Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until                  USDL-18-1240
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, August 3, 2018

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- JULY 2018


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 157,000 in July, and the unemployment rate edged down 
to 3.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment increased in 
professional and business services, in manufacturing, and in health care and social assistance. 

Household Survey Data

In July, the unemployment rate edged down by 0.1 percentage point to 3.9 percent, following an 
increase in June. The number of unemployed persons declined by 284,000 to 6.3 million in July. 
Both measures were down over the year, by 0.4 percentage point and 676,000, respectively. 
(See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.4 percent) and Whites 
(3.4 percent) declined in July. The jobless rates for adult women (3.7 percent), teenagers 
(13.1 percent), Blacks (6.6 percent), Asians (3.1 percent), and Hispanics (4.5 percent) showed 
little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of reentrants to the labor force decreased by 287,000 in July 
to 1.8 million, following an increase in June. (Reentrants are persons who previously worked 
but were not in the labor force prior to beginning their job search.) (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was essentially 
unchanged at 1.4 million in July and accounted for 22.7 percent of the unemployed. (See table 
A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 62.9 percent in July, was unchanged over the month and 
over the year. The employment-population ratio, at 60.5 percent, was little changed in July but 
has increased by 0.3 percentage point over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as 
involuntary part-time workers) was little changed in July, at 4.6 million, but was down by 
669,000 over the year. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were 
working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time 
jobs. (See table A-8.)

In July, 1.5 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little different from 
a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor 
force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 
months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 
weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 512,000 discouraged workers in July, little changed 
from a year earlier. Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because 
they believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.0 million persons marginally 
attached to the labor force in July had not searched for work for reasons such as school 
attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 157,000 in July, compared with an average monthly 
gain of 203,000 over the prior 12 months. In July, job gains occurred in professional and 
business services, in manufacturing, and in health care and social assistance. (See table B-1.)

Employment in professional and business services increased by 51,000 in July and has risen by
518,000 over the year. Over the month, employment edged up in temporary help services (+28,000) 
and in computer systems design and related services (+8,000).

Manufacturing added 37,000 jobs in July, with most of the gain in the durable goods component. 
Employment rose in transportation equipment (+13,000), machinery (+6,000), and electronic 
instruments (+2,000). Over the past 12 months, manufacturing has added 327,000 jobs.

In July, employment in health care and social assistance rose by 34,000. Health care employment 
continued to trend up over the month (+17,000) and has increased by 286,000 over the year. 
Hospitals added 7,000 jobs over the month. Within social assistance, individual and family 
services added 16,000 jobs in July and 77,000 jobs over the year.

Employment in food services and drinking places continued to trend up over the month (+26,000). 
Over the year, the industry has added 203,000 jobs. 

Construction employment continued to trend up in July (+19,000) and has increased by 308,000 
over the year.

In July, employment in retail trade changed little (+7,000). Job gains occurred in general 
merchandise stores (+14,000), clothing and clothing accessories stores (+10,000), and food and 
beverage stores (+8,000). These employment gains were offset by a decline of 32,000 in sporting 
goods, hobby, book, and music stores, reflecting job losses in hobby, toy, and game stores. 

Employment showed little or no change over the month in other major industries, including 
mining, wholesale trade, transportation and warehousing, information, financial activities, 
and government.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by 0.1 hour to 
34.5 hours in July, following an increase of 0.1 hour in June. In manufacturing, both the 
workweek and overtime were unchanged in July, at 40.9 hours and 3.5 hours, respectively. The 
average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
remained at 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In July, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 7 cents 
to $27.05. Over the year, average hourly earnings have increased by 71 cents, or 2.7 percent. 
Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 
3 cents to $22.65 in July. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for May was revised up from +244,000 to
+268,000, and the change for June was revised up from +213,000 to +248,000. With these 
revisions, employment gains in May and June combined were 59,000 more than previously 
reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and 
government agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of 
seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 224,000 per month over the 
last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for August is scheduled to be released on Friday, September 7, 2018, 
at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|                                                                                       |
|    2018 Preliminary Benchmark Revision to the Establishment Survey Data will be       |
|                            Released on August 22, 2018                                |
|                                                                                       |
|Each year, the establishment survey estimates are benchmarked to comprehensive counts  |
|of employment from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) for the month   |
|of March. These counts are derived from state unemployment insurance (UI) tax records  |
|that nearly all employers are required to file. On August 22, 2018, at 10:00 a.m.      |
|(EDT), the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) will release the preliminary estimate of   |
|the upcoming annual benchmark revision. This is the same day the first-quarter 2018    |
|data from QCEW will be issued. Preliminary benchmark revisions for all major industry  |
|sectors, as well as total nonfarm and total private levels, will be available on the   |
|BLS website at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesprelbmk.htm. The final benchmark revision     |
|will be issued with the publication of the January 2019 Employment Situation news      |
|release in February 2019.                                                              |
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category July
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Change from:
June
2018-
July
2018

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

255,151 257,454 257,642 257,843 201

Civilian labor force

160,467 161,539 162,140 162,245 105

Participation rate

62.9 62.7 62.9 62.9 0.0

Employed

153,511 155,474 155,576 155,965 389

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.4 60.4 60.5 0.1

Unemployed

6,956 6,065 6,564 6,280 -284

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.8 4.0 3.9 -0.1

Not in labor force

94,684 95,915 95,502 95,598 96

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.3 3.8 4.0 3.9 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.0 3.5 3.7 3.4 -0.3

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.0 3.3 3.7 3.7 0.0

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.3 12.8 12.6 13.1 0.5

White

3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 -0.1

Black or African American

7.4 5.9 6.5 6.6 0.1

Asian

3.8 2.1 3.2 3.1 -0.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.1 4.9 4.6 4.5 -0.1

Total, 25 years and over

3.6 3.0 3.3 3.2 -0.1

Less than a high school diploma

7.0 5.4 5.5 5.1 -0.4

High school graduates, no college

4.5 3.9 4.2 4.0 -0.2

Some college or associate degree

3.7 3.2 3.3 3.2 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.3 2.0 2.3 2.2 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,357 2,854 3,065 3,017 -48

Job leavers

760 852 811 844 33

Reentrants

2,086 1,882 2,086 1,799 -287

New entrants

697 571 578 591 13

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,135 2,034 2,227 2,091 -136

5 to 14 weeks

2,006 1,945 1,882 1,820 -62

15 to 26 weeks

1,022 977 836 971 135

27 weeks and over

1,757 1,189 1,478 1,435 -43

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,236 4,948 4,743 4,567 -176

Slack work or business conditions

3,148 3,004 3,042 2,877 -165

Could only find part-time work

1,734 1,480 1,447 1,431 -16

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,311 21,095 21,304 21,532 228

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,629 1,455 1,437 1,498 -

Discouraged workers

536 378 359 512 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

190 268 248 157

Total private

188 260 234 170

Goods-producing

-8 56 52 52

Mining and logging

2 3 6 -4

Construction

-6 30 13 19

Manufacturing

-4 23 33 37

Durable goods(1)

-12 14 30 32

Motor vehicles and parts

-24.6 -6.8 11.1 5.9

Nondurable goods

8 9 3 5

Private service-providing

196 204 182 118

Wholesale trade

6.6 9.0 8.0 12.3

Retail trade

-1.0 29.1 -20.2 7.1

Transportation and warehousing

3.7 15.8 18.9 -1.3

Utilities

-0.7 -1.7 -0.3 -2.8

Information

-3 3 1 0

Financial activities

13 12 10 -5

Professional and business services(1)

53 49 43 51

Temporary help services

13.1 -0.7 -7.5 27.9

Education and health services(1)

57 42 69 22

Health care and social assistance

48.9 35.9 37.2 33.5

Leisure and hospitality

63 35 34 40

Other services

5 11 18 -5

Government

2 8 14 -13

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

195 199 230 224

Total private

191 196 223 221

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.6 49.7 49.7

Total private women employees

48.1 48.2 48.3 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.5 34.6 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.34 $26.94 $26.98 $27.05

Average weekly earnings

$906.10 $929.43 $933.51 $933.23

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

107.4 109.4 110.0 109.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 0.2 0.5 -0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

135.3 141.0 141.8 142.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.6 0.6 0.1

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

64.5 70.2 67.4 64.0

Manufacturing (76 industries)

60.5 69.1 67.8 65.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 149,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 651,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

255,151 257,642 257,843 255,151 257,097 257,272 257,454 257,642 257,843

Civilian labor force

161,911 163,277 163,734 160,467 161,763 161,527 161,539 162,140 162,245

Participation rate

63.5 63.4 63.5 62.9 62.9 62.8 62.7 62.9 62.9

Employed

154,470 156,465 157,004 153,511 155,178 155,181 155,474 155,576 155,965

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.7 60.9 60.2 60.4 60.3 60.4 60.4 60.5

Unemployed

7,441 6,812 6,730 6,956 6,585 6,346 6,065 6,564 6,280

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9

Not in labor force

93,240 94,365 94,109 94,684 95,335 95,745 95,915 95,502 95,598

Persons who currently want a job

5,713 5,654 5,483 5,384 5,096 5,115 5,183 5,258 5,163

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,311 124,604 124,704 123,311 124,331 124,418 124,509 124,604 124,704

Civilian labor force

86,212 86,988 87,102 84,994 86,169 86,152 86,157 86,056 85,950

Participation rate

69.9 69.8 69.8 68.9 69.3 69.2 69.2 69.1 68.9

Employed

82,484 83,414 83,828 81,288 82,630 82,611 82,784 82,522 82,684

Employment-population ratio

66.9 66.9 67.2 65.9 66.5 66.4 66.5 66.2 66.3

Unemployed

3,728 3,573 3,274 3,706 3,539 3,541 3,373 3,534 3,266

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.1 3.8 4.4 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.1 3.8

Not in labor force

37,099 37,616 37,602 38,318 38,162 38,266 38,352 38,548 38,754

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,817 116,115 116,220 114,817 115,832 115,921 116,017 116,115 116,220

Civilian labor force

82,656 83,470 83,534 82,128 83,200 83,199 83,234 83,115 83,058

Participation rate

72.0 71.9 71.9 71.5 71.8 71.8 71.7 71.6 71.5

Employed

79,457 80,498 80,800 78,863 80,113 80,111 80,329 80,013 80,240

Employment-population ratio

69.2 69.3 69.5 68.7 69.2 69.1 69.2 68.9 69.0

Unemployed

3,199 2,972 2,734 3,266 3,087 3,088 2,905 3,102 2,818

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.6 3.3 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.4

Not in labor force

32,161 32,645 32,685 32,689 32,632 32,723 32,783 33,001 33,162

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

131,840 133,038 133,139 131,840 132,766 132,853 132,944 133,038 133,139

Civilian labor force

75,699 76,289 76,632 75,473 75,594 75,375 75,382 76,084 76,295

Participation rate

57.4 57.3 57.6 57.2 56.9 56.7 56.7 57.2 57.3

Employed

71,986 73,051 73,176 72,223 72,548 72,569 72,690 73,054 73,281

Employment-population ratio

54.6 54.9 55.0 54.8 54.6 54.6 54.7 54.9 55.0

Unemployed

3,713 3,238 3,456 3,250 3,046 2,805 2,692 3,030 3,013

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.2 4.5 4.3 4.0 3.7 3.6 4.0 3.9

Not in labor force

56,141 56,749 56,507 56,366 57,172 57,479 57,562 56,954 56,844

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,577 124,771 124,875 123,577 124,491 124,579 124,674 124,771 124,875

Civilian labor force

72,127 72,848 73,004 72,499 72,610 72,498 72,493 73,139 73,285

Participation rate

58.4 58.4 58.5 58.7 58.3 58.2 58.1 58.6 58.7

Employed

68,860 70,045 69,975 69,586 69,916 69,992 70,077 70,419 70,598

Employment-population ratio

55.7 56.1 56.0 56.3 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.4 56.5

Unemployed

3,267 2,802 3,028 2,912 2,695 2,506 2,415 2,720 2,687

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.8 4.1 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

51,450 51,924 51,871 51,078 51,880 52,081 52,181 51,633 51,590

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,757 16,755 16,748 16,757 16,774 16,771 16,763 16,755 16,748

Civilian labor force

7,128 6,959 7,196 5,840 5,952 5,831 5,812 5,886 5,902

Participation rate

42.5 41.5 43.0 34.9 35.5 34.8 34.7 35.1 35.2

Employed

6,154 5,921 6,228 5,062 5,149 5,078 5,068 5,144 5,127

Employment-population ratio

36.7 35.3 37.2 30.2 30.7 30.3 30.2 30.7 30.6

Unemployed

974 1,038 967 778 803 752 745 743 775

Unemployment rate

13.7 14.9 13.4 13.3 13.5 12.9 12.8 12.6 13.1

Not in labor force

9,629 9,797 9,552 10,917 10,822 10,941 10,951 10,869 10,846

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

198,974 200,132 200,236 198,974 199,871 199,950 200,039 200,132 200,236

Civilian labor force

126,046 126,669 126,927 124,887 125,714 125,731 125,688 125,784 125,720

Participation rate

63.3 63.3 63.4 62.8 62.9 62.9 62.8 62.9 62.8

Employed

121,029 121,964 122,332 120,285 121,236 121,233 121,303 121,347 121,506

Employment-population ratio

60.8 60.9 61.1 60.5 60.7 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.7

Unemployed

5,017 4,706 4,595 4,603 4,478 4,498 4,385 4,437 4,214

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4

Not in labor force

72,928 73,463 73,309 74,087 74,157 74,219 74,350 74,348 74,517

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,555 66,109 65,957 65,154 65,928 65,982 65,890 65,855 65,614

Participation rate

72.1 72.2 71.9 71.6 72.1 72.1 72.0 71.9 71.6

Employed

63,394 64,037 64,110 62,926 63,734 63,746 63,785 63,695 63,690

Employment-population ratio

69.7 69.9 69.9 69.2 69.7 69.7 69.7 69.5 69.5

Unemployed

2,161 2,072 1,847 2,228 2,194 2,235 2,106 2,159 1,924

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.1 2.8 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.3 2.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,081 55,195 55,382 55,334 55,176 55,179 55,197 55,420 55,534

Participation rate

57.6 57.4 57.5 57.8 57.4 57.4 57.4 57.6 57.7

Employed

52,839 53,265 53,272 53,422 53,385 53,429 53,450 53,608 53,746

Employment-population ratio

55.2 55.4 55.3 55.8 55.6 55.6 55.6 55.7 55.8

Unemployed

2,242 1,930 2,110 1,912 1,791 1,750 1,747 1,812 1,787

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

5,411 5,365 5,588 4,400 4,610 4,570 4,601 4,510 4,572

Participation rate

43.8 43.6 45.4 35.7 37.4 37.1 37.3 36.6 37.2

Employed

4,796 4,662 4,950 3,937 4,117 4,057 4,068 4,044 4,069

Employment-population ratio

38.9 37.9 40.2 31.9 33.4 32.9 33.0 32.8 33.1

Unemployed

615 703 638 463 492 512 533 466 502

Unemployment rate

11.4 13.1 11.4 10.5 10.7 11.2 11.6 10.3 11.0

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,260 32,737 32,771 32,260 32,638 32,672 32,704 32,737 32,771

Civilian labor force

20,309 20,546 20,708 20,102 20,466 20,220 20,296 20,364 20,495

Participation rate

63.0 62.8 63.2 62.3 62.7 61.9 62.1 62.2 62.5

Employed

18,719 19,194 19,255 18,618 19,051 18,892 19,092 19,045 19,144

Employment-population ratio

58.0 58.6 58.8 57.7 58.4 57.8 58.4 58.2 58.4

Unemployed

1,590 1,352 1,453 1,484 1,415 1,328 1,204 1,319 1,351

Unemployment rate

7.8 6.6 7.0 7.4 6.9 6.6 5.9 6.5 6.6

Not in labor force

11,951 12,190 12,063 12,158 12,172 12,452 12,408 12,373 12,276

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,250 9,274 9,410 9,166 9,314 9,257 9,382 9,162 9,320

Participation rate

68.7 67.6 68.5 68.0 68.2 67.7 68.5 66.8 67.9

Employed

8,598 8,702 8,841 8,516 8,749 8,663 8,792 8,573 8,751

Employment-population ratio

63.8 63.5 64.4 63.2 64.1 63.3 64.2 62.5 63.7

Unemployed

652 572 570 650 564 594 590 589 569

Unemployment rate

7.0 6.2 6.1 7.1 6.1 6.4 6.3 6.4 6.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,118 10,364 10,391 10,163 10,337 10,229 10,233 10,406 10,426

Participation rate

62.2 62.7 62.8 62.4 62.7 62.0 62.0 63.0 63.0

Employed

9,420 9,803 9,709 9,509 9,713 9,707 9,754 9,838 9,793

Employment-population ratio

57.9 59.3 58.7 58.4 59.0 58.9 59.1 59.5 59.2

Unemployed

698 561 682 654 624 522 479 568 633

Unemployment rate

6.9 5.4 6.6 6.4 6.0 5.1 4.7 5.5 6.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

941 908 906 773 816 734 681 796 750

Participation rate

37.5 36.3 36.3 30.8 32.6 29.3 27.3 31.9 30.0

Employed

701 689 705 594 588 521 547 635 600

Employment-population ratio

27.9 27.6 28.2 23.6 23.5 20.8 21.9 25.4 24.1

Unemployed

239 219 201 179 227 213 135 162 149

Unemployment rate

25.4 24.1 22.2 23.2 27.9 29.0 19.8 20.3 19.9

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,290 15,934 15,922 15,290 15,983 15,933 15,874 15,934 15,922

Civilian labor force

9,866 10,207 10,227 9,787 10,092 10,034 9,932 10,140 10,153

Participation rate

64.5 64.1 64.2 64.0 63.1 63.0 62.6 63.6 63.8

Employed

9,467 9,858 9,889 9,419 9,780 9,755 9,720 9,817 9,838

Employment-population ratio

61.9 61.9 62.1 61.6 61.2 61.2 61.2 61.6 61.8

Unemployed

398 349 338 368 313 280 212 322 314

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.4 3.3 3.8 3.1 2.8 2.1 3.2 3.1

Not in labor force

5,424 5,727 5,695 5,503 5,891 5,898 5,942 5,794 5,769

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,404 42,679 42,767 41,404 42,419 42,507 42,592 42,679 42,767

Civilian labor force

27,677 28,515 28,701 27,488 27,922 28,229 28,205 28,369 28,495

Participation rate

66.8 66.8 67.1 66.4 65.8 66.4 66.2 66.5 66.6

Employed

26,204 27,209 27,380 26,076 26,500 26,860 26,827 27,077 27,223

Employment-population ratio

63.3 63.8 64.0 63.0 62.5 63.2 63.0 63.4 63.7

Unemployed

1,473 1,306 1,322 1,412 1,421 1,368 1,378 1,292 1,273

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.6 4.6 5.1 5.1 4.8 4.9 4.6 4.5

Not in labor force

13,727 14,164 14,066 13,917 14,497 14,278 14,387 14,310 14,272

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,146 15,578 15,578 15,084 15,370 15,535 15,444 15,557 15,519

Participation rate

81.2 80.9 80.7 80.9 80.3 81.0 80.3 80.8 80.4

Employed

14,537 15,035 15,141 14,423 14,688 14,901 14,845 14,961 15,017

Employment-population ratio

78.0 78.0 78.4 77.4 76.7 77.7 77.2 77.7 77.8

Unemployed

609 544 436 662 682 635 599 596 502

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.5 2.8 4.4 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,121 11,622 11,630 11,188 11,230 11,398 11,507 11,626 11,684

Participation rate

58.8 59.7 59.6 59.1 58.0 58.8 59.2 59.7 59.8

Employed

10,486 11,059 11,038 10,592 10,677 10,856 10,917 11,065 11,131

Employment-population ratio

55.4 56.8 56.5 56.0 55.2 56.0 56.2 56.8 57.0

Unemployed

635 563 592 595 553 541 590 561 553

Unemployment rate

5.7 4.8 5.1 5.3 4.9 4.7 5.1 4.8 4.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,410 1,315 1,494 1,216 1,321 1,296 1,254 1,186 1,292

Participation rate

36.7 33.4 37.9 31.6 33.7 33.0 31.9 30.2 32.8

Employed

1,182 1,115 1,200 1,061 1,135 1,103 1,065 1,051 1,075

Employment-population ratio

30.7 28.3 30.5 27.6 29.0 28.1 27.1 26.7 27.3

Unemployed

229 200 294 155 186 192 189 135 218

Unemployment rate

16.2 15.2 19.7 12.8 14.1 14.8 15.1 11.4 16.8

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,403 10,650 10,047 10,577 10,234 10,285 10,242 10,508 10,212

Participation rate

46.5 46.5 46.1 47.3 45.7 45.9 45.2 45.9 46.9

Employed

9,695 10,134 9,573 9,838 9,666 9,683 9,688 9,926 9,695

Employment-population ratio

43.4 44.3 44.0 44.0 43.2 43.3 42.7 43.4 44.5

Unemployed

708 516 474 739 568 602 554 582 517

Unemployment rate

6.8 4.8 4.7 7.0 5.5 5.9 5.4 5.5 5.1

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,451 35,863 36,368 35,643 35,863 35,468 35,702 36,050 36,534

Participation rate

57.4 57.6 57.6 57.7 57.1 56.9 57.2 57.9 57.9

Employed

33,852 34,466 34,900 34,035 34,305 33,940 34,306 34,549 35,056

Employment-population ratio

54.8 55.4 55.3 55.1 54.6 54.5 54.9 55.5 55.5

Unemployed

1,599 1,397 1,468 1,608 1,559 1,528 1,395 1,501 1,478

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.9 4.0 4.5 4.3 4.3 3.9 4.2 4.0

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,485 37,831 37,533 37,419 37,589 37,944 37,921 37,863 37,531

Participation rate

65.4 65.3 65.4 65.3 65.6 65.5 65.7 65.3 65.4

Employed

36,033 36,604 36,305 36,023 36,241 36,629 36,694 36,602 36,340

Employment-population ratio

62.9 63.2 63.2 62.9 63.2 63.2 63.6 63.2 63.3

Unemployed

1,451 1,227 1,229 1,396 1,348 1,315 1,228 1,261 1,191

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.2 3.3 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

55,465 56,293 56,771 55,663 56,785 56,794 56,739 56,613 56,940

Participation rate

73.4 73.5 73.2 73.7 74.2 74.2 74.1 74.0 73.4

Employed

54,000 54,929 55,330 54,359 55,534 55,616 55,593 55,296 55,672

Employment-population ratio

71.5 71.8 71.4 72.0 72.6 72.6 72.6 72.2 71.8

Unemployed

1,465 1,364 1,441 1,304 1,252 1,178 1,147 1,317 1,268

Unemployment rate

2.6 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.3 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,553 19,183 18,522 17,317 2,031 1,866

Civilian labor force

10,057 9,428 8,861 8,294 1,195 1,134

Participation rate

48.9 49.1 47.8 47.9 58.8 60.8

Employed

9,700 9,145 8,540 8,038 1,160 1,107

Employment-population ratio

47.2 47.7 46.1 46.4 57.1 59.3

Unemployed

356 283 321 255 35 27

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.0 3.6 3.1 2.9 2.4

Not in labor force

10,496 9,755 9,661 9,023 836 732

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,131 4,182 3,369 3,485 762 697

Civilian labor force

3,314 3,325 2,776 2,815 537 511

Participation rate

80.2 79.5 82.4 80.8 70.5 73.2

Employed

3,160 3,227 2,642 2,729 518 498

Employment-population ratio

76.5 77.2 78.4 78.3 68.0 71.5

Unemployed

153 99 134 86 19 12

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.0 4.8 3.1 3.6 2.4

Not in labor force

817 857 593 670 225 187

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,341 3,063 2,870 2,564 471 499

Civilian labor force

2,596 2,440 2,255 2,067 341 372

Participation rate

77.7 79.7 78.6 80.6 72.4 74.7

Employed

2,507 2,381 2,171 2,014 336 367

Employment-population ratio

75.0 77.7 75.6 78.6 71.3 73.5

Unemployed

89 59 84 53 5 6

Unemployment rate

3.4 2.4 3.7 2.6 1.5 1.6

Not in labor force

745 623 615 497 130 126

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,049 7,608 7,758 7,349 291 259

Civilian labor force

1,813 1,604 1,755 1,573 58 31

Participation rate

22.5 21.1 22.6 21.4 19.9 12.1

Employed

1,749 1,526 1,691 1,497 58 30

Employment-population ratio

21.7 20.1 21.8 20.4 19.9 11.6

Unemployed

64 78 64 77 0 1

Unemployment rate

3.5 4.9 3.6 4.9 - -

Not in labor force

6,236 6,004 6,003 5,776 233 228

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,032 4,330 4,525 3,919 507 411

Civilian labor force

2,333 2,058 2,074 1,839 259 220

Participation rate

46.4 47.5 45.8 46.9 51.1 53.5

Employed

2,284 2,011 2,036 1,799 248 212

Employment-population ratio

45.4 46.4 45.0 45.9 48.9 51.6

Unemployed

49 47 39 40 11 8

Unemployment rate

2.1 2.3 1.9 2.2 4.2 3.6

Not in labor force

2,699 2,272 2,451 2,080 248 191

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

225,662 230,008 100,240 103,000 125,422 127,008

Civilian labor force

149,056 151,617 76,042 77,532 73,014 74,086

Participation rate

66.1 65.9 75.9 75.3 58.2 58.3

Employed

142,454 145,563 72,876 74,718 69,578 70,845

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.3 72.7 72.5 55.5 55.8

Unemployed

6,602 6,054 3,166 2,814 3,436 3,241

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.0 4.2 3.6 4.7 4.4

Not in labor force

76,606 78,390 24,198 25,468 52,408 52,922

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,414 29,886 224,737 227,957

Civilian labor force

6,333 6,049 155,578 157,685

Participation rate

20.8 20.2 69.2 69.2

Employed

5,723 5,538 148,747 151,466

Employment-population ratio

18.8 18.5 66.2 66.4

Unemployed

610 511 6,831 6,219

Unemployment rate

9.6 8.5 4.4 3.9

Not in labor force

24,081 23,837 69,159 70,272

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,872 2,580 78,120 78,914

Participation rate

35.8 34.8 83.9 83.7

Employed

2,572 2,343 74,842 76,101

Employment-population ratio

32.1 31.6 80.4 80.7

Unemployed

300 236 3,277 2,814

Unemployment rate

10.4 9.2 4.2 3.6

Not in labor force

5,149 4,834 15,016 15,347

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,390 2,301 69,074 69,908

Participation rate

30.4 30.0 71.5 71.9

Employed

2,147 2,081 65,764 66,829

Employment-population ratio

27.3 27.1 68.1 68.8

Unemployed

243 220 3,310 3,079

Unemployment rate

10.2 9.5 4.8 4.4

Not in labor force

5,474 5,369 27,500 27,264

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,071 1,169 8,384 8,862

Participation rate

7.4 7.9 23.9 24.3

Employed

1,004 1,113 8,140 8,536

Employment-population ratio

6.9 7.5 23.2 23.4

Unemployed

67 56 244 326

Unemployment rate

6.3 4.8 2.9 3.7

Not in labor force

13,458 13,633 26,642 27,661

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,452 42,279 20,085 20,486 21,367 21,792

Civilian labor force

27,536 27,858 15,801 16,209 11,735 11,649

Participation rate

66.4 65.9 78.7 79.1 54.9 53.5

Employed

26,438 26,942 15,290 15,769 11,148 11,173

Employment-population ratio

63.8 63.7 76.1 77.0 52.2 51.3

Unemployed

1,098 916 511 440 587 476

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.3 3.2 2.7 5.0 4.1

Not in labor force

13,916 14,420 4,283 4,277 9,632 10,143

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

213,699 215,564 103,227 104,218 110,472 111,346

Civilian labor force

134,375 135,876 70,411 70,893 63,964 64,983

Participation rate

62.9 63.0 68.2 68.0 57.9 58.4

Employed

128,033 130,062 67,194 68,059 60,838 62,003

Employment-population ratio

59.9 60.3 65.1 65.3 55.1 55.7

Unemployed

6,342 5,814 3,216 2,834 3,126 2,980

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.3 4.6 4.0 4.9 4.6

Not in labor force

79,324 79,688 32,816 33,325 46,508 46,363

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,506 2,503 2,656 2,364 2,314 2,294 2,345 2,350 2,498

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,739 1,682 1,822 1,597 1,495 1,517 1,573 1,567 1,658

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

737 779 806 725 803 745 742 736 783

Unpaid family workers

30 42 28 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

151,964 153,962 154,348 151,118 152,747 152,889 153,211 153,309 153,473

Wage and salary workers(1)

143,372 145,061 145,370 142,549 143,688 143,785 144,124 144,524 144,447

Government

20,161 20,522 20,036 21,029 20,957 21,222 21,045 20,986 20,900

Private industries

123,211 124,539 125,335 121,486 122,761 122,616 123,090 123,478 123,541

Private households

686 769 800 - - - - - -

Other industries

122,525 123,770 124,534 120,825 121,977 121,858 122,319 122,757 122,772

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,538 8,808 8,911 8,471 8,990 8,995 9,013 8,728 8,880

Unpaid family workers

54 93 66 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,475 5,042 4,766 5,236 5,019 4,985 4,948 4,743 4,567

Slack work or business conditions

3,233 3,178 2,922 3,148 3,005 2,994 3,004 3,042 2,877

Could only find part-time work

1,763 1,486 1,445 1,734 1,625 1,586 1,480 1,447 1,431

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,707 20,308 20,059 21,311 21,399 21,258 21,095 21,304 21,532

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,430 4,974 4,701 5,176 4,944 4,898 4,872 4,662 4,482

Slack work or business conditions

3,214 3,133 2,891 3,130 2,940 2,923 2,948 3,004 2,836

Could only find part-time work

1,748 1,468 1,425 1,721 1,619 1,575 1,464 1,431 1,415

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,385 19,938 19,694 21,027 20,999 20,891 20,766 20,941 21,177

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

154,470 156,465 157,004 153,511 155,178 155,181 155,474 155,576 155,965

16 to 19 years

6,154 5,921 6,228 5,062 5,149 5,078 5,068 5,144 5,127

16 to 17 years

2,316 2,080 2,296 1,814 1,892 1,838 1,771 1,797 1,815

18 to 19 years

3,837 3,841 3,933 3,245 3,261 3,257 3,285 3,344 3,315

20 years and over

148,317 150,544 150,775 148,449 150,028 150,102 150,406 150,432 150,838

20 to 24 years

14,737 14,411 14,668 14,182 14,334 14,172 14,069 14,046 14,128

25 years and over

133,580 136,133 136,107 134,278 135,779 135,906 136,373 136,422 136,762

25 to 54 years

98,476 100,020 100,005 98,884 100,051 99,965 100,105 100,204 100,417

25 to 34 years

34,376 35,305 35,353 34,499 35,106 35,083 35,221 35,288 35,444

35 to 44 years

31,728 32,527 32,546 31,883 32,462 32,614 32,492 32,566 32,690

45 to 54 years

32,371 32,187 32,107 32,503 32,484 32,268 32,392 32,350 32,283

55 years and over

35,104 36,114 36,102 35,394 35,728 35,941 36,268 36,218 36,346

Men, 16 years and over

82,484 83,414 83,828 81,288 82,630 82,611 82,784 82,522 82,684

16 to 19 years

3,028 2,916 3,028 2,425 2,517 2,500 2,455 2,509 2,444

16 to 17 years

1,068 1,022 1,072 795 891 858 849 855 814

18 to 19 years

1,960 1,894 1,956 1,629 1,639 1,651 1,610 1,644 1,629

20 years and over

79,457 80,498 80,800 78,863 80,113 80,111 80,329 80,013 80,240

20 to 24 years

7,745 7,412 7,522 7,343 7,445 7,291 7,205 7,191 7,149

25 years and over

71,711 73,087 73,278 71,552 72,707 72,840 73,131 72,869 73,126

25 to 54 years

52,875 53,740 53,794 52,707 53,647 53,686 53,728 53,588 53,673

25 to 34 years

18,557 19,140 19,126 18,484 18,942 18,946 18,992 19,006 19,054

35 to 44 years

17,184 17,656 17,737 17,137 17,576 17,644 17,634 17,598 17,691

45 to 54 years

17,135 16,945 16,931 17,086 17,130 17,096 17,101 16,984 16,928

55 years and over

18,836 19,346 19,484 18,845 19,060 19,154 19,403 19,281 19,453

Women, 16 years and over

71,986 73,051 73,176 72,223 72,548 72,569 72,690 73,054 73,281

16 to 19 years

3,126 3,005 3,201 2,637 2,632 2,578 2,613 2,635 2,683

16 to 17 years

1,248 1,058 1,224 1,019 1,001 980 922 942 1,001

18 to 19 years

1,878 1,947 1,977 1,616 1,622 1,606 1,675 1,700 1,687

20 years and over

68,860 70,045 69,975 69,586 69,916 69,992 70,077 70,419 70,598

20 to 24 years

6,991 6,999 7,146 6,839 6,889 6,882 6,864 6,855 6,979

25 years and over

61,869 63,047 62,829 62,726 63,071 63,067 63,243 63,553 63,636

25 to 54 years

45,600 46,279 46,211 46,178 46,404 46,280 46,377 46,616 46,744

25 to 34 years

15,819 16,165 16,226 16,014 16,164 16,137 16,229 16,282 16,390

35 to 44 years

14,544 14,871 14,809 14,746 14,886 14,970 14,858 14,969 14,998

45 to 54 years

15,236 15,242 15,176 15,418 15,354 15,172 15,291 15,366 15,355

55 years and over

16,269 16,767 16,618 16,548 16,667 16,787 16,865 16,937 16,892

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,484 45,811 45,626 45,577 45,865 45,995 46,041 45,689 45,751

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,152 35,607 35,272 35,903 35,564 36,140 35,978 35,976 35,986

Women who maintain families(2)

9,654 9,763 9,842 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

127,542 129,937 130,644 126,002 127,434 127,753 128,657 128,568 129,021

Part-time workers(4)

26,929 26,528 26,359 27,567 27,858 27,508 26,883 27,028 26,992

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,303 7,457 7,833 7,564 7,609 7,667 7,442 7,619 8,072

Percent of total employed

4.7 4.8 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.9 5.2

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,752 5,586 5,545 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,275 9,587 9,718 9,196 9,793 9,741 9,755 9,464 9,663

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,956 6,564 6,280 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9

16 to 19 years

778 743 775 13.3 13.5 12.9 12.8 12.6 13.1

16 to 17 years

334 303 285 15.5 14.9 13.8 14.8 14.4 13.6

18 to 19 years

404 430 473 11.1 12.6 12.7 12.2 11.4 12.5

20 years and over

6,178 5,821 5,505 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.5

20 to 24 years

1,129 1,123 1,048 7.4 6.6 6.7 7.1 7.4 6.9

25 years and over

5,051 4,665 4,460 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.2

25 to 54 years

3,896 3,448 3,286 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.2

25 to 34 years

1,642 1,424 1,294 4.5 4.2 4.4 3.8 3.9 3.5

35 to 44 years

1,182 1,038 1,033 3.6 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.1

45 to 54 years

1,072 986 960 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.9

55 years and over

1,161 1,168 1,157 3.2 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.1

Men, 16 years and over

3,706 3,534 3,266 4.4 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.1 3.8

16 to 19 years

440 432 449 15.4 15.2 15.3 16.0 14.7 15.5

16 to 17 years

175 169 156 18.0 16.1 17.2 18.0 16.5 16.1

18 to 19 years

231 251 276 12.4 14.5 14.6 15.1 13.2 14.5

20 years and over

3,266 3,102 2,818 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.4

20 to 24 years

634 640 575 7.9 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.2 7.4

25 years and over

2,637 2,442 2,250 3.6 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.0

25 to 54 years

2,060 1,797 1,637 3.8 3.4 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.0

25 to 34 years

869 749 687 4.5 4.1 4.6 3.8 3.8 3.5

35 to 44 years

627 527 467 3.5 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.6

45 to 54 years

565 522 484 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.8 3.0 2.8

55 years and over

577 644 613 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.1

Women, 16 years and over

3,250 3,030 3,013 4.3 4.0 3.7 3.6 4.0 3.9

16 to 19 years

338 310 327 11.4 11.8 10.4 9.6 10.5 10.9

16 to 17 years

159 134 129 13.5 13.8 10.6 11.6 12.4 11.4

18 to 19 years

172 179 197 9.6 10.6 10.6 9.2 9.5 10.5

20 years and over

2,912 2,720 2,687 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.7

20 to 24 years

495 483 473 6.7 5.7 5.7 6.2 6.6 6.3

25 years and over

2,415 2,224 2,210 3.7 3.5 3.2 3.0 3.4 3.4

25 to 54 years

1,836 1,651 1,649 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.4

25 to 34 years

773 675 607 4.6 4.3 4.2 3.9 4.0 3.6

35 to 44 years

555 511 566 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.6

45 to 54 years

507 464 476 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.9 3.0

55 years and over

565 519 529 3.3 3.2 2.8 2.7 3.0 3.0

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,100 968 931 2.4 2.1 2.1 1.9 2.1 2.0

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,047 940 939 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.5

Women who maintain families(2)

703 573 588 6.8 5.6 5.5 4.7 5.5 5.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,678 5,306 5,058 4.3 4.0 3.9 3.7 4.0 3.8

Part-time workers(4)

1,288 1,222 1,242 4.5 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,519 3,022 3,164 3,357 3,146 2,958 2,854 3,065 3,017

On temporary layoff

1,226 952 1,080 1,030 865 862 803 906 890

Not on temporary layoff

2,293 2,070 2,084 2,327 2,281 2,096 2,052 2,159 2,127

Permanent job losers

1,666 1,422 1,438 1,669 1,645 1,418 1,439 1,486 1,455

Persons who completed temporary jobs

627 647 646 658 637 678 612 673 672

Job leavers

775 776 869 760 864 815 852 811 844

Reentrants

2,206 2,184 1,893 2,086 1,967 2,009 1,882 2,086 1,799

New entrants

941 829 803 697 625 623 571 578 591

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

47.3 44.4 47.0 48.7 47.7 46.2 46.3 46.9 48.3

On temporary layoff

16.5 14.0 16.0 14.9 13.1 13.5 13.0 13.9 14.2

Not on temporary layoff

30.8 30.4 31.0 33.7 34.6 32.7 33.3 33.0 34.0

Job leavers

10.4 11.4 12.9 11.0 13.1 12.7 13.8 12.4 13.5

Reentrants

29.7 32.1 28.1 30.2 29.8 31.4 30.6 31.9 28.8

New entrants

12.6 12.2 11.9 10.1 9.5 9.7 9.3 8.8 9.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.2 1.9 1.9 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.4 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.1

New entrants

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,364 2,991 2,248 2,135 2,287 2,115 2,034 2,227 2,091

5 to 14 weeks

2,432 1,665 2,185 2,006 2,009 2,017 1,945 1,882 1,820

15 weeks and over

2,645 2,156 2,297 2,779 2,202 2,329 2,166 2,314 2,406

15 to 26 weeks

843 811 818 1,022 880 1,036 977 836 971

27 weeks and over

1,802 1,345 1,480 1,757 1,322 1,293 1,189 1,478 1,435

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

23.6 19.4 22.0 25.0 24.1 23.1 21.3 21.2 23.2

Median duration, in weeks

9.1 6.6 8.8 10.4 9.1 9.8 9.2 8.9 9.5

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

31.8 43.9 33.4 30.9 35.2 32.7 33.1 34.7 33.1

5 to 14 weeks

32.7 24.4 32.5 29.0 30.9 31.2 31.7 29.3 28.8

15 weeks and over

35.5 31.7 34.1 40.2 33.9 36.0 35.2 36.0 38.1

15 to 26 weeks

11.3 11.9 12.2 14.8 13.5 16.0 15.9 13.0 15.4

27 weeks and over

24.2 19.7 22.0 25.4 20.3 20.0 19.4 23.0 22.7

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

154,470 157,004 7,441 6,730 4.6 4.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,923 61,433 1,656 1,539 2.7 2.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,226 25,739 489 511 1.9 1.9

Professional and related occupations

34,698 35,694 1,166 1,028 3.3 2.8

Service occupations

27,942 27,887 1,489 1,508 5.1 5.1

Sales and office occupations

34,014 34,025 1,446 1,431 4.1 4.0

Sales and related occupations

15,882 16,023 692 662 4.2 4.0

Office and administrative support occupations

18,132 18,003 754 769 4.0 4.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,383 15,005 789 589 5.2 3.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,259 1,285 103 97 7.6 7.0

Construction and extraction occupations

8,110 8,527 545 373 6.3 4.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,013 5,193 141 119 2.7 2.2

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,208 18,654 1,100 850 5.7 4.4

Production occupations

8,607 8,466 462 366 5.1 4.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,601 10,188 638 484 6.2 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,441 6,730 4.6 4.1

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,230 4,819 4.1 3.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

32 29 4.5 3.4

Construction

469 333 4.9 3.4

Manufacturing

639 596 4.0 3.8

Durable goods

399 339 4.0 3.5

Nondurable goods

240 257 4.1 4.4

Wholesale and retail trade

970 841 4.8 4.1

Transportation and utilities

262 254 3.9 3.6

Information

111 114 4.3 4.2

Financial activities

230 233 2.3 2.3

Professional and business services

687 632 4.0 3.6

Education and health services

830 767 3.5 3.2

Leisure and hospitality

739 779 4.9 5.2

Other services

262 242 4.0 3.5

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

89 112 5.0 5.9

Government workers

872 744 4.1 3.6

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

310 253 3.2 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.6 1.3 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.5

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.2 1.9 1.9 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.6 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.9 4.4 4.4 4.7 4.3 4.2 4.0 4.3 4.2

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.5 5.0 5.0 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.9 4.8

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.9 8.1 7.9 8.5 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.8 7.5

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

93,240 94,109 37,099 37,602 56,141 56,507

Persons who currently want a job

5,713 5,483 2,600 2,529 3,113 2,953

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,629 1,498 837 727 792 771

Discouraged workers(2)

536 512 276 327 259 184

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,093 986 560 400 533 587

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,303 7,833 3,680 3,715 3,623 4,118

Percent of total employed

4.7 5.0 4.5 4.4 5.0 5.6

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,938 4,255 2,171 2,222 1,767 2,034

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,979 2,030 663 685 1,316 1,346

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

352 416 227 234 124 182

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

983 1,085 588 551 395 534

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)
Change from:
June2018 - July2018(p)

Total nonfarm

146,486 149,345 150,057 148,901 146,728 148,723 148,971 149,128 157

Total private

125,439 126,680 127,777 127,857 124,402 126,390 126,624 126,794 170

Goods-producing

20,387 20,672 20,985 21,073 20,040 20,624 20,676 20,728 52

Mining and logging

692 732 747 748 682 733 739 735 -4

Logging

50.7 48.6 48.4 50.1 49.0 49.7 48.2 48.8 0.6

Mining

641.3 683.1 698.4 698.1 632.5 683.0 690.3 686.5 -3.8

Oil and gas extraction

146.5 151.0 154.3 154.2 144.8 151.7 152.6 152.3 -0.3

Mining, except oil and gas

189.1 190.2 193.6 193.7 185.4 188.4 189.4 189.5 0.1

Coal mining

51.7 52.9 53.2 52.9 52.0 53.1 53.1 53.1 0.0

Metal ore mining

39.3 38.8 39.5 39.8 39.0 39.1 39.1 39.3 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

98.1 98.5 100.9 101.0 94.4 96.2 97.1 97.2 0.1

Support activities for mining

305.7 341.9 350.5 350.2 302.3 342.9 348.3 344.7 -3.6

Construction

7,197 7,283 7,443 7,500 6,934 7,210 7,223 7,242 19

Construction of buildings

1,578.6 1,600.9 1,639.7 1,653.4 1,533.5 1,598.8 1,603.9 1,608.3 4.4

Residential building

771.1 793.2 814.7 819.5 748.4 791.9 796.1 796.7 0.6

Nonresidential building

807.5 807.7 825.0 833.9 785.1 806.9 807.8 811.6 3.8

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,054.2 1,042.5 1,072.8 1,083.1 989.0 1,011.1 1,015.3 1,016.1 0.8

Specialty trade contractors

4,563.7 4,639.6 4,730.5 4,763.6 4,411.9 4,600.1 4,603.5 4,617.7 14.2

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,008.6 2,045.8 2,088.2 2,095.3 1,936.2 2,020.9 2,021.6 2,027.2 5.6

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,555.1 2,593.8 2,642.3 2,668.3 2,475.7 2,579.2 2,581.9 2,590.5 8.6

Manufacturing

12,498 12,657 12,795 12,825 12,424 12,681 12,714 12,751 37

Durable goods

7,743 7,914 7,999 8,005 7,719 7,919 7,949 7,981 32

Wood products

399.8 406.2 411.0 411.0 396.6 405.3 406.2 407.0 0.8

Nonmetallic mineral products

418.8 422.5 427.6 426.2 410.4 418.0 419.2 418.5 -0.7

Primary metals

373.9 379.5 383.4 382.7 373.8 380.1 382.9 382.2 -0.7

Fabricated metal products

1,438.0 1,481.6 1,498.7 1,501.7 1,431.4 1,481.8 1,489.5 1,494.6 5.1

Machinery

1,086.5 1,119.6 1,132.6 1,137.4 1,081.2 1,121.5 1,125.6 1,131.4 5.8

Computer and electronic products

1,045.6 1,062.4 1,072.6 1,075.8 1,040.3 1,064.4 1,067.3 1,070.2 2.9

Computer and peripheral equipment

158.1 169.0 170.6 170.6 157.2 169.5 169.8 169.8 0.0

Communications equipment

87.5 85.8 86.6 86.3 87.0 85.9 85.9 85.8 -0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

364.0 368.1 371.8 373.4 362.0 369.0 370.0 371.4 1.4

Electronic instruments

401.6 407.1 411.0 413.6 399.8 407.7 409.4 411.4 2.0

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.4 32.4 32.6 31.9 34.3 32.3 32.2 31.8 -0.4

Electrical equipment and appliances

391.2 402.3 406.6 408.6 388.5 403.6 404.0 405.7 1.7

Transportation equipment(1)

1,600.0 1,650.2 1,672.9 1,666.1 1,612.4 1,653.5 1,666.8 1,679.9 13.1

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

916.9 954.4 969.7 957.0 931.4 955.2 966.3 972.2 5.9

Furniture and related products

395.6 391.5 393.6 393.2 393.4 391.5 390.9 390.8 -0.1

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

593.5 598.3 600.4 602.2 591.4 598.9 596.8 600.4 3.6

Nondurable goods

4,755 4,743 4,796 4,820 4,705 4,762 4,765 4,770 5

Food manufacturing

1,630.8 1,615.1 1,650.8 1,669.5 1,603.0 1,635.6 1,639.8 1,641.9 2.1

Textile mills

111.1 111.7 111.7 111.7 111.3 111.6 111.7 111.8 0.1

Textile product mills

115.4 110.7 111.5 111.4 114.6 110.9 110.7 110.9 0.2

Apparel

118.4 116.6 114.9 114.4 120.0 116.7 114.8 115.7 0.9

Paper and paper products

369.7 375.5 376.7 377.0 367.6 374.4 374.5 375.1 0.6

Printing and related support activities

443.2 433.8 435.5 434.6 442.0 434.1 433.9 433.1 -0.8

Petroleum and coal products

118.4 117.1 118.9 120.7 115.4 116.3 116.5 117.3 0.8

Chemicals

828.3 828.2 835.7 836.8 823.2 829.3 831.1 831.5 0.4

Plastics and rubber products

718.2 728.5 730.0 731.9 714.6 727.2 728.1 729.1 1.0

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

301.2 305.6 309.8 311.6 293.2 305.7 304.0 303.4 -0.6

Private service-providing

105,052 106,008 106,792 106,784 104,362 105,766 105,948 106,066 118

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,460 27,685 27,812 27,786 27,470 27,779 27,786 27,801 15

Wholesale trade

5,936.5 5,964.8 6,003.8 6,012.8 5,904.6 5,961.2 5,969.2 5,981.5 12.3

Durable goods

2,983.4 3,011.0 3,033.1 3,036.7 2,966.0 3,011.2 3,015.8 3,020.6 4.8

Nondurable goods

2,056.0 2,056.0 2,060.5 2,063.6 2,044.5 2,051.2 2,047.0 2,052.4 5.4

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

897.1 897.8 910.2 912.5 894.1 898.8 906.4 908.5 2.1

Retail trade

15,866.7 15,887.5 15,942.9 15,963.8 15,847.6 15,957.1 15,936.9 15,944.0 7.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,025.2 2,033.1 2,043.1 2,049.9 2,008.8 2,026.9 2,029.8 2,033.7 3.9

Automobile dealers

1,302.5 1,305.6 1,310.9 1,313.9 1,297.4 1,305.5 1,307.8 1,309.1 1.3

Other motor vehicle dealers

166.5 161.6 165.3 164.3 156.5 155.6 155.4 154.9 -0.5

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

556.2 565.9 566.9 571.7 555.0 565.8 566.6 569.7 3.1

Furniture and home furnishings stores

469.1 477.2 478.0 477.9 474.3 483.2 483.8 483.7 -0.1

Electronics and appliance stores

493.9 492.2 488.8 493.5 503.3 500.8 499.4 500.9 1.5

Building material and garden supply stores

1,309.1 1,385.5 1,376.2 1,346.4 1,274.3 1,312.5 1,312.8 1,313.1 0.3

Food and beverage stores

3,109.8 3,093.9 3,119.7 3,125.0 3,081.7 3,099.4 3,090.8 3,099.0 8.2

Health and personal care stores

1,057.8 1,052.0 1,053.9 1,048.3 1,061.4 1,056.7 1,056.6 1,054.0 -2.6

Gasoline stations

942.6 940.7 949.9 949.9 930.4 937.7 938.2 938.3 0.1

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,364.4 1,335.3 1,357.5 1,386.1 1,372.0 1,376.4 1,380.7 1,390.7 10.0

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

587.1 579.6 581.0 554.3 604.3 600.0 600.5 568.7 -31.8

General merchandise stores

3,102.4 3,081.0 3,067.6 3,099.2 3,135.8 3,141.1 3,120.0 3,134.2 14.2

Department stores

1,153.4 1,135.1 1,136.5 1,149.8 1,177.7 1,176.1 1,172.7 1,172.8 0.1

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,949.0 1,945.9 1,931.1 1,949.4 1,958.1 1,965.0 1,947.2 1,961.4 14.2

Miscellaneous store retailers

838.7 832.6 836.8 839.3 828.1 827.9 827.9 828.4 0.5

Nonstore retailers

566.6 584.4 590.4 594.0 573.2 594.5 596.4 599.3 2.9

Transportation and warehousing

5,097.5 5,279.5 5,309.0 5,254.1 5,163.9 5,307.2 5,326.1 5,324.8 -1.3

Air transportation

496.3 504.3 508.5 508.7 491.8 502.5 503.9 504.4 0.5

Rail transportation

214.9 214.0 214.4 214.4 214.4 213.7 213.3 213.7 0.4

Water transportation

67.7 66.1 68.5 69.5 64.8 65.6 66.0 66.4 0.4

Truck transportation

1,471.3 1,472.5 1,489.5 1,498.5 1,453.8 1,474.5 1,476.5 1,480.9 4.4

Transit and ground passenger transportation

429.8 510.7 492.0 422.7 489.5 492.2 498.5 483.7 -14.8

Pipeline transportation

48.0 46.9 47.4 47.3 47.8 47.0 47.3 47.1 -0.2

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

47.8 38.9 43.7 45.8 36.2 35.5 34.8 34.8 0.0

Support activities for transportation

692.5 706.8 712.8 708.4 690.7 707.9 710.5 707.3 -3.2

Couriers and messengers

645.0 697.9 709.5 708.1 685.0 736.6 741.7 749.3 7.6

Warehousing and storage

984.2 1,021.4 1,022.7 1,030.7 989.9 1,031.7 1,033.6 1,037.2 3.6

Utilities

559.2 553.2 556.4 555.5 554.0 553.7 553.4 550.6 -2.8

Information

2,807 2,765 2,786 2,788 2,793 2,771 2,772 2,772 0

Publishing industries, except Internet

725.5 709.6 715.1 716.8 722.3 714.0 715.5 713.6 -1.9

Motion picture and sound recording industries

432.0 422.1 419.2 414.6 424.6 415.8 409.9 407.6 -2.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

262.4 261.9 263.3 263.6 263.7 263.2 263.6 264.5 0.9

Telecommunications

781.4 757.6 762.8 765.1 780.4 761.6 762.9 763.5 0.6

Data processing, hosting and related services

320.3 328.2 331.6 331.1 318.8 327.9 329.3 329.6 0.3

Other information services

285.8 285.7 293.9 296.7 283.2 288.4 291.2 293.6 2.4

Financial activities

8,545 8,550 8,639 8,652 8,462 8,563 8,573 8,568 -5

Finance and insurance

6,309.1 6,311.2 6,353.0 6,352.9 6,278.0 6,322.4 6,329.0 6,319.6 -9.4

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.2 19.0 19.3 19.5 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.2 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,668.6 2,662.0 2,680.9 2,681.0 2,654.5 2,665.6 2,668.9 2,665.8 -3.1

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,726.4 1,720.4 1,730.4 1,730.8 1,716.9 1,719.7 1,722.7 1,720.6 -2.1

Commercial banking

1,332.4 1,324.3 1,330.6 1,330.6 1,326.2 1,323.6 1,326.1 1,323.2 -2.9

Nondepository credit intermediation

628.4 628.2 634.2 634.4 626.9 631.8 632.3 632.2 -0.1

Activities related to credit intermediation

313.8 313.4 316.3 315.8 310.8 314.0 313.8 313.1 -0.7

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

955.0 958.5 969.0 975.0 945.5 963.1 964.0 964.4 0.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,666.3 2,671.7 2,683.8 2,677.4 2,659.0 2,674.6 2,676.9 2,670.2 -6.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,235.5 2,239.0 2,286.2 2,298.7 2,184.4 2,240.2 2,244.4 2,247.9 3.5

Real estate

1,620.4 1,621.6 1,647.7 1,656.4 1,594.0 1,625.2 1,628.4 1,630.4 2.0

Rental and leasing services

590.3 592.0 612.0 615.7 566.2 589.7 590.2 591.7 1.5

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

24.8 25.4 26.5 26.6 24.2 25.3 25.8 25.8 0.0

Professional and business services

20,619 20,936 21,124 21,147 20,501 20,925 20,968 21,019 51

Professional and technical services

9,022.5 9,148.8 9,216.9 9,257.6 9,016.2 9,201.3 9,226.7 9,242.6 15.9

Legal services

1,145.5 1,133.9 1,149.8 1,148.0 1,135.4 1,136.3 1,139.5 1,137.4 -2.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services

935.7 960.3 951.7 954.1 996.9 1,004.5 1,005.7 1,008.2 2.5

Architectural and engineering services

1,459.0 1,469.9 1,496.3 1,505.2 1,436.5 1,471.0 1,477.5 1,482.3 4.8

Specialized design services

140.2 138.7 139.2 137.4 139.2 138.0 138.0 136.6 -1.4

Computer systems design and related services

2,054.0 2,098.3 2,100.8 2,125.5 2,044.0 2,100.8 2,106.3 2,114.6 8.3

Management and technical consulting services

1,412.8 1,440.8 1,451.4 1,457.2 1,404.3 1,443.1 1,447.5 1,449.1 1.6

Scientific research and development services

668.8 674.4 687.3 692.3 659.9 674.7 679.5 682.3 2.8

Advertising and related services

494.1 498.2 498.7 496.9 491.2 497.3 495.4 493.8 -1.6

Other professional and technical services

712.4 734.3 741.7 741.0 708.7 735.5 737.3 738.3 1.0

Management of companies and enterprises

2,315.4 2,320.2 2,346.6 2,351.5 2,297.5 2,324.4 2,332.2 2,332.8 0.6

Administrative and waste services

9,281.5 9,467.0 9,560.0 9,538.3 9,187.4 9,399.3 9,408.8 9,443.7 34.9

Administrative and support services

8,862.7 9,036.6 9,124.0 9,099.5 8,777.2 8,971.0 8,979.8 9,013.7 33.9

Office administrative services

512.1 522.8 526.6 526.5 511.2 522.7 524.5 525.5 1.0

Facilities support services

152.9 156.0 156.1 155.4 153.3 155.9 155.6 155.8 0.2

Employment services(1)

3,585.0 3,709.0 3,730.6 3,709.9 3,616.9 3,718.6 3,712.5 3,743.9 31.4

Temporary help services

2,920.2 3,023.2 3,036.3 3,015.4 2,956.4 3,032.7 3,025.2 3,053.1 27.9

Business support services

891.8 896.7 895.1 896.3 905.9 909.2 909.1 911.0 1.9

Travel arrangement and reservation services

221.9 219.6 221.2 218.2 218.2 217.3 216.7 214.9 -1.8

Investigation and security services

915.8 938.5 939.5 940.7 917.9 939.4 940.3 942.5 2.2

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,256.5 2,254.9 2,311.3 2,313.5 2,129.5 2,171.0 2,183.3 2,183.1 -0.2

Other support services

326.7 339.1 343.6 339.0 324.3 336.9 337.8 337.2 -0.6

Waste management and remediation services

418.8 430.4 436.0 438.8 410.2 428.3 429.0 430.0 1.0

Education and health services

22,881 23,635 23,435 23,304 23,235 23,571 23,640 23,662 22

Educational services

3,345.9 3,755.7 3,518.0 3,398.3 3,671.0 3,709.8 3,741.3 3,730.5 -10.8

Health care and social assistance

19,535.5 19,879.2 19,916.7 19,905.5 19,564.0 19,861.0 19,898.2 19,931.7 33.5

Health care(3)

15,775.2 15,976.9 16,038.2 16,059.4 15,752.4 15,995.1 16,021.2 16,037.9 16.7

Ambulatory health care services

7,318.2 7,476.2 7,498.2 7,505.4 7,315.1 7,476.4 7,492.9 7,502.8 9.9

Offices of physicians

2,596.1 2,632.0 2,638.6 2,644.5 2,592.7 2,636.8 2,639.9 2,641.4 1.5

Offices of dentists

932.8 941.9 950.6 947.6 931.9 942.4 946.6 946.8 0.2

Offices of other health practitioners

893.0 927.1 932.2 926.7 891.7 923.8 928.4 927.5 -0.9

Outpatient care centers

901.0 929.4 930.6 936.6 900.1 929.8 931.3 935.6 4.3

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

268.0 277.9 281.4 282.3 267.8 279.2 281.2 281.7 0.5

Home health care services

1,420.9 1,458.1 1,456.5 1,460.6 1,424.2 1,454.8 1,456.3 1,461.9 5.6

Other ambulatory health care services

306.4 309.8 308.3 307.1 306.6 309.7 309.2 308.0 -1.2

Hospitals

5,093.3 5,148.6 5,173.9 5,188.7 5,087.1 5,164.8 5,175.1 5,181.9 6.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,363.7 3,352.1 3,366.1 3,365.3 3,350.2 3,353.9 3,353.2 3,353.2 0.0

Nursing care facilities

1,632.8 1,610.2 1,614.7 1,610.8 1,627.7 1,612.2 1,609.2 1,606.7 -2.5

Residential mental health facilities

633.2 633.7 636.3 635.4 630.5 633.3 634.6 633.5 -1.1

Community care facilities for the elderly

925.3 935.6 942.7 945.1 922.4 935.4 939.3 941.7 2.4

Other residential care facilities

172.4 172.6 172.4 174.0 169.6 173.0 170.2 171.4 1.2

Social assistance

3,760.3 3,902.3 3,878.5 3,846.1 3,811.6 3,865.9 3,877.0 3,893.8 16.8

Individual and family services

2,362.2 2,425.6 2,431.0 2,441.7 2,360.2 2,412.9 2,420.9 2,436.8 15.9

Emergency and other relief services

168.7 171.8 173.6 172.3 168.5 171.9 172.6 172.3 -0.3

Vocational rehabilitation services

350.1 346.2 349.5 353.7 344.0 346.4 345.7 347.5 1.8

Child day care services

879.3 958.7 924.4 878.4 939.0 934.7 937.8 937.3 -0.5

Leisure and hospitality

16,888 16,550 17,040 17,163 16,117 16,297 16,331 16,371 40

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,701.8 2,424.3 2,660.1 2,728.8 2,338.1 2,345.9 2,349.9 2,356.0 6.1

Performing arts and spectator sports

529.9 525.4 522.8 524.5 498.0 494.6 491.0 492.5 1.5

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

187.0 177.7 191.4 192.6 168.3 171.3 173.3 173.7 0.4

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,984.9 1,721.2 1,945.9 2,011.7 1,671.8 1,680.0 1,685.6 1,689.8 4.2

Accommodation and food services

14,186.0 14,126.0 14,380.0 14,434.4 13,778.7 13,951.2 13,981.1 14,014.9 33.8

Accommodation

2,166.4 2,029.5 2,138.9 2,201.8 2,009.7 2,029.7 2,035.5 2,043.1 7.6

Food services and drinking places

12,019.6 12,096.5 12,241.1 12,232.6 11,769.0 11,921.5 11,945.6 11,971.8 26.2

Other services

5,852 5,887 5,956 5,944 5,784 5,860 5,878 5,873 -5

Repair and maintenance

1,314.8 1,331.4 1,334.9 1,325.3 1,308.3 1,320.9 1,321.1 1,319.1 -2.0

Personal and laundry services

1,497.2 1,536.0 1,549.4 1,539.4 1,486.4 1,522.5 1,531.3 1,528.5 -2.8

Membership associations and organizations

3,040.4 3,019.4 3,071.5 3,079.4 2,988.8 3,016.9 3,026.0 3,024.9 -1.1

Government

21,047 22,665 22,280 21,044 22,326 22,333 22,347 22,334 -13

Federal

2,820.0 2,789.0 2,810.0 2,812.0 2,807.0 2,793.0 2,794.0 2,796.0 2.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,203.1 2,184.6 2,206.4 2,206.6 2,189.0 2,187.2 2,189.3 2,190.6 1.3

U.S. Postal Service

616.9 603.9 603.8 605.0 618.3 605.6 605.0 605.8 0.8

State government

4,825.0 5,124.0 4,876.0 4,811.0 5,148.0 5,114.0 5,121.0 5,126.0 5.0

State government education

2,132.4 2,457.0 2,187.7 2,124.5 2,471.3 2,449.4 2,452.9 2,457.1 4.2

State government, excluding education

2,692.6 2,667.1 2,687.9 2,686.7 2,676.4 2,665.0 2,667.8 2,669.0 1.2

Local government

13,402.0 14,752.0 14,594.0 13,421.0 14,371.0 14,426.0 14,432.0 14,412.0 -20.0

Local government education

6,697.5 8,265.9 7,910.2 6,702.2 7,912.0 7,940.3 7,948.1 7,934.2 -13.9

Local government, excluding education

6,704.1 6,486.0 6,683.3 6,719.0 6,459.2 6,485.9 6,484.0 6,477.9 -6.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.5 34.6 34.5

Goods-producing

40.5 40.6 40.6 40.6

Mining and logging

45.4 46.2 46.3 46.1

Construction

39.1 39.5 39.3 39.4

Manufacturing

41.0 40.9 40.9 40.9

Durable goods

41.4 41.3 41.4 41.4

Nondurable goods

40.2 40.2 40.2 40.2

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.4 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 34.6 34.6 34.5

Wholesale trade

39.1 39.1 39.1 39.0

Retail trade

31.0 31.2 31.2 31.1

Transportation and warehousing

38.8 38.8 38.9 39.0

Utilities

42.3 42.0 42.0 41.7

Information

36.3 35.9 35.8 36.0

Financial activities

37.4 37.6 37.7 37.6

Professional and business services

36.1 36.2 36.2 36.2

Education and health services

32.9 32.9 33.0 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 26.1 26.2 26.1

Other services

31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5

Durable goods

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)

Total private

$26.34 $26.94 $26.98 $27.05 $906.10 $929.43 $933.51 $933.23

Goods-producing

27.63 28.09 28.15 28.20 1,119.02 1,140.45 1,142.89 1,144.92

Mining and logging

32.12 32.41 32.57 32.44 1,458.25 1,497.34 1,507.99 1,495.48

Construction

28.94 29.69 29.74 29.86 1,131.55 1,172.76 1,168.78 1,176.48

Manufacturing

26.66 26.93 27.00 27.01 1,093.06 1,101.44 1,104.30 1,104.71

Durable goods

27.90 28.26 28.32 28.37 1,155.06 1,167.14 1,172.45 1,174.52

Nondurable goods

24.57 24.67 24.72 24.68 987.71 991.73 993.74 992.14

Private service-providing

26.04 26.66 26.70 26.77 867.13 887.78 891.78 891.44

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.80 23.25 23.26 23.27 784.32 804.45 804.80 802.82

Wholesale trade

30.04 30.36 30.48 30.33 1,174.56 1,187.08 1,191.77 1,182.87

Retail trade

18.17 18.68 18.63 18.70 563.27 582.82 581.26 581.57

Transportation and warehousing

23.89 24.33 24.32 24.34 926.93 944.00 946.05 949.26

Utilities

39.33 40.21 40.30 40.73 1,663.66 1,688.82 1,692.60 1,698.44

Information

38.45 39.31 39.49 39.39 1,395.74 1,411.23 1,413.74 1,418.04

Financial activities

33.24 34.67 34.67 34.85 1,243.18 1,303.59 1,307.06 1,310.36

Professional and business services

31.57 32.29 32.37 32.48 1,139.68 1,168.90 1,171.79 1,175.78

Education and health services

26.38 26.91 26.97 27.04 867.90 885.34 890.01 889.62

Leisure and hospitality

15.49 15.87 15.93 15.99 404.29 414.21 417.37 417.34

Other services

23.85 24.36 24.36 24.39 756.05 772.21 772.21 773.16

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)
Percent change from:
June
2018 - July
2018(p)
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)
Percent change from:
June
2018 - July
2018(p)

Total private

107.4 109.4 110.0 109.8 -0.2 135.3 141.0 141.8 142.0 0.1

Goods-producing

92.5 95.4 95.6 95.9 0.3 115.5 121.1 121.7 122.2 0.4

Mining and logging

97.3 106.4 107.5 106.5 -0.9 125.5 138.5 140.6 138.7 -1.4

Construction

93.5 98.2 97.9 98.4 0.5 117.5 126.6 126.4 127.6 0.9

Manufacturing

91.6 93.3 93.6 93.8 0.2 113.6 116.9 117.5 117.9 0.3

Durable goods

90.0 92.1 92.7 93.0 0.3 111.5 115.6 116.5 117.2 0.6

Nondurable goods

94.4 95.6 95.6 95.7 0.1 117.7 119.6 119.9 119.9 0.0

Private service-providing

111.8 113.3 113.8 113.6 -0.2 141.5 146.8 147.7 147.8 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

102.8 104.5 104.6 104.3 -0.3 126.1 130.8 130.9 130.7 -0.2

Wholesale trade

100.7 101.7 101.8 101.8 0.0 126.3 128.8 129.5 128.8 -0.5

Retail trade

99.8 101.1 101.0 100.7 -0.3 119.9 124.9 124.4 124.5 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

114.7 117.9 118.6 118.9 0.3 139.0 145.5 146.3 146.8 0.3

Utilities

101.4 100.6 100.6 99.3 -1.3 131.8 133.7 133.9 133.7 -0.1

Information

92.6 90.9 90.6 91.1 0.6 126.8 127.2 127.4 127.8 0.3

Financial activities

103.6 105.4 105.9 105.5 -0.4 134.4 142.6 143.1 143.4 0.2

Professional and business services

116.4 119.1 119.4 119.7 0.3 148.9 155.9 156.6 157.5 0.6

Education and health services

124.8 126.6 127.4 127.1 -0.2 158.4 163.9 165.3 165.4 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

120.0 121.4 122.1 121.9 -0.2 150.0 155.4 156.9 157.3 0.3

Other services

105.7 107.1 107.4 107.3 -0.1 138.2 143.0 143.4 143.5 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)

Total nonfarm

72,689 73,813 73,990 74,066 49.5 49.6 49.7 49.7

Total private

59,882 60,965 61,125 61,224 48.1 48.2 48.3 48.3

Goods-producing

4,403 4,560 4,579 4,599 22.0 22.1 22.1 22.2

Mining and logging

92 94 94 94 13.5 12.8 12.7 12.8

Construction

879 922 927 930 12.7 12.8 12.8 12.8

Manufacturing

3,432 3,544 3,558 3,575 27.6 27.9 28.0 28.0

Durable goods

1,810 1,864 1,875 1,888 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7

Nondurable goods

1,622 1,680 1,683 1,687 34.5 35.3 35.3 35.4

Private service-providing

55,479 56,405 56,546 56,625 53.2 53.3 53.4 53.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,034 11,153 11,162 11,183 40.2 40.1 40.2 40.2

Wholesale trade

1,738.7 1,769.7 1,780.5 1,794.0 29.4 29.7 29.8 30.0

Retail trade

7,904.2 7,947.1 7,936.0 7,941.6 49.9 49.8 49.8 49.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,263.7 1,307.2 1,316.4 1,318.3 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8

Utilities

127.7 128.5 129.2 129.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4

Information

1,111 1,093 1,097 1,096 39.8 39.4 39.6 39.5

Financial activities

4,783 4,836 4,848 4,840 56.5 56.5 56.5 56.5

Professional and business services

9,224 9,480 9,507 9,526 45.0 45.3 45.3 45.3

Education and health services

17,905 18,162 18,224 18,250 77.1 77.1 77.1 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

8,363 8,562 8,584 8,602 51.9 52.5 52.6 52.5

Other services

3,059 3,119 3,124 3,128 52.9 53.2 53.1 53.3

Government

12,807 12,848 12,865 12,842 57.4 57.5 57.6 57.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)

Total private

102,546 104,145 104,345 104,461

Goods-producing

14,409 14,822 14,869 14,906

Mining and logging

497 544 552 548

Construction

5,196 5,386 5,393 5,406

Manufacturing

8,716 8,892 8,924 8,952

Durable goods

5,294 5,439 5,469 5,495

Nondurable goods

3,422 3,453 3,455 3,457

Private service-providing

88,137 89,323 89,476 89,555

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,160 23,493 23,487 23,507

Wholesale trade

4,732.6 4,783.8 4,788.1 4,799.7

Retail trade

13,493.0 13,650.6 13,622.8 13,624.0

Transportation and warehousing

4,488.4 4,615.7 4,633.7 4,642.9

Utilities

445.5 443.2 442.5 440.3

Information

2,255 2,230 2,231 2,228

Financial activities

6,584 6,633 6,642 6,630

Professional and business services

16,759 17,075 17,117 17,153

Education and health services

20,404 20,702 20,767 20,780

Leisure and hospitality

14,187 14,341 14,370 14,397

Other services

4,788 4,849 4,862 4,860

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.8 33.8 33.8

Goods-producing

41.3 41.6 41.5 41.6

Mining and logging

45.8 47.5 47.9 46.9

Construction

39.6 40.3 39.9 40.2

Manufacturing

42.0 42.0 42.1 42.1

Durable goods

42.2 42.2 42.5 42.4

Nondurable goods

41.6 41.7 41.6 41.7

Private service-providing

32.4 32.5 32.5 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 34.0 34.0 34.0

Wholesale trade

38.9 39.1 38.9 38.8

Retail trade

30.2 30.4 30.5 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

38.4 38.4 38.4 38.5

Utilities

42.6 42.7 42.6 42.4

Information

35.8 35.6 35.6 35.7

Financial activities

36.9 37.0 37.0 37.1

Professional and business services

35.5 35.3 35.4 35.4

Education and health services

32.2 32.3 32.3 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.9 25.0 24.9

Other services

30.7 30.7 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.4 4.5 4.5 4.4

Durable goods

4.5 4.5 4.6 4.5

Nondurable goods

4.3 4.4 4.4 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)

Total private

$22.06 $22.58 $22.62 $22.65 $743.42 $763.20 $764.56 $765.57

Goods-producing

23.16 23.83 23.86 23.90 956.51 991.33 990.19 994.24

Mining and logging

27.40 27.94 28.06 28.01 1,254.92 1,327.15 1,344.07 1,313.67

Construction

26.74 27.51 27.56 27.69 1,058.90 1,108.65 1,099.64 1,113.14

Manufacturing

20.88 21.40 21.45 21.44 876.96 898.80 903.05 902.62

Durable goods

21.88 22.35 22.44 22.44 923.34 943.17 953.70 951.46

Nondurable goods

19.32 19.89 19.86 19.82 803.71 829.41 826.18 826.49

Private service-providing

21.84 22.31 22.35 22.38 707.62 725.08 726.38 727.35

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.35 19.84 19.85 19.84 654.03 674.56 674.90 674.56

Wholesale trade

24.73 25.04 25.23 25.09 962.00 979.06 981.45 973.49

Retail trade

15.31 15.90 15.85 15.87 462.36 483.36 483.43 484.04

Transportation and warehousing

21.31 21.79 21.81 21.84 818.30 836.74 837.50 840.84

Utilities

36.29 36.45 36.52 36.54 1,545.95 1,556.42 1,555.75 1,549.30

Information

30.76 31.49 31.68 31.53 1,101.21 1,121.04 1,127.81 1,125.62

Financial activities

26.63 26.89 26.90 26.91 982.65 994.93 995.30 998.36

Professional and business services

26.01 26.63 26.69 26.74 923.36 940.04 944.83 946.60

Education and health services

23.06 23.54 23.62 23.66 742.53 760.34 762.93 761.85

Leisure and hospitality

13.39 13.79 13.81 13.87 332.07 343.37 345.25 345.36

Other services

20.09 20.56 20.57 20.68 616.76 631.19 631.50 634.88

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)
Percent change from:
June
2018 - July
2018(p)
July
2017
May
2018
June
2018(p)
July
2018(p)
Percent change from:
June
2018 - July
2018(p)

Total private

115.1 117.3 117.5 117.6 0.1 169.7 177.0 177.6 178.1 0.3

Goods-producing

90.9 94.2 94.3 94.8 0.5 129.0 137.5 137.8 138.7 0.7

Mining and logging

121.0 137.3 140.5 136.6 -2.8 192.8 223.1 229.3 222.5 -3.0

Construction

103.0 108.7 107.7 108.8 1.0 148.8 161.4 160.3 162.7 1.5

Manufacturing

84.0 85.7 86.2 86.5 0.3 114.7 120.0 121.0 121.3 0.2

Durable goods

84.0 86.3 87.4 87.6 0.2 114.7 120.4 122.4 122.7 0.2

Nondurable goods

83.9 84.8 84.7 84.9 0.2 114.5 119.2 118.8 119.0 0.2

Private service-providing

121.6 123.6 123.8 124.0 0.2 182.1 189.1 189.8 190.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

109.1 111.4 111.3 111.4 0.1 150.6 157.6 157.6 157.7 0.1

Wholesale trade

108.4 110.2 109.7 109.7 0.0 157.9 162.5 163.0 162.1 -0.6

Retail trade

103.1 105.0 105.2 105.2 0.0 135.3 143.1 142.9 143.1 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

129.7 133.4 133.9 134.6 0.5 175.4 184.4 185.3 186.4 0.6

Utilities

97.1 96.8 96.4 95.5 -0.9 147.0 147.2 147.0 145.6 -1.0

Information

92.1 90.6 90.7 90.8 0.1 140.3 141.3 142.2 141.7 -0.4

Financial activities

114.4 115.5 115.7 115.8 0.1 187.4 191.1 191.5 191.7 0.1

Professional and business services

133.3 135.1 135.8 136.1 0.2 206.4 214.1 215.7 216.5 0.4

Education and health services

140.1 142.6 143.0 142.7 -0.2 213.2 221.5 223.0 222.8 -0.1

Leisure and hospitality

128.9 130.8 131.6 131.3 -0.2 196.0 204.8 206.4 206.8 0.2

Other services

103.1 104.4 104.7 104.6 -0.1 150.9 156.4 156.9 157.7 0.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: August 03, 2018