Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-18-0508
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, April 6, 2018.

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                      THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MARCH 2018


Total nonfarm payroll employment edged up by 103,000 in March, and the unemployment
rate was unchanged at 4.1 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. Employment increased in manufacturing, health care, and mining.

Household Survey Data

In March, the unemployment rate was 4.1 percent for the sixth consecutive month,
and the number of unemployed persons, at 6.6 million, changed little. (See table
A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.7 percent),
adult women (3.7 percent), teenagers (13.5 percent), Whites (3.6 percent), Blacks
(6.9 percent), Asians (3.1 percent), and Hispanics (5.1 percent) showed little or
no change in March. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

At 1.3 million, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or
more) was little changed in March and accounted for 20.3 percent of the unemployed.
Over the year, the number of long-term unemployed was down by 338,000. (See table
A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 62.9 percent, changed little in March, and
the employment-population ratio held at 60.4 percent. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred
to as involuntary part-time workers) was little changed at 5.0 million in March.
These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part
time because their hours had been reduced or because they were unable to find full-
time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In March, 1.5 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little
different from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These
individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and
had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as
unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.
(See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 450,000 discouraged workers in March,
essentially unchanged from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.)
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe
no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.0 million persons marginally attached
to the labor force in March had not searched for work for reasons such as school
attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment edged up by 103,000 in March, following a large
gain in February (+326,000). In March, employment grew in manufacturing, health
care, and mining. (See table B-1.)

In March, employment in manufacturing rose by 22,000, with all of the gain in the
durable goods component. Employment in fabricated metal products increased over
the month (+9,000). Over the year, manufacturing has added 232,000 jobs; the durable
goods component accounted for about three-fourths of the jobs added.

In March, health care added 22,000 jobs, about in line with its average monthly
gain over the prior 12 months. Employment continued to trend up over the month in
ambulatory health care services (+16,000) and hospitals (+10,000). 

Employment in mining increased by 9,000 in March, with gains occurring in support
activities for mining (+6,000) and in oil and gas extraction (+2,000). Mining
employment has risen by 78,000 since a recent low in October 2016.

Employment in professional and business services continued to trend up in March
(+33,000) and has risen by 502,000 over the year. 

Retail trade employment changed little in March (-4,000), after increasing by
47,000 in February. In March, employment declined by 13,000 in general merchandise
stores, offsetting a gain of the same size in February. Over the year, employment
in retail trade has shown little net change.

In March, employment in construction also changed little (-15,000), following a
large gain in February (+65,000). 

Employment changed little over the month in other major industries, including
wholesale trade, transportation and warehousing, information, financial activities,
leisure and hospitality, and government.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged
at 34.5 hours in March. In manufacturing, the workweek edged down by 0.1 hour to
40.9 hours; overtime edged down by 0.1 hour to 3.6 hours. The average workweek for
production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down by
0.1 hour to 33.7 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In March, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
rose by 8 cents to $26.82. Over the year, average hourly earnings have increased
by 71 cents, or 2.7 percent. Average hourly earnings for private-sector production
and nonsupervisory employees increased by 4 cents to $22.42 in March. (See tables
B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for January was revised down from
+239,000 to +176,000, and the change for February was revised up from +313,000 to
+326,000. With these revisions, employment gains in January and February combined
were 50,000 less than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional
reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last published
estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains
have averaged 202,000 over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for April is scheduled to be released on
Friday, May 4, 2018, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Change from:
Feb.
2018-
Mar.
2018

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,414 256,780 256,934 257,097 163

Civilian labor force

160,235 161,115 161,921 161,763 -158

Participation rate

63.0 62.7 63.0 62.9 -0.1

Employed

153,064 154,430 155,215 155,178 -37

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.1 60.4 60.4 0.0

Unemployed

7,171 6,684 6,706 6,585 -121

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.1 4.1 4.1 0.0

Not in labor force

94,179 95,665 95,012 95,335 323

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.5 4.1 4.1 4.1 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.2 3.9 3.7 3.7 0.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.0 3.6 3.8 3.7 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.6 13.9 14.4 13.5 -0.9

White

3.9 3.5 3.7 3.6 -0.1

Black or African American

8.0 7.7 6.9 6.9 0.0

Asian

3.3 3.0 2.9 3.1 0.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.1 5.0 4.9 5.1 0.2

Total, 25 years and over

3.8 3.4 3.4 3.4 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

6.6 5.4 5.7 5.5 -0.2

High school graduates, no college

4.9 4.5 4.4 4.3 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

3.7 3.4 3.5 3.6 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.5 2.1 2.3 2.2 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,516 3,273 3,279 3,146 -133

Job leavers

793 716 780 864 84

Reentrants

2,064 1,958 1,948 1,967 19

New entrants

769 645 704 625 -79

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,296 2,280 2,508 2,287 -221

5 to 14 weeks

2,088 1,943 1,906 2,009 103

15 to 26 weeks

1,064 981 934 880 -54

27 weeks and over

1,660 1,421 1,397 1,322 -75

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,500 4,989 5,160 5,019 -141

Slack work or business conditions

3,377 3,009 3,302 3,005 -297

Could only find part-time work

1,833 1,663 1,541 1,625 84

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,706 20,867 21,061 21,399 338

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,595 1,653 1,602 1,454 -

Discouraged workers

460 451 373 450 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

73 176 326 103

Total private

68 188 320 102

Goods-producing

18 55 106 15

Mining and logging

5 7 9 8

Construction

3 28 65 -15

Manufacturing

10 20 32 22

Durable goods(1)

4 17 28 22

Motor vehicles and parts

2.6 0.3 4.9 3.3

Nondurable goods

6 3 4 0

Private service-providing

50 133 214 87

Wholesale trade

-3.6 6.9 7.1 11.4

Retail trade

-31.8 11.9 47.3 -4.4

Transportation and warehousing

13.8 15.3 18.0 9.8

Utilities

0.0 -0.9 1.8 4.0

Information

-1 -16 -2 2

Financial activities

6 3 30 2

Professional and business services(1)

36 38 55 33

Temporary help services

6.2 -1.7 21.0 -0.6

Education and health services(1)

23 50 28 25

Health care and social assistance

24.3 30.1 40.7 33.8

Leisure and hospitality

7 21 23 5

Other services

0 3 6 -1

Government

5 -12 6 1

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

177 189 226 202

Total private

175 193 227 203

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private women employees

48.1 48.1 48.2 48.2

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.3 34.4 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.11 $26.71 $26.74 $26.82

Average weekly earnings

$895.57 $918.82 $922.53 $925.29

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

106.5 108.3 108.9 109.0

Over-the-month percent change

-0.2 -0.2 0.6 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

132.9 138.3 139.3 139.8

Over-the-month percent change

-0.1 0.1 0.7 0.4

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

59.5 57.2 71.1 62.6

Manufacturing (76 industries)

59.2 55.9 73.7 63.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 149,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 651,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,414 256,934 257,097 254,414 255,949 256,109 256,780 256,934 257,097

Civilian labor force

159,912 161,494 161,548 160,235 160,533 160,597 161,115 161,921 161,763

Participation rate

62.9 62.9 62.8 63.0 62.7 62.7 62.7 63.0 62.9

Employed

152,628 154,403 154,877 153,064 153,917 154,021 154,430 155,215 155,178

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.1 60.2 60.2 60.1 60.1 60.1 60.4 60.4

Unemployed

7,284 7,091 6,671 7,171 6,616 6,576 6,684 6,706 6,585

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.4 4.1 4.5 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

Not in labor force

94,502 95,439 95,549 94,179 95,416 95,512 95,665 95,012 95,335

Persons who currently want a job

5,507 5,152 4,793 5,772 5,265 5,308 5,171 5,131 5,096

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,945 124,250 124,331 122,945 123,707 123,786 124,173 124,250 124,331

Civilian labor force

84,718 85,806 85,924 85,027 85,221 85,354 85,931 86,267 86,169

Participation rate

68.9 69.1 69.1 69.2 68.9 69.0 69.2 69.4 69.3

Employed

80,546 81,829 82,151 81,121 81,666 81,821 82,274 82,685 82,630

Employment-population ratio

65.5 65.9 66.1 66.0 66.0 66.1 66.3 66.5 66.5

Unemployed

4,172 3,977 3,773 3,906 3,555 3,533 3,658 3,582 3,539

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.1

Not in labor force

38,227 38,444 38,407 37,919 38,486 38,432 38,242 37,983 38,162

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,455 115,748 115,832 114,455 115,212 115,292 115,669 115,748 115,832

Civilian labor force

81,924 83,053 83,162 82,007 82,375 82,548 82,928 83,309 83,200

Participation rate

71.6 71.8 71.8 71.7 71.5 71.6 71.7 72.0 71.8

Employed

78,172 79,552 79,810 78,548 79,324 79,431 79,705 80,213 80,113

Employment-population ratio

68.3 68.7 68.9 68.6 68.9 68.9 68.9 69.3 69.2

Unemployed

3,752 3,501 3,352 3,459 3,050 3,117 3,223 3,096 3,087

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.2 4.0 4.2 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

32,531 32,695 32,670 32,448 32,837 32,745 32,741 32,440 32,632

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

131,469 132,684 132,766 131,469 132,242 132,323 132,607 132,684 132,766

Civilian labor force

75,194 75,688 75,624 75,209 75,312 75,243 75,183 75,654 75,594

Participation rate

57.2 57.0 57.0 57.2 57.0 56.9 56.7 57.0 56.9

Employed

72,082 72,574 72,726 71,943 72,251 72,200 72,157 72,530 72,548

Employment-population ratio

54.8 54.7 54.8 54.7 54.6 54.6 54.4 54.7 54.6

Unemployed

3,112 3,114 2,898 3,266 3,061 3,043 3,027 3,124 3,046

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.1 3.8 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0

Not in labor force

56,275 56,996 57,142 56,260 56,930 57,080 57,423 57,030 57,172

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,212 124,407 124,491 123,212 123,975 124,057 124,328 124,407 124,491

Civilian labor force

72,354 72,791 72,780 72,233 72,302 72,293 72,210 72,565 72,610

Participation rate

58.7 58.5 58.5 58.6 58.3 58.3 58.1 58.3 58.3

Employed

69,559 70,029 70,178 69,337 69,665 69,614 69,583 69,828 69,916

Employment-population ratio

56.5 56.3 56.4 56.3 56.2 56.1 56.0 56.1 56.2

Unemployed

2,795 2,762 2,602 2,896 2,637 2,679 2,627 2,737 2,695

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.8 3.6 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.7

Not in labor force

50,858 51,616 51,711 50,979 51,673 51,764 52,118 51,842 51,880

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,747 16,778 16,774 16,747 16,762 16,760 16,783 16,778 16,774

Civilian labor force

5,634 5,650 5,606 5,995 5,857 5,757 5,977 6,048 5,952

Participation rate

33.6 33.7 33.4 35.8 34.9 34.4 35.6 36.0 35.5

Employed

4,897 4,822 4,889 5,179 4,928 4,977 5,143 5,174 5,149

Employment-population ratio

29.2 28.7 29.1 30.9 29.4 29.7 30.6 30.8 30.7

Unemployed

737 828 717 816 929 780 834 874 803

Unemployment rate

13.1 14.7 12.8 13.6 15.9 13.6 13.9 14.4 13.5

Not in labor force

11,113 11,128 11,169 10,752 10,906 11,003 10,806 10,731 10,822

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

198,604 199,799 199,871 198,604 199,386 199,458 199,738 199,799 199,871

Civilian labor force

124,804 125,658 125,508 125,050 125,110 125,200 125,334 125,930 125,714

Participation rate

62.8 62.9 62.8 63.0 62.7 62.8 62.7 63.0 62.9

Employed

119,831 120,646 120,946 120,187 120,514 120,551 120,886 121,274 121,236

Employment-population ratio

60.3 60.4 60.5 60.5 60.4 60.4 60.5 60.7 60.7

Unemployed

4,974 5,012 4,562 4,863 4,596 4,649 4,447 4,656 4,478

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.0 3.6 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.6

Not in labor force

73,799 74,141 74,363 73,553 74,276 74,258 74,405 73,869 74,157

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,125 65,802 65,889 65,203 65,394 65,511 65,732 65,948 65,928

Participation rate

71.7 72.0 72.0 71.8 71.7 71.8 71.9 72.1 72.1

Employed

62,548 63,185 63,507 62,838 63,282 63,307 63,510 63,683 63,734

Employment-population ratio

68.9 69.1 69.4 69.2 69.4 69.4 69.5 69.6 69.7

Unemployed

2,576 2,617 2,382 2,365 2,112 2,204 2,222 2,265 2,194

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,297 55,465 55,271 55,178 55,147 55,161 54,896 55,243 55,176

Participation rate

57.9 57.8 57.5 57.8 57.5 57.5 57.2 57.5 57.4

Employed

53,413 53,640 53,543 53,233 53,342 53,275 53,255 53,448 53,385

Employment-population ratio

55.9 55.9 55.7 55.7 55.6 55.5 55.5 55.7 55.6

Unemployed

1,883 1,825 1,727 1,945 1,805 1,886 1,641 1,795 1,791

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.3 3.1 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.0 3.3 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,383 4,392 4,348 4,669 4,569 4,528 4,705 4,738 4,610

Participation rate

35.5 35.6 35.3 37.8 37.0 36.7 38.1 38.4 37.4

Employed

3,869 3,822 3,895 4,116 3,891 3,970 4,121 4,143 4,117

Employment-population ratio

31.3 31.0 31.6 33.3 31.5 32.2 33.4 33.6 33.4

Unemployed

514 570 453 553 678 559 584 595 492

Unemployment rate

11.7 13.0 10.4 11.8 14.8 12.3 12.4 12.6 10.7

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,128 32,607 32,638 32,128 32,404 32,436 32,575 32,607 32,638

Civilian labor force

19,898 20,360 20,347 19,997 20,175 20,153 20,211 20,495 20,466

Participation rate

61.9 62.4 62.3 62.2 62.3 62.1 62.0 62.9 62.7

Employed

18,296 18,928 18,955 18,405 18,718 18,790 18,663 19,087 19,051

Employment-population ratio

56.9 58.1 58.1 57.3 57.8 57.9 57.3 58.5 58.4

Unemployed

1,602 1,432 1,392 1,592 1,457 1,362 1,548 1,408 1,415

Unemployment rate

8.1 7.0 6.8 8.0 7.2 6.8 7.7 6.9 6.9

Not in labor force

12,229 12,246 12,291 12,131 12,230 12,283 12,364 12,112 12,172

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,116 9,339 9,258 9,147 9,225 9,178 9,254 9,438 9,314

Participation rate

68.0 68.5 67.8 68.2 68.1 67.7 67.9 69.2 68.2

Employed

8,313 8,744 8,670 8,391 8,552 8,576 8,564 8,880 8,749

Employment-population ratio

62.0 64.1 63.5 62.6 63.1 63.2 62.9 65.1 64.1

Unemployed

803 595 588 756 673 601 690 558 564

Unemployment rate

8.8 6.4 6.4 8.3 7.3 6.6 7.5 5.9 6.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,143 10,261 10,335 10,150 10,219 10,252 10,197 10,254 10,337

Participation rate

62.6 62.4 62.7 62.6 62.5 62.6 62.0 62.3 62.7

Employed

9,483 9,615 9,720 9,486 9,622 9,657 9,524 9,622 9,713

Employment-population ratio

58.5 58.4 59.0 58.5 58.8 59.0 57.9 58.5 59.0

Unemployed

661 646 616 664 597 595 673 632 624

Unemployment rate

6.5 6.3 6.0 6.5 5.8 5.8 6.6 6.2 6.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

639 760 754 700 731 723 759 803 816

Participation rate

25.4 30.3 30.1 27.9 29.1 28.8 30.3 32.0 32.6

Employed

500 569 566 528 544 557 575 584 588

Employment-population ratio

19.9 22.7 22.6 21.0 21.7 22.2 22.9 23.3 23.5

Unemployed

139 191 189 172 187 166 185 219 227

Unemployment rate

21.7 25.2 25.0 24.6 25.5 22.9 24.3 27.2 27.9

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,285 15,792 15,983 15,285 15,370 15,610 15,731 15,792 15,983

Civilian labor force

9,668 9,934 10,138 9,640 9,699 9,782 9,885 9,908 10,092

Participation rate

63.3 62.9 63.4 63.1 63.1 62.7 62.8 62.7 63.1

Employed

9,358 9,635 9,833 9,320 9,407 9,536 9,584 9,617 9,780

Employment-population ratio

61.2 61.0 61.5 61.0 61.2 61.1 60.9 60.9 61.2

Unemployed

310 299 305 320 292 246 300 291 313

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.9 3.1

Not in labor force

5,616 5,858 5,845 5,645 5,671 5,829 5,846 5,884 5,891

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,081 42,335 42,419 41,081 41,751 41,831 42,249 42,335 42,419

Civilian labor force

27,354 27,957 27,926 27,363 27,389 27,498 27,826 28,021 27,922

Participation rate

66.6 66.0 65.8 66.6 65.6 65.7 65.9 66.2 65.8

Employed

25,929 26,469 26,463 25,969 26,088 26,141 26,432 26,646 26,500

Employment-population ratio

63.1 62.5 62.4 63.2 62.5 62.5 62.6 62.9 62.5

Unemployed

1,425 1,488 1,463 1,394 1,301 1,356 1,393 1,375 1,421

Unemployment rate

5.2 5.3 5.2 5.1 4.8 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.1

Not in labor force

13,727 14,378 14,493 13,718 14,361 14,334 14,423 14,315 14,497

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,929 15,280 15,369 14,953 14,969 15,084 15,320 15,319 15,370

Participation rate

80.7 80.0 80.3 80.8 79.6 80.1 80.4 80.2 80.3

Employed

14,217 14,567 14,624 14,293 14,400 14,507 14,659 14,723 14,688

Employment-population ratio

76.9 76.3 76.4 77.3 76.6 77.0 76.9 77.1 76.7

Unemployed

712 713 744 660 569 577 661 595 682

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.7 4.8 4.4 3.8 3.8 4.3 3.9 4.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,165 11,449 11,270 11,113 11,222 11,189 11,257 11,410 11,230

Participation rate

59.5 59.3 58.2 59.2 58.8 58.5 58.4 59.1 58.0

Employed

10,631 10,840 10,711 10,586 10,676 10,598 10,737 10,815 10,677

Employment-population ratio

56.7 56.1 55.3 56.4 56.0 55.4 55.7 56.0 55.2

Unemployed

534 609 559 527 546 591 520 595 553

Unemployment rate

4.8 5.3 5.0 4.7 4.9 5.3 4.6 5.2 4.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,260 1,228 1,287 1,297 1,198 1,225 1,249 1,292 1,321

Participation rate

33.0 31.4 32.9 33.9 30.9 31.6 32.0 33.0 33.7

Employed

1,081 1,061 1,128 1,090 1,012 1,037 1,036 1,108 1,135

Employment-population ratio

28.3 27.1 28.8 28.5 26.2 26.8 26.5 28.3 29.0

Unemployed

179 167 159 207 185 188 213 184 186

Unemployment rate

14.2 13.6 12.4 16.0 15.5 15.4 17.0 14.2 14.1

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,143 9,887 10,180 10,185 10,167 10,148 10,274 10,258 10,234

Participation rate

45.1 45.1 45.5 45.3 45.1 44.8 44.8 46.8 45.7

Employed

9,375 9,190 9,519 9,516 9,639 9,507 9,715 9,673 9,666

Employment-population ratio

41.7 41.9 42.5 42.4 42.7 42.0 42.3 44.1 43.2

Unemployed

768 697 661 669 528 641 559 584 568

Unemployment rate

7.6 7.0 6.5 6.6 5.2 6.3 5.4 5.7 5.5

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,227 35,992 35,969 36,124 36,014 35,927 35,735 36,092 35,863

Participation rate

58.0 57.4 57.3 57.8 57.5 57.8 57.5 57.5 57.1

Employed

34,324 34,221 34,290 34,355 34,463 34,425 34,134 34,487 34,305

Employment-population ratio

54.9 54.6 54.6 55.0 55.1 55.4 54.9 55.0 54.6

Unemployed

1,903 1,771 1,679 1,769 1,551 1,503 1,601 1,604 1,559

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.3 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.3

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,881 37,648 37,550 37,908 37,955 37,906 37,863 37,573 37,589

Participation rate

66.2 65.7 65.5 66.2 66.2 66.2 66.0 65.5 65.6

Employed

36,442 36,212 36,175 36,498 36,579 36,534 36,566 36,248 36,241

Employment-population ratio

63.6 63.2 63.1 63.7 63.8 63.8 63.7 63.2 63.2

Unemployed

1,439 1,436 1,375 1,410 1,376 1,372 1,297 1,325 1,348

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.6

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

54,905 57,260 57,097 54,675 55,501 55,852 55,922 56,669 56,785

Participation rate

74.2 74.4 74.6 73.9 73.6 73.5 73.4 73.7 74.2

Employed

53,573 55,978 55,846 53,334 54,348 54,653 54,720 55,386 55,534

Employment-population ratio

72.4 72.8 73.0 72.1 72.1 71.9 71.8 72.0 72.6

Unemployed

1,332 1,281 1,251 1,340 1,153 1,200 1,202 1,283 1,252

Unemployment rate

2.4 2.2 2.2 2.5 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,635 19,313 18,609 17,453 2,026 1,860

Civilian labor force

10,270 9,617 9,067 8,483 1,203 1,134

Participation rate

49.8 49.8 48.7 48.6 59.4 60.9

Employed

9,865 9,225 8,728 8,112 1,137 1,113

Employment-population ratio

47.8 47.8 46.9 46.5 56.1 59.9

Unemployed

405 392 339 372 66 20

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.1 3.7 4.4 5.5 1.8

Not in labor force

10,365 9,696 9,542 8,970 823 726

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,008 4,089 3,357 3,385 651 704

Civilian labor force

3,183 3,362 2,746 2,865 437 497

Participation rate

79.4 82.2 81.8 84.6 67.1 70.6

Employed

3,022 3,195 2,620 2,706 402 489

Employment-population ratio

75.4 78.2 78.1 80.0 61.8 69.5

Unemployed

160 166 126 158 35 8

Unemployment rate

5.0 5.0 4.6 5.5 7.9 1.7

Not in labor force

825 727 611 520 214 207

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,393 3,101 2,822 2,621 571 480

Civilian labor force

2,723 2,442 2,285 2,072 438 370

Participation rate

80.3 78.8 81.0 79.1 76.7 77.0

Employed

2,623 2,367 2,202 2,004 421 363

Employment-population ratio

77.3 76.3 78.0 76.4 73.7 75.7

Unemployed

101 76 83 69 17 7

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.1 3.6 3.3 4.0 1.8

Not in labor force

670 659 537 549 133 110

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,162 7,750 7,867 7,487 295 263

Civilian labor force

1,887 1,646 1,841 1,587 46 59

Participation rate

23.1 21.2 23.4 21.2 15.8 22.4

Employed

1,812 1,585 1,766 1,526 45 59

Employment-population ratio

22.2 20.4 22.5 20.4 15.4 22.4

Unemployed

75 62 74 62 1 0

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.7 4.0 3.9 - -

Not in labor force

6,275 6,104 6,026 5,900 249 204

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,072 4,373 4,563 3,960 509 413

Civilian labor force

2,477 2,166 2,195 1,959 282 208

Participation rate

48.8 49.5 48.1 49.5 55.3 50.3

Employed

2,408 2,078 2,140 1,876 268 202

Employment-population ratio

47.5 47.5 46.9 47.4 52.7 49.0

Unemployed

69 88 56 83 13 5

Unemployment rate

2.8 4.1 2.5 4.2 4.7 2.5

Not in labor force

2,595 2,207 2,368 2,001 227 205

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

224,847 228,782 99,825 102,363 125,021 126,419

Civilian labor force

147,565 149,929 74,648 76,505 72,918 73,424

Participation rate

65.6 65.5 74.8 74.7 58.3 58.1

Employed

141,040 143,951 71,003 73,269 70,037 70,682

Employment-population ratio

62.7 62.9 71.1 71.6 56.0 55.9

Unemployed

6,525 5,978 3,644 3,237 2,881 2,742

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.0 4.9 4.2 4.0 3.7

Not in labor force

77,282 78,853 25,178 25,858 52,104 52,996

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,611 30,415 223,803 226,683

Civilian labor force

6,252 6,526 153,661 155,022

Participation rate

20.4 21.5 68.7 68.4

Employed

5,589 5,991 147,039 148,885

Employment-population ratio

18.3 19.7 65.7 65.7

Unemployed

663 535 6,621 6,136

Unemployment rate

10.6 8.2 4.3 4.0

Not in labor force

24,359 23,889 70,143 71,661

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,730 2,882 76,681 77,606

Participation rate

34.8 37.4 82.3 82.7

Employed

2,430 2,624 73,011 74,254

Employment-population ratio

30.9 34.1 78.4 79.1

Unemployed

300 259 3,670 3,352

Unemployment rate

11.0 9.0 4.8 4.3

Not in labor force

5,124 4,818 16,474 16,270

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,388 2,547 68,549 68,597

Participation rate

29.8 32.2 71.2 70.8

Employed

2,102 2,321 65,919 66,100

Employment-population ratio

26.3 29.3 68.4 68.3

Unemployed

286 226 2,630 2,497

Unemployment rate

12.0 8.9 3.8 3.6

Not in labor force

5,617 5,371 27,789 28,237

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,134 1,097 8,431 8,819

Participation rate

7.7 7.4 24.6 24.5

Employed

1,057 1,046 8,109 8,531

Employment-population ratio

7.2 7.1 23.6 23.7

Unemployed

77 50 321 288

Unemployment rate

6.8 4.6 3.8 3.3

Not in labor force

13,618 13,700 25,880 27,154

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,204 43,358 20,024 21,128 21,180 22,230

Civilian labor force

27,062 28,441 15,527 16,387 11,535 12,054

Participation rate

65.7 65.6 77.5 77.6 54.5 54.2

Employed

25,857 27,280 14,859 15,763 10,998 11,517

Employment-population ratio

62.8 62.9 74.2 74.6 51.9 51.8

Unemployed

1,205 1,161 668 624 537 536

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.1 4.3 3.8 4.7 4.4

Not in labor force

14,142 14,918 4,497 4,741 9,645 10,177

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

213,210 213,739 102,921 103,203 110,289 110,535

Civilian labor force

132,850 133,107 69,191 69,537 63,659 63,570

Participation rate

62.3 62.3 67.2 67.4 57.7 57.5

Employed

126,771 127,597 65,686 66,388 61,084 61,209

Employment-population ratio

59.5 59.7 63.8 64.3 55.4 55.4

Unemployed

6,079 5,510 3,504 3,149 2,575 2,362

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.1 5.1 4.5 4.0 3.7

Not in labor force

80,360 80,632 33,730 33,667 46,629 46,965

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,441 2,280 2,266 2,476 2,510 2,552 2,513 2,474 2,314

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,552 1,487 1,409 1,635 1,697 1,717 1,712 1,679 1,495

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

857 758 840 835 791 793 781 768 803

Unpaid family workers

31 36 17 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

150,187 152,123 152,611 150,407 151,453 151,478 151,894 152,713 152,747

Wage and salary workers(1)

141,495 143,213 143,601 141,667 142,472 142,505 142,828 143,656 143,688

Government

21,247 21,503 21,368 20,858 20,717 20,642 20,815 20,986 20,957

Private industries

120,248 121,710 122,233 120,843 121,779 121,900 122,022 122,693 122,761

Private households

698 738 781 - - - - - -

Other industries

119,550 120,972 121,452 120,127 121,140 121,206 121,349 121,957 121,977

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,640 8,854 8,959 8,700 8,922 8,970 8,991 8,944 8,990

Unpaid family workers

53 56 50 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,552 5,331 5,080 5,500 4,851 4,915 4,989 5,160 5,019

Slack work or business conditions

3,407 3,501 3,023 3,377 2,995 3,097 3,009 3,302 3,005

Could only find part-time work

1,920 1,509 1,738 1,833 1,558 1,570 1,663 1,541 1,625

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,042 21,804 21,817 20,706 21,022 21,122 20,867 21,061 21,399

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,498 5,241 4,975 5,470 4,759 4,856 4,926 5,091 4,944

Slack work or business conditions

3,383 3,449 2,966 3,349 2,952 3,049 2,965 3,258 2,940

Could only find part-time work

1,901 1,501 1,726 1,823 1,552 1,563 1,659 1,533 1,619

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,667 21,388 21,382 20,343 20,645 20,703 20,434 20,641 20,999

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

152,628 154,403 154,877 153,064 153,917 154,021 154,430 155,215 155,178

16 to 19 years

4,897 4,822 4,889 5,179 4,928 4,977 5,143 5,174 5,149

16 to 17 years

1,723 1,695 1,701 1,914 1,929 1,907 1,915 1,915 1,892

18 to 19 years

3,174 3,127 3,188 3,277 2,996 3,075 3,221 3,293 3,261

20 years and over

147,731 149,581 149,988 147,885 148,989 149,045 149,287 150,041 150,028

20 to 24 years

14,017 13,980 14,158 14,222 13,982 13,936 14,153 14,213 14,334

25 years and over

133,714 135,602 135,830 133,697 135,009 135,083 135,129 135,856 135,779

25 to 54 years

98,507 99,847 100,015 98,584 99,407 99,535 99,674 100,120 100,051

25 to 34 years

34,376 34,959 35,105 34,444 34,692 34,606 34,768 34,975 35,106

35 to 44 years

31,584 32,328 32,410 31,629 32,146 32,304 32,380 32,503 32,462

45 to 54 years

32,547 32,560 32,500 32,510 32,568 32,625 32,526 32,642 32,484

55 years and over

35,207 35,755 35,814 35,113 35,602 35,548 35,455 35,735 35,728

Men, 16 years and over

80,546 81,829 82,151 81,121 81,666 81,821 82,274 82,685 82,630

16 to 19 years

2,374 2,277 2,341 2,573 2,342 2,391 2,569 2,472 2,517

16 to 17 years

815 748 771 950 884 848 920 872 891

18 to 19 years

1,559 1,529 1,570 1,636 1,443 1,540 1,638 1,617 1,639

20 years and over

78,172 79,552 79,810 78,548 79,324 79,431 79,705 80,213 80,113

20 to 24 years

7,123 7,213 7,325 7,259 7,210 7,203 7,339 7,392 7,445

25 years and over

71,049 72,339 72,485 71,298 72,102 72,226 72,388 72,822 72,707

25 to 54 years

52,407 53,400 53,460 52,617 53,084 53,308 53,441 53,764 53,647

25 to 34 years

18,346 18,824 18,900 18,428 18,617 18,612 18,773 18,925 18,942

35 to 44 years

17,005 17,424 17,492 17,092 17,300 17,450 17,447 17,592 17,576

45 to 54 years

17,056 17,152 17,069 17,097 17,167 17,246 17,221 17,247 17,130

55 years and over

18,642 18,939 19,025 18,681 19,018 18,918 18,947 19,058 19,060

Women, 16 years and over

72,082 72,574 72,726 71,943 72,251 72,200 72,157 72,530 72,548

16 to 19 years

2,523 2,545 2,548 2,606 2,586 2,586 2,574 2,702 2,632

16 to 17 years

909 946 930 964 1,044 1,059 995 1,044 1,001

18 to 19 years

1,615 1,599 1,618 1,641 1,552 1,535 1,583 1,676 1,622

20 years and over

69,559 70,029 70,178 69,337 69,665 69,614 69,583 69,828 69,916

20 to 24 years

6,894 6,767 6,834 6,964 6,772 6,733 6,814 6,821 6,889

25 years and over

62,665 63,262 63,344 62,399 62,906 62,857 62,742 63,033 63,071

25 to 54 years

46,100 46,447 46,555 45,966 46,322 46,227 46,233 46,356 46,404

25 to 34 years

16,031 16,135 16,206 16,016 16,074 15,994 15,995 16,050 16,164

35 to 44 years

14,578 14,904 14,918 14,537 14,846 14,853 14,933 14,911 14,886

45 to 54 years

15,491 15,408 15,431 15,414 15,402 15,380 15,305 15,395 15,354

55 years and over

16,565 16,816 16,789 16,432 16,584 16,630 16,508 16,677 16,667

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,858 45,635 45,870 45,912 45,621 45,439 45,714 45,863 45,865

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,288 35,786 35,912 35,888 35,844 35,813 35,768 35,632 35,564

Women who maintain families(2)

9,618 9,624 9,595 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

124,566 126,401 126,424 125,563 126,758 126,723 127,016 127,745 127,434

Part-time workers(4)

28,062 28,003 28,453 27,573 27,138 27,257 27,271 27,548 27,858

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,137 8,103 7,771 7,930 7,342 7,647 7,845 7,864 7,609

Percent of total employed

5.3 5.2 5.0 5.2 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.1 4.9

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,740 5,767 5,891 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,497 9,611 9,799 9,535 9,713 9,763 9,773 9,713 9,793

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Mar.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,171 6,706 6,585 4.5 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

16 to 19 years

816 874 803 13.6 15.9 13.6 13.9 14.4 13.5

16 to 17 years

397 351 332 17.2 19.1 15.2 15.0 15.5 14.9

18 to 19 years

421 524 469 11.4 14.4 13.2 13.3 13.7 12.6

20 years and over

6,355 5,833 5,782 4.1 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.7

20 to 24 years

1,119 1,042 1,018 7.3 7.1 7.1 7.4 6.8 6.6

25 years and over

5,241 4,787 4,769 3.8 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4

25 to 54 years

3,991 3,617 3,591 3.9 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

25 to 34 years

1,623 1,596 1,541 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.2

35 to 44 years

1,271 1,037 1,065 3.9 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2

45 to 54 years

1,098 984 985 3.3 2.7 2.7 3.0 2.9 2.9

55 years and over

1,217 1,193 1,176 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.2

Men, 16 years and over

3,906 3,582 3,539 4.6 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.1

16 to 19 years

446 486 452 14.8 17.7 14.8 14.5 16.4 15.2

16 to 17 years

202 180 171 17.6 20.7 15.7 13.0 17.1 16.1

18 to 19 years

244 309 277 13.0 16.6 15.0 14.9 16.1 14.5

20 years and over

3,459 3,096 3,087 4.2 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7

20 to 24 years

674 605 600 8.5 8.4 7.9 8.2 7.6 7.5

25 years and over

2,777 2,488 2,483 3.7 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.3

25 to 54 years

2,132 1,800 1,863 3.9 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.4

25 to 34 years

923 799 811 4.8 4.1 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.1

35 to 44 years

655 495 538 3.7 2.7 2.6 3.1 2.7 3.0

45 to 54 years

553 505 514 3.1 2.7 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.9

55 years and over

646 688 620 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.2

Women, 16 years and over

3,266 3,124 3,046 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0

16 to 19 years

370 387 351 12.4 14.1 12.3 13.4 12.5 11.8

16 to 17 years

194 170 161 16.8 17.7 14.7 16.7 14.0 13.8

18 to 19 years

176 215 192 9.7 12.4 11.3 11.7 11.4 10.6

20 years and over

2,896 2,737 2,695 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.7

20 to 24 years

445 437 419 6.0 5.8 6.2 6.5 6.0 5.7

25 years and over

2,464 2,300 2,286 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.5

25 to 54 years

1,859 1,817 1,729 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.6

25 to 34 years

699 797 731 4.2 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.3

35 to 44 years

615 542 527 4.1 3.5 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.4

45 to 54 years

545 478 471 3.4 2.8 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.0

55 years and over

564 488 542 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.5 2.8 3.2

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,208 992 1,006 2.6 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.1

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,022 973 957 2.8 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.7 2.6

Women who maintain families(2)

557 637 569 5.5 5.5 5.3 6.5 6.2 5.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,758 5,395 5,271 4.4 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0

Part-time workers(4)

1,405 1,293 1,303 4.8 5.0 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,812 3,716 3,375 3,516 3,149 3,254 3,273 3,279 3,146

On temporary layoff

1,125 1,172 1,007 946 950 915 912 878 865

Not on temporary layoff

2,686 2,544 2,368 2,570 2,200 2,339 2,361 2,401 2,281

Permanent job losers

1,880 1,799 1,696 1,817 1,539 1,636 1,652 1,709 1,645

Persons who completed temporary jobs

806 745 672 752 661 703 709 692 637

Job leavers

778 774 850 793 739 715 716 780 864

Reentrants

2,004 1,962 1,912 2,064 2,025 2,003 1,958 1,948 1,967

New entrants

691 639 534 769 697 581 645 704 625

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

52.3 52.4 50.6 49.2 47.6 49.7 49.6 48.9 47.7

On temporary layoff

15.5 16.5 15.1 13.2 14.4 14.0 13.8 13.1 13.1

Not on temporary layoff

36.9 35.9 35.5 36.0 33.3 35.7 35.8 35.8 34.6

Job leavers

10.7 10.9 12.7 11.1 11.2 10.9 10.9 11.6 13.1

Reentrants

27.5 27.7 28.7 28.9 30.6 30.6 29.7 29.0 29.8

New entrants

9.5 9.0 8.0 10.8 10.5 8.9 9.8 10.5 9.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.4 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,000 2,307 1,994 2,296 2,253 2,235 2,280 2,508 2,287

5 to 14 weeks

2,269 2,253 2,203 2,088 1,894 1,994 1,943 1,906 2,009

15 weeks and over

3,016 2,532 2,475 2,725 2,514 2,397 2,402 2,330 2,202

15 to 26 weeks

1,255 1,024 1,059 1,064 921 882 981 934 880

27 weeks and over

1,761 1,507 1,416 1,660 1,593 1,515 1,421 1,397 1,322

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

26.1 22.7 24.8 25.4 25.2 23.6 24.1 22.9 24.1

Median duration, in weeks

11.6 9.4 10.2 10.4 9.5 9.1 9.4 9.3 9.1

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

27.5 32.5 29.9 32.3 33.8 33.7 34.4 37.2 35.2

5 to 14 weeks

31.1 31.8 33.0 29.4 28.4 30.1 29.3 28.3 30.9

15 weeks and over

41.4 35.7 37.1 38.3 37.7 36.2 36.3 34.6 33.9

15 to 26 weeks

17.2 14.4 15.9 15.0 13.8 13.3 14.8 13.8 13.5

27 weeks and over

24.2 21.3 21.2 23.4 23.9 22.9 21.5 20.7 20.3

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

152,628 154,877 7,284 6,671 4.6 4.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

61,156 63,067 1,265 1,310 2.0 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,418 25,992 622 520 2.4 2.0

Professional and related occupations

35,738 37,074 644 790 1.8 2.1

Service occupations

26,358 26,564 1,597 1,447 5.7 5.2

Sales and office occupations

33,385 32,896 1,444 1,428 4.1 4.2

Sales and related occupations

15,858 15,413 640 731 3.9 4.5

Office and administrative support occupations

17,527 17,482 803 697 4.4 3.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,877 13,860 1,156 999 7.7 6.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,186 992 131 137 9.9 12.1

Construction and extraction occupations

7,548 7,966 831 712 9.9 8.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,142 4,902 194 150 3.6 3.0

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,852 18,490 1,099 933 5.8 4.8

Production occupations

8,378 8,539 472 382 5.3 4.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,474 9,952 627 551 6.2 5.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,284 6,671 4.6 4.1

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,733 5,136 4.6 4.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

30 55 4.1 6.9

Construction

764 696 8.4 7.4

Manufacturing

614 511 3.9 3.3

Durable goods

420 304 4.2 3.1

Nondurable goods

194 208 3.4 3.6

Wholesale and retail trade

985 960 4.8 4.8

Transportation and utilities

284 241 4.3 3.6

Information

108 108 4.0 4.1

Financial activities

235 181 2.3 1.8

Professional and business services

904 714 5.5 4.2

Education and health services

666 619 2.8 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

883 808 6.3 5.8

Other services

260 242 3.9 3.6

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

126 147 7.7 9.7

Government workers

393 522 1.8 2.4

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

341 333 3.4 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.4 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.6 4.4 4.1 4.5 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.8 4.6 4.4 4.7 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.3

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.5 5.3 5.0 5.4 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.9

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.9 8.6 8.1 8.8 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.0

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2018

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,502 95,549 38,227 38,407 56,275 57,142

Persons who currently want a job

5,507 4,793 2,613 2,272 2,894 2,521

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,595 1,454 804 770 791 684

Discouraged workers(2)

460 450 246 271 214 179

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,135 1,004 558 498 578 506

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,137 7,771 4,093 3,991 4,044 3,781

Percent of total employed

5.3 5.0 5.1 4.9 5.6 5.2

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,566 4,272 2,467 2,396 2,099 1,877

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,144 2,040 800 766 1,344 1,274

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

297 307 172 199 124 109

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,079 1,108 635 612 444 496

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)
Change from:
Feb.2018 - Mar.2018(p)

Total nonfarm

145,078 145,435 146,667 147,332 145,969 147,801 148,127 148,230 103

Total private

122,385 123,267 124,035 124,638 123,655 125,482 125,802 125,904 102

Goods-producing

19,624 19,866 20,032 20,167 19,982 20,383 20,489 20,504 15

Mining and logging

650 693 702 712 660 705 714 722 8

Logging

48.0 49.1 49.7 48.5 49.7 50.7 50.3 50.2 -0.1

Mining

601.7 643.6 652.3 663.4 610.4 654.4 663.4 671.9 8.5

Oil and gas extraction

143.9 145.7 145.7 149.1 144.7 147.0 147.8 150.2 2.4

Mining, except oil and gas

179.2 179.1 180.2 182.8 184.1 186.4 187.0 187.6 0.6

Coal mining

51.0 51.9 51.9 51.8 51.2 51.9 52.1 52.1 0.0

Metal ore mining

38.8 38.3 38.4 38.5 39.1 38.6 38.7 38.8 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

89.4 88.9 89.9 92.5 93.9 95.9 96.2 96.7 0.5

Support activities for mining

278.6 318.8 326.4 331.5 281.6 321.0 328.6 334.1 5.5

Construction

6,634 6,692 6,797 6,880 6,922 7,100 7,165 7,150 -15

Construction of buildings

1,487.3 1,510.9 1,530.7 1,545.9 1,530.7 1,566.2 1,581.5 1,586.1 4.6

Residential building

723.3 743.3 753.3 759.1 749.0 772.0 780.0 782.4 2.4

Nonresidential building

764.0 767.6 777.4 786.8 781.7 794.2 801.5 803.7 2.2

Heavy and civil engineering construction

912.2 873.2 902.8 933.2 991.4 998.9 1,009.3 1,005.7 -3.6

Specialty trade contractors

4,234.5 4,307.4 4,363.2 4,401.1 4,399.6 4,535.2 4,574.5 4,558.3 -16.2

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,850.3 1,892.5 1,916.7 1,933.7 1,926.3 1,995.2 2,016.5 2,007.1 -9.4

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,384.2 2,414.9 2,446.5 2,467.4 2,473.3 2,540.0 2,558.0 2,551.2 -6.8

Manufacturing

12,340 12,481 12,533 12,575 12,400 12,578 12,610 12,632 22

Durable goods

7,687 7,796 7,832 7,872 7,708 7,838 7,866 7,888 22

Wood products

393.5 395.5 398.6 401.5 397.7 399.9 403.7 404.5 0.8

Nonmetallic mineral products

403.0 402.8 405.4 413.6 411.7 418.0 419.6 421.3 1.7

Primary metals

368.0 378.2 381.4 380.4 368.1 377.9 381.2 380.1 -1.1

Fabricated metal products

1,414.5 1,455.9 1,462.9 1,472.5 1,418.2 1,462.0 1,468.1 1,476.9 8.8

Machinery

1,067.5 1,099.1 1,105.4 1,106.1 1,068.4 1,100.4 1,104.2 1,106.2 2.0

Computer and electronic products

1,035.9 1,052.7 1,053.8 1,058.8 1,038.2 1,056.3 1,057.4 1,060.2 2.8

Computer and peripheral equipment

156.2 166.4 167.0 168.8 157.1 167.2 168.0 169.2 1.2

Communications equipment

86.5 86.0 85.9 86.2 86.7 86.5 86.5 86.4 -0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

360.7 364.2 365.7 367.5 361.4 366.0 366.9 367.8 0.9

Electronic instruments

398.5 403.5 402.8 404.1 398.8 403.9 403.5 404.4 0.9

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.0 32.6 32.4 32.2 34.2 32.7 32.6 32.4 -0.2

Electrical equipment and appliances

383.8 395.3 396.8 399.4 384.7 396.6 398.4 400.4 2.0

Transportation equipment(1)

1,637.2 1,638.7 1,645.2 1,656.2 1,633.7 1,642.2 1,647.4 1,652.2 4.8

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

959.8 954.3 960.2 969.8 955.8 956.6 961.5 964.8 3.3

Furniture and related products

393.2 388.9 391.5 392.2 394.1 391.6 392.6 393.2 0.6

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

590.4 589.3 591.4 591.3 593.1 592.9 593.3 593.4 0.1

Nondurable goods

4,653 4,685 4,701 4,703 4,692 4,740 4,744 4,744 0

Food manufacturing

1,567.8 1,600.5 1,606.0 1,605.2 1,592.0 1,625.3 1,626.6 1,629.9 3.3

Textile mills

112.8 111.3 111.5 110.9 112.7 111.4 111.2 110.9 -0.3

Textile product mills

115.5 111.5 110.9 111.5 116.4 112.7 112.3 112.2 -0.1

Apparel

122.6 115.4 116.8 116.5 122.8 116.5 116.4 116.6 0.2

Paper and paper products

368.6 369.9 372.5 370.7 369.4 370.6 372.0 371.0 -1.0

Printing and related support activities

442.1 433.4 434.9 434.5 443.0 436.2 437.9 435.4 -2.5

Petroleum and coal products

111.1 110.8 113.0 113.0 114.3 115.0 117.0 116.3 -0.7

Chemicals

819.1 825.0 823.4 823.5 819.2 827.8 826.4 824.7 -1.7

Plastics and rubber products

713.1 720.0 722.7 723.3 712.9 725.3 724.1 723.2 -0.9

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

280.6 287.6 288.9 294.2 289.5 299.2 299.9 303.4 3.5

Private service-providing

102,761 103,401 104,003 104,471 103,673 105,099 105,313 105,400 87

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,104 27,463 27,329 27,410 27,427 27,627 27,701 27,722 21

Wholesale trade

5,854.8 5,896.9 5,915.0 5,941.6 5,881.7 5,948.8 5,955.9 5,967.3 11.4

Durable goods

2,940.4 2,979.3 2,991.3 2,999.3 2,950.0 2,999.0 3,005.8 3,008.9 3.1

Nondurable goods

2,030.6 2,023.0 2,030.3 2,045.4 2,044.5 2,050.1 2,052.4 2,058.2 5.8

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

883.8 894.6 893.4 896.9 887.2 899.7 897.7 900.2 2.5

Retail trade

15,628.7 15,791.9 15,659.3 15,691.4 15,859.4 15,873.0 15,920.3 15,915.9 -4.4

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,992.1 2,000.5 2,007.6 2,018.7 2,001.6 2,022.6 2,026.6 2,028.5 1.9

Automobile dealers

1,289.0 1,296.6 1,301.1 1,303.9 1,292.5 1,303.9 1,307.8 1,307.6 -0.2

Other motor vehicle dealers

150.2 146.1 149.0 153.4 154.4 157.6 157.4 157.7 0.3

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

552.9 557.8 557.5 561.4 554.7 561.1 561.4 563.3 1.9

Furniture and home furnishings stores

471.2 487.5 481.0 479.3 476.1 482.0 482.1 484.1 2.0

Electronics and appliance stores

508.1 506.8 494.5 495.7 513.2 495.7 496.8 498.5 1.7

Building material and garden supply stores

1,269.2 1,239.7 1,269.0 1,322.4 1,270.9 1,305.0 1,316.0 1,317.9 1.9

Food and beverage stores

3,065.6 3,078.1 3,070.2 3,063.0 3,097.9 3,094.4 3,097.1 3,093.9 -3.2

Health and personal care stores

1,065.2 1,067.0 1,052.7 1,054.0 1,070.0 1,061.5 1,057.2 1,058.9 1.7

Gasoline stations

920.1 922.8 923.8 925.4 931.4 935.8 936.7 936.8 0.1

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,339.5 1,366.0 1,325.3 1,318.2 1,389.4 1,355.8 1,371.4 1,364.1 -7.3

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

582.1 597.2 575.5 570.0 602.3 593.0 591.2 592.2 1.0

General merchandise stores

3,053.4 3,143.9 3,072.2 3,055.0 3,109.7 3,119.9 3,133.3 3,120.7 -12.6

Department stores

1,136.7 1,196.8 1,146.9 1,130.1 1,171.8 1,174.2 1,175.9 1,168.0 -7.9

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,916.7 1,947.1 1,925.3 1,924.9 1,937.9 1,945.7 1,957.4 1,952.7 -4.7

Miscellaneous store retailers

807.1 801.1 805.7 805.3 832.0 823.8 823.9 828.0 4.1

Nonstore retailers

555.1 581.3 581.8 584.4 564.9 583.5 588.0 592.3 4.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,065.6 5,223.2 5,202.8 5,219.4 5,129.6 5,251.5 5,269.5 5,279.3 9.8

Air transportation

486.7 495.6 497.2 499.8 488.7 500.1 502.0 502.0 0.0

Rail transportation

217.5 210.2 210.9 210.9 218.3 212.3 212.3 211.6 -0.7

Water transportation

62.7 63.3 61.6 62.5 64.5 65.3 64.4 64.5 0.1

Truck transportation

1,429.4 1,436.0 1,445.5 1,454.2 1,455.9 1,466.1 1,472.1 1,478.8 6.7

Transit and ground passenger transportation

502.1 503.7 508.6 507.9 488.0 493.8 497.1 494.7 -2.4

Pipeline transportation

49.5 46.5 47.2 47.5 49.6 46.7 47.4 47.5 0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

27.0 25.7 26.9 28.9 34.5 36.3 36.6 36.9 0.3

Support activities for transportation

682.2 696.7 702.8 700.4 685.9 702.0 706.4 703.8 -2.6

Couriers and messengers

636.3 738.1 696.2 700.2 663.0 714.9 717.1 722.9 5.8

Warehousing and storage

972.2 1,007.4 1,005.9 1,007.1 981.2 1,014.0 1,014.1 1,016.6 2.5

Utilities

554.5 550.5 551.4 557.9 556.0 553.2 555.0 559.0 4.0

Information

2,803 2,723 2,752 2,751 2,809 2,760 2,758 2,760 2

Publishing industries, except Internet

726.5 713.2 712.3 711.5 728.7 715.9 714.3 713.7 -0.6

Motion picture and sound recording industries

425.9 381.2 397.9 395.3 426.5 408.5 397.9 400.5 2.6

Broadcasting, except Internet

270.8 261.5 261.5 262.2 270.0 262.3 262.0 261.4 -0.6

Telecommunications

789.8 763.7 771.6 769.0 790.9 766.3 771.4 769.4 -2.0

Data processing, hosting and related services

312.6 319.6 324.6 328.0 314.5 322.1 326.1 329.0 2.9

Other information services

277.0 283.4 284.3 285.0 277.9 285.0 285.8 286.1 0.3

Financial activities

8,363 8,457 8,489 8,499 8,410 8,514 8,544 8,546 2

Finance and insurance

6,225.6 6,278.3 6,300.8 6,298.5 6,238.7 6,291.4 6,312.0 6,310.4 -1.6

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.1 18.9 18.9 18.9 19.1 18.9 18.9 19.0 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,636.2 2,652.6 2,658.9 2,652.2 2,640.9 2,655.5 2,663.0 2,656.9 -6.1

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,711.3 1,713.5 1,714.5 1,714.8 1,712.0 1,714.9 1,716.3 1,715.4 -0.9

Commercial banking

1,323.2 1,319.7 1,321.9 1,320.9 1,323.0 1,319.3 1,321.1 1,319.8 -1.3

Nondepository credit intermediation

618.2 623.3 627.0 623.2 620.9 623.8 628.4 625.9 -2.5

Activities related to credit intermediation

306.7 315.8 317.4 314.2 308.1 316.8 318.3 315.7 -2.6

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

927.8 949.8 956.6 957.2 932.9 954.3 959.5 961.1 1.6

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,642.5 2,657.0 2,666.4 2,670.2 2,645.8 2,662.7 2,670.6 2,673.4 2.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,136.9 2,179.1 2,188.3 2,200.1 2,171.1 2,222.9 2,231.9 2,235.4 3.5

Real estate

1,568.8 1,591.9 1,596.2 1,602.6 1,587.6 1,615.1 1,619.2 1,622.0 2.8

Rental and leasing services

544.2 563.9 567.9 573.3 559.3 583.9 588.2 589.0 0.8

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.9 23.3 24.2 24.2 24.2 23.9 24.5 24.4 -0.1

Professional and business services

20,070 20,326 20,469 20,568 20,301 20,715 20,770 20,803 33

Professional and technical services

8,972.8 9,088.9 9,171.9 9,175.1 8,935.0 9,098.5 9,119.0 9,137.9 18.9

Legal services

1,126.8 1,128.1 1,128.8 1,131.1 1,131.4 1,136.0 1,135.6 1,136.0 0.4

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,089.0 1,039.9 1,087.5 1,089.0 982.8 974.5 975.0 984.6 9.6

Architectural and engineering services

1,406.3 1,437.8 1,443.7 1,444.1 1,424.0 1,458.5 1,464.7 1,461.9 -2.8

Specialized design services

138.1 135.0 135.4 135.7 139.5 137.4 137.1 137.1 0.0

Computer systems design and related services

2,012.0 2,070.2 2,078.7 2,064.9 2,029.1 2,071.5 2,076.0 2,081.0 5.0

Management and technical consulting services

1,367.0 1,415.3 1,422.4 1,420.2 1,382.3 1,435.2 1,436.4 1,436.0 -0.4

Scientific research and development services

651.5 662.2 665.3 667.5 654.4 666.5 669.4 670.9 1.5

Advertising and related services

490.0 484.9 490.3 496.6 492.9 492.2 494.8 499.1 4.3

Other professional and technical services

692.1 715.5 719.8 726.0 698.6 726.8 730.0 731.4 1.4

Management of companies and enterprises

2,276.1 2,302.9 2,303.4 2,307.5 2,284.1 2,310.0 2,313.1 2,315.2 2.1

Administrative and waste services

8,820.9 8,934.2 8,994.1 9,085.1 9,081.5 9,306.8 9,337.8 9,349.5 11.7

Administrative and support services

8,415.7 8,521.1 8,580.2 8,668.7 8,669.4 8,887.2 8,916.9 8,926.8 9.9

Office administrative services

501.3 517.7 516.5 516.2 502.7 519.6 518.5 518.5 0.0

Facilities support services

147.7 153.3 155.4 155.9 147.5 154.7 156.1 155.7 -0.4

Employment services(1)

3,452.4 3,516.0 3,556.6 3,588.0 3,562.4 3,677.8 3,699.5 3,700.5 1.0

Temporary help services

2,811.0 2,855.9 2,890.8 2,918.2 2,907.4 2,996.4 3,017.4 3,016.8 -0.6

Business support services

904.3 914.6 913.8 908.4 907.4 912.8 911.9 911.7 -0.2

Travel arrangement and reservation services

217.8 211.6 214.3 216.1 218.9 216.7 217.2 217.0 -0.2

Investigation and security services

906.4 921.4 923.2 926.9 913.1 930.6 932.4 933.2 0.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,969.0 1,961.2 1,973.2 2,026.1 2,099.4 2,144.0 2,149.5 2,157.0 7.5

Other support services

316.8 325.3 327.2 331.1 317.9 330.9 331.8 333.1 1.3

Waste management and remediation services

405.2 413.1 413.9 416.4 412.1 419.6 420.9 422.7 1.8

Education and health services

23,185 23,241 23,590 23,622 23,040 23,430 23,458 23,483 25

Educational services

3,819.2 3,590.5 3,867.1 3,863.9 3,646.7 3,715.3 3,702.8 3,693.8 -9.0

Health care and social assistance

19,365.9 19,650.0 19,722.7 19,757.6 19,392.8 19,714.5 19,755.2 19,789.0 33.8

Health care(3)

15,593.1 15,835.6 15,879.3 15,894.1 15,633.6 15,888.2 15,915.0 15,937.4 22.4

Ambulatory health care services

7,206.6 7,366.9 7,394.9 7,405.3 7,230.1 7,398.9 7,414.7 7,430.9 16.2

Offices of physicians

2,558.5 2,603.5 2,613.4 2,615.6 2,564.3 2,611.9 2,618.5 2,622.2 3.7

Offices of dentists

927.0 936.1 934.6 936.8 931.1 939.1 936.6 941.0 4.4

Offices of other health practitioners

875.4 908.1 908.5 909.6 879.4 912.9 912.5 913.9 1.4

Outpatient care centers

886.4 917.1 919.1 923.5 887.0 918.9 920.6 924.1 3.5

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

267.6 274.0 276.0 276.2 268.1 274.6 276.3 276.6 0.3

Home health care services

1,393.0 1,423.4 1,434.3 1,436.0 1,399.5 1,432.7 1,440.5 1,443.0 2.5

Other ambulatory health care services

298.7 304.7 309.0 307.6 300.7 308.8 309.7 310.1 0.4

Hospitals

5,059.0 5,124.4 5,136.5 5,150.5 5,062.4 5,134.1 5,143.8 5,153.7 9.9

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,327.5 3,344.3 3,347.9 3,338.3 3,341.1 3,355.2 3,356.5 3,352.8 -3.7

Nursing care facilities

1,625.8 1,615.6 1,613.5 1,605.4 1,633.7 1,618.5 1,617.1 1,614.2 -2.9

Residential mental health facilities

625.9 631.7 633.1 629.2 626.8 633.6 634.3 630.2 -4.1

Community care facilities for the elderly

911.0 927.6 931.3 933.0 913.8 931.7 934.1 936.2 2.1

Other residential care facilities

164.8 169.4 170.0 170.7 166.7 171.3 171.1 172.3 1.2

Social assistance

3,772.8 3,814.4 3,843.4 3,863.5 3,759.2 3,826.3 3,840.2 3,851.6 11.4

Individual and family services

2,318.3 2,363.9 2,384.2 2,399.7 2,320.0 2,375.1 2,388.6 2,400.4 11.8

Emergency and other relief services

168.7 171.1 172.6 171.8 168.1 170.7 171.4 171.2 -0.2

Vocational rehabilitation services

338.3 340.5 343.2 343.2 341.7 345.5 346.7 346.4 -0.3

Child day care services

947.5 938.9 943.4 948.8 929.4 935.0 933.5 933.7 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

15,524 15,440 15,594 15,824 15,944 16,228 16,251 16,256 5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,120.3 2,072.4 2,107.8 2,166.7 2,297.8 2,349.1 2,350.8 2,350.6 -0.2

Performing arts and spectator sports

452.0 428.6 452.7 471.9 473.5 493.9 497.4 496.0 -1.4

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

152.6 156.1 156.6 161.9 162.0 172.0 172.1 172.2 0.1

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,515.7 1,487.7 1,498.5 1,532.9 1,662.3 1,683.2 1,681.3 1,682.4 1.1

Accommodation and food services

13,403.5 13,367.4 13,485.8 13,657.2 13,646.1 13,879.1 13,900.6 13,904.9 4.3

Accommodation

1,926.1 1,912.8 1,926.7 1,954.1 1,993.3 2,015.4 2,017.0 2,021.3 4.3

Food services and drinking places

11,477.4 11,454.6 11,559.1 11,703.1 11,652.8 11,863.7 11,883.6 11,883.6 0.0

Other services

5,712 5,751 5,780 5,797 5,742 5,825 5,831 5,830 -1

Repair and maintenance

1,305.0 1,300.4 1,306.5 1,313.2 1,304.8 1,315.4 1,312.4 1,313.8 1.4

Personal and laundry services

1,455.0 1,488.0 1,494.0 1,497.6 1,465.9 1,509.5 1,514.0 1,511.2 -2.8

Membership associations and organizations

2,952.2 2,962.9 2,979.8 2,986.0 2,971.2 3,000.3 3,004.6 3,005.4 0.8

Government

22,693 22,168 22,632 22,694 22,314 22,319 22,325 22,326 1

Federal

2,793.0 2,787.0 2,777.0 2,773.0 2,808.0 2,797.0 2,790.0 2,789.0 -1.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,177.9 2,174.2 2,170.7 2,167.8 2,191.8 2,183.7 2,183.1 2,182.2 -0.9

U.S. Postal Service

615.4 612.4 606.0 604.9 615.7 613.6 607.3 606.8 -0.5

State government

5,318.0 5,023.0 5,247.0 5,265.0 5,159.0 5,119.0 5,114.0 5,113.0 -1.0

State government education

2,633.7 2,371.3 2,592.8 2,608.1 2,471.6 2,454.9 2,451.4 2,452.1 0.7

State government, excluding education

2,683.9 2,652.0 2,654.5 2,656.5 2,687.7 2,663.6 2,663.0 2,660.6 -2.4

Local government

14,582.0 14,358.0 14,608.0 14,656.0 14,347.0 14,403.0 14,421.0 14,424.0 3.0

Local government education

8,252.7 8,015.8 8,249.0 8,279.4 7,911.7 7,926.2 7,939.7 7,940.1 0.4

Local government, excluding education

6,328.8 6,342.5 6,358.6 6,376.2 6,435.2 6,476.9 6,481.0 6,483.6 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.3 34.4 34.5 34.5

Goods-producing

40.1 40.3 40.6 40.5

Mining and logging

45.1 45.3 46.1 46.0

Construction

38.8 39.0 39.4 39.2

Manufacturing

40.6 40.7 41.0 40.9

Durable goods

41.1 41.2 41.4 41.3

Nondurable goods

39.7 40.0 40.3 40.2

Private service-providing

33.2 33.2 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.5 34.5 34.5

Wholesale trade

39.0 39.0 39.0 39.0

Retail trade

30.9 31.1 31.1 31.2

Transportation and warehousing

38.4 38.7 38.8 38.7

Utilities

42.4 41.9 41.8 41.9

Information

36.2 35.8 36.0 36.1

Financial activities

37.3 37.6 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.0 35.9 36.2 36.1

Education and health services

32.9 32.9 33.0 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 26.0 26.1 26.1

Other services

31.8 31.6 31.7 31.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.5 3.7 3.6

Durable goods

3.3 3.5 3.7 3.6

Nondurable goods

3.2 3.5 3.6 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)

Total private

$26.11 $26.71 $26.74 $26.82 $895.57 $918.82 $922.53 $925.29

Goods-producing

27.36 27.88 27.95 27.96 1,097.14 1,123.56 1,134.77 1,132.38

Mining and logging

32.04 32.38 32.37 32.64 1,445.00 1,466.81 1,492.26 1,501.44

Construction

28.60 29.33 29.50 29.43 1,109.68 1,143.87 1,162.30 1,153.66

Manufacturing

26.42 26.81 26.81 26.86 1,072.65 1,091.17 1,099.21 1,098.57

Durable goods

27.67 28.11 28.08 28.11 1,137.24 1,158.13 1,162.51 1,160.94

Nondurable goods

24.28 24.60 24.65 24.72 963.92 984.00 993.40 993.74

Private service-providing

25.82 26.43 26.46 26.55 857.22 877.48 881.12 884.12

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.63 23.04 23.06 23.12 776.21 794.88 795.57 797.64

Wholesale trade

29.88 30.21 30.22 30.23 1,165.32 1,178.19 1,178.58 1,178.97

Retail trade

18.04 18.41 18.44 18.48 557.44 572.55 573.48 576.58

Transportation and warehousing

23.65 24.23 24.24 24.35 908.16 937.70 940.51 942.35

Utilities

38.94 39.60 39.73 39.97 1,651.06 1,659.24 1,660.71 1,674.74

Information

37.64 38.93 39.04 39.07 1,362.57 1,393.69 1,405.44 1,410.43

Financial activities

32.76 34.29 34.28 34.50 1,221.95 1,289.30 1,288.93 1,297.20

Professional and business services

31.48 32.04 32.04 32.20 1,133.28 1,150.24 1,159.85 1,162.42

Education and health services

26.13 26.73 26.75 26.82 859.68 879.42 882.75 882.38

Leisure and hospitality

15.35 15.73 15.75 15.81 399.10 408.98 411.08 412.64

Other services

23.64 24.26 24.26 24.30 751.75 766.62 769.04 770.31

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2018 - Mar.
2018(p)
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2018 - Mar.
2018(p)

Total private

106.5 108.3 108.9 109.0 0.1 132.9 138.3 139.3 139.8 0.4

Goods-producing

91.3 93.6 94.8 94.6 -0.2 112.9 117.9 119.7 119.6 -0.1

Mining and logging

93.5 100.4 103.4 104.4 1.0 120.3 130.5 134.4 136.8 1.8

Construction

92.6 95.5 97.3 96.6 -0.7 115.0 121.6 124.7 123.5 -1.0

Manufacturing

90.6 92.1 93.0 92.9 -0.1 111.3 114.8 116.0 116.1 0.1

Durable goods

89.2 90.9 91.7 91.7 0.0 109.6 113.5 114.3 114.5 0.2

Nondurable goods

93.0 94.6 95.4 95.2 -0.2 114.5 118.1 119.4 119.4 0.0

Private service-providing

110.7 112.3 112.8 112.9 0.1 138.9 144.2 145.1 145.7 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

102.3 103.7 103.9 104.0 0.1 124.6 128.5 129.0 129.4 0.3

Wholesale trade

100.1 101.2 101.3 101.5 0.2 124.8 127.6 127.8 128.1 0.2

Retail trade

99.5 100.3 100.6 100.9 0.3 118.7 122.0 122.6 123.2 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

112.7 116.3 117.0 116.9 -0.1 135.3 143.0 143.9 144.5 0.4

Utilities

102.0 100.3 100.4 101.3 0.9 131.2 131.2 131.8 133.8 1.5

Information

92.9 90.2 90.7 91.0 0.3 124.5 125.1 126.0 126.6 0.5

Financial activities

102.7 104.8 105.2 105.2 0.0 131.3 140.2 140.7 141.6 0.6

Professional and business services

114.9 117.0 118.3 118.1 -0.2 146.6 151.8 153.5 154.1 0.4

Education and health services

123.8 125.9 126.4 126.2 -0.2 155.6 161.9 162.7 162.8 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

118.3 120.4 121.0 121.1 0.1 146.5 152.8 153.8 154.4 0.4

Other services

105.3 106.1 106.6 106.6 0.0 136.4 141.1 141.7 141.9 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)

Total nonfarm

72,325 73,239 73,421 73,504 49.5 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private

59,530 60,411 60,579 60,658 48.1 48.1 48.2 48.2

Goods-producing

4,369 4,479 4,504 4,521 21.9 22.0 22.0 22.0

Mining and logging

91 91 92 93 13.8 12.9 12.9 12.9

Construction

866 907 916 915 12.5 12.8 12.8 12.8

Manufacturing

3,412 3,481 3,496 3,513 27.5 27.7 27.7 27.8

Durable goods

1,805 1,834 1,846 1,856 23.4 23.4 23.5 23.5

Nondurable goods

1,607 1,647 1,650 1,657 34.2 34.7 34.8 34.9

Private service-providing

55,161 55,932 56,075 56,137 53.2 53.2 53.2 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,071 11,066 11,126 11,115 40.4 40.1 40.2 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,734.6 1,763.4 1,768.9 1,774.3 29.5 29.6 29.7 29.7

Retail trade

7,955.7 7,888.8 7,937.1 7,917.9 50.2 49.7 49.9 49.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,252.5 1,286.8 1,292.1 1,293.0 24.4 24.5 24.5 24.5

Utilities

127.8 126.7 128.2 129.8 23.0 22.9 23.1 23.2

Information

1,118 1,090 1,090 1,090 39.8 39.5 39.5 39.5

Financial activities

4,767 4,805 4,815 4,816 56.7 56.4 56.4 56.4

Professional and business services

9,126 9,354 9,385 9,404 45.0 45.2 45.2 45.2

Education and health services

17,757 18,030 18,047 18,088 77.1 77.0 76.9 77.0

Leisure and hospitality

8,291 8,498 8,517 8,531 52.0 52.4 52.4 52.5

Other services

3,031 3,089 3,095 3,093 52.8 53.0 53.1 53.1

Government

12,795 12,828 12,842 12,846 57.3 57.5 57.5 57.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)

Total private

101,941 103,392 103,636 103,725

Goods-producing

14,398 14,673 14,750 14,747

Mining and logging

474 522 527 534

Construction

5,219 5,315 5,368 5,347

Manufacturing

8,705 8,836 8,855 8,866

Durable goods

5,300 5,385 5,407 5,417

Nondurable goods

3,405 3,451 3,448 3,449

Private service-providing

87,543 88,719 88,886 88,978

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,085 23,338 23,403 23,435

Wholesale trade

4,710.5 4,771.0 4,781.3 4,792.4

Retail trade

13,477.3 13,548.1 13,597.5 13,602.7

Transportation and warehousing

4,448.3 4,574.3 4,579.7 4,592.0

Utilities

448.4 445.0 444.6 447.9

Information

2,264 2,223 2,218 2,219

Financial activities

6,540 6,607 6,619 6,623

Professional and business services

16,611 16,869 16,915 16,948

Education and health services

20,235 20,577 20,610 20,632

Leisure and hospitality

14,053 14,286 14,299 14,304

Other services

4,755 4,819 4,822 4,817

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.6 33.8 33.7

Goods-producing

41.0 41.2 41.6 41.5

Mining and logging

45.9 46.1 47.1 46.9

Construction

39.3 39.6 39.9 39.9

Manufacturing

41.8 41.9 42.3 42.2

Durable goods

42.3 42.2 42.6 42.5

Nondurable goods

41.0 41.4 41.7 41.6

Private service-providing

32.3 32.4 32.5 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.6 33.9 33.9 34.0

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.9 38.8 38.9

Retail trade

30.0 30.4 30.3 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

38.0 38.3 38.4 38.2

Utilities

42.6 42.7 42.6 42.7

Information

35.7 35.5 35.8 35.9

Financial activities

36.9 37.0 37.0 37.0

Professional and business services

35.4 35.1 35.4 35.3

Education and health services

32.1 32.2 32.3 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.9 24.9 24.9

Other services

30.7 30.6 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.2 4.6 4.8 4.6

Durable goods

4.3 4.7 4.9 4.7

Nondurable goods

4.0 4.4 4.6 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)

Total private

$21.89 $22.34 $22.38 $22.42 $735.50 $750.62 $756.44 $755.55

Goods-producing

22.94 23.59 23.70 23.71 940.54 971.91 985.92 983.97

Mining and logging

27.34 27.85 27.79 27.87 1,254.91 1,283.89 1,308.91 1,307.10

Construction

26.44 27.17 27.38 27.34 1,039.09 1,075.93 1,092.46 1,090.87

Manufacturing

20.70 21.27 21.32 21.36 865.26 891.21 901.84 901.39

Durable goods

21.68 22.25 22.26 22.28 917.06 938.95 948.28 946.90

Nondurable goods

19.14 19.72 19.82 19.88 784.74 816.41 826.49 827.01

Private service-providing

21.67 22.08 22.10 22.15 699.94 715.39 718.25 717.66

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.21 19.54 19.53 19.62 645.46 662.41 662.07 667.08

Wholesale trade

24.52 24.78 24.80 24.84 951.38 963.94 962.24 966.28

Retail trade

15.21 15.51 15.48 15.62 456.30 471.50 469.04 476.41

Transportation and warehousing

21.12 21.61 21.62 21.67 802.56 827.66 830.21 827.79

Utilities

36.37 36.45 36.40 36.70 1,549.36 1,556.42 1,550.64 1,567.09

Information

30.52 31.19 31.26 31.58 1,089.56 1,107.25 1,119.11 1,133.72

Financial activities

26.39 26.70 26.70 26.70 973.79 987.90 987.90 987.90

Professional and business services

25.85 26.37 26.40 26.45 915.09 925.59 934.56 933.69

Education and health services

22.90 23.40 23.40 23.41 735.09 753.48 755.82 753.80

Leisure and hospitality

13.25 13.61 13.62 13.68 328.60 338.89 339.14 340.63

Other services

19.86 20.46 20.49 20.47 609.70 626.08 629.04 628.43

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2018 - Mar.
2018(p)
Mar.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018(p)
Mar.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2018 - Mar.
2018(p)

Total private

114.1 115.7 116.7 116.5 -0.2 166.9 172.8 174.5 174.5 0.0

Goods-producing

90.2 92.4 93.8 93.5 -0.3 126.7 133.4 136.1 135.8 -0.2

Mining and logging

115.6 127.9 131.9 133.1 0.9 183.8 207.1 213.2 215.7 1.2

Construction

102.7 105.4 107.2 106.8 -0.4 146.6 154.6 158.6 157.7 -0.6

Manufacturing

83.5 85.0 86.0 85.9 -0.1 113.1 118.2 119.9 120.0 0.1

Durable goods

84.3 85.4 86.6 86.5 -0.1 114.0 118.6 120.3 120.4 0.1

Nondurable goods

82.3 84.2 84.7 84.5 -0.2 111.3 117.3 118.7 118.8 0.1

Private service-providing

120.4 122.4 123.0 122.8 -0.2 178.9 185.3 186.4 186.5 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

108.1 110.3 110.6 111.1 0.5 148.2 153.7 154.1 155.5 0.9

Wholesale trade

107.6 109.3 109.3 109.8 0.5 155.5 159.5 159.6 160.6 0.6

Retail trade

102.3 104.3 104.3 105.0 0.7 133.4 138.6 138.4 140.6 1.6

Transportation and warehousing

127.2 131.9 132.4 132.0 -0.3 170.5 180.8 181.6 181.5 -0.1

Utilities

97.7 97.2 96.9 97.8 0.9 148.3 147.8 147.2 149.8 1.8

Information

92.3 90.1 90.6 90.9 0.3 139.4 139.1 140.2 142.1 1.4

Financial activities

113.6 115.1 115.3 115.4 0.1 184.4 189.0 189.4 189.5 0.1

Professional and business services

131.8 132.7 134.2 134.1 -0.1 202.7 208.2 210.8 211.0 0.1

Education and health services

138.5 141.3 141.9 141.6 -0.2 209.3 218.2 219.2 218.9 -0.1

Leisure and hospitality

127.7 130.3 130.4 130.5 0.1 192.1 201.4 201.7 202.7 0.5

Other services

102.4 103.4 103.8 103.7 -0.1 148.1 154.2 155.0 154.7 -0.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: April 06, 2018