Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                  USDL-17-1448
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, November 3, 2017

Technical information:
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                               THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- OCTOBER 2017


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 261,000 in October, and the unemployment rate
edged down to 4.1 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment
in food services and drinking places increased sharply, mostly offsetting a decline in
September that largely reflected the impact of Hurricanes Irma and Harvey. In October,
job gains also occurred in professional and business services, manufacturing, and health
care.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate edged down by 0.1 percentage point to 4.1 percent in October, and
the number of unemployed persons decreased by 281,000 to 6.5 million. Since January, the
unemployment rate has declined by 0.7 percentage point, and the number of unemployed
persons has decreased by 1.1 million. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult women (3.6 percent) and
Whites (3.5 percent) declined in October. The jobless rates for adult men (3.8 percent),
teenagers (13.7 percent), Blacks (7.5 percent), Asians (3.1 percent), and Hispanics
(4.8 percent) showed little change. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

In October, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was
little changed at 1.6 million and accounted for 24.8 percent of the unemployed. (See
table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate decreased by 0.4 percentage point to 62.7 percent in
October but has shown little movement on net over the past 12 months. The employment-
population ratio declined by 0.2 percentage point over the month to 60.2 percent, after
increasing by 0.3 percentage point in September. The employment-population ratio is up
by 0.5 percentage point over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to
as involuntary part-time workers) declined by 369,000 to 4.8 million in October. These
individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time
because their hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find full-time
jobs. Over the past 12 months, the number of involuntary part-time workers has decreased
by 1.1 million. (See table A-8.)

In October, 1.5 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little
changed from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a
job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they
had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 524,000 discouraged workers in October,
essentially unchanged from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.)
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe
no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.0 million persons marginally attached
to the labor force in October had not searched for work for reasons such as school
attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 261,000 in October, after changing little
in September (+18,000). Employment in food services and drinking places increased sharply
over the month, mostly offsetting a decline in September that largely reflected the impact
of Hurricanes Irma and Harvey. In October, employment also increased in professional and
business services, manufacturing, and health care. (See table B-1.)

Employment in food services and drinking places rose sharply in October (+89,000),
following a decrease of 98,000 in September when many workers were off payrolls due to
the hurricanes.

Professional and business services added 50,000 jobs in October, about in line with its
average monthly gain over the prior 12 months.

Manufacturing employment rose by 24,000 in October, with job gains in computer and
electronic products (+5,000) and chemicals (+4,000). Employment in fabricated metals
continued to trend up (+4,000). Manufacturing has added 156,000 jobs since a recent
employment low in November 2016.

Health care added 22,000 jobs in October. Employment in ambulatory health care services
continued to trend up over the month (+16,000). Health care has added an average of
24,000 jobs per month thus far in 2017, compared with an average gain of 32,000 per
month in 2016.

Employment in other major industries, including mining, construction, wholesale trade,
retail trade, transportation and warehousing, information, financial activities, and
government, changed little in October.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at
34.4 hours in October. In manufacturing, the workweek increased by 0.2 hour to 41.0
hours, and overtime edged up by 0.1 hour to 3.5 hours. The average workweek for
production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged up by
0.1 hour to 33.7 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

Average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls, at $26.53,
were little changed in October (-1 cent), after rising by 12 cents in September.
Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 63 cents, or
2.4 percent. In October, average hourly earnings of private-sector production
and nonsupervisory employees, at $22.22, were little changed (-1 cent). (See
tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for August was revised up from
+169,000 to +208,000, and the change for September was revised up from -33,000
to +18,000. With these revisions, employment was 90,000 higher than previously
reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from
the recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged
162,000 over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for November is scheduled to be released on Friday,
December 8, 2017, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).


 ____________________________________________________________________________________
|                                                                                    |
|        Conversion to the 2017 North American Industry Classification System        |
|                                                                                    |
|With the release of January 2018 data on February 2, 2018, the establishment survey |
|will revise the basis for industry classification from the 2012 North American      |
|Industry Classification System (NAICS) to 2017 NAICS. The conversion to 2017 NAICS  |
|will result in minor revisions reflecting content changes within the mining and     |
|logging, retail trade, information, financial activities, and professional and      |
|business services sectors. Additionally, some smaller industries will be combined   |
|within the mining and logging, durable goods, retail trade, and information sectors.|
|Several industry titles and descriptions also will be updated.                      |
|                                                                                    |
|Approximately 4 percent of employment will be reclassified into different industries|
|as a result of the revision. Details of new, discontinued, and combined industries  |
|due to the 2017 NAICS update, as well as changes due to the annual benchmarking     |
|process, will be available on January 5, 2018.                                      |
|                                                                                    |
|For more information on the 2017 NAICS update, visit www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/. |
|____________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Change from:
Sept.
2017-
Oct.
2017

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,321 255,357 255,562 255,766 204

Civilian labor force

159,643 160,571 161,146 160,381 -765

Participation rate

62.8 62.9 63.1 62.7 -0.4

Employed

151,902 153,439 154,345 153,861 -484

Employment-population ratio

59.7 60.1 60.4 60.2 -0.2

Unemployed

7,740 7,132 6,801 6,520 -281

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.4 4.2 4.1 -0.1

Not in labor force

94,678 94,785 94,417 95,385 968

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.8 4.4 4.2 4.1 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.6 4.1 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.3 4.0 3.9 3.6 -0.3

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

15.6 13.6 12.9 13.7 0.8

White

4.3 3.9 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Black or African American

8.6 7.7 7.0 7.5 0.5

Asian

3.4 4.0 3.7 3.1 -0.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.7 5.2 5.1 4.8 -0.3

Total, 25 years and over

4.0 3.8 3.5 3.3 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

7.4 6.0 6.5 5.7 -0.8

High school graduates, no college

5.5 5.1 4.3 4.3 0.0

Some college or associate degree

3.8 3.8 3.6 3.7 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.6 2.4 2.3 2.0 -0.3

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,749 3,523 3,359 3,227 -132

Job leavers

945 804 738 742 4

Reentrants

2,339 2,132 2,079 2,006 -73

New entrants

791 656 669 629 -40

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,393 2,222 2,226 2,129 -97

5 to 14 weeks

2,273 2,015 1,874 1,942 68

15 to 26 weeks

1,167 1,055 963 853 -110

27 weeks and over

1,964 1,740 1,733 1,621 -112

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,850 5,255 5,122 4,753 -369

Slack work or business conditions

3,481 3,266 3,121 2,952 -169

Could only find part-time work

2,093 1,645 1,733 1,629 -104

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,765 21,447 21,011 20,923 -88

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,700 1,548 1,569 1,535 -

Discouraged workers

487 448 421 524 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

124 208 18 261

Total private

132 184 15 252

Goods-producing

9 73 18 33

Mining and logging

-2 5 1 -2

Construction

16 24 11 11

Manufacturing

-5 44 6 24

Durable goods(1)

-1 34 7 19

Motor vehicles and parts

2.5 23.4 -2.5 3.4

Nondurable goods

-4 10 -1 5

Private service-providing

123 111 -3 219

Wholesale trade

3.7 5.1 9.1 5.7

Retail trade

-6.8 -2.4 6.7 -8.3

Transportation and warehousing

11.8 6.7 25.1 8.4

Utilities

0.3 -0.2 0.4 0.0

Information

-6 0 -3 -1

Financial activities

6 10 13 5

Professional and business services(1)

55 47 22 50

Temporary help services

12.6 8.7 7.8 18.3

Education and health services(1)

45 46 22 41

Health care and social assistance

41.6 19.3 7.8 33.5

Leisure and hospitality

11 -9 -102 106

Other services

3 8 3 12

Government

-8 24 3 9

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

183 185 121 162

Total private

166 175 111 150

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.6 49.5 49.5 49.5

Total private women employees

48.2 48.1 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.3 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.4 34.4 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$25.90 $26.42 $26.54 $26.53

Average weekly earnings

$890.96 $908.85 $912.98 $912.63

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

105.9 107.4 107.4 107.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 0.2 0.0 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

131.2 135.6 136.3 136.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.2 0.5 0.1

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (261 industries)

60.9 63.4 61.1 59.6

Manufacturing (78 industries)

51.3 70.5 58.3 62.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 147,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 634,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 120,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-70,000 to +170,000 (50,000 +/- 120,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,321 255,562 255,766 254,321 254,957 255,151 255,357 255,562 255,766

Civilian labor force

159,783 161,049 160,465 159,643 160,145 160,494 160,571 161,146 160,381

Participation rate

62.8 63.0 62.7 62.8 62.8 62.9 62.9 63.1 62.7

Employed

152,335 154,494 154,223 151,902 153,168 153,513 153,439 154,345 153,861

Employment-population ratio

59.9 60.5 60.3 59.7 60.1 60.2 60.1 60.4 60.2

Unemployed

7,447 6,556 6,242 7,740 6,977 6,981 7,132 6,801 6,520

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.1 3.9 4.8 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.1

Not in labor force

94,539 94,513 95,301 94,678 94,813 94,657 94,785 94,417 95,385

Persons who currently want a job

5,613 5,415 4,938 5,889 5,431 5,420 5,844 5,628 5,185

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,889 123,516 123,617 122,889 123,215 123,311 123,413 123,516 123,617

Civilian labor force

84,991 85,516 85,236 84,994 84,992 84,989 85,137 85,520 85,230

Participation rate

69.2 69.2 69.0 69.2 69.0 68.9 69.0 69.2 68.9

Employed

80,966 82,119 81,875 80,717 81,290 81,273 81,310 81,883 81,659

Employment-population ratio

65.9 66.5 66.2 65.7 66.0 65.9 65.9 66.3 66.1

Unemployed

4,025 3,397 3,362 4,278 3,702 3,715 3,826 3,636 3,570

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.0 3.9 5.0 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.2

Not in labor force

37,898 37,999 38,380 37,895 38,223 38,323 38,277 37,996 38,387

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,401 115,020 115,120 114,401 114,721 114,817 114,918 115,020 115,120

Civilian labor force

82,065 82,633 82,455 81,967 81,975 82,108 82,252 82,569 82,340

Participation rate

71.7 71.8 71.6 71.6 71.5 71.5 71.6 71.8 71.5

Employed

78,538 79,662 79,530 78,232 78,707 78,830 78,847 79,377 79,231

Employment-population ratio

68.7 69.3 69.1 68.4 68.6 68.7 68.6 69.0 68.8

Unemployed

3,527 2,972 2,925 3,735 3,268 3,278 3,405 3,192 3,109

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.6 3.5 4.6 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

32,337 32,387 32,665 32,434 32,746 32,709 32,666 32,451 32,781

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

131,432 132,047 132,149 131,432 131,742 131,840 131,943 132,047 132,149

Civilian labor force

74,791 75,533 75,228 74,648 75,153 75,505 75,435 75,626 75,152

Participation rate

56.9 57.2 56.9 56.8 57.0 57.3 57.2 57.3 56.9

Employed

71,369 72,375 72,348 71,185 71,878 72,240 72,129 72,461 72,202

Employment-population ratio

54.3 54.8 54.7 54.2 54.6 54.8 54.7 54.9 54.6

Unemployed

3,423 3,158 2,880 3,463 3,274 3,265 3,306 3,165 2,950

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.2 3.8 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.2 3.9

Not in labor force

56,640 56,514 56,921 56,783 56,590 56,334 56,509 56,421 56,998

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,179 123,781 123,882 123,179 123,480 123,577 123,679 123,781 123,882

Civilian labor force

72,061 72,670 72,443 71,784 72,149 72,526 72,425 72,569 72,206

Participation rate

58.5 58.7 58.5 58.3 58.4 58.7 58.6 58.6 58.3

Employed

68,997 69,820 69,872 68,698 69,241 69,599 69,500 69,737 69,592

Employment-population ratio

56.0 56.4 56.4 55.8 56.1 56.3 56.2 56.3 56.2

Unemployed

3,064 2,849 2,571 3,085 2,907 2,927 2,925 2,831 2,615

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.9 3.5 4.3 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.6

Not in labor force

51,117 51,111 51,440 51,395 51,332 51,051 51,254 51,212 51,676

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,741 16,761 16,763 16,741 16,756 16,757 16,759 16,761 16,763

Civilian labor force

5,656 5,746 5,567 5,892 6,021 5,860 5,895 6,008 5,836

Participation rate

33.8 34.3 33.2 35.2 35.9 35.0 35.2 35.8 34.8

Employed

4,800 5,011 4,821 4,972 5,220 5,084 5,092 5,230 5,039

Employment-population ratio

28.7 29.9 28.8 29.7 31.2 30.3 30.4 31.2 30.1

Unemployed

856 735 746 920 801 775 803 778 797

Unemployment rate

15.1 12.8 13.4 15.6 13.3 13.2 13.6 12.9 13.7

Not in labor force

11,084 11,015 11,196 10,849 10,735 10,898 10,865 10,753 10,928

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

198,633 199,191 199,298 198,633 198,872 198,974 199,082 199,191 199,298

Civilian labor force

124,779 125,320 124,777 124,700 124,890 124,968 125,037 125,393 124,731

Participation rate

62.8 62.9 62.6 62.8 62.8 62.8 62.8 63.0 62.6

Employed

119,677 120,857 120,692 119,310 120,091 120,262 120,209 120,753 120,408

Employment-population ratio

60.3 60.7 60.6 60.1 60.4 60.4 60.4 60.6 60.4

Unemployed

5,102 4,463 4,085 5,391 4,799 4,706 4,828 4,641 4,324

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.6 3.3 4.3 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.5

Not in labor force

73,854 73,871 74,520 73,932 73,982 74,006 74,046 73,797 74,567

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,359 65,412 65,318 65,259 65,225 65,141 65,262 65,339 65,216

Participation rate

72.0 71.8 71.7 71.9 71.8 71.6 71.7 71.7 71.6

Employed

62,886 63,378 63,380 62,592 62,886 62,904 62,961 63,143 63,121

Employment-population ratio

69.3 69.6 69.6 68.9 69.2 69.2 69.2 69.3 69.3

Unemployed

2,473 2,034 1,937 2,668 2,339 2,238 2,301 2,196 2,095

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.1 3.0 4.1 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,014 55,501 55,149 54,852 55,015 55,393 55,282 55,476 55,009

Participation rate

57.6 57.9 57.5 57.4 57.5 57.9 57.7 57.9 57.4

Employed

52,993 53,577 53,515 52,774 53,100 53,420 53,286 53,551 53,318

Employment-population ratio

55.5 55.9 55.8 55.3 55.5 55.8 55.7 55.9 55.6

Unemployed

2,021 1,924 1,635 2,078 1,915 1,973 1,996 1,925 1,691

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.5 3.0 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,406 4,407 4,310 4,589 4,650 4,433 4,492 4,578 4,506

Participation rate

35.7 35.7 34.9 37.2 37.7 35.9 36.4 37.1 36.5

Employed

3,799 3,902 3,798 3,944 4,105 3,938 3,962 4,058 3,968

Employment-population ratio

30.8 31.6 30.8 31.9 33.3 31.9 32.1 32.9 32.2

Unemployed

608 505 513 645 545 495 530 520 538

Unemployment rate

13.8 11.5 11.9 14.1 11.7 11.2 11.8 11.4 11.9

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,028 32,333 32,370 32,028 32,226 32,260 32,296 32,333 32,370

Civilian labor force

19,904 20,227 20,264 19,801 20,002 20,096 20,092 20,232 20,144

Participation rate

62.1 62.6 62.6 61.8 62.1 62.3 62.2 62.6 62.2

Employed

18,222 18,842 18,744 18,104 18,576 18,617 18,544 18,819 18,636

Employment-population ratio

56.9 58.3 57.9 56.5 57.6 57.7 57.4 58.2 57.6

Unemployed

1,682 1,385 1,520 1,696 1,426 1,479 1,548 1,413 1,508

Unemployment rate

8.4 6.8 7.5 8.6 7.1 7.4 7.7 7.0 7.5

Not in labor force

12,124 12,106 12,106 12,228 12,224 12,163 12,204 12,101 12,225

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,046 9,315 9,276 9,011 9,084 9,163 9,205 9,279 9,225

Participation rate

67.8 69.0 68.6 67.5 67.5 68.0 68.2 68.7 68.2

Employed

8,284 8,708 8,580 8,223 8,510 8,522 8,487 8,654 8,530

Employment-population ratio

62.1 64.5 63.4 61.6 63.3 63.3 62.9 64.1 63.1

Unemployed

762 606 696 789 574 641 718 625 694

Unemployment rate

8.4 6.5 7.5 8.8 6.3 7.0 7.8 6.7 7.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,160 10,153 10,291 10,079 10,143 10,170 10,127 10,149 10,200

Participation rate

62.8 62.2 63.0 62.3 62.4 62.5 62.1 62.2 62.4

Employed

9,419 9,549 9,609 9,367 9,455 9,511 9,474 9,541 9,542

Employment-population ratio

58.3 58.5 58.8 57.9 58.1 58.4 58.1 58.5 58.4

Unemployed

740 604 682 712 689 660 653 608 657

Unemployment rate

7.3 5.9 6.6 7.1 6.8 6.5 6.4 6.0 6.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

698 759 697 710 774 763 760 804 720

Participation rate

27.7 30.2 27.8 28.2 30.8 30.4 30.3 32.0 28.7

Employed

518 584 555 515 611 585 583 624 564

Employment-population ratio

20.6 23.3 22.1 20.5 24.3 23.3 23.2 24.9 22.5

Unemployed

180 174 142 196 163 178 178 180 156

Unemployment rate

25.8 23.0 20.4 27.5 21.1 23.3 23.4 22.4 21.7

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,344 15,483 15,466 15,344 15,367 15,290 15,341 15,483 15,466

Civilian labor force

9,717 9,973 9,794 9,797 9,792 9,789 9,886 10,005 9,871

Participation rate

63.3 64.4 63.3 63.8 63.7 64.0 64.4 64.6 63.8

Employed

9,393 9,619 9,507 9,462 9,443 9,418 9,489 9,638 9,569

Employment-population ratio

61.2 62.1 61.5 61.7 61.4 61.6 61.9 62.3 61.9

Unemployed

324 353 288 334 350 370 397 366 302

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.5 2.9 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.1

Not in labor force

5,627 5,510 5,671 5,547 5,575 5,502 5,455 5,478 5,594

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,011 41,579 41,665 41,011 41,323 41,404 41,492 41,579 41,665

Civilian labor force

26,954 27,599 27,328 26,931 27,290 27,487 27,322 27,633 27,323

Participation rate

65.7 66.4 65.6 65.7 66.0 66.4 65.8 66.5 65.6

Employed

25,482 26,270 26,077 25,389 25,974 26,078 25,914 26,229 26,002

Employment-population ratio

62.1 63.2 62.6 61.9 62.9 63.0 62.5 63.1 62.4

Unemployed

1,472 1,329 1,250 1,542 1,315 1,409 1,408 1,404 1,321

Unemployment rate

5.5 4.8 4.6 5.7 4.8 5.1 5.2 5.1 4.8

Not in labor force

14,057 13,980 14,337 14,080 14,034 13,917 14,170 13,946 14,342

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,902 15,124 14,987 14,861 14,976 15,085 15,017 15,119 14,958

Participation rate

80.6 80.8 79.9 80.4 80.5 80.9 80.4 80.8 79.7

Employed

14,208 14,584 14,459 14,118 14,414 14,425 14,298 14,507 14,379

Employment-population ratio

76.8 77.9 77.1 76.4 77.5 77.4 76.5 77.5 76.6

Unemployed

694 540 528 743 562 660 719 612 579

Unemployment rate

4.7 3.6 3.5 5.0 3.8 4.4 4.8 4.0 3.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,917 11,251 11,158 10,912 11,030 11,176 11,091 11,256 11,158

Participation rate

58.3 59.2 58.6 58.3 58.4 59.1 58.5 59.2 58.6

Employed

10,344 10,630 10,639 10,314 10,451 10,580 10,570 10,643 10,612

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.9 55.9 55.1 55.4 55.9 55.8 56.0 55.7

Unemployed

573 621 519 598 579 596 521 613 545

Unemployment rate

5.2 5.5 4.6 5.5 5.3 5.3 4.7 5.4 4.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,135 1,224 1,184 1,158 1,284 1,227 1,214 1,258 1,207

Participation rate

29.8 31.7 30.6 30.5 33.4 31.9 31.5 32.6 31.2

Employed

930 1,056 980 958 1,110 1,073 1,046 1,078 1,011

Employment-population ratio

24.5 27.4 25.3 25.2 28.9 27.9 27.1 27.9 26.1

Unemployed

205 168 204 200 174 154 169 179 196

Unemployment rate

18.0 13.7 17.2 17.3 13.6 12.5 13.9 14.3 16.3

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,450 10,611 10,141 10,657 10,304 10,570 10,565 10,575 10,302

Participation rate

44.4 46.4 45.3 45.3 45.3 47.3 46.2 46.3 46.1

Employed

9,753 9,985 9,624 9,872 9,649 9,842 9,933 9,891 9,717

Employment-population ratio

41.5 43.7 43.0 42.0 42.4 44.0 43.4 43.3 43.5

Unemployed

698 626 516 784 655 728 632 684 585

Unemployment rate

6.7 5.9 5.1 7.4 6.4 6.9 6.0 6.5 5.7

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,168 36,147 35,788 35,871 35,850 35,648 35,931 35,904 35,586

Participation rate

58.3 57.8 57.2 57.8 57.8 57.7 57.6 57.4 56.9

Employed

34,314 34,676 34,358 33,912 34,196 34,038 34,106 34,367 34,062

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.4 54.9 54.6 55.2 55.1 54.7 54.9 54.5

Unemployed

1,854 1,471 1,431 1,959 1,653 1,610 1,825 1,537 1,523

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.1 4.0 5.5 4.6 4.5 5.1 4.3 4.3

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

38,196 37,583 37,987 38,119 37,579 37,475 37,388 37,659 37,785

Participation rate

66.5 65.9 66.2 66.4 65.6 65.4 65.9 66.1 65.8

Employed

36,773 36,249 36,636 36,666 36,150 36,077 35,978 36,306 36,402

Employment-population ratio

64.1 63.6 63.8 63.9 63.1 63.0 63.4 63.7 63.4

Unemployed

1,423 1,333 1,351 1,453 1,429 1,397 1,411 1,353 1,383

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

54,179 55,711 55,728 54,064 55,283 55,696 55,595 55,655 55,587

Participation rate

74.3 74.2 73.9 74.1 73.9 73.7 73.9 74.2 73.7

Employed

52,801 54,464 54,604 52,683 53,982 54,378 54,250 54,395 54,453

Employment-population ratio

72.4 72.6 72.4 72.2 72.2 72.0 72.1 72.5 72.2

Unemployed

1,378 1,247 1,124 1,380 1,302 1,318 1,345 1,260 1,134

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.2 2.0 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,808 20,493 18,789 18,457 2,019 2,036

Civilian labor force

10,678 10,184 9,362 8,958 1,316 1,227

Participation rate

51.3 49.7 49.8 48.5 65.2 60.2

Employed

10,218 9,906 8,976 8,705 1,242 1,201

Employment-population ratio

49.1 48.3 47.8 47.2 61.5 59.0

Unemployed

460 278 387 253 74 26

Unemployment rate

4.3 2.7 4.1 2.8 5.6 2.1

Not in labor force

10,130 10,309 9,427 9,499 703 809

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,932 4,161 3,258 3,421 674 740

Civilian labor force

3,258 3,316 2,730 2,816 528 500

Participation rate

82.9 79.7 83.8 82.3 78.3 67.5

Employed

3,105 3,196 2,601 2,713 504 483

Employment-population ratio

79.0 76.8 79.8 79.3 74.7 65.3

Unemployed

153 120 130 104 24 16

Unemployment rate

4.7 3.6 4.7 3.7 4.5 3.3

Not in labor force

674 845 527 605 147 241

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,381 3,365 2,847 2,863 534 502

Civilian labor force

2,701 2,618 2,290 2,253 411 365

Participation rate

79.9 77.8 80.4 78.7 77.1 72.7

Employed

2,603 2,570 2,217 2,214 386 356

Employment-population ratio

77.0 76.4 77.9 77.3 72.3 70.9

Unemployed

98 49 73 40 25 9

Unemployment rate

3.6 1.9 3.2 1.8 6.1 2.5

Not in labor force

680 746 557 610 122 137

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,373 7,964 8,073 7,676 300 288

Civilian labor force

2,089 1,779 2,005 1,708 85 71

Participation rate

25.0 22.3 24.8 22.3 28.2 24.6

Employed

1,998 1,730 1,921 1,659 77 71

Employment-population ratio

23.9 21.7 23.8 21.6 25.7 24.6

Unemployed

91 50 84 50 8 0

Unemployment rate

4.4 2.8 4.2 2.9 8.9 -

Not in labor force

6,284 6,185 6,068 5,968 215 217

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,122 5,003 4,611 4,497 511 506

Civilian labor force

2,629 2,471 2,337 2,179 292 291

Participation rate

51.3 49.4 50.7 48.5 57.2 57.5

Employed

2,512 2,411 2,237 2,120 275 291

Employment-population ratio

49.0 48.2 48.5 47.2 53.8 57.5

Unemployed

117 60 100 59 17 0

Unemployment rate

4.5 2.4 4.3 2.7 5.9 0.1

Not in labor force

2,493 2,532 2,274 2,318 219 215

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

224,455 225,807 99,594 100,389 124,862 125,418

Civilian labor force

147,077 148,074 74,701 75,253 72,376 72,821

Participation rate

65.5 65.6 75.0 75.0 58.0 58.1

Employed

140,458 142,414 71,247 72,312 69,211 70,101

Employment-population ratio

62.6 63.1 71.5 72.0 55.4 55.9

Unemployed

6,619 5,660 3,454 2,941 3,165 2,719

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.8 4.6 3.9 4.4 3.7

Not in labor force

77,379 77,734 24,893 25,136 52,486 52,598

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,227 30,255 224,094 225,511

Civilian labor force

6,052 6,360 153,730 154,105

Participation rate

20.0 21.0 68.6 68.3

Employed

5,454 5,877 146,881 148,346

Employment-population ratio

18.0 19.4 65.5 65.8

Unemployed

598 482 6,849 5,760

Unemployment rate

9.9 7.6 4.5 3.7

Not in labor force

24,175 23,895 70,363 71,406

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,662 2,805 77,065 77,085

Participation rate

34.1 36.5 82.5 82.4

Employed

2,406 2,588 73,511 74,130

Employment-population ratio

30.8 33.7 78.7 79.2

Unemployed

256 217 3,555 2,955

Unemployment rate

9.6 7.8 4.6 3.8

Not in labor force

5,143 4,872 16,362 16,478

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,265 2,347 68,387 68,608

Participation rate

28.5 30.2 70.8 71.0

Employed

1,991 2,133 65,381 66,080

Employment-population ratio

25.1 27.4 67.7 68.3

Unemployed

275 214 3,006 2,528

Unemployment rate

12.1 9.1 4.4 3.7

Not in labor force

5,675 5,433 28,222 28,086

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,125 1,208 8,278 8,412

Participation rate

7.8 8.2 24.3 23.9

Employed

1,057 1,156 7,989 8,136

Employment-population ratio

7.3 7.8 23.5 23.1

Unemployed

68 51 289 276

Unemployment rate

6.0 4.2 3.5 3.3

Not in labor force

13,357 13,590 25,779 26,841

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,785 41,668 20,153 20,191 21,632 21,476

Civilian labor force

27,060 27,374 15,485 15,774 11,575 11,600

Participation rate

64.8 65.7 76.8 78.1 53.5 54.0

Employed

25,965 26,343 14,913 15,296 11,051 11,046

Employment-population ratio

62.1 63.2 74.0 75.8 51.1 51.4

Unemployed

1,096 1,031 572 477 524 554

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.8 3.7 3.0 4.5 4.8

Not in labor force

14,725 14,294 4,668 4,417 10,057 9,877

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

212,536 214,099 102,736 103,426 109,799 110,673

Civilian labor force

132,722 133,091 69,506 69,463 63,216 63,629

Participation rate

62.4 62.2 67.7 67.2 57.6 57.5

Employed

126,370 127,880 66,053 66,578 60,317 61,302

Employment-population ratio

59.5 59.7 64.3 64.4 54.9 55.4

Unemployed

6,352 5,211 3,453 2,884 2,899 2,327

Unemployment rate

4.8 3.9 5.0 4.2 4.6 3.7

Not in labor force

79,814 81,007 33,230 33,963 46,583 47,044

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,408 2,367 2,559 2,317 2,457 2,317 2,339 2,307 2,460

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,575 1,616 1,814 1,493 1,611 1,582 1,584 1,547 1,722

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

810 732 721 817 818 708 722 746 739

Unpaid family workers

23 19 24 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

149,927 152,126 151,664 149,604 150,848 151,208 151,143 152,093 151,357

Wage and salary workers(1)

141,123 143,214 142,564 140,806 141,989 142,714 142,466 143,106 142,285

Government

20,746 20,873 20,753 20,698 20,868 21,052 21,080 20,947 20,737

Private industries

120,377 122,341 121,811 120,073 121,053 121,627 121,366 122,188 121,582

Private households

757 583 571 - - - - - -

Other industries

119,620 121,758 121,240 119,325 120,457 120,964 120,712 121,570 121,018

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,748 8,871 9,067 8,731 8,753 8,475 8,602 8,856 8,961

Unpaid family workers

57 42 33 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,648 4,818 4,553 5,850 5,326 5,282 5,255 5,122 4,753

Slack work or business conditions

3,321 2,908 2,762 3,481 3,286 3,161 3,266 3,121 2,952

Could only find part-time work

2,085 1,702 1,609 2,093 1,727 1,754 1,645 1,733 1,629

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,265 21,001 21,395 20,765 20,791 21,260 21,447 21,011 20,923

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,567 4,740 4,496 5,748 5,282 5,231 5,179 5,032 4,696

Slack work or business conditions

3,269 2,864 2,734 3,415 3,249 3,137 3,217 3,071 2,943

Could only find part-time work

2,079 1,682 1,594 2,082 1,720 1,739 1,633 1,713 1,613

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,930 20,677 21,034 20,455 20,443 20,909 21,087 20,689 20,604

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

152,335 154,494 154,223 151,902 153,168 153,513 153,439 154,345 153,861

16 to 19 years

4,800 5,011 4,821 4,972 5,220 5,084 5,092 5,230 5,039

16 to 17 years

1,659 2,036 1,903 1,665 1,931 1,816 1,918 1,983 1,944

18 to 19 years

3,141 2,975 2,918 3,283 3,285 3,265 3,165 3,229 3,079

20 years and over

147,535 149,482 149,402 146,930 147,949 148,429 148,347 149,114 148,823

20 to 24 years

13,895 14,108 14,180 13,889 13,992 14,199 14,209 14,235 14,216

25 years and over

133,640 135,375 135,222 133,100 134,010 134,349 134,125 134,845 134,651

25 to 54 years

98,806 99,686 99,584 98,442 98,666 98,906 98,559 99,222 99,178

25 to 34 years

34,015 34,793 34,755 33,934 34,404 34,500 34,310 34,655 34,664

35 to 44 years

31,758 32,232 32,254 31,604 31,913 31,889 31,824 32,035 32,082

45 to 54 years

33,034 32,661 32,574 32,904 32,349 32,517 32,425 32,533 32,432

55 years and over

34,834 35,688 35,638 34,658 35,344 35,442 35,566 35,622 35,472

Men, 16 years and over

80,966 82,119 81,875 80,717 81,290 81,273 81,310 81,883 81,659

16 to 19 years

2,429 2,457 2,345 2,485 2,583 2,443 2,463 2,506 2,428

16 to 17 years

743 932 857 754 893 798 883 903 895

18 to 19 years

1,685 1,525 1,488 1,725 1,677 1,643 1,574 1,609 1,532

20 years and over

78,538 79,662 79,530 78,232 78,707 78,830 78,847 79,377 79,231

20 to 24 years

7,105 7,263 7,248 7,122 7,240 7,351 7,369 7,326 7,296

25 years and over

71,433 72,398 72,282 71,128 71,488 71,551 71,470 72,002 71,939

25 to 54 years

52,815 53,247 53,242 52,627 52,657 52,692 52,531 52,956 53,018

25 to 34 years

18,273 18,684 18,655 18,223 18,425 18,473 18,420 18,599 18,598

35 to 44 years

17,126 17,361 17,414 17,038 17,226 17,129 17,085 17,255 17,314

45 to 54 years

17,416 17,202 17,173 17,365 17,006 17,091 17,026 17,102 17,106

55 years and over

18,618 19,152 19,040 18,502 18,831 18,858 18,939 19,047 18,921

Women, 16 years and over

71,369 72,375 72,348 71,185 71,878 72,240 72,129 72,461 72,202

16 to 19 years

2,372 2,554 2,477 2,487 2,637 2,641 2,629 2,724 2,611

16 to 17 years

916 1,104 1,046 911 1,038 1,018 1,036 1,080 1,049

18 to 19 years

1,456 1,450 1,430 1,558 1,608 1,621 1,591 1,620 1,547

20 years and over

68,997 69,820 69,872 68,698 69,241 69,599 69,500 69,737 69,592

20 to 24 years

6,790 6,844 6,932 6,767 6,752 6,849 6,841 6,909 6,920

25 years and over

62,207 62,976 62,940 61,972 62,522 62,798 62,655 62,842 62,711

25 to 54 years

45,991 46,440 46,342 45,815 46,010 46,214 46,027 46,267 46,160

25 to 34 years

15,741 16,110 16,100 15,710 15,980 16,027 15,890 16,056 16,066

35 to 44 years

14,632 14,871 14,840 14,566 14,687 14,760 14,739 14,780 14,768

45 to 54 years

15,618 15,460 15,401 15,539 15,343 15,427 15,399 15,431 15,326

55 years and over

16,216 16,536 16,598 16,157 16,513 16,584 16,628 16,576 16,551

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,445 45,846 45,886 45,331 45,913 45,574 45,327 45,646 45,826

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,608 35,696 36,072 35,404 35,803 35,946 35,475 35,571 35,873

Women who maintain families(2)

10,034 9,673 9,829 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

124,588 127,235 127,055 124,190 125,975 125,921 125,755 126,690 126,667

Part-time workers(4)

27,747 27,259 27,168 27,770 27,142 27,535 27,569 27,650 27,235

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,050 7,359 7,409 7,758 7,639 7,589 7,346 7,366 7,188

Percent of total employed

5.3 4.8 4.8 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,704 5,974 6,171 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,558 9,602 9,789 9,549 9,571 9,183 9,325 9,603 9,700

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,740 6,801 6,520 4.8 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.1

16 to 19 years

920 778 797 15.6 13.3 13.2 13.6 12.9 13.7

16 to 17 years

412 313 334 19.8 13.9 15.5 14.7 13.6 14.7

18 to 19 years

511 472 466 13.5 13.2 11.6 13.1 12.8 13.1

20 years and over

6,820 6,023 5,723 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.7

20 to 24 years

1,270 1,160 1,105 8.4 7.5 7.4 7.1 7.5 7.2

25 years and over

5,561 4,877 4,608 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.3

25 to 54 years

4,255 3,684 3,501 4.1 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.6 3.4

25 to 34 years

1,816 1,588 1,602 5.1 4.4 4.6 4.9 4.4 4.4

35 to 44 years

1,284 1,051 1,003 3.9 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0

45 to 54 years

1,155 1,045 895 3.4 3.6 3.2 3.6 3.1 2.7

55 years and over

1,329 1,175 1,128 3.7 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

Men, 16 years and over

4,278 3,636 3,570 5.0 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.2

16 to 19 years

543 444 462 17.9 14.4 15.2 14.6 15.1 16.0

16 to 17 years

212 164 186 22.0 14.4 17.9 15.0 15.4 17.2

18 to 19 years

334 289 286 16.2 14.8 13.4 14.7 15.2 15.7

20 years and over

3,735 3,192 3,109 4.6 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.8

20 to 24 years

769 692 639 9.7 8.4 8.0 7.6 8.6 8.0

25 years and over

2,977 2,518 2,468 4.0 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.4 3.3

25 to 54 years

2,229 1,907 1,830 4.1 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.5 3.3

25 to 34 years

985 842 849 5.1 4.5 4.5 5.0 4.3 4.4

35 to 44 years

664 519 502 3.8 3.2 3.5 3.3 2.9 2.8

45 to 54 years

580 545 479 3.2 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.1 2.7

55 years and over

748 611 638 3.9 3.0 2.9 3.2 3.1 3.3

Women, 16 years and over

3,463 3,165 2,950 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.2 3.9

16 to 19 years

377 333 335 13.2 12.2 11.3 12.7 10.9 11.4

16 to 17 years

199 149 148 18.0 13.5 13.5 14.3 12.1 12.4

18 to 19 years

178 184 180 10.2 11.3 9.7 11.5 10.2 10.4

20 years and over

3,085 2,831 2,615 4.3 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.6

20 to 24 years

502 468 466 6.9 6.4 6.7 6.6 6.3 6.3

25 years and over

2,584 2,359 2,140 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.3

25 to 54 years

2,026 1,777 1,671 4.2 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.5

25 to 34 years

832 745 754 5.0 4.2 4.6 4.8 4.4 4.5

35 to 44 years

620 532 501 4.1 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3

45 to 54 years

575 500 416 3.6 3.9 3.2 3.6 3.1 2.6

55 years and over

580 571 496 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.1 3.3 2.9

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,300 1,059 944 2.8 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.0

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,087 915 887 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.5 2.4

Women who maintain families(2)

652 672 578 6.1 6.9 6.8 7.2 6.5 5.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

6,283 5,556 5,230 4.8 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.2 4.0

Part-time workers(4)

1,466 1,230 1,282 5.0 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,352 2,992 2,859 3,749 3,444 3,378 3,523 3,359 3,227

On temporary layoff

673 568 561 994 900 1,044 1,032 895 842

Not on temporary layoff

2,679 2,424 2,298 2,755 2,545 2,334 2,490 2,464 2,384

Permanent job losers

1,856 1,742 1,648 1,906 1,758 1,676 1,799 1,759 1,709

Persons who completed temporary jobs

823 682 650 848 787 658 691 705 676

Job leavers

975 805 763 945 820 757 804 738 742

Reentrants

2,374 2,127 2,040 2,339 2,043 2,083 2,132 2,079 2,006

New entrants

746 631 580 791 682 703 656 669 629

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

45.0 45.6 45.8 47.9 49.3 48.8 49.5 49.1 48.9

On temporary layoff

9.0 8.7 9.0 12.7 12.9 15.1 14.5 13.1 12.8

Not on temporary layoff

36.0 37.0 36.8 35.2 36.4 33.7 35.0 36.0 36.1

Job leavers

13.1 12.3 12.2 12.1 11.7 10.9 11.3 10.8 11.2

Reentrants

31.9 32.4 32.7 29.9 29.2 30.1 30.0 30.4 30.4

New entrants

10.0 9.6 9.3 10.1 9.8 10.2 9.2 9.8 9.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.1 1.9 1.8 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.0

Job leavers

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.5 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

New entrants

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,218 2,227 1,958 2,393 2,305 2,133 2,222 2,226 2,129

5 to 14 weeks

2,142 1,740 1,839 2,273 1,933 2,017 2,015 1,874 1,942

15 weeks and over

3,087 2,589 2,445 3,130 2,612 2,742 2,795 2,696 2,474

15 to 26 weeks

1,157 889 847 1,167 948 957 1,055 963 853

27 weeks and over

1,930 1,700 1,598 1,964 1,664 1,785 1,740 1,733 1,621

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

27.9 26.9 27.1 27.0 24.7 24.9 24.4 26.8 26.0

Median duration, in weeks

10.5 10.3 10.1 10.2 9.6 10.6 10.5 10.3 9.9

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

29.8 34.0 31.4 30.7 33.6 30.9 31.6 32.8 32.5

5 to 14 weeks

28.8 26.5 29.5 29.2 28.2 29.3 28.7 27.6 29.7

15 weeks and over

41.5 39.5 39.2 40.1 38.1 39.8 39.7 39.7 37.8

15 to 26 weeks

15.5 13.6 13.6 15.0 13.8 13.9 15.0 14.2 13.0

27 weeks and over

25.9 25.9 25.6 25.2 24.3 25.9 24.7 25.5 24.8

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017

Total, 16 years and over(1)

152,335 154,223 7,447 6,242 4.7 3.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,766 61,062 1,506 1,285 2.5 2.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,922 25,620 646 498 2.5 1.9

Professional and related occupations

34,844 35,442 860 787 2.4 2.2

Service occupations

27,013 27,075 1,749 1,444 6.1 5.1

Sales and office occupations

33,538 33,633 1,474 1,363 4.2 3.9

Sales and related occupations

15,757 15,795 730 656 4.4 4.0

Office and administrative support occupations

17,781 17,838 744 707 4.0 3.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,993 14,324 873 724 5.9 4.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,037 1,222 78 67 7.0 5.2

Construction and extraction occupations

7,933 8,183 594 495 7.0 5.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,023 4,920 202 163 3.9 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,025 18,129 1,078 833 5.6 4.4

Production occupations

8,410 8,575 488 311 5.5 3.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,614 9,554 590 522 5.8 5.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,447 6,242 4.7 3.9

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,689 4,810 4.5 3.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

46 39 5.8 4.8

Construction

512 418 5.7 4.5

Manufacturing

693 501 4.3 3.2

Durable goods

432 314 4.3 3.2

Nondurable goods

260 187 4.3 3.2

Wholesale and retail trade

898 849 4.4 4.2

Transportation and utilities

251 284 3.7 4.1

Information

114 105 4.1 3.9

Financial activities

264 214 2.7 2.2

Professional and business services

924 715 5.5 4.1

Education and health services

795 677 3.4 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

928 796 6.7 5.8

Other services

263 210 4.0 3.1

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

85 79 5.3 4.3

Government workers

470 462 2.2 2.2

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

456 311 4.5 3.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 1.6 1.5 2.0 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.5

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.1 1.9 1.8 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.0

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.7 4.1 3.9 4.8 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.1

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

5.0 4.3 4.2 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.4

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.7 5.0 4.8 5.9 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.1 5.0

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.2 8.0 7.6 9.5 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.3 7.9

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2017

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,539 95,301 37,898 38,380 56,640 56,921

Persons who currently want a job

5,613 4,938 2,633 2,287 2,979 2,650

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,700 1,535 880 837 820 698

Discouraged workers(2)

487 524 288 335 199 190

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,213 1,010 592 503 621 508

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,050 7,409 3,878 3,681 4,172 3,727

Percent of total employed

5.3 4.8 4.8 4.5 5.8 5.2

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,373 4,167 2,423 2,256 1,950 1,912

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,115 1,770 706 587 1,409 1,183

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

329 295 155 226 174 70

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,185 1,124 581 598 604 526

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)
Change from:
Sept.2017 - Oct.2017(p)

Total nonfarm

145,969 146,587 146,964 148,006 145,006 146,731 146,749 147,010 261

Total private

123,312 125,313 124,669 125,272 122,698 124,382 124,397 124,649 252

Goods-producing

19,970 20,447 20,346 20,355 19,727 20,077 20,095 20,128 33

Mining and logging

671 729 727 726 659 718 719 717 -2

Logging

52.4 51.0 50.7 50.2 50.7 49.1 49.2 48.8 -0.4

Mining

618.4 677.6 676.6 675.4 608.6 668.8 669.7 667.7 -2.0

Oil and gas extraction

177.8 179.6 180.4 180.1 177.5 178.6 180.3 179.9 -0.4

Mining, except oil and gas

182.2 190.8 189.5 189.1 179.0 186.2 186.7 186.7 0.0

Coal mining

49.5 51.8 52.0 52.2 49.3 51.5 51.9 51.9 0.0

Metal ore mining

39.1 39.5 39.0 38.9 39.4 39.2 39.1 39.0 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

93.6 99.5 98.5 98.0 90.3 95.5 95.7 95.7 0.0

Support activities for mining

258.4 307.2 306.7 306.2 252.1 304.0 302.7 301.1 -1.6

Construction

6,950 7,174 7,124 7,130 6,743 6,908 6,919 6,930 11

Construction of buildings

1,534.3 1,571.8 1,561.3 1,564.6 1,500.7 1,527.9 1,527.0 1,530.9 3.9

Residential building

767.6 783.3 774.1 784.7 749.4 763.3 759.4 766.6 7.2

Nonresidential building

766.7 788.5 787.2 779.9 751.3 764.6 767.6 764.3 -3.3

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,007.2 1,040.0 1,034.9 1,031.1 946.4 974.1 973.0 970.0 -3.0

Specialty trade contractors

4,408.7 4,561.8 4,527.6 4,533.9 4,295.5 4,405.6 4,418.9 4,429.3 10.4

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,918.5 2,010.5 1,991.1 1,988.0 1,868.6 1,939.4 1,943.8 1,949.9 6.1

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,490.2 2,551.3 2,536.5 2,545.9 2,426.9 2,466.2 2,475.1 2,479.4 4.3

Manufacturing

12,349 12,544 12,495 12,499 12,325 12,451 12,457 12,481 24

Durable goods

7,700 7,802 7,781 7,800 7,692 7,772 7,779 7,798 19

Wood products

394.5 398.8 393.9 397.5 392.5 395.2 394.0 396.8 2.8

Nonmetallic mineral products

416.0 424.5 421.7 422.4 409.5 415.8 415.4 416.1 0.7

Primary metals

376.0 386.2 384.5 385.8 376.2 385.9 384.6 385.9 1.3

Fabricated metal products

1,419.1 1,448.4 1,451.0 1,455.6 1,418.9 1,446.6 1,451.5 1,455.5 4.0

Machinery

1,070.5 1,100.2 1,095.0 1,092.3 1,070.6 1,095.4 1,095.3 1,093.7 -1.6

Computer and electronic products

1,039.9 1,045.5 1,043.4 1,048.9 1,041.4 1,040.8 1,045.1 1,049.8 4.7

Computer and peripheral equipment

162.9 166.0 166.4 168.7 163.6 164.9 166.5 168.5 2.0

Communications equipment

84.7 85.4 84.8 85.9 84.8 85.2 85.2 86.0 0.8

Semiconductors and electronic components

362.1 361.4 361.2 363.5 362.6 359.6 362.4 364.1 1.7

Electronic instruments

394.6 398.9 397.4 397.5 394.7 397.5 397.5 398.1 0.6

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

35.6 33.8 33.6 33.3 35.6 33.7 33.5 33.2 -0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

381.5 393.0 391.9 394.2 381.8 391.8 392.3 394.7 2.4

Transportation equipment(1)

1,619.5 1,619.7 1,619.1 1,617.1 1,620.3 1,618.5 1,617.4 1,620.5 3.1

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

939.5 943.2 941.5 942.4 940.1 942.3 939.8 943.2 3.4

Furniture and related products

389.7 393.6 390.3 392.8 388.9 391.2 391.7 392.7 1.0

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

593.0 592.3 590.5 593.2 592.1 591.2 591.4 591.9 0.5

Nondurable goods

4,649 4,742 4,714 4,699 4,633 4,679 4,678 4,683 5

Food manufacturing

1,574.9 1,647.1 1,634.0 1,618.7 1,564.7 1,603.9 1,607.7 1,608.0 0.3

Textile mills

112.5 109.4 110.4 111.1 112.9 109.8 110.7 111.1 0.4

Textile product mills

114.3 111.4 110.4 109.3 113.5 111.0 109.6 108.8 -0.8

Apparel

130.6 119.2 118.0 118.9 129.3 119.3 117.3 117.9 0.6

Paper and paper products

367.5 369.8 369.4 365.6 368.1 368.0 368.9 366.6 -2.3

Printing and related support activities

443.7 439.1 435.6 436.5 442.9 438.8 436.0 436.0 0.0

Petroleum and coal products

113.1 115.6 114.4 115.2 110.6 112.8 112.6 112.7 0.1

Chemicals

808.6 822.5 816.3 818.3 811.6 819.8 817.9 821.5 3.6

Plastics and rubber products

695.1 709.7 707.8 705.4 698.6 706.1 707.2 708.3 1.1

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

288.3 298.1 297.8 300.1 280.6 289.9 289.6 292.3 2.7

Private service-providing

103,342 104,866 104,323 104,917 102,971 104,305 104,302 104,521 219

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,370 27,351 27,307 27,487 27,331 27,386 27,428 27,434 6

Wholesale trade

5,889.9 5,952.4 5,939.6 5,955.4 5,881.2 5,929.4 5,938.5 5,944.2 5.7

Durable goods

2,929.4 2,971.3 2,967.5 2,969.6 2,927.9 2,957.0 2,966.9 2,969.0 2.1

Nondurable goods

2,062.5 2,065.5 2,063.7 2,077.0 2,057.0 2,059.9 2,062.5 2,067.0 4.5

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

898.0 915.6 908.4 908.8 896.3 912.5 909.1 908.2 -0.9

Retail trade

15,884.3 15,812.1 15,691.0 15,827.7 15,880.6 15,816.8 15,823.5 15,815.2 -8.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,996.3 2,029.1 2,019.3 2,025.9 1,993.4 2,015.4 2,015.9 2,024.1 8.2

Automobile dealers

1,294.7 1,309.5 1,306.3 1,312.7 1,291.9 1,304.6 1,305.2 1,310.0 4.8

Other motor vehicle dealers

150.4 163.3 155.8 154.3 150.7 156.1 154.1 155.6 1.5

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

551.2 556.3 557.2 558.9 550.8 554.8 556.6 558.5 1.9

Furniture and home furnishings stores

479.6 478.8 478.3 487.0 474.0 483.4 484.2 484.0 -0.2

Electronics and appliance stores

515.3 494.8 495.5 501.0 510.5 503.6 502.3 499.1 -3.2

Building material and garden supply stores

1,255.0 1,294.6 1,278.8 1,284.4 1,281.0 1,292.1 1,300.4 1,305.9 5.5

Food and beverage stores

3,100.1 3,099.5 3,069.7 3,072.4 3,097.4 3,079.2 3,073.7 3,071.4 -2.3

Health and personal care stores

1,054.0 1,041.8 1,038.9 1,046.5 1,053.1 1,047.3 1,047.8 1,047.4 -0.4

Gasoline stations

935.4 954.6 948.2 946.6 933.0 940.1 942.1 943.6 1.5

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,333.1 1,320.9 1,285.2 1,306.0 1,339.9 1,323.0 1,321.2 1,315.4 -5.8

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

613.2 593.4 593.5 604.0 619.0 604.5 604.6 605.6 1.0

General merchandise stores

3,194.7 3,103.0 3,085.0 3,134.6 3,198.6 3,132.0 3,131.9 3,123.8 -8.1

Department stores

1,307.0 1,256.0 1,245.3 1,276.0 1,318.1 1,278.5 1,279.7 1,277.4 -2.3

Other general merchandise stores

1,887.7 1,847.0 1,839.7 1,858.6 1,880.6 1,853.5 1,852.1 1,846.3 -5.8

Miscellaneous store retailers

853.9 839.9 832.7 839.8 839.2 828.6 830.1 825.3 -4.8

Nonstore retailers

553.7 561.7 565.9 579.5 541.5 567.6 569.3 569.6 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,040.0 5,031.2 5,123.7 5,151.4 5,012.8 5,087.4 5,112.5 5,120.9 8.4

Air transportation

477.7 493.3 492.7 496.0 478.3 490.4 492.9 496.4 3.5

Rail transportation

213.3 206.9 206.0 206.0 213.2 206.5 205.5 205.8 0.3

Water transportation

65.4 67.2 66.5 63.8 65.5 64.5 65.5 63.7 -1.8

Truck transportation

1,477.2 1,490.1 1,488.2 1,490.3 1,460.4 1,471.6 1,473.6 1,473.5 -0.1

Transit and ground passenger transportation

488.5 411.5 497.0 498.8 472.6 471.1 484.5 481.7 -2.8

Pipeline transportation

48.9 47.1 46.6 46.8 48.9 47.1 46.8 46.7 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

35.4 47.3 42.7 38.3 34.7 36.4 36.4 37.1 0.7

Support activities for transportation

665.8 671.9 673.6 677.0 660.3 669.7 671.4 671.3 -0.1

Couriers and messengers

625.5 642.0 652.7 663.6 647.2 674.7 678.6 684.3 5.7

Warehousing and storage

942.3 953.9 957.7 970.8 931.7 955.4 957.3 960.4 3.1

Utilities

555.5 555.4 552.4 552.3 556.2 552.8 553.2 553.2 0.0

Information

2,777 2,733 2,708 2,719 2,780 2,720 2,717 2,716 -1

Publishing industries, except Internet

730.6 721.2 717.4 717.3 728.8 718.7 717.1 715.9 -1.2

Motion picture and sound recording industries

426.9 412.1 390.9 401.8 431.3 402.7 399.2 402.3 3.1

Broadcasting, except Internet

269.5 257.7 260.1 262.3 268.8 258.7 260.1 260.7 0.6

Telecommunications

785.4 759.6 761.8 757.5 786.0 760.2 762.6 757.6 -5.0

Data processing, hosting and related services

301.9 304.6 304.2 306.5 301.9 304.3 304.4 305.5 1.1

Other information services

263.0 277.3 273.3 273.4 262.8 275.2 273.4 273.6 0.2

Financial activities

8,337 8,534 8,482 8,486 8,330 8,465 8,478 8,483 5

Finance and insurance

6,173.2 6,287.2 6,262.6 6,262.2 6,172.6 6,262.7 6,270.1 6,264.3 -5.8

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.5 18.8 18.7 18.7 18.4 18.7 18.7 18.7 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,622.1 2,679.6 2,656.6 2,656.7 2,626.0 2,666.2 2,661.3 2,662.4 1.1

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,698.4 1,726.2 1,711.5 1,711.9 1,703.8 1,718.8 1,716.8 1,718.8 2.0

Commercial banking

1,305.2 1,322.4 1,310.0 1,310.2 1,308.2 1,317.3 1,313.8 1,314.8 1.0

Nondepository credit intermediation

618.1 631.9 628.9 630.3 617.1 629.8 629.1 629.2 0.1

Activities related to credit intermediation

305.6 321.5 316.2 314.5 305.1 317.7 315.4 314.4 -1.0

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

933.4 958.6 950.6 952.2 930.0 949.1 949.8 949.7 -0.1

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,599.2 2,630.2 2,636.7 2,634.6 2,598.2 2,628.7 2,640.3 2,633.5 -6.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,163.9 2,247.0 2,218.9 2,223.7 2,157.7 2,202.0 2,207.4 2,218.3 10.9

Real estate

1,581.8 1,627.9 1,608.9 1,617.4 1,575.9 1,604.5 1,606.8 1,612.4 5.6

Rental and leasing services

558.6 595.4 586.9 583.1 558.3 574.1 577.3 582.7 5.4

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.5 23.7 23.1 23.2 23.5 23.4 23.3 23.2 -0.1

Professional and business services

20,516 20,932 20,876 21,056 20,334 20,798 20,820 20,870 50

Professional and technical services

8,959.2 9,158.8 9,094.9 9,176.5 8,987.9 9,174.8 9,184.1 9,198.3 14.2

Legal services

1,125.1 1,129.3 1,123.9 1,128.5 1,122.7 1,126.7 1,127.3 1,126.2 -1.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services

936.9 945.3 937.1 946.8 1,002.6 1,007.7 1,007.9 1,008.1 0.2

Architectural and engineering services

1,427.9 1,480.6 1,466.4 1,477.6 1,420.4 1,463.6 1,466.0 1,469.8 3.8

Specialized design services

143.6 139.6 139.6 142.3 142.3 139.8 141.0 140.6 -0.4

Computer systems design and related services

2,028.5 2,073.4 2,057.4 2,078.5 2,019.9 2,063.9 2,065.5 2,069.2 3.7

Management and technical consulting services

1,417.7 1,457.9 1,450.7 1,468.5 1,407.4 1,451.2 1,452.3 1,456.0 3.7

Scientific research and development services

686.7 714.8 707.1 709.5 688.8 709.8 711.7 712.4 0.7

Advertising and related services

493.4 491.4 485.6 491.1 491.1 488.7 486.9 488.3 1.4

Other professional and technical services

699.4 726.5 727.1 733.7 692.8 723.5 725.5 727.6 2.1

Management of companies and enterprises

2,247.6 2,294.0 2,283.3 2,283.7 2,249.2 2,283.0 2,283.3 2,286.8 3.5

Administrative and waste services

9,308.8 9,479.3 9,497.8 9,596.1 9,097.0 9,340.2 9,353.0 9,385.1 32.1

Administrative and support services

8,899.1 9,058.1 9,079.9 9,177.4 8,688.7 8,925.6 8,937.5 8,967.3 29.8

Office administrative services

502.9 527.2 528.4 532.5 502.0 526.5 529.3 532.1 2.8

Facilities support services

141.9 145.4 146.4 147.2 141.3 145.3 145.6 146.0 0.4

Employment services(1)

3,730.9 3,742.8 3,794.1 3,878.8 3,600.2 3,718.3 3,724.4 3,748.2 23.8

Temporary help services

3,068.3 3,066.4 3,115.8 3,192.7 2,953.5 3,049.0 3,056.8 3,075.1 18.3

Business support services

934.9 905.6 912.0 928.8 921.9 915.2 915.6 914.6 -1.0

Travel arrangement and reservation services

216.7 219.2 214.6 213.8 217.1 216.4 214.4 214.0 -0.4

Investigation and security services

910.5 921.5 926.1 930.0 900.8 918.4 919.4 920.6 1.2

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,139.5 2,266.3 2,226.5 2,209.8 2,088.9 2,156.0 2,158.9 2,161.2 2.3

Other support services

321.8 330.1 331.8 336.5 316.6 329.6 329.8 330.6 0.8

Waste management and remediation services

409.7 421.2 417.9 418.7 408.3 414.6 415.5 417.8 2.3

Education and health services

22,987 22,857 23,138 23,456 22,790 23,191 23,213 23,254 41

Educational services

3,750.9 3,336.5 3,634.9 3,846.1 3,590.6 3,658.1 3,672.4 3,680.0 7.6

Health care and social assistance

19,236.1 19,520.9 19,502.7 19,609.7 19,199.5 19,532.6 19,540.4 19,573.9 33.5

Health care(3)

15,560.9 15,813.1 15,801.4 15,862.2 15,530.1 15,790.0 15,809.2 15,830.7 21.5

Ambulatory health care services

7,178.8 7,337.0 7,339.6 7,397.5 7,152.0 7,331.5 7,352.5 7,368.6 16.1

Offices of physicians

2,556.1 2,600.5 2,605.6 2,623.4 2,546.2 2,600.2 2,608.6 2,613.1 4.5

Offices of dentists

935.6 945.3 941.4 948.5 932.7 942.6 945.3 946.1 0.8

Offices of other health practitioners

877.0 909.9 906.1 909.4 873.5 906.9 909.2 906.9 -2.3

Outpatient care centers

871.8 913.2 915.0 922.7 870.6 913.5 917.2 922.0 4.8

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

265.3 260.6 260.6 262.2 265.3 260.3 261.1 261.2 0.1

Home health care services

1,381.9 1,412.7 1,414.6 1,429.3 1,375.8 1,414.0 1,414.7 1,421.4 6.7

Other ambulatory health care services

291.1 294.8 296.3 302.0 287.9 294.0 296.2 297.9 1.7

Hospitals

5,062.0 5,127.2 5,134.8 5,134.5 5,058.3 5,123.2 5,127.9 5,130.7 2.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,320.1 3,348.9 3,327.0 3,330.2 3,319.8 3,335.3 3,328.8 3,331.4 2.6

Nursing care facilities

1,645.3 1,643.0 1,629.0 1,632.0 1,643.5 1,637.4 1,628.8 1,631.3 2.5

Residential mental health facilities

614.3 622.1 620.3 620.2 614.9 620.5 620.8 621.2 0.4

Community care facilities for the elderly

894.8 913.8 911.4 911.7 896.0 909.6 912.6 912.6 0.0

Other residential care facilities

165.7 170.0 166.3 166.3 165.5 167.8 166.5 166.3 -0.2

Social assistance

3,675.2 3,707.8 3,701.3 3,747.5 3,669.4 3,742.6 3,731.2 3,743.2 12.0

Individual and family services

2,254.8 2,307.3 2,286.5 2,319.5 2,258.5 2,310.4 2,307.1 2,323.2 16.1

Emergency and other relief services

163.4 167.1 167.9 168.3 164.0 167.7 168.9 169.1 0.2

Vocational rehabilitation services

337.8 341.9 335.7 334.9 338.8 337.6 336.4 335.2 -1.2

Child day care services

919.2 891.5 911.2 924.8 908.1 926.9 918.9 915.7 -3.2

Leisure and hospitality

15,647 16,654 16,053 15,927 15,695 15,975 15,873 15,979 106

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,195.8 2,570.6 2,322.9 2,241.0 2,240.2 2,278.1 2,269.6 2,285.2 15.6

Performing arts and spectator sports

457.5 489.1 484.9 470.6 452.5 460.7 464.7 464.6 -0.1

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

162.5 181.6 171.0 170.1 162.0 168.1 169.1 169.0 -0.1

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,575.8 1,899.9 1,667.0 1,600.3 1,625.7 1,649.3 1,635.8 1,651.6 15.8

Accommodation and food services

13,451.6 14,083.1 13,730.5 13,685.5 13,454.3 13,696.5 13,603.8 13,694.1 90.3

Accommodation

1,931.1 2,093.3 1,997.1 1,948.2 1,943.8 1,954.5 1,959.8 1,961.6 1.8

Food services and drinking places

11,520.5 11,989.8 11,733.4 11,737.3 11,510.5 11,742.0 11,644.0 11,732.5 88.5

Other services

5,708 5,805 5,759 5,786 5,711 5,770 5,773 5,785 12

Repair and maintenance

1,290.1 1,299.6 1,294.8 1,299.6 1,289.3 1,296.6 1,296.1 1,298.9 2.8

Personal and laundry services

1,459.4 1,497.9 1,491.9 1,503.7 1,458.9 1,493.4 1,493.4 1,502.0 8.6

Membership associations and organizations

2,958.0 3,007.5 2,972.4 2,982.7 2,962.7 2,979.5 2,983.3 2,984.4 1.1

Government

22,657 21,274 22,295 22,734 22,308 22,349 22,352 22,361 9

Federal

2,802.0 2,813.0 2,811.0 2,808.0 2,817.0 2,808.0 2,809.0 2,814.0 5.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,192.5 2,203.6 2,198.7 2,192.9 2,201.7 2,192.1 2,192.2 2,195.3 3.1

U.S. Postal Service

609.9 609.6 612.2 614.7 615.6 616.3 617.0 618.9 1.9

State government

5,251.0 4,800.0 5,134.0 5,249.0 5,092.0 5,094.0 5,089.0 5,091.0 2.0

State government education

2,579.7 2,123.1 2,471.5 2,590.1 2,414.4 2,428.5 2,426.6 2,426.1 -0.5

State government, excluding education

2,670.8 2,677.3 2,662.1 2,658.9 2,677.9 2,665.4 2,662.8 2,664.5 1.7

Local government

14,604.0 13,661.0 14,350.0 14,677.0 14,399.0 14,447.0 14,454.0 14,456.0 2.0

Local government education

8,197.7 7,003.4 7,880.5 8,248.1 7,952.9 7,979.5 7,986.0 7,991.2 5.2

Local government, excluding education

6,405.9 6,657.5 6,469.4 6,428.4 6,446.4 6,467.4 6,467.6 6,465.0 -2.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.4 34.4 34.4

Goods-producing

40.4 40.3 40.2 40.4

Mining and logging

43.9 44.9 45.2 45.3

Construction

39.2 38.9 38.8 39.0

Manufacturing

40.8 40.8 40.8 41.0

Durable goods

41.3 41.3 41.3 41.4

Nondurable goods

40.0 39.9 39.9 40.1

Private service-providing

33.2 33.2 33.2 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 34.4 34.4 34.5

Wholesale trade

38.9 39.1 39.1 39.1

Retail trade

30.8 30.9 30.9 31.0

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.8 38.7 38.9

Utilities

43.1 41.6 42.4 42.0

Information

35.9 36.1 36.3 36.4

Financial activities

37.3 37.5 37.5 37.4

Professional and business services

36.1 36.0 36.0 36.0

Education and health services

32.9 32.9 32.9 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 26.0 26.0 26.1

Other services

32.0 31.8 31.7 31.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5

Durable goods

3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5

Nondurable goods

3.2 3.4 3.4 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)

Total private

$25.90 $26.42 $26.54 $26.53 $890.96 $908.85 $912.98 $912.63

Goods-producing

27.26 27.60 27.77 27.77 1,101.30 1,112.28 1,116.35 1,121.91

Mining and logging

32.45 32.58 32.58 32.72 1,424.56 1,462.84 1,472.62 1,482.22

Construction

28.42 28.95 29.17 29.06 1,114.06 1,126.16 1,131.80 1,133.34

Manufacturing

26.35 26.58 26.72 26.77 1,075.08 1,084.46 1,090.18 1,097.57

Durable goods

27.67 27.82 27.99 28.04 1,142.77 1,148.97 1,155.99 1,160.86

Nondurable goods

24.08 24.43 24.55 24.58 963.20 974.76 979.55 985.66

Private service-providing

25.58 26.14 26.26 26.24 849.26 867.85 871.83 873.79

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.52 22.88 22.95 22.90 770.18 787.07 789.48 790.05

Wholesale trade

29.78 30.08 30.23 29.98 1,158.44 1,176.13 1,181.99 1,172.22

Retail trade

17.95 18.26 18.25 18.28 552.86 564.23 563.93 566.68

Transportation and warehousing

23.44 23.98 24.05 24.07 907.13 930.42 930.74 936.32

Utilities

39.07 38.86 39.43 39.53 1,683.92 1,616.58 1,671.83 1,660.26

Information

37.20 38.44 38.47 38.45 1,335.48 1,387.68 1,396.46 1,399.58

Financial activities

32.49 33.34 33.45 33.57 1,211.88 1,250.25 1,254.38 1,255.52

Professional and business services

31.04 31.79 31.98 32.00 1,120.54 1,144.44 1,151.28 1,152.00

Education and health services

25.96 26.42 26.49 26.46 854.08 869.22 871.52 870.53

Leisure and hospitality

15.05 15.48 15.55 15.56 391.30 402.48 404.30 406.12

Other services

23.22 23.77 23.93 23.94 743.04 755.89 758.58 758.90

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2017 - Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2017 - Oct.
2017(p)

Total private

105.9 107.4 107.4 107.6 0.2 131.2 135.6 136.3 136.5 0.1

Goods-producing

90.8 92.2 92.0 92.6 0.7 111.9 115.0 115.5 116.3 0.7

Mining and logging

90.9 101.3 102.1 102.1 0.0 118.4 132.5 133.6 134.1 0.4

Construction

91.1 92.6 92.5 93.2 0.8 112.5 116.5 117.3 117.6 0.3

Manufacturing

90.5 91.4 91.4 92.1 0.8 110.9 113.0 113.6 114.6 0.9

Durable goods

89.4 90.4 90.5 90.9 0.4 109.9 111.7 112.4 113.2 0.7

Nondurable goods

92.5 93.2 93.1 93.7 0.6 113.0 115.5 116.0 116.9 0.8

Private service-providing

110.0 111.4 111.4 112.0 0.5 136.7 141.5 142.2 142.8 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

101.7 102.5 102.6 102.9 0.3 123.2 126.2 126.8 126.9 0.1

Wholesale trade

99.8 101.2 101.3 101.4 0.1 124.1 127.0 127.8 126.9 -0.7

Retail trade

99.4 99.3 99.3 99.6 0.3 117.9 119.8 119.8 120.4 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

111.0 113.0 113.2 114.0 0.7 132.1 137.5 138.2 139.3 0.8

Utilities

103.7 99.5 101.5 100.5 -1.0 133.9 127.7 132.2 131.3 -0.7

Information

91.1 89.7 90.1 90.3 0.2 120.7 122.7 123.4 123.6 0.2

Financial activities

101.8 104.0 104.1 103.9 -0.2 129.0 135.2 135.9 136.1 0.1

Professional and business services

115.5 117.8 117.9 118.2 0.3 145.2 151.7 152.7 153.2 0.3

Education and health services

122.4 124.6 124.7 124.9 0.2 152.9 158.3 158.9 159.0 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

116.4 118.5 117.8 119.0 1.0 141.4 148.0 147.7 149.4 1.2

Other services

105.4 105.8 105.5 105.7 0.2 134.1 137.8 138.4 138.7 0.2

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)

Total nonfarm

71,947 72,660 72,637 72,767 49.6 49.5 49.5 49.5

Total private

59,152 59,807 59,797 59,918 48.2 48.1 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,326 4,412 4,422 4,431 21.9 22.0 22.0 22.0

Mining and logging

98 100 100 99 14.9 13.9 13.9 13.8

Construction

846 876 882 883 12.5 12.7 12.7 12.7

Manufacturing

3,382 3,436 3,440 3,449 27.4 27.6 27.6 27.6

Durable goods

1,804 1,819 1,822 1,826 23.5 23.4 23.4 23.4

Nondurable goods

1,578 1,617 1,618 1,623 34.1 34.6 34.6 34.7

Private service-providing

54,826 55,395 55,375 55,487 53.2 53.1 53.1 53.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,108 10,965 10,970 10,957 40.6 40.0 40.0 39.9

Wholesale trade

1,742.2 1,747.3 1,751.5 1,755.2 29.6 29.5 29.5 29.5

Retail trade

8,004.4 7,854.0 7,849.5 7,836.2 50.4 49.7 49.6 49.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,232.0 1,236.3 1,242.0 1,238.1 24.6 24.3 24.3 24.2

Utilities

129.6 127.6 127.0 127.0 23.3 23.1 23.0 23.0

Information

1,117 1,081 1,076 1,076 40.2 39.7 39.6 39.6

Financial activities

4,732 4,784 4,782 4,780 56.8 56.5 56.4 56.3

Professional and business services

9,135 9,345 9,361 9,379 44.9 44.9 45.0 44.9

Education and health services

17,570 17,862 17,878 17,892 77.1 77.0 77.0 76.9

Leisure and hospitality

8,166 8,308 8,253 8,340 52.0 52.0 52.0 52.2

Other services

2,998 3,050 3,055 3,063 52.5 52.9 52.9 52.9

Government

12,795 12,853 12,840 12,849 57.4 57.5 57.4 57.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)

Total private

100,987 102,489 102,493 102,727

Goods-producing

14,150 14,422 14,436 14,451

Mining and logging

455 515 518 513

Construction

5,061 5,172 5,178 5,175

Manufacturing

8,634 8,735 8,740 8,763

Durable goods

5,281 5,334 5,336 5,356

Nondurable goods

3,353 3,401 3,404 3,407

Private service-providing

86,837 88,067 88,057 88,276

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,963 23,087 23,142 23,163

Wholesale trade

4,711.5 4,751.6 4,757.2 4,765.5

Retail trade

13,465.4 13,474.6 13,497.9 13,495.5

Transportation and warehousing

4,337.8 4,416.5 4,441.3 4,457.0

Utilities

448.0 444.5 445.3 444.9

Information

2,243 2,193 2,186 2,189

Financial activities

6,470 6,587 6,595 6,600

Professional and business services

16,632 16,978 16,986 17,026

Education and health services

19,989 20,386 20,398 20,429

Leisure and hospitality

13,812 14,061 13,971 14,085

Other services

4,728 4,775 4,779 4,784

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.6 33.6 33.7

Goods-producing

41.2 41.3 41.1 41.2

Mining and logging

45.5 45.5 46.1 45.9

Construction

39.6 39.6 39.4 39.4

Manufacturing

42.0 42.0 41.9 42.0

Durable goods

42.4 42.4 42.3 42.4

Nondurable goods

41.2 41.5 41.3 41.3

Private service-providing

32.3 32.4 32.4 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.5 33.8 33.8 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.8 39.0 38.9 39.0

Retail trade

29.6 30.1 30.2 30.4

Transportation and warehousing

38.6 38.4 38.2 38.4

Utilities

43.5 42.2 42.6 42.4

Information

35.7 35.6 35.9 35.9

Financial activities

36.9 36.9 36.9 36.9

Professional and business services

35.4 35.4 35.4 35.5

Education and health services

32.1 32.2 32.2 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.7 24.7 24.7

Other services

30.8 30.8 30.6 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.4 4.4 4.4 4.5

Durable goods

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.7

Nondurable goods

4.2 4.3 4.2 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)

Total private

$21.72 $22.14 $22.23 $22.22 $729.79 $743.90 $746.93 $748.81

Goods-producing

22.79 23.22 23.33 23.31 938.95 958.99 958.86 960.37

Mining and logging

27.20 27.74 27.68 27.73 1,237.60 1,262.17 1,276.05 1,272.81

Construction

26.28 26.80 27.03 26.88 1,040.69 1,061.28 1,064.98 1,059.07

Manufacturing

20.61 20.93 20.99 21.06 865.62 879.06 879.48 884.52

Durable goods

21.63 21.93 22.00 22.06 917.11 929.83 930.60 935.34

Nondurable goods

18.96 19.32 19.37 19.44 781.15 801.78 799.98 802.87

Private service-providing

21.50 21.91 22.00 21.99 694.45 709.88 712.80 714.68

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.09 19.40 19.48 19.48 639.52 655.72 658.42 660.37

Wholesale trade

24.39 24.76 24.89 24.86 946.33 965.64 968.22 969.54

Retail trade

15.02 15.34 15.39 15.38 444.59 461.73 464.78 467.55

Transportation and warehousing

21.03 21.45 21.53 21.61 811.76 823.68 822.45 829.82

Utilities

35.93 35.89 36.26 36.11 1,562.96 1,514.56 1,544.68 1,531.06

Information

30.30 30.69 30.80 30.82 1,081.71 1,092.56 1,105.72 1,106.44

Financial activities

26.38 26.66 26.70 26.77 973.42 983.75 985.23 987.81

Professional and business services

25.64 26.20 26.32 26.31 907.66 927.48 931.73 934.01

Education and health services

22.66 23.09 23.16 23.13 727.39 743.50 745.75 744.79

Leisure and hospitality

12.97 13.40 13.46 13.46 321.66 330.98 332.46 332.46

Other services

19.50 20.05 20.15 20.19 600.60 617.54 616.59 619.83

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2017 - Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017(p)
Oct.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2017 - Oct.
2017(p)

Total private

113.1 114.7 114.7 115.3 0.5 164.1 169.8 170.5 171.3 0.5

Goods-producing

89.1 91.0 90.7 91.0 0.3 124.3 129.4 129.5 129.9 0.3

Mining and logging

110.0 124.5 126.9 125.1 -1.4 174.0 200.9 204.3 201.8 -1.2

Construction

100.3 102.5 102.1 102.1 0.0 142.4 148.4 149.1 148.2 -0.6

Manufacturing

83.2 84.2 84.1 84.5 0.5 112.2 115.3 115.4 116.4 0.9

Durable goods

84.2 85.0 84.8 85.3 0.6 113.6 116.4 116.5 117.5 0.9

Nondurable goods

81.4 83.2 82.8 82.9 0.1 109.1 113.5 113.4 113.9 0.4

Private service-providing

119.5 121.5 121.5 122.2 0.6 176.1 182.6 183.3 184.2 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.2 108.8 109.0 109.5 0.5 146.0 150.5 151.5 152.1 0.4

Wholesale trade

107.7 109.1 109.0 109.5 0.5 154.7 159.2 159.8 160.3 0.3

Retail trade

100.9 102.7 103.2 103.8 0.6 129.9 135.0 136.1 136.9 0.6

Transportation and warehousing

126.0 127.7 127.7 128.8 0.9 168.1 173.7 174.4 176.6 1.3

Utilities

99.7 95.9 97.0 96.5 -0.5 149.5 143.7 146.8 145.4 -1.0

Information

91.4 89.1 89.6 89.7 0.1 137.1 135.4 136.6 136.8 0.1

Financial activities

112.4 114.4 114.6 114.6 0.0 182.4 187.7 188.2 188.8 0.3

Professional and business services

132.0 134.7 134.8 135.5 0.5 201.3 210.0 211.1 212.1 0.5

Education and health services

136.8 140.0 140.0 140.3 0.2 204.6 213.3 214.1 214.1 0.0

Leisure and hospitality

125.5 127.2 126.4 127.4 0.8 184.8 193.6 193.2 194.8 0.8

Other services

102.1 103.1 102.6 103.0 0.4 145.1 150.7 150.6 151.5 0.6

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: November 03, 2017