 6.3 5.8 5.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

668 698 686 703 751 794 712 731 723

Participation rate

26.5 27.8 27.4 27.9 29.9 31.6 28.4 29.1 28.8

Employed

511 524 547 522 584 619 555 544 557

Employment-population ratio

20.3 20.9 21.8 20.7 23.3 24.7 22.1 21.7 22.2

Unemployed

157 174 140 181 167 174 157 187 166

Unemployment rate

23.5 25.0 20.3 25.8 22.2 22.0 22.0 25.5 22.9

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,433 15,370 15,610 15,433 15,341 15,483 15,466 15,370 15,610

Civilian labor force

9,681 9,633 9,779 9,685 9,876 9,985 9,864 9,699 9,782

Participation rate

62.7 62.7 62.6 62.8 64.4 64.5 63.8 63.1 62.7

Employed

9,428 9,343 9,546 9,418 9,489 9,626 9,565 9,407 9,536

Employment-population ratio

61.1 60.8 61.2 61.0 61.9 62.2 61.8 61.2 61.1

Unemployed

253 290 233 267 388 359 299 292 246

Unemployment rate

2.6 3.0 2.4 2.8 3.9 3.6 3.0 3.0 2.5

Not in labor force

5,752 5,737 5,831 5,749 5,464 5,498 5,602 5,671 5,829

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,190 41,751 41,831 41,190 41,492 41,579 41,665 41,751 41,831

Civilian labor force

27,032 27,479 27,429 27,098 27,325 27,609 27,319 27,389 27,498

Participation rate

65.6 65.8 65.6 65.8 65.9 66.4 65.6 65.6 65.7

Employed

25,450 26,196 26,077 25,513 25,925 26,209 25,999 26,088 26,141

Employment-population ratio

61.8 62.7 62.3 61.9 62.5 63.0 62.4 62.5 62.5

Unemployed

1,582 1,283 1,352 1,586 1,400 1,400 1,321 1,301 1,356

Unemployment rate

5.9 4.7 4.9 5.9 5.1 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.9

Not in labor force

14,158 14,272 14,402 14,092 14,167 13,970 14,346 14,361 14,334

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,832 14,999 15,090 14,825 15,012 15,110 14,959 14,969 15,084

Participation rate

79.9 79.8 80.1 79.8 80.4 80.7 79.7 79.6 80.1

Employed

14,059 14,432 14,457 14,109 14,303 14,502 14,380 14,400 14,507

Employment-population ratio

75.7 76.8 76.7 76.0 76.6 77.5 76.7 76.6 77.0

Unemployed

773 567 634 716 709 608 579 569 577

Unemployment rate

5.2 3.8 4.2 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,062 11,314 11,165 11,084 11,098 11,249 11,146 11,222 11,189

Participation rate

58.8 59.3 58.4 58.9 58.5 59.2 58.5 58.8 58.5

Employed

10,435 10,769 10,604 10,427 10,576 10,637 10,601 10,676 10,598

Employment-population ratio

55.5 56.4 55.5 55.4 55.8 56.0 55.7 56.0 55.4

Unemployed

627 545 561 657 522 612 546 546 591

Unemployment rate

5.7 4.8 5.0 5.9 4.7 5.4 4.9 4.9 5.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,138 1,166 1,174 1,189 1,215 1,250 1,214 1,198 1,225

Participation rate

29.8 30.1 30.3 31.2 31.5 32.4 31.4 30.9 31.6

Employed

956 995 1,017 976 1,046 1,070 1,018 1,012 1,037

Employment-population ratio

25.1 25.7 26.2 25.6 27.1 27.7 26.3 26.2 26.8

Unemployed

182 171 158 213 169 180 196 185 188

Unemployment rate

16.0 14.7 13.4 17.9 13.9 14.4 16.1 15.5 15.4

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,461 10,298 10,148 10,476 10,553 10,552 10,328 10,167 10,148

Participation rate

44.9 45.6 44.8 44.9 46.1 46.2 46.2 45.1 44.8

Employed

9,621 9,779 9,455 9,682 9,903 9,846 9,699 9,639 9,507

Employment-population ratio

41.3 43.4 41.8 41.5 43.3 43.1 43.4 42.7 42.0

Unemployed

840 518 693 795 649 706 629 528 641

Unemployment rate

8.0 5.0 6.8 7.6 6.2 6.7 6.1 5.2 6.3

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,535 36,102 35,760 35,683 35,908 35,916 35,572 36,014 35,927

Participation rate

57.5 57.7 57.5 57.8 57.6 57.4 56.9 57.5 57.8

Employed

33,710 34,598 34,245 33,874 34,116 34,377 34,050 34,463 34,425

Employment-population ratio

54.6 55.3 55.1 54.8 54.7 55.0 54.4 55.1 55.4

Unemployed

1,825 1,504 1,515 1,808 1,792 1,539 1,522 1,551 1,503

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.2 4.2 5.1 5.0 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.2

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

38,188 38,075 37,897 38,216 37,247 37,540 37,761 37,955 37,906

Participation rate

66.0 66.4 66.2 66.1 65.6 65.9 65.8 66.2 66.2

Employed

36,795 36,747 36,590 36,751 35,845 36,189 36,385 36,579 36,534

Employment-population ratio

63.6 64.1 63.9 63.6 63.1 63.5 63.4 63.8 63.8

Unemployed

1,394 1,328 1,307 1,465 1,402 1,351 1,376 1,376 1,372

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.5 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

54,095 55,498 55,824 54,128 55,576 55,621 55,612 55,501 55,852

Participation rate

73.6 73.6 73.4 73.7 73.9 74.1 73.8 73.6 73.5

Employed

52,843 54,424 54,701 52,789 54,247 54,378 54,477 54,348 54,653

Employment-population ratio

71.9 72.2 72.0 71.9 72.1 72.5 72.3 72.1 71.9

Unemployed

1,252 1,074 1,123 1,339 1,329 1,242 1,135 1,153 1,200

Unemployment rate

2.3 1.9 2.0 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,757 19,389 18,735 17,533 2,022 1,856

Civilian labor force

10,434 9,521 9,210 8,405 1,224 1,115

Participation rate

50.3 49.1 49.2 47.9 60.5 60.1

Employed

10,009 9,159 8,822 8,084 1,187 1,075

Employment-population ratio

48.2 47.2 47.1 46.1 58.7 57.9

Unemployed

424 362 388 321 36 41

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.8 4.2 3.8 3.0 3.6

Not in labor force

10,323 9,868 9,525 9,128 798 741

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,038 4,164 3,334 3,469 704 695

Civilian labor force

3,341 3,383 2,836 2,897 505 486

Participation rate

82.7 81.2 85.1 83.5 71.7 69.9

Employed

3,152 3,270 2,669 2,800 483 470

Employment-population ratio

78.1 78.5 80.0 80.7 68.6 67.6

Unemployed

189 113 167 97 22 16

Unemployment rate

5.7 3.3 5.9 3.4 4.3 3.3

Not in labor force

697 781 498 572 199 209

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,309 2,981 2,799 2,501 510 480

Civilian labor force

2,613 2,284 2,252 1,952 361 332

Participation rate

79.0 76.6 80.5 78.1 70.9 69.1

Employed

2,540 2,204 2,182 1,885 358 319

Employment-population ratio

76.8 73.9 78.0 75.4 70.2 66.4

Unemployed

74 80 70 67 4 13

Unemployment rate

2.8 3.5 3.1 3.4 1.0 4.0

Not in labor force

695 697 547 548 149 148

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,308 7,839 8,010 7,572 298 267

Civilian labor force

1,875 1,638 1,812 1,573 62 65

Participation rate

22.6 20.9 22.6 20.8 20.9 24.3

Employed

1,796 1,577 1,740 1,512 56 65

Employment-population ratio

21.6 20.1 21.7 20.0 18.8 24.3

Unemployed

79 61 73 61 6 0

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.7 4.0 3.9 - -

Not in labor force

6,433 6,201 6,198 5,999 236 202

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,102 4,405 4,592 3,991 510 414

Civilian labor force

2,605 2,216 2,310 1,983 295 233

Participation rate

51.1 50.3 50.3 49.7 57.9 56.3

Employed

2,522 2,109 2,232 1,887 290 222

Employment-population ratio

49.4 47.9 48.6 47.3 56.9 53.5

Unemployed

83 107 78 96 5 11

Unemployment rate

3.2 4.8 3.4 4.8 1.7 4.9

Not in labor force

2,497 2,189 2,282 2,008 215 181

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

224,879 227,397 99,823 101,486 125,055 125,911

Civilian labor force

146,581 148,288 74,321 75,509 72,260 72,779

Participation rate

65.2 65.2 74.5 74.4 57.8 57.8

Employed

140,128 142,639 70,793 72,437 69,335 70,203

Employment-population ratio

62.3 62.7 70.9 71.4 55.4 55.8

Unemployed

6,454 5,649 3,528 3,073 2,925 2,576

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.8 4.7 4.1 4.0 3.5

Not in labor force

78,297 79,109 25,502 25,976 52,795 53,133

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,131 29,780 224,611 226,329

Civilian labor force

6,054 6,211 152,914 153,668

Participation rate

20.1 20.9 68.1 67.9

Employed

5,509 5,690 146,289 147,912

Employment-population ratio

18.3 19.1 65.1 65.4

Unemployed

545 522 6,625 5,757

Unemployment rate

9.0 8.4 4.3 3.7

Not in labor force

24,077 23,569 71,697 72,661

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,650 2,777 76,792 76,818

Participation rate

34.6 37.5 82.0 81.8

Employed

2,379 2,509 73,182 73,748

Employment-population ratio

31.1 33.9 78.2 78.6

Unemployed

271 268 3,610 3,071

Unemployment rate

10.2 9.7 4.7 4.0

Not in labor force

5,001 4,622 16,836 17,037

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,347 2,327 67,993 68,380

Participation rate

28.9 30.2 70.4 70.6

Employed

2,152 2,134 65,264 65,960

Employment-population ratio

26.5 27.7 67.6 68.1

Unemployed

195 193 2,729 2,421

Unemployment rate

8.3 8.3 4.0 3.5

Not in labor force

5,763 5,367 28,522 28,461

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,057 1,107 8,128 8,470

Participation rate

7.4 7.5 23.6 23.8

Employed

978 1,047 7,842 8,204

Employment-population ratio

6.8 7.1 22.8 23.0

Unemployed

79 60 286 265

Unemployment rate

7.4 5.4 3.5 3.1

Not in labor force

13,312 13,580 26,340 27,163

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,623 41,546 20,196 19,966 21,427 21,579

Civilian labor force

27,062 27,143 15,560 15,612 11,501 11,531

Participation rate

65.0 65.3 77.0 78.2 53.7 53.4

Employed

25,881 26,091 14,945 15,058 10,935 11,033

Employment-population ratio

62.2 62.8 74.0 75.4 51.0 51.1

Unemployed

1,181 1,052 615 554 566 498

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.9 4.0 3.5 4.9 4.3

Not in labor force

14,561 14,403 4,636 4,354 9,925 10,048

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

213,119 214,563 102,903 103,820 110,217 110,744

Civilian labor force

131,906 132,736 68,903 69,219 63,004 63,517

Participation rate

61.9 61.9 67.0 66.7 57.2 57.4

Employed

125,917 127,510 65,423 66,242 60,495 61,268

Employment-population ratio

59.1 59.4 63.6 63.8 54.9 55.3

Unemployed

5,989 5,226 3,480 2,977 2,509 2,249

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.9 5.1 4.3 4.0 3.5

Not in labor force

81,213 81,827 34,000 34,600 47,213 47,227

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,180 2,451 2,368 2,349 2,368 2,311 2,471 2,510 2,552

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,366 1,666 1,590 1,472 1,596 1,554 1,707 1,697 1,717

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

797 754 743 851 725 745 749 791 793

Unpaid family workers

18 30 35 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

149,617 151,729 151,233 149,854 151,175 151,942 151,334 151,453 151,478

Wage and salary workers(1)

140,753 142,653 142,295 140,922 142,371 142,959 142,294 142,472 142,505

Government

21,029 20,950 20,789 20,887 21,037 20,908 20,755 20,717 20,642

Private industries

119,724 121,702 121,506 120,071 121,394 122,055 121,578 121,779 121,900

Private households

680 608 687 - - - - - -

Other industries

119,044 121,094 120,819 119,377 120,695 121,423 121,012 121,140 121,206

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,800 9,030 8,881 8,921 8,645 8,861 8,956 8,922 8,970

Unpaid family workers

64 46 57 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,707 4,642 5,060 5,554 5,209 5,148 4,880 4,851 4,915

Slack work or business conditions

3,478 2,872 3,172 3,387 3,232 3,098 2,960 2,995 3,097

Could only find part-time work

1,828 1,497 1,529 1,871 1,631 1,725 1,615 1,558 1,570

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,711 22,123 21,631 21,253 21,468 20,951 20,897 21,022 21,122

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,561 4,554 4,992 5,415 5,125 5,048 4,799 4,759 4,856

Slack work or business conditions

3,362 2,819 3,132 3,267 3,196 3,054 2,944 2,952 3,049

Could only find part-time work

1,824 1,486 1,528 1,860 1,622 1,702 1,600 1,552 1,563

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,335 21,744 21,226 20,860 21,133 20,619 20,552 20,645 20,703

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

151,798 154,180 153,602 152,233 153,471 154,324 153,846 153,917 154,021

16 to 19 years

4,831 4,668 4,801 5,002 5,082 5,238 5,022 4,928 4,977

16 to 17 years

1,661 1,794 1,803 1,750 1,923 1,972 1,932 1,929 1,907

18 to 19 years

3,170 2,874 2,998 3,253 3,150 3,206 3,070 2,996 3,075

20 years and over

146,967 149,512 148,801 147,231 148,389 149,085 148,824 148,989 149,045

20 to 24 years

13,999 13,963 13,809 14,120 14,227 14,211 14,183 13,982 13,936

25 years and over

132,968 135,549 134,991 133,071 134,086 134,845 134,716 135,009 135,083

25 to 54 years

98,417 99,823 99,547 98,427 98,584 99,235 99,227 99,407 99,535

25 to 34 years

34,219 34,821 34,614 34,204 34,317 34,652 34,666 34,692 34,606

35 to 44 years

31,564 32,316 32,302 31,573 31,830 32,045 32,094 32,146 32,304

45 to 54 years

32,634 32,685 32,631 32,650 32,437 32,538 32,468 32,568 32,625

55 years and over

34,551 35,726 35,444 34,644 35,502 35,610 35,489 35,602 35,548

Men, 16 years and over

80,368 81,535 81,300 80,897 81,342 81,902 81,667 81,666 81,821

16 to 19 years

2,384 2,186 2,275 2,501 2,455 2,509 2,419 2,342 2,391

16 to 17 years

753 811 779 810 884 899 884 884 848

18 to 19 years

1,631 1,375 1,495 1,686 1,564 1,600 1,528 1,443 1,540

20 years and over

77,984 79,349 79,025 78,396 78,887 79,393 79,248 79,324 79,431

20 to 24 years

7,152 7,157 7,093 7,259 7,357 7,313 7,280 7,210 7,203

25 years and over

70,832 72,192 71,933 71,122 71,506 72,028 72,016 72,102 72,226

25 to 54 years

52,529 53,178 53,163 52,685 52,574 52,980 53,082 53,084 53,308

25 to 34 years

18,328 18,650 18,559 18,379 18,438 18,605 18,617 18,617 18,612

35 to 44 years

16,988 17,347 17,397 17,040 17,085 17,262 17,320 17,300 17,450

45 to 54 years

17,213 17,181 17,206 17,266 17,051 17,114 17,145 17,167 17,246

55 years and over

18,303 19,014 18,770 18,437 18,933 19,048 18,934 19,018 18,918

Women, 16 years and over

71,430 72,645 72,301 71,336 72,129 72,422 72,179 72,251 72,200

16 to 19 years

2,446 2,482 2,526 2,501 2,627 2,729 2,603 2,586 2,586

16 to 17 years

908 983 1,024 941 1,039 1,073 1,048 1,044 1,059

18 to 19 years

1,538 1,499 1,502 1,567 1,586 1,606 1,541 1,552 1,535

20 years and over

68,984 70,163 69,775 68,835 69,502 69,692 69,576 69,665 69,614

20 to 24 years

6,847 6,806 6,717 6,861 6,870 6,898 6,903 6,772 6,733

25 years and over

62,136 63,357 63,058 61,949 62,580 62,817 62,700 62,906 62,857

25 to 54 years

45,889 46,645 46,385 45,742 46,011 46,255 46,146 46,322 46,227

25 to 34 years

15,891 16,171 16,055 15,825 15,880 16,047 16,049 16,074 15,994

35 to 44 years

14,577 14,969 14,905 14,533 14,745 14,784 14,774 14,846 14,853

45 to 54 years

15,421 15,504 15,425 15,384 15,386 15,425 15,323 15,402 15,380

55 years and over

16,248 16,712 16,674 16,208 16,569 16,562 16,555 16,584 16,630

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,254 45,581 45,284 45,389 45,319 45,594 45,776 45,621 45,439

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,712 36,151 35,952 35,569 35,519 35,591 35,853 35,844 35,813

Women who maintain families(2)

9,998 10,064 9,893 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

123,570 126,468 125,985 124,301 125,882 126,676 126,636 126,758 126,723

Part-time workers(4)

28,228 27,713 27,616 27,890 27,529 27,603 27,142 27,138 27,257

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,675 7,593 7,776 7,558 7,350 7,350 7,209 7,342 7,647

Percent of total employed

5.1 4.9 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.8 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,835 6,021 6,047 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,596 9,785 9,624 9,772 9,370 9,605 9,705 9,713 9,763

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,502 6,616 6,576 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1

16 to 19 years

840 929 780 14.4 13.8 13.0 13.7 15.9 13.6

16 to 17 years

365 455 341 17.2 14.6 13.9 15.0 19.1 15.2

18 to 19 years

492 506 467 13.1 12.9 12.8 13.2 14.4 13.2

20 years and over

6,662 5,688 5,796 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7

20 to 24 years

1,235 1,075 1,063 8.0 7.2 7.6 7.2 7.1 7.1

25 years and over

5,420 4,638 4,735 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.4

25 to 54 years

4,131 3,474 3,528 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4

25 to 34 years

1,694 1,545 1,615 4.7 4.9 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.5

35 to 44 years

1,300 1,023 992 4.0 3.4 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.0

45 to 54 years

1,137 906 921 3.4 3.4 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.7

55 years and over

1,267 1,144 1,200 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.3

Men, 16 years and over

4,104 3,555 3,533 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.1

16 to 19 years

504 505 416 16.8 14.8 15.2 16.0 17.7 14.8

16 to 17 years

207 231 158 20.3 15.1 15.6 17.4 20.7 15.7

18 to 19 years

304 287 271 15.3 14.5 15.2 15.7 16.6 15.0

20 years and over

3,600 3,050 3,117 4.4 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.8

20 to 24 years

736 662 620 9.2 7.7 8.7 8.0 8.4 7.9

25 years and over

2,838 2,406 2,480 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.3

25 to 54 years

2,150 1,747 1,814 3.9 3.9 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.3

25 to 34 years

906 793 841 4.7 5.0 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.3

35 to 44 years

673 485 471 3.8 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6

45 to 54 years

571 468 502 3.2 3.5 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8

55 years and over

688 659 667 3.6 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.4

Women, 16 years and over

3,398 3,061 3,043 4.5 4.4 4.2 3.9 4.1 4.0

16 to 19 years

336 424 364 11.8 12.9 11.0 11.4 14.1 12.3

16 to 17 years

158 224 183 14.4 14.2 12.5 12.8 17.7 14.7

18 to 19 years

189 219 196 10.8 11.3 10.3 10.6 12.4 11.3

20 years and over

3,062 2,637 2,679 4.3 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.7

20 to 24 years

499 413 443 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.3 5.8 6.2

25 years and over

2,583 2,232 2,254 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.3 3.4 3.5

25 to 54 years

1,981 1,727 1,714 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.6

25 to 34 years

788 752 774 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6

35 to 44 years

627 538 521 4.1 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.4

45 to 54 years

567 438 418 3.6 3.4 3.1 2.7 2.8 2.6

55 years and over

594 483 546 3.5 3.1 3.4 2.9 2.8 3.2

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,272 969 1,033 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.0 2.1 2.2

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,071 833 942 2.9 2.8 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.6

Women who maintain families(2)

621 590 552 5.8 7.2 6.5 5.6 5.5 5.3

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

6,092 5,189 5,314 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.9 4.0

Part-time workers(4)

1,465 1,421 1,295 5.0 4.4 4.3 4.5 5.0 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,668 2,907 3,298 3,627 3,497 3,316 3,214 3,149 3,254

On temporary layoff

1,117 807 1,010 1,019 1,030 891 862 950 915

Not on temporary layoff

2,550 2,100 2,288 2,608 2,467 2,425 2,352 2,200 2,339

Permanent job losers

1,863 1,483 1,604 1,903 1,777 1,728 1,688 1,539 1,636

Persons who completed temporary jobs

687 617 684 705 690 697 664 661 703

Job leavers

842 757 673 896 790 737 731 739 715

Reentrants

2,003 1,978 1,827 2,202 2,137 2,068 2,001 2,025 2,003

New entrants

657 644 480 791 653 663 626 697 581

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

51.2 46.2 52.5 48.3 49.4 48.9 48.9 47.6 49.7

On temporary layoff

15.6 12.8 16.1 13.6 14.6 13.1 13.1 14.4 14.0

Not on temporary layoff

35.6 33.4 36.4 34.7 34.9 35.8 35.8 33.3 35.7

Job leavers

11.7 12.0 10.7 11.9 11.2 10.9 11.1 11.2 10.9

Reentrants

27.9 31.5 29.1 29.3 30.2 30.5 30.5 30.6 30.6

New entrants

9.2 10.2 7.7 10.5 9.2 9.8 9.5 10.5 8.9

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.3 1.8 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4

Reentrants

1.3 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2

New entrants

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,251 2,084 2,144 2,359 2,221 2,223 2,128 2,253 2,235

5 to 14 weeks

1,974 1,753 1,848 2,136 1,996 1,879 1,943 1,894 1,994

15 weeks and over

2,945 2,449 2,287 3,060 2,802 2,695 2,500 2,514 2,397

15 to 26 weeks

1,176 921 867 1,191 1,067 962 856 921 882

27 weeks and over

1,769 1,529 1,420 1,869 1,735 1,733 1,645 1,593 1,515

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

25.8 26.3 23.5 25.9 24.3 26.6 25.8 25.2 23.6

Median duration, in weeks

10.5 9.7 8.8 10.8 10.3 10.1 9.8 9.5 9.1

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

31.4 33.2 34.1 31.2 31.6 32.7 32.4 33.8 33.7

5 to 14 weeks

27.5 27.9 29.4 28.3 28.4 27.6 29.6 28.4 30.1

15 weeks and over

41.1 39.0 36.4 40.5 39.9 39.7 38.0 37.7 36.2

15 to 26 weeks

16.4 14.6 13.8 15.8 15.2 14.2 13.0 13.8 13.3

27 weeks and over

24.7 24.3 22.6 24.7 24.7 25.5 25.0 23.9 22.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017

Total, 16 years and over(1)

151,798 153,602 7,170 6,278 4.5 3.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

60,069 62,121 1,361 1,290 2.2 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,216 25,760 609 514 2.4 2.0

Professional and related occupations

34,853 36,361 752 775 2.1 2.1

Service occupations

26,459 25,826 1,493 1,405 5.3 5.2

Sales and office occupations

33,976 33,633 1,482 1,268 4.2 3.6

Sales and related occupations

16,019 15,985 768 627 4.6 3.8

Office and administrative support occupations

17,958 17,649 714 641 3.8 3.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,653 14,299 1,064 961 7.2 6.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

926 1,107 170 195 15.5 15.0

Construction and extraction occupations

7,790 8,198 724 600 8.5 6.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,938 4,994 170 166 3.3 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,641 17,722 1,097 865 5.9 4.7

Production occupations

8,315 8,546 487 376 5.5 4.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,326 9,177 610 489 6.1 5.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,170 6,278 4.5 3.9

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,581 4,841 4.5 3.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

27 41 3.7 5.1

Construction

670 554 7.4 5.9

Manufacturing

630 505 4.0 3.3

Durable goods

366 289 3.7 3.0

Nondurable goods

264 217 4.5 3.8

Wholesale and retail trade

955 841 4.6 4.1

Transportation and utilities

241 208 3.6 3.0

Information

87 108 3.1 3.8

Financial activities

251 143 2.6 1.5

Professional and business services

879 712 5.3 4.2

Education and health services

667 706 2.9 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

899 833 6.4 6.2

Other services

276 189 4.2 2.8

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

166 210 11.2 11.9

Government workers

401 460 1.9 2.2

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

365 287 3.6 2.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 1.5 1.4 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.5

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.3 1.8 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.5 3.9 3.9 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.8 4.2 4.2 5.0 4.7 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.5 4.8 4.9 5.7 5.4 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.1

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.1 7.7 8.0 9.1 8.6 8.3 8.0 8.0 8.1

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2017

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,774 96,230 38,636 38,955 57,138 57,275

Persons who currently want a job

5,449 5,071 2,631 2,330 2,819 2,742

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,684 1,623 963 811 721 812

Discouraged workers(2)

426 474 295 316 131 158

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,258 1,149 668 495 590 654

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,675 7,776 3,630 3,744 4,045 4,032

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.1 4.5 4.6 5.7 5.6

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,204 4,391 2,235 2,335 1,969 2,056

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,078 1,964 682 668 1,396 1,296

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

282 269 162 154 120 116

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,050 1,091 521 560 529 531

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)
Change from:
Nov.2017 - Dec.2017(p)

Total nonfarm

146,158 147,952 148,526 148,346 145,325 146,980 147,232 147,380 148

Total private

123,522 125,268 125,716 125,654 123,026 124,654 124,893 125,039 146

Goods-producing

19,670 20,351 20,299 20,179 19,794 20,141 20,204 20,259 55

Mining and logging

669 731 735 730 668 722 727 727 0

Logging

50.3 50.0 51.1 51.2 51.0 48.8 49.9 50.7 0.8

Mining

618.3 680.5 683.6 678.9 616.8 673.3 677.5 675.8 -1.7

Oil and gas extraction

177.7 179.3 180.3 178.9 177.3 178.9 179.0 177.9 -1.1

Mining, except oil and gas

179.7 188.7 187.8 184.4 182.0 186.5 187.1 186.3 -0.8

Coal mining

50.2 52.1 51.1 50.9 49.7 51.6 50.9 50.5 -0.4

Metal ore mining

39.3 38.9 38.7 38.9 39.1 39.0 38.8 38.8 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

90.2 97.7 98.0 94.6 93.2 95.9 97.4 97.1 -0.3

Support activities for mining

260.9 312.5 315.5 315.6 257.5 307.9 311.4 311.6 0.2

Construction

6,660 7,125 7,057 6,910 6,783 6,936 6,963 6,993 30

Construction of buildings

1,491.9 1,564.7 1,556.2 1,544.4 1,503.2 1,534.1 1,543.5 1,550.4 6.9

Residential building

751.0 783.0 778.4 780.0 753.6 767.5 772.6 780.8 8.2

Nonresidential building

740.9 781.7 777.8 764.4 749.6 766.6 770.9 769.6 -1.3

Heavy and civil engineering construction

885.3 1,023.7 982.9 917.2 935.0 962.9 957.9 957.2 -0.7

Specialty trade contractors

4,282.5 4,536.6 4,517.7 4,448.4 4,345.0 4,439.3 4,461.3 4,485.1 23.8

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,882.7 1,988.5 1,982.3 1,954.6 1,912.2 1,952.8 1,961.4 1,971.4 10.0

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,399.8 2,548.1 2,535.4 2,493.8 2,432.8 2,486.5 2,499.9 2,513.7 13.8

Manufacturing

12,341 12,495 12,507 12,539 12,343 12,483 12,514 12,539 25

Durable goods

7,709 7,788 7,816 7,847 7,708 7,791 7,817 7,838 21

Wood products

396.0 396.3 395.2 396.7 396.2 394.9 394.3 395.0 0.7

Nonmetallic mineral products

407.0 421.4 421.6 416.7 412.3 416.1 418.0 419.7 1.7

Primary metals

377.2 385.6 386.0 390.6 375.8 386.6 387.7 390.3 2.6

Fabricated metal products

1,422.1 1,455.8 1,464.8 1,470.8 1,421.6 1,456.7 1,464.5 1,469.9 5.4

Machinery

1,075.7 1,094.6 1,103.1 1,113.2 1,075.6 1,098.7 1,106.7 1,112.7 6.0

Computer and electronic products

1,040.7 1,045.3 1,048.8 1,054.9 1,039.4 1,047.1 1,050.6 1,053.6 3.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

162.4 167.8 170.1 170.4 162.4 167.7 169.7 169.7 0.0

Communications equipment

84.0 84.8 84.7 84.9 84.2 85.0 84.7 84.8 0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

363.2 362.4 363.2 367.2 362.1 363.5 364.5 366.8 2.3

Electronic instruments

396.4 397.0 398.3 400.2 396.0 397.9 399.4 400.1 0.7

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.7 33.3 32.5 32.2 34.6 33.1 32.2 32.2 0.0

Electrical equipment and appliances

382.7 394.1 395.6 397.8 383.2 394.8 396.1 397.3 1.2

Transportation equipment(1)

1,623.8 1,611.2 1,617.0 1,622.1 1,619.8 1,613.5 1,615.9 1,616.9 1.0

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

946.1 937.2 941.4 945.5 942.4 938.7 940.2 941.5 1.3

Furniture and related products

391.0 391.4 388.8 389.6 392.8 391.0 390.1 389.4 -0.7

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

592.7 592.2 595.3 594.9 591.4 591.5 592.8 592.8 0.0

Nondurable goods

4,632 4,707 4,691 4,692 4,635 4,692 4,697 4,701 4

Food manufacturing

1,565.8 1,618.2 1,606.3 1,609.7 1,568.2 1,608.7 1,611.9 1,616.4 4.5

Textile mills

112.2 110.1 109.9 110.5 112.2 110.2 109.5 110.3 0.8

Textile product mills

112.8 109.2 109.6 108.8 112.8 108.7 108.7 108.5 -0.2

Apparel

129.8 118.3 118.2 116.8 128.9 117.3 116.5 115.8 -0.7

Paper and paper products

368.7 369.0 370.0 369.9 368.3 369.9 370.8 369.6 -1.2

Printing and related support activities

444.1 436.6 436.7 436.6 442.3 436.0 435.0 433.9 -1.1

Petroleum and coal products

110.0 115.6 113.0 108.4 111.0 112.6 112.2 110.3 -1.9

Chemicals

812.5 823.4 821.8 828.5 809.8 826.2 826.5 828.4 1.9

Plastics and rubber products

695.8 706.8 711.2 713.1 698.3 710.2 713.5 714.6 1.1

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

280.3 299.7 294.0 289.8 283.6 291.8 292.1 293.0 0.9

Private service-providing

103,852 104,917 105,417 105,475 103,232 104,513 104,689 104,780 91

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,090 27,479 28,025 28,220 27,374 27,415 27,458 27,448 -10

Wholesale trade

5,892.8 5,951.6 5,961.0 5,964.3 5,888.4 5,943.5 5,949.4 5,959.2 9.8

Durable goods

2,933.0 2,967.9 2,981.3 2,989.2 2,932.7 2,970.5 2,980.0 2,986.6 6.6

Nondurable goods

2,054.6 2,072.1 2,069.7 2,065.3 2,052.9 2,063.3 2,062.9 2,065.8 2.9

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

905.2 911.6 910.0 909.8 902.8 909.7 906.5 906.8 0.3

Retail trade

16,375.9 15,823.9 16,286.6 16,345.9 15,881.0 15,808.4 15,834.8 15,814.5 -20.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,993.4 2,025.7 2,025.3 2,019.1 2,002.0 2,023.7 2,025.4 2,028.3 2.9

Automobile dealers

1,293.5 1,312.4 1,311.2 1,307.6 1,295.3 1,309.0 1,309.2 1,310.2 1.0

Other motor vehicle dealers

145.2 153.9 150.7 150.0 152.5 155.6 155.8 157.7 1.9

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

554.7 559.4 563.4 561.5 554.2 559.0 560.4 560.4 0.0

Furniture and home furnishings stores

494.2 487.9 504.6 510.7 478.0 486.1 487.7 489.9 2.2

Electronics and appliance stores

532.7 500.0 513.4 514.3 509.0 497.2 491.5 495.3 3.8

Building material and garden supply stores

1,242.9 1,284.6 1,282.1 1,276.0 1,283.2 1,306.2 1,309.6 1,311.5 1.9

Food and beverage stores

3,117.5 3,080.1 3,111.3 3,124.0 3,097.0 3,080.3 3,091.6 3,098.1 6.5

Health and personal care stores

1,080.8 1,044.7 1,065.5 1,067.4 1,065.0 1,046.9 1,050.5 1,046.6 -3.9

Gasoline stations

929.9 942.0 947.1 938.2 934.3 939.9 944.1 941.1 -3.0

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,489.7 1,308.1 1,434.8 1,457.9 1,340.8 1,317.2 1,316.0 1,312.2 -3.8

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

689.0 606.0 671.4 685.0 614.8 608.7 612.4 610.8 -1.6

General merchandise stores

3,392.0 3,130.5 3,303.0 3,316.8 3,180.2 3,113.0 3,117.2 3,089.9 -27.3

Department stores

1,448.4 1,277.4 1,393.2 1,425.7 1,301.6 1,278.1 1,281.2 1,273.0 -8.2

Other general merchandise stores

1,943.6 1,853.1 1,909.8 1,891.1 1,878.7 1,834.9 1,836.0 1,816.9 -19.1

Miscellaneous store retailers

840.6 836.8 839.6 842.8 830.3 823.1 825.4 827.2 1.8

Nonstore retailers

573.2 577.5 588.5 593.7 546.4 566.1 563.4 563.6 0.2

Transportation and warehousing

5,264.8 5,150.9 5,225.3 5,357.5 5,048.0 5,109.4 5,120.5 5,122.3 1.8

Air transportation

476.8 492.5 491.2 491.4 479.3 492.5 493.0 493.2 0.2

Rail transportation

210.9 205.5 205.5 204.3 210.8 205.3 204.9 204.4 -0.5

Water transportation

63.3 65.6 64.5 64.9 64.4 65.5 65.6 66.0 0.4

Truck transportation

1,465.0 1,492.5 1,486.6 1,476.2 1,464.9 1,475.2 1,475.9 1,475.3 -0.6

Transit and ground passenger transportation

484.6 497.5 493.5 493.5 470.0 480.1 478.0 479.0 1.0

Pipeline transportation

48.5 46.8 47.1 47.0 48.5 46.8 47.1 46.9 -0.2

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

29.3 38.0 31.4 30.0 35.3 36.4 35.9 36.0 0.1

Support activities for transportation

665.8 674.9 674.9 680.5 664.0 670.7 672.9 677.0 4.1

Couriers and messengers

855.2 662.8 731.6 874.4 668.0 673.8 676.1 678.2 2.1

Warehousing and storage

965.4 974.8 999.0 995.3 942.8 963.1 971.1 966.3 -4.8

Utilities

556.8 552.6 552.2 552.2 556.7 553.4 553.2 552.3 -0.9

Information

2,775 2,715 2,729 2,730 2,762 2,714 2,715 2,722 7

Publishing industries, except Internet

733.2 718.8 719.6 719.5 729.5 717.4 717.2 716.0 -1.2

Motion picture and sound recording industries

415.0 403.2 412.1 408.8 415.9 405.1 403.1 410.5 7.4

Broadcasting, except Internet

264.6 262.2 260.9 260.3 264.7 260.7 259.6 258.9 -0.7

Telecommunications

793.3 751.8 755.8 756.9 786.2 752.8 754.0 753.3 -0.7

Data processing, hosting and related services

303.9 306.1 306.7 308.4 300.7 305.3 306.6 307.0 0.4

Other information services

264.9 272.8 274.1 276.5 265.2 273.1 274.7 275.9 1.2

Financial activities

8,373 8,489 8,485 8,505 8,364 8,485 8,492 8,498 6

Finance and insurance

6,210.7 6,266.9 6,268.8 6,284.9 6,194.6 6,267.4 6,268.1 6,271.8 3.7

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.9 18.7 18.7 18.7 18.8 18.7 18.7 18.7 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,644.3 2,659.2 2,661.1 2,668.4 2,637.9 2,663.7 2,663.7 2,664.8 1.1

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,709.1 1,713.2 1,716.1 1,717.3 1,708.9 1,719.3 1,719.3 1,717.9 -1.4

Commercial banking

1,313.2 1,310.7 1,312.4 1,313.1 1,310.9 1,314.9 1,315.0 1,313.9 -1.1

Nondepository credit intermediation

626.4 631.5 630.2 632.3 621.9 629.7 628.9 628.8 -0.1

Activities related to credit intermediation

308.8 314.5 314.8 318.8 307.0 314.7 315.6 318.2 2.6

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

934.6 952.4 953.3 956.6 933.0 950.5 952.7 953.4 0.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,612.9 2,636.6 2,635.7 2,641.2 2,604.9 2,634.5 2,633.0 2,634.9 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,161.9 2,222.5 2,216.5 2,220.0 2,169.3 2,217.1 2,223.7 2,225.9 2.2

Real estate

1,586.0 1,617.3 1,615.1 1,622.5 1,586.4 1,612.5 1,616.4 1,618.0 1.6

Rental and leasing services

552.3 582.0 578.1 574.1 559.5 581.4 584.2 584.7 0.5

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.6 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.4 23.2 23.1 23.2 0.1

Professional and business services

20,521 21,067 21,125 21,042 20,416 20,875 20,924 20,943 19

Professional and technical services

9,036.5 9,181.7 9,232.0 9,243.4 9,013.2 9,198.9 9,219.9 9,215.2 -4.7

Legal services

1,130.5 1,130.5 1,130.1 1,133.6 1,126.1 1,128.0 1,127.6 1,128.2 0.6

Accounting and bookkeeping services

997.8 946.7 979.1 992.2 1,000.0 1,005.1 1,009.1 993.7 -15.4

Architectural and engineering services

1,424.8 1,478.5 1,473.3 1,473.5 1,427.3 1,469.9 1,472.6 1,474.9 2.3

Specialized design services

143.1 141.8 143.7 143.5 141.2 140.6 142.0 141.7 -0.3

Computer systems design and related services

2,028.1 2,081.7 2,087.9 2,079.8 2,031.5 2,071.5 2,075.0 2,078.3 3.3

Management and technical consulting services

1,422.3 1,469.8 1,477.8 1,478.5 1,407.4 1,457.0 1,463.6 1,464.4 0.8

Scientific research and development services

694.6 708.8 710.5 711.9 695.0 711.2 711.4 711.6 0.2

Advertising and related services

491.4 489.6 489.5 491.5 488.3 487.3 487.1 489.6 2.5

Other professional and technical services

703.9 734.3 740.1 738.9 696.4 728.1 731.4 732.8 1.4

Management of companies and enterprises

2,265.6 2,283.7 2,289.4 2,298.5 2,258.9 2,287.4 2,290.2 2,294.0 3.8

Administrative and waste services

9,218.9 9,601.8 9,603.6 9,499.9 9,143.6 9,388.4 9,413.9 9,434.1 20.2

Administrative and support services

8,807.5 9,182.8 9,186.0 9,081.8 8,730.6 8,970.0 8,995.5 9,014.1 18.6

Office administrative services

510.5 531.8 534.4 536.2 510.4 531.6 532.6 535.3 2.7

Facilities support services

140.7 147.2 146.7 147.9 140.6 146.3 146.7 148.0 1.3

Employment services(1)

3,759.5 3,880.4 3,923.2 3,907.8 3,618.0 3,748.4 3,767.4 3,778.2 10.8

Temporary help services

3,093.1 3,193.2 3,231.5 3,214.2 2,961.6 3,073.4 3,090.3 3,097.3 7.0

Business support services

941.8 930.2 941.6 940.0 920.0 915.3 918.7 915.3 -3.4

Travel arrangement and reservation services

213.8 214.5 212.9 213.9 215.0 215.1 214.6 215.8 1.2

Investigation and security services

918.4 928.8 928.3 930.5 910.3 921.0 919.5 924.3 4.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,014.8 2,213.7 2,167.8 2,076.1 2,101.4 2,161.4 2,162.1 2,162.0 -0.1

Other support services

308.0 336.2 331.1 329.4 314.8 331.0 333.8 335.2 1.4

Waste management and remediation services

411.4 419.0 417.6 418.1 413.0 418.4 418.4 420.0 1.6

Education and health services

23,023 23,429 23,525 23,485 22,871 23,231 23,281 23,309 28

Educational services

3,699.1 3,820.3 3,860.9 3,778.1 3,603.6 3,658.9 3,669.2 3,668.9 -0.3

Health care and social assistance

19,324.3 19,608.3 19,664.1 19,707.3 19,266.9 19,572.4 19,611.3 19,640.5 29.2

Health care(3)

15,641.9 15,863.2 15,901.4 15,949.5 15,594.5 15,833.4 15,862.8 15,894.2 31.4

Ambulatory health care services

7,224.2 7,387.8 7,411.1 7,427.8 7,194.7 7,361.6 7,385.5 7,400.3 14.8

Offices of physicians

2,575.6 2,616.4 2,621.1 2,626.7 2,558.9 2,606.8 2,611.9 2,612.6 0.7

Offices of dentists

937.7 948.2 951.0 957.6 937.1 947.2 949.7 957.4 7.7

Offices of other health practitioners

886.0 910.3 919.4 919.2 884.2 907.9 913.5 916.1 2.6

Outpatient care centers

884.3 920.1 924.8 929.4 880.5 919.9 924.0 926.7 2.7

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

263.1 262.6 263.0 265.3 262.0 261.8 262.4 263.6 1.2

Home health care services

1,384.8 1,428.2 1,432.3 1,432.5 1,380.0 1,420.2 1,426.8 1,426.8 0.0

Other ambulatory health care services

292.7 302.0 299.5 297.1 291.9 297.9 297.2 297.1 -0.1

Hospitals

5,087.3 5,144.9 5,149.6 5,166.9 5,077.0 5,139.6 5,140.4 5,152.8 12.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,330.4 3,330.5 3,340.7 3,354.8 3,322.8 3,332.2 3,336.9 3,341.1 4.2

Nursing care facilities

1,651.1 1,630.5 1,634.5 1,638.9 1,645.8 1,630.7 1,631.9 1,631.8 -0.1

Residential mental health facilities

616.2 620.9 624.4 628.2 615.8 622.3 624.6 627.5 2.9

Community care facilities for the elderly

899.1 912.3 913.5 918.9 897.3 912.4 912.3 913.2 0.9

Other residential care facilities

164.0 166.8 168.3 168.8 163.9 166.9 168.1 168.6 0.5

Social assistance

3,682.4 3,745.1 3,762.7 3,757.8 3,672.4 3,739.0 3,748.5 3,746.3 -2.2

Individual and family services

2,261.8 2,312.8 2,324.5 2,321.9 2,262.0 2,314.7 2,322.0 2,319.2 -2.8

Emergency and other relief services

166.6 168.6 169.8 172.7 166.0 169.5 170.3 170.9 0.6

Vocational rehabilitation services

336.2 336.5 337.5 336.4 335.5 336.9 337.3 337.1 -0.2

Child day care services

917.8 927.2 930.9 926.8 908.9 917.9 918.9 919.1 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

15,394 15,951 15,738 15,703 15,744 16,004 16,021 16,050 29

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,059.8 2,244.6 2,125.2 2,109.4 2,245.9 2,285.9 2,283.1 2,286.9 3.8

Performing arts and spectator sports

424.9 473.7 452.5 450.3 449.8 467.2 466.8 470.3 3.5

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

153.4 169.4 164.4 164.9 161.4 168.8 171.3 173.5 2.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,481.5 1,601.5 1,508.3 1,494.2 1,634.7 1,649.9 1,645.0 1,643.1 -1.9

Accommodation and food services

13,334.5 13,706.7 13,613.1 13,593.8 13,498.4 13,717.9 13,737.4 13,762.8 25.4

Accommodation

1,882.8 1,948.9 1,911.3 1,899.6 1,949.5 1,961.7 1,965.0 1,965.3 0.3

Food services and drinking places

11,451.7 11,757.8 11,701.8 11,694.2 11,548.9 11,756.2 11,772.4 11,797.5 25.1

Other services

5,676 5,787 5,790 5,790 5,701 5,789 5,798 5,810 12

Repair and maintenance

1,275.9 1,299.5 1,297.6 1,296.5 1,287.7 1,299.6 1,303.1 1,304.4 1.3

Personal and laundry services

1,461.9 1,504.9 1,509.6 1,511.0 1,462.6 1,503.2 1,506.8 1,510.7 3.9

Membership associations and organizations

2,938.2 2,982.8 2,982.5 2,982.2 2,950.4 2,985.8 2,988.2 2,994.5 6.3

Government

22,636 22,684 22,810 22,692 22,299 22,326 22,339 22,341 2

Federal

2,837.0 2,804.0 2,794.0 2,819.0 2,819.0 2,807.0 2,802.0 2,803.0 1.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,199.8 2,189.6 2,180.9 2,190.8 2,199.7 2,191.2 2,189.5 2,189.9 0.4

U.S. Postal Service

637.4 614.7 613.4 628.0 619.1 615.6 612.9 612.6 -0.3

State government

5,190.0 5,210.0 5,249.0 5,177.0 5,085.0 5,062.0 5,070.0 5,066.0 -4.0

State government education

2,524.2 2,559.7 2,600.9 2,530.0 2,414.1 2,403.5 2,411.6 2,408.6 -3.0

State government, excluding education

2,665.9 2,650.6 2,648.2 2,646.7 2,671.1 2,658.4 2,657.9 2,657.1 -0.8

Local government

14,609.0 14,670.0 14,767.0 14,696.0 14,395.0 14,457.0 14,467.0 14,472.0 5.0

Local government education

8,246.2 8,238.5 8,333.5 8,293.2 7,944.6 7,984.7 7,987.4 7,990.0 2.6

Local government, excluding education

6,363.2 6,431.5 6,433.1 6,402.5 6,450.0 6,472.2 6,479.2 6,482.3 3.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.4 34.5 34.5

Goods-producing

40.2 40.4 40.5 40.5

Mining and logging

43.7 45.4 45.5 45.8

Construction

38.9 39.0 39.1 39.3

Manufacturing

40.7 40.9 40.9 40.8

Durable goods

41.2 41.5 41.4 41.4

Nondurable goods

39.9 40.0 40.2 39.9

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.3 33.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 34.4 34.7 34.6

Wholesale trade

38.9 39.0 39.2 39.3

Retail trade

31.1 31.0 31.3 31.2

Transportation and warehousing

38.8 38.8 39.0 38.9

Utilities

42.5 42.2 42.2 41.9

Information

36.1 36.3 36.1 36.2

Financial activities

37.4 37.5 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

Education and health services

32.9 32.9 32.9 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 26.1 26.1 26.2

Other services

31.9 31.7 31.7 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.5 3.5 3.5

Durable goods

3.3 3.5 3.4 3.5

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.5 3.6 3.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)

Total private

$25.98 $26.51 $26.54 $26.63 $893.71 $911.94 $915.63 $918.74

Goods-producing

27.24 27.77 27.76 27.81 1,095.05 1,121.91 1,124.28 1,126.31

Mining and logging

32.48 32.66 32.57 32.59 1,419.38 1,482.76 1,481.94 1,492.62

Construction

28.40 29.10 29.17 29.24 1,104.76 1,134.90 1,140.55 1,149.13

Manufacturing

26.33 26.75 26.71 26.74 1,071.63 1,094.08 1,092.44 1,090.99

Durable goods

27.60 28.02 28.00 28.06 1,137.12 1,162.83 1,159.20 1,161.68

Nondurable goods

24.13 24.56 24.49 24.45 962.79 982.40 984.50 975.56

Private service-providing

25.68 26.21 26.26 26.35 855.14 872.79 874.46 880.09

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.54 22.90 22.96 23.04 775.38 787.76 796.71 797.18

Wholesale trade

29.91 30.02 30.22 30.30 1,163.50 1,170.78 1,184.62 1,190.79

Retail trade

17.97 18.26 18.28 18.34 558.87 566.06 572.16 572.21

Transportation and warehousing

23.50 24.07 24.16 24.26 911.80 933.92 942.24 943.71

Utilities

38.72 39.64 39.46 39.36 1,645.60 1,672.81 1,665.21 1,649.18

Information

37.45 38.30 38.47 38.59 1,351.95 1,390.29 1,388.77 1,396.96

Financial activities

32.71 33.66 33.69 33.88 1,223.35 1,262.25 1,266.74 1,273.89

Professional and business services

31.23 31.85 31.90 32.04 1,124.28 1,146.60 1,148.40 1,153.44

Education and health services

26.02 26.48 26.51 26.58 856.06 871.19 872.18 877.14

Leisure and hospitality

15.12 15.55 15.60 15.66 393.12 405.86 407.16 410.29

Other services

23.39 23.92 23.99 24.04 746.14 758.26 760.48 764.47

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2017 - Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2017 - Dec.
2017(p)

Total private

106.2 107.6 108.1 108.3 0.2 131.9 136.4 137.2 137.8 0.4

Goods-producing

90.7 92.7 93.2 93.5 0.3 111.6 116.4 117.0 117.5 0.4

Mining and logging

91.7 103.0 103.9 104.6 0.7 119.6 135.1 135.9 136.9 0.7

Construction

91.0 93.2 93.8 94.7 1.0 112.2 117.9 118.9 120.4 1.3

Manufacturing

90.4 91.9 92.1 92.0 -0.1 110.7 114.3 114.4 114.5 0.1

Durable goods

89.4 91.0 91.1 91.4 0.3 109.6 113.3 113.3 113.8 0.4

Nondurable goods

92.3 93.7 94.2 93.6 -0.6 113.0 116.7 117.1 116.1 -0.9

Private service-providing

110.6 112.0 112.2 112.6 0.4 138.0 142.6 143.1 144.2 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

102.4 102.6 103.6 103.3 -0.3 124.2 126.4 128.1 128.1 0.0

Wholesale trade

99.9 101.1 101.8 102.2 0.4 124.7 126.7 128.3 129.2 0.7

Retail trade

100.3 99.5 100.7 100.2 -0.5 119.2 120.2 121.7 121.5 -0.2

Transportation and warehousing

112.1 113.5 114.3 114.0 -0.3 133.7 138.6 140.1 140.4 0.2

Utilities

102.4 101.0 101.0 100.1 -0.9 131.0 132.3 131.7 130.2 -1.1

Information

91.1 90.0 89.5 90.0 0.6 121.4 122.7 122.6 123.6 0.8

Financial activities

102.4 104.2 104.6 104.6 0.0 130.7 136.8 137.4 138.3 0.7

Professional and business services

115.6 118.2 118.5 118.6 0.1 146.3 152.5 153.1 153.9 0.5

Education and health services

122.9 124.8 125.1 125.6 0.4 153.8 159.0 159.5 160.6 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

116.8 119.2 119.3 120.0 0.6 142.5 149.5 150.2 151.6 0.9

Other services

104.9 105.8 106.0 106.5 0.5 134.4 138.7 139.3 140.4 0.8

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)

Total nonfarm

72,066 72,757 72,923 72,970 49.6 49.5 49.5 49.5

Total private

59,275 59,926 60,083 60,125 48.2 48.1 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,348 4,426 4,450 4,457 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0

Mining and logging

99 99 101 99 14.8 13.7 13.9 13.6

Construction

853 881 888 893 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.8

Manufacturing

3,396 3,446 3,461 3,465 27.5 27.6 27.7 27.6

Durable goods

1,809 1,822 1,833 1,833 23.5 23.4 23.4 23.4

Nondurable goods

1,587 1,624 1,628 1,632 34.2 34.6 34.7 34.7

Private service-providing

54,927 55,500 55,633 55,668 53.2 53.1 53.1 53.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,084 10,967 10,983 10,965 40.5 40.0 40.0 39.9

Wholesale trade

1,744.0 1,753.8 1,755.1 1,753.2 29.6 29.5 29.5 29.4

Retail trade

7,971.9 7,839.2 7,846.4 7,829.2 50.2 49.6 49.6 49.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,239.4 1,246.7 1,253.8 1,256.2 24.6 24.4 24.5 24.5

Utilities

129.1 127.0 127.3 126.4 23.2 22.9 23.0 22.9

Information

1,106 1,075 1,073 1,074 40.0 39.6 39.5 39.5

Financial activities

4,746 4,784 4,789 4,787 56.7 56.4 56.4 56.3

Professional and business services

9,160 9,398 9,454 9,444 44.9 45.0 45.2 45.1

Education and health services

17,632 17,879 17,905 17,928 77.1 77.0 76.9 76.9

Leisure and hospitality

8,196 8,334 8,363 8,394 52.1 52.1 52.2 52.3

Other services

3,003 3,063 3,066 3,076 52.7 52.9 52.9 52.9

Government

12,791 12,831 12,840 12,845 57.4 57.5 57.5 57.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)

Total private

101,372 102,735 102,910 103,033

Goods-producing

14,247 14,475 14,524 14,584

Mining and logging

468 522 527 532

Construction

5,123 5,189 5,208 5,239

Manufacturing

8,656 8,764 8,789 8,813

Durable goods

5,300 5,348 5,367 5,388

Nondurable goods

3,356 3,416 3,422 3,425

Private service-providing

87,125 88,260 88,386 88,449

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,009 23,146 23,159 23,166

Wholesale trade

4,712.5 4,763.7 4,769.8 4,778.7

Retail trade

13,461.8 13,487.9 13,489.1 13,480.1

Transportation and warehousing

4,387.6 4,449.7 4,455.8 4,462.5

Utilities

447.4 444.8 444.5 444.7

Information

2,227 2,188 2,184 2,191

Financial activities

6,512 6,598 6,600 6,602

Professional and business services

16,697 17,028 17,081 17,072

Education and health services

20,069 20,403 20,450 20,480

Leisure and hospitality

13,886 14,108 14,117 14,137

Other services

4,725 4,789 4,795 4,801

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.7 33.8 33.8

Goods-producing

41.0 41.2 41.3 41.3

Mining and logging

45.5 46.1 46.3 46.4

Construction

39.2 39.5 39.7 39.8

Manufacturing

41.9 42.0 42.0 41.9

Durable goods

42.3 42.4 42.3 42.4

Nondurable goods

41.1 41.3 41.4 41.2

Private service-providing

32.3 32.5 32.5 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.6 33.9 34.0 34.0

Wholesale trade

38.8 39.1 39.1 39.2

Retail trade

29.8 30.3 30.5 30.4

Transportation and warehousing

38.6 38.3 38.4 38.5

Utilities

42.9 42.6 42.5 42.3

Information

35.8 35.8 35.6 35.8

Financial activities

37.0 36.9 37.0 37.0

Professional and business services

35.2 35.4 35.4 35.5

Education and health services

32.2 32.3 32.3 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.8 24.9 24.9

Other services

30.9 30.7 30.8 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.5 4.5 4.4

Durable goods

4.4 4.6 4.5 4.5

Nondurable goods

4.1 4.3 4.5 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)

Total private

$21.80 $22.20 $22.23 $22.30 $732.48 $748.14 $751.37 $753.74

Goods-producing

22.80 23.33 23.36 23.46 934.80 961.20 964.77 968.90

Mining and logging

27.36 27.70 27.70 27.86 1,244.88 1,276.97 1,282.51 1,292.70

Construction

26.23 26.90 26.95 27.04 1,028.22 1,062.55 1,069.92 1,076.19

Manufacturing

20.63 21.06 21.07 21.14 864.40 884.52 884.94 885.77

Durable goods

21.63 22.04 22.04 22.10 914.95 934.50 932.29 937.04

Nondurable goods

19.02 19.49 19.51 19.57 781.72 804.94 807.71 806.28

Private service-providing

21.59 21.96 21.99 22.06 697.36 713.70 714.68 716.95

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.19 19.45 19.51 19.55 644.78 659.36 663.34 664.70

Wholesale trade

24.45 24.75 24.85 24.88 948.66 967.73 971.64 975.30

Retail trade

15.28 15.39 15.45 15.51 455.34 466.32 471.23 471.50

Transportation and warehousing

20.91 21.56 21.60 21.58 807.13 825.75 829.44 830.83

Utilities

35.81 36.14 36.09 36.05 1,536.25 1,539.56 1,533.83 1,524.92

Information

30.44 30.82 30.96 30.97 1,089.75 1,103.36 1,102.18 1,108.73

Financial activities

26.32 26.72 26.62 26.75 973.84 985.97 984.94 989.75

Professional and business services

25.81 26.24 26.27 26.33 908.51 928.90 929.96 934.72

Education and health services

22.77 23.13 23.19 23.26 733.19 747.10 749.04 751.30

Leisure and hospitality

13.04 13.47 13.52 13.58 323.39 334.06 336.65 338.14

Other services

19.57 20.18 20.23 20.25 604.71 619.53 623.08 623.70

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2017 - Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017(p)
Dec.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2017 - Dec.
2017(p)

Total private

113.5 115.4 115.9 116.0 0.1 165.3 171.1 172.2 172.9 0.4

Goods-producing

89.3 91.1 91.7 92.0 0.3 124.6 130.2 131.1 132.2 0.8

Mining and logging

113.2 127.9 129.7 131.2 1.2 180.1 206.0 208.9 212.5 1.7

Construction

100.6 102.6 103.5 104.4 0.9 142.4 149.1 150.7 152.4 1.1

Manufacturing

83.3 84.5 84.7 84.8 0.1 112.3 116.4 116.8 117.2 0.3

Durable goods

84.3 85.2 85.3 85.9 0.7 113.8 117.3 117.4 118.5 0.9

Nondurable goods

81.3 83.1 83.5 83.1 -0.5 109.2 114.5 115.1 115.0 -0.1

Private service-providing

119.8 122.2 122.3 122.4 0.1 177.4 184.0 184.5 185.2 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.8 109.4 109.8 109.8 0.0 147.5 151.8 152.8 153.1 0.2

Wholesale trade

107.7 109.7 109.8 110.3 0.5 155.1 159.9 160.8 161.7 0.6

Retail trade

101.5 103.4 104.1 103.7 -0.4 133.0 136.5 137.9 137.9 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

127.5 128.3 128.8 129.3 0.4 169.1 175.5 176.5 177.0 0.3

Utilities

98.2 96.9 96.6 96.2 -0.4 146.7 146.2 145.5 144.8 -0.5

Information

91.0 89.4 88.7 89.5 0.9 137.1 136.4 136.0 137.3 1.0

Financial activities

113.4 114.6 115.0 115.0 0.0 183.7 188.4 188.3 189.3 0.5

Professional and business services

131.7 135.1 135.5 135.8 0.2 202.3 211.0 211.8 212.8 0.5

Education and health services

137.8 140.5 140.8 141.0 0.1 207.1 214.5 215.6 216.5 0.4

Leisure and hospitality

126.1 128.2 128.8 128.9 0.1 186.8 196.0 197.7 198.8 0.6

Other services

102.4 103.1 103.6 103.7 0.1 146.0 151.6 152.7 153.0 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: January 05, 2018