Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                  USDL-17-1347
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, October 6, 2017

Technical information:
 Household data:         (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	 (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- SEPTEMBER 2017


The unemployment rate declined to 4.2 percent in September, and total nonfarm payroll employment 
changed little (-33,000), the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A sharp employment 
decline in food services and drinking places and below-trend growth in some other industries 
likely reflected the impact of Hurricanes Irma and Harvey. 


    ______________________________________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                                              |
   |                              Hurricanes Irma and Harvey                                      |
   |                                                                                              |
   | Hurricane Irma made landfall in Florida on September 10--during the reference period for both|
   | the establishment and household surveys--causing severe damage in Florida and other parts of |
   | the Southeast. Hurricane Harvey made landfall in Texas on August 25--prior to the September  |
   | reference periods--resulting in severe damage in Texas and other areas of the Gulf Coast.    |
   |                                                                                              |
   | Our analysis suggests that the net effect of these hurricanes was to reduce the estimate     |
   | of total nonfarm payroll employment for September. There was no discernible effect on the    |
   | national unemployment rate. No changes were made to either the establishment or household    |
   | survey estimation procedures for the September figures. For both surveys, collection rates   |
   | generally were within normal ranges, both nationally and in the affected states. In the      |
   | establishment survey, employees who are not paid for the pay period that includes the        |
   | 12th of the month are not counted as employed. In the household survey, persons with a job   |
   | are counted as employed even if they miss work for the entire survey reference week (the     |
   | week including the 12th of the month), regardless of whether or not they are paid. For both  |
   | surveys, national estimates do not include Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands.           |
   |                                                                                              |
   | Further discussion of the impact of the recent hurricanes on the September estimates         |
   | can be found in the Commissioner's Statement on the Employment Situation, at                 |
   | www.bls.gov/news.release/jec.nr0.htm. For additional information on how severe weather       |
   | affects employment data, see Question 8 in the Frequently Asked Questions section of this    |
   | news release.                                                                                |
   |                                                                                              |
   | BLS will release the state estimates of employment and unemployment on October 20, 2017, at  |
   | 10:00 a.m. (EDT).                                                                            |
   |______________________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate decreased by 0.2 percentage point to 4.2 percent in September, and the number 
of unemployed persons declined by 331,000 to 6.8 million. Both measures were down over the year. 
(See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.9 percent) and Blacks 
(7.0 percent) declined in September. The jobless rates for adult women (3.9 percent), teenagers 
(12.9 percent), Whites (3.7 percent), Asians (3.7 percent), and Hispanics (5.1 percent) showed 
little change. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was essentially unchanged 
in September at 1.7 million and accounted for 25.5 percent of the unemployed. (See table A-12.)

The employment-population ratio increased by 0.3 percentage point to 60.4 percent in September and 
has increased by 0.6 percentage point over the past 12 months. The labor force participation rate, 
at 63.1 percent, changed little over the month and has shown little movement over the year. 
(See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as involuntary 
part-time workers) was little changed at 5.1 million in September. These individuals, who would have 
preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been cut back or 
because they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In September, 1.6 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down by 275,000 from 
a year earlier. (These data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor 
force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. 
They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding 
the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 421,000 discouraged workers in September, down by 132,000 
from a year earlier. Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they 
believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.1 million persons marginally attached to the 
labor force in September had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or family 
responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment was little changed in September (-33,000), after adding an average 
of 172,000 jobs per month over the prior 12 months. In September, a steep employment decline in food 
services and drinking places and below-trend growth in some other industries likely reflected the 
impact of Hurricanes Irma and Harvey. Employment rose in health care and in transportation and 
warehousing. (See table B-1.)

Employment in food services and drinking places dropped sharply in September (-105,000), as many 
workers were off payrolls due to the recent hurricanes. Over the prior 12 months, food services 
and drinking places had added an average of 24,000 jobs per month. 

In September, health care added 23,000 jobs, in line with its average monthly gain over the prior 
12 months (+27,000). The employment increase in ambulatory health care services (+25,000) was partially 
offset by a decline in nursing care facilities (-9,000). 

Employment in transportation and warehousing increased by 22,000 in September. Job gains occurred in 
warehousing and storage (+5,000), couriers and messengers (+4,000), and air transportation (+3,000). 

Employment in financial activities changed little in September (+10,000). A job gain in insurance 
carriers and related activities (+11,000) largely reflected hurricane-recovery efforts. The gain was 
partly offset by losses in activities related to credit intermediation (-4,000) and in commercial 
banking (-3,000). Over the year, financial activities has added 149,000 jobs.

In September, employment in professional and business services was little changed (+13,000). Over 
the prior 12 months, job growth in the industry had averaged 50,000 per month.

Manufacturing employment was essentially unchanged in September (-1,000). From a recent employment 
trough in November 2016 through August of this year, the industry had added an average of 14,000 
jobs per month.

Employment in other major industries, including mining, construction, wholesale trade, retail trade, 
information, and government, showed little change over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.4 hours in 
September. In manufacturing, the workweek also was unchanged at 40.7 hours, and overtime held steady 
at 3.3 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm 
payrolls was unchanged at 33.6 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In September, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 12 cents 
to $26.55. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 74 cents, or 2.9 percent. 
In September, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees 
increased by 9 cents to $22.23. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)
 
The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for July was revised down from +189,000 to +138,000, 
and the change for August was revised up from +156,000 to +169,000. With these revisions, employment 
gains in July and August combined were 38,000 less than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result 
from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last published 
estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 
91,000 over the past 3 months.


_____________
The Employment Situation for October is scheduled to be released on Friday, November 3, 2017, 
at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Change from:
Aug.
2017-
Sept.
2017

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,091 255,151 255,357 255,562 205

Civilian labor force

159,830 160,494 160,571 161,146 575

Participation rate

62.9 62.9 62.9 63.1 0.2

Employed

151,926 153,513 153,439 154,345 906

Employment-population ratio

59.8 60.2 60.1 60.4 0.3

Unemployed

7,904 6,981 7,132 6,801 -331

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.3 4.4 4.2 -0.2

Not in labor force

94,261 94,657 94,785 94,417 -368

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.9 4.3 4.4 4.2 -0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.6 4.0 4.1 3.9 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.4 4.0 4.0 3.9 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

15.9 13.2 13.6 12.9 -0.7

White

4.4 3.8 3.9 3.7 -0.2

Black or African American

8.3 7.4 7.7 7.0 -0.7

Asian

3.9 3.8 4.0 3.7 -0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

6.4 5.1 5.2 5.1 -0.1

Total, 25 years and over

4.1 3.6 3.8 3.5 -0.3

Less than a high school diploma

8.5 6.9 6.0 6.5 0.5

High school graduates, no college

5.2 4.5 5.1 4.3 -0.8

Some college or associate degree

4.2 3.7 3.8 3.6 -0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,930 3,378 3,523 3,359 -164

Job leavers

900 757 804 738 -66

Reentrants

2,327 2,083 2,132 2,079 -53

New entrants

802 703 656 669 13

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,584 2,133 2,222 2,226 4

5 to 14 weeks

2,220 2,017 2,015 1,874 -141

15 to 26 weeks

1,164 957 1,055 963 -92

27 weeks and over

1,963 1,785 1,740 1,733 -7

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,874 5,282 5,255 5,122 -133

Slack work or business conditions

3,587 3,161 3,266 3,121 -145

Could only find part-time work

1,972 1,754 1,645 1,733 88

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,742 21,260 21,447 21,011 -436

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,844 1,629 1,548 1,569 -

Discouraged workers

553 536 448 421 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

249 138 169 -33

Total private

223 133 164 -40

Goods-producing

11 -20 66 9

Mining and logging

0 0 6 2

Construction

23 -9 19 8

Manufacturing

-12 -11 41 -1

Durable goods(1)

-10 -18 33 4

Motor vehicles and parts

-5.2 -27.1 23.9 -3.2

Nondurable goods

-2 7 8 -5

Private service-providing

212 153 98 -49

Wholesale trade

13.3 4.3 1.8 6.7

Retail trade

27.3 -10.8 -7.3 -2.9

Transportation and warehousing

-1.7 7.7 8.0 21.8

Utilities

0.5 -0.7 -0.3 0.0

Information

8 -3 -4 -9

Financial activities

9 11 8 10

Professional and business services(1)

83 43 43 13

Temporary help services

29.5 12.9 7.5 5.9

Education and health services(1)

48 51 45 27

Health care and social assistance

23.6 38.2 20.9 13.1

Leisure and hospitality

11 50 0 -111

Other services

13 1 4 -5

Government

26 5 5 7

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

239 164 172 91

Total private

205 164 168 86

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.6 49.5 49.5 49.5

Total private women employees

48.2 48.1 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.3 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.4 34.4 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$25.81 $26.39 $26.43 $26.55

Average weekly earnings

$887.86 $907.82 $909.19 $913.32

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

105.8 107.2 107.4 107.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 -0.2 0.2 -0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

130.6 135.3 135.7 136.2

Over-the-month percent change

0.8 0.3 0.3 0.4

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (261 industries)

57.9 63.2 60.2 55.7

Manufacturing (78 industries)

39.7 60.9 66.0 50.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 147,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 634,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 120,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-70,000 to +170,000 (50,000 +/- 120,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
May
2017
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,091 255,357 255,562 254,091 254,767 254,957 255,151 255,357 255,562

Civilian labor force

159,636 160,863 161,049 159,830 159,784 160,145 160,494 160,571 161,146

Participation rate

62.8 63.0 63.0 62.9 62.7 62.8 62.9 62.9 63.1

Employed

151,977 153,576 154,494 151,926 152,923 153,168 153,513 153,439 154,345

Employment-population ratio

59.8 60.1 60.5 59.8 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.1 60.4

Unemployed

7,658 7,287 6,556 7,904 6,861 6,977 6,981 7,132 6,801

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.5 4.1 4.9 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.2

Not in labor force

94,456 94,494 94,513 94,261 94,983 94,813 94,657 94,785 94,417

Persons who currently want a job

5,753 5,852 5,415 6,082 5,561 5,431 5,420 5,844 5,628

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,775 123,413 123,516 122,775 123,120 123,215 123,311 123,413 123,516

Civilian labor force

84,996 85,633 85,516 85,042 84,896 84,992 84,989 85,137 85,520

Participation rate

69.2 69.4 69.2 69.3 69.0 69.0 68.9 69.0 69.2

Employed

80,952 81,975 82,119 80,735 81,290 81,290 81,273 81,310 81,883

Employment-population ratio

65.9 66.4 66.5 65.8 66.0 66.0 65.9 65.9 66.3

Unemployed

4,043 3,659 3,397 4,307 3,606 3,702 3,715 3,826 3,636

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.3 4.0 5.1 4.2 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.3

Not in labor force

37,779 37,780 37,999 37,732 38,224 38,223 38,323 38,277 37,996

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,289 114,918 115,020 114,289 114,627 114,721 114,817 114,918 115,020

Civilian labor force

82,020 82,474 82,633 81,988 81,942 81,975 82,108 82,252 82,569

Participation rate

71.8 71.8 71.8 71.7 71.5 71.5 71.5 71.6 71.8

Employed

78,459 79,255 79,662 78,191 78,801 78,707 78,830 78,847 79,377

Employment-population ratio

68.6 69.0 69.3 68.4 68.7 68.6 68.7 68.6 69.0

Unemployed

3,561 3,219 2,972 3,798 3,141 3,268 3,278 3,405 3,192

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.9 3.6 4.6 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.9

Not in labor force

32,269 32,445 32,387 32,301 32,685 32,746 32,709 32,666 32,451

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

131,317 131,943 132,047 131,317 131,647 131,742 131,840 131,943 132,047

Civilian labor force

74,640 75,230 75,533 74,788 74,887 75,153 75,505 75,435 75,626

Participation rate

56.8 57.0 57.2 57.0 56.9 57.0 57.3 57.2 57.3

Employed

71,025 71,601 72,375 71,191 71,633 71,878 72,240 72,129 72,461

Employment-population ratio

54.1 54.3 54.8 54.2 54.4 54.6 54.8 54.7 54.9

Unemployed

3,615 3,628 3,158 3,597 3,255 3,274 3,265 3,306 3,165

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.8 4.2 4.8 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.2

Not in labor force

56,677 56,713 56,514 56,529 56,759 56,590 56,334 56,509 56,421

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,066 123,679 123,781 123,066 123,386 123,480 123,577 123,679 123,781

Civilian labor force

71,902 72,045 72,670 71,856 71,988 72,149 72,526 72,425 72,569

Participation rate

58.4 58.3 58.7 58.4 58.3 58.4 58.7 58.6 58.6

Employed

68,709 68,835 69,820 68,702 69,105 69,241 69,599 69,500 69,737

Employment-population ratio

55.8 55.7 56.4 55.8 56.0 56.1 56.3 56.2 56.3

Unemployed

3,193 3,210 2,849 3,154 2,883 2,907 2,927 2,925 2,831

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.5 3.9 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9

Not in labor force

51,164 51,634 51,111 51,210 51,398 51,332 51,051 51,254 51,212

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,737 16,759 16,761 16,737 16,754 16,756 16,757 16,759 16,761

Civilian labor force

5,714 6,344 5,746 5,987 5,854 6,021 5,860 5,895 6,008

Participation rate

34.1 37.9 34.3 35.8 34.9 35.9 35.0 35.2 35.8

Employed

4,810 5,487 5,011 5,034 5,017 5,220 5,084 5,092 5,230

Employment-population ratio

28.7 32.7 29.9 30.1 29.9 31.2 30.3 30.4 31.2

Unemployed

904 858 735 953 837 801 775 803 778

Unemployment rate

15.8 13.5 12.8 15.9 14.3 13.3 13.2 13.6 12.9

Not in labor force

11,023 10,415 11,015 10,750 10,901 10,735 10,898 10,865 10,753

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
May
2017
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

198,509 199,082 199,191 198,509 198,775 198,872 198,974 199,082 199,191

Civilian labor force

124,689 125,280 125,320 124,826 124,481 124,890 124,968 125,037 125,393

Participation rate

62.8 62.9 62.9 62.9 62.6 62.8 62.8 62.8 63.0

Employed

119,465 120,365 120,857 119,391 119,896 120,091 120,262 120,209 120,753

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.5 60.7 60.1 60.3 60.4 60.4 60.4 60.6

Unemployed

5,223 4,915 4,463 5,435 4,585 4,799 4,706 4,828 4,641

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.9 3.6 4.4 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7

Not in labor force

73,820 73,802 73,871 73,683 74,294 73,982 74,006 74,046 73,797

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,326 65,455 65,412 65,283 65,217 65,225 65,141 65,262 65,339

Participation rate

72.0 71.9 71.8 72.0 71.8 71.8 71.6 71.7 71.7

Employed

62,834 63,281 63,378 62,589 62,999 62,886 62,904 62,961 63,143

Employment-population ratio

69.3 69.5 69.6 69.0 69.3 69.2 69.2 69.2 69.3

Unemployed

2,491 2,174 2,034 2,693 2,218 2,339 2,238 2,301 2,196

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.3 3.1 4.1 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,883 54,980 55,501 54,871 54,785 55,015 55,393 55,282 55,476

Participation rate

57.5 57.4 57.9 57.5 57.3 57.5 57.9 57.7 57.9

Employed

52,789 52,797 53,577 52,799 52,927 53,100 53,420 53,286 53,551

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.2 55.9 55.3 55.4 55.5 55.8 55.7 55.9

Unemployed

2,094 2,183 1,924 2,072 1,858 1,915 1,973 1,996 1,925

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.0 3.5 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,480 4,845 4,407 4,672 4,479 4,650 4,433 4,492 4,578

Participation rate

36.3 39.3 35.7 37.8 36.3 37.7 35.9 36.4 37.1

Employed

3,842 4,288 3,902 4,002 3,970 4,105 3,938 3,962 4,058

Employment-population ratio

31.1 34.7 31.6 32.4 32.2 33.3 31.9 32.1 32.9

Unemployed

638 557 505 670 508 545 495 530 520

Unemployment rate

14.2 11.5 11.5 14.3 11.4 11.7 11.2 11.8 11.4

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

31,987 32,296 32,333 31,987 32,193 32,226 32,260 32,296 32,333

Civilian labor force

19,789 20,142 20,227 19,826 20,075 20,002 20,096 20,092 20,232

Participation rate

61.9 62.4 62.6 62.0 62.4 62.1 62.3 62.2 62.6

Employed

18,168 18,542 18,842 18,181 18,560 18,576 18,617 18,544 18,819

Employment-population ratio

56.8 57.4 58.3 56.8 57.7 57.6 57.7 57.4 58.2

Unemployed

1,620 1,600 1,385 1,646 1,515 1,426 1,479 1,548 1,413

Unemployment rate

8.2 7.9 6.8 8.3 7.5 7.1 7.4 7.7 7.0

Not in labor force

12,199 12,154 12,106 12,161 12,118 12,224 12,163 12,204 12,101

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,021 9,214 9,315 9,000 9,063 9,084 9,163 9,205 9,279

Participation rate

67.7 68.3 69.0 67.5 67.5 67.5 68.0 68.2 68.7

Employed

8,306 8,521 8,708 8,264 8,475 8,510 8,522 8,487 8,654

Employment-population ratio

62.3 63.2 64.5 62.0 63.1 63.3 63.3 62.9 64.1

Unemployed

716 693 606 736 588 574 641 718 625

Unemployment rate

7.9 7.5 6.5 8.2 6.5 6.3 7.0 7.8 6.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,069 10,108 10,153 10,074 10,224 10,143 10,170 10,127 10,149

Participation rate

62.4 62.0 62.2 62.4 62.9 62.4 62.5 62.1 62.2

Employed

9,361 9,405 9,549 9,370 9,513 9,455 9,511 9,474 9,541

Employment-population ratio

58.0 57.7 58.5 58.0 58.6 58.1 58.4 58.1 58.5

Unemployed

708 703 604 703 712 689 660 653 608

Unemployment rate

7.0 7.0 5.9 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.5 6.4 6.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

698 820 759 752 787 774 763 760 804

Participation rate

27.7 32.7 30.2 29.9 31.3 30.8 30.4 30.3 32.0

Employed

502 617 584 546 572 611 585 583 624

Employment-population ratio

20.0 24.6 23.3 21.7 22.8 24.3 23.3 23.2 24.9

Unemployed

196 204 174 206 215 163 178 178 180

Unemployment rate

28.1 24.8 23.0 27.4 27.3 21.1 23.3 23.4 22.4

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,310 15,341 15,483 15,310 15,433 15,367 15,290 15,341 15,483

Civilian labor force

9,717 9,894 9,973 9,760 9,826 9,792 9,789 9,886 10,005

Participation rate

63.5 64.5 64.4 63.7 63.7 63.7 64.0 64.4 64.6

Employed

9,350 9,498 9,619 9,381 9,471 9,443 9,418 9,489 9,638

Employment-population ratio

61.1 61.9 62.1 61.3 61.4 61.4 61.6 61.9 62.3

Unemployed

367 396 353 379 356 350 370 397 366

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.0 3.5 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.8 4.0 3.7

Not in labor force

5,593 5,446 5,510 5,550 5,607 5,575 5,502 5,455 5,478

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
May
2017
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

40,919 41,492 41,579 40,919 41,241 41,323 41,404 41,492 41,579

Civilian labor force

27,019 27,335 27,599 27,063 27,239 27,290 27,487 27,322 27,633

Participation rate

66.0 65.9 66.4 66.1 66.0 66.0 66.4 65.8 66.5

Employed

25,366 25,922 26,270 25,331 25,833 25,974 26,078 25,914 26,229

Employment-population ratio

62.0 62.5 63.2 61.9 62.6 62.9 63.0 62.5 63.1

Unemployed

1,653 1,413 1,329 1,732 1,405 1,315 1,409 1,408 1,404

Unemployment rate

6.1 5.2 4.8 6.4 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.2 5.1

Not in labor force

13,901 14,157 13,980 13,856 14,003 14,034 13,917 14,170 13,946

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,837 15,038 15,124 14,833 14,936 14,976 15,085 15,017 15,119

Participation rate

80.4 80.5 80.8 80.4 80.4 80.5 80.9 80.4 80.8

Employed

14,109 14,367 14,584 14,035 14,304 14,414 14,425 14,298 14,507

Employment-population ratio

76.5 76.9 77.9 76.1 77.0 77.5 77.4 76.5 77.5

Unemployed

728 670 540 798 632 562 660 719 612

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.5 3.6 5.4 4.2 3.8 4.4 4.8 4.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,988 11,028 11,251 11,001 11,062 11,030 11,176 11,091 11,256

Participation rate

58.8 58.2 59.2 58.9 58.7 58.4 59.1 58.5 59.2

Employed

10,278 10,481 10,630 10,296 10,461 10,451 10,580 10,570 10,643

Employment-population ratio

55.0 55.3 55.9 55.1 55.5 55.4 55.9 55.8 56.0

Unemployed

710 547 621 705 601 579 596 521 613

Unemployment rate

6.5 5.0 5.5 6.4 5.4 5.3 5.3 4.7 5.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,193 1,269 1,224 1,229 1,240 1,284 1,227 1,214 1,258

Participation rate

31.4 32.9 31.7 32.4 32.3 33.4 31.9 31.5 32.6

Employed

979 1,073 1,056 1,000 1,068 1,110 1,073 1,046 1,078

Employment-population ratio

25.8 27.9 27.4 26.3 27.8 28.9 27.9 27.1 27.9

Unemployed

215 196 168 229 172 174 154 169 179

Unemployment rate

18.0 15.4 13.7 18.6 13.9 13.6 12.5 13.9 14.3

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
May
2017
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,763 10,499 10,611 10,803 10,299 10,304 10,570 10,565 10,575

Participation rate

45.4 45.9 46.4 45.6 45.1 45.3 47.3 46.2 46.3

Employed

9,939 9,924 9,985 9,881 9,671 9,649 9,842 9,933 9,891

Employment-population ratio

41.9 43.4 43.7 41.7 42.3 42.4 44.0 43.4 43.3

Unemployed

824 575 626 922 628 655 728 632 684

Unemployment rate

7.7 5.5 5.9 8.5 6.1 6.4 6.9 6.0 6.5

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,955 36,098 36,147 35,720 35,909 35,850 35,648 35,931 35,904

Participation rate

57.8 57.9 57.8 57.4 57.6 57.8 57.7 57.6 57.4

Employed

34,171 34,278 34,676 33,877 34,211 34,196 34,038 34,106 34,367

Employment-population ratio

54.9 55.0 55.4 54.4 54.9 55.2 55.1 54.7 54.9

Unemployed

1,784 1,821 1,471 1,843 1,697 1,653 1,610 1,825 1,537

Unemployment rate

5.0 5.0 4.1 5.2 4.7 4.6 4.5 5.1 4.3

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,820 37,076 37,583 37,963 37,433 37,579 37,475 37,388 37,659

Participation rate

66.9 65.3 65.9 67.2 65.9 65.6 65.4 65.9 66.1

Employed

36,258 35,617 36,249 36,378 35,941 36,150 36,077 35,978 36,306

Employment-population ratio

64.1 62.7 63.6 64.4 63.3 63.1 63.0 63.4 63.7

Unemployed

1,562 1,458 1,333 1,584 1,492 1,429 1,397 1,411 1,353

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.9 3.5 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.6

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

54,279 55,222 55,711 54,310 55,039 55,283 55,696 55,595 55,655

Participation rate

74.1 73.4 74.2 74.2 73.8 73.9 73.7 73.9 74.2

Employed

52,916 53,720 54,464 52,942 53,760 53,982 54,378 54,250 54,395

Employment-population ratio

72.3 71.4 72.6 72.3 72.1 72.2 72.0 72.1 72.5

Unemployed

1,363 1,503 1,247 1,367 1,278 1,302 1,318 1,345 1,260

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.7 2.2 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,832 20,511 18,815 18,477 2,017 2,034

Civilian labor force

10,652 10,373 9,369 9,085 1,283 1,288

Participation rate

51.1 50.6 49.8 49.2 63.6 63.3

Employed

10,191 10,063 8,959 8,834 1,233 1,230

Employment-population ratio

48.9 49.1 47.6 47.8 61.1 60.5

Unemployed

461 309 411 251 50 58

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.0 4.4 2.8 3.9 4.5

Not in labor force

10,180 10,138 9,446 9,392 734 746

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,935 4,119 3,235 3,373 701 746

Civilian labor force

3,170 3,306 2,650 2,769 520 537

Participation rate

80.5 80.3 81.9 82.1 74.2 72.0

Employed

3,030 3,176 2,523 2,675 507 500

Employment-population ratio

77.0 77.1 78.0 79.3 72.4 67.1

Unemployed

139 131 127 94 12 37

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.9 4.8 3.4 2.3 6.9

Not in labor force

766 813 585 604 181 209

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,359 3,389 2,854 2,896 504 493

Civilian labor force

2,757 2,749 2,366 2,361 391 388

Participation rate

82.1 81.1 82.9 81.5 77.6 78.7

Employed

2,646 2,679 2,271 2,307 376 372

Employment-population ratio

78.8 79.0 79.6 79.6 74.5 75.4

Unemployed

111 71 95 55 16 16

Unemployment rate

4.0 2.6 4.0 2.3 4.0 4.1

Not in labor force

601 640 488 535 113 105

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,407 7,992 8,106 7,703 301 289

Civilian labor force

2,127 1,830 2,051 1,757 76 73

Participation rate

25.3 22.9 25.3 22.8 25.3 25.4

Employed

2,053 1,784 1,977 1,711 76 73

Employment-population ratio

24.4 22.3 24.4 22.2 25.1 25.4

Unemployed

74 46 74 46 1 0

Unemployment rate

3.5 2.5 3.6 2.6 0.7 -

Not in labor force

6,280 6,162 6,055 5,946 225 216

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,131 5,011 4,620 4,505 511 506

Civilian labor force

2,598 2,487 2,302 2,198 295 290

Participation rate

50.6 49.6 49.8 48.8 57.8 57.3

Employed

2,462 2,425 2,188 2,140 274 284

Employment-population ratio

48.0 48.4 47.4 47.5 53.5 56.2

Unemployed

136 63 114 57 22 5

Unemployment rate

5.2 2.5 5.0 2.6 7.4 1.9

Not in labor force

2,533 2,524 2,318 2,307 216 216

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

224,233 225,860 99,452 100,353 124,781 125,507

Civilian labor force

146,789 148,380 74,586 75,362 72,203 73,018

Participation rate

65.5 65.7 75.0 75.1 57.9 58.2

Employed

139,919 142,394 71,122 72,353 68,797 70,041

Employment-population ratio

62.4 63.0 71.5 72.1 55.1 55.8

Unemployed

6,870 5,986 3,465 3,009 3,406 2,977

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.0 4.6 4.0 4.7 4.1

Not in labor force

77,444 77,480 24,866 24,991 52,578 52,489

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,421 30,635 223,670 224,927

Civilian labor force

6,027 6,481 153,609 154,568

Participation rate

19.8 21.2 68.7 68.7

Employed

5,502 5,994 146,475 148,499

Employment-population ratio

18.1 19.6 65.5 66.0

Unemployed

525 487 7,134 6,068

Unemployment rate

8.7 7.5 4.6 3.9

Not in labor force

24,395 24,154 70,061 70,359

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,615 2,866 77,114 77,168

Participation rate

33.1 35.8 82.6 82.8

Employed

2,383 2,645 73,513 74,141

Employment-population ratio

30.2 33.0 78.8 79.5

Unemployed

232 221 3,601 3,027

Unemployment rate

8.9 7.7 4.7 3.9

Not in labor force

5,277 5,144 16,202 16,044

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,312 2,356 68,184 68,889

Participation rate

28.8 30.4 70.7 71.2

Employed

2,063 2,153 64,962 66,094

Employment-population ratio

25.7 27.8 67.3 68.3

Unemployed

249 203 3,222 2,794

Unemployment rate

10.8 8.6 4.7 4.1

Not in labor force

5,702 5,393 28,319 27,830

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,100 1,260 8,311 8,512

Participation rate

7.6 8.5 24.6 24.3

Employed

1,056 1,197 8,000 8,264

Employment-population ratio

7.3 8.0 23.6 23.6

Unemployed

44 63 311 247

Unemployment rate

4.0 5.0 3.7 2.9

Not in labor force

13,417 13,617 25,540 26,485

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,785 41,642 20,170 20,308 21,615 21,334

Civilian labor force

27,345 27,846 15,601 16,058 11,743 11,788

Participation rate

65.4 66.9 77.3 79.1 54.3 55.3

Employed

26,146 26,754 15,065 15,529 11,080 11,225

Employment-population ratio

62.6 64.2 74.7 76.5 51.3 52.6

Unemployed

1,199 1,092 536 529 663 563

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.9 3.4 3.3 5.6 4.8

Not in labor force

14,441 13,796 4,569 4,250 9,871 9,546

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

212,306 213,920 102,604 103,207 109,702 110,713

Civilian labor force

132,291 133,203 69,394 69,458 62,897 63,745

Participation rate

62.3 62.3 67.6 67.3 57.3 57.6

Employed

125,832 127,739 65,887 66,590 59,944 61,149

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.7 64.2 64.5 54.6 55.2

Unemployed

6,460 5,464 3,507 2,868 2,952 2,596

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.1 5.1 4.1 4.7 4.1

Not in labor force

80,015 80,717 33,210 33,749 46,805 46,968

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
May
2017
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,526 2,508 2,367 2,429 2,507 2,457 2,317 2,339 2,307

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,623 1,750 1,616 1,522 1,645 1,611 1,582 1,584 1,547

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

879 745 732 890 833 818 708 722 746

Unpaid family workers

24 13 19 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

149,451 151,068 152,126 149,526 150,417 150,848 151,208 151,143 152,093

Wage and salary workers(1)

140,780 142,368 143,214 140,739 141,849 141,989 142,714 142,466 143,106

Government

20,708 20,479 20,873 20,809 20,772 20,868 21,052 21,080 20,947

Private industries

120,073 121,889 122,341 119,990 121,096 121,053 121,627 121,366 122,188

Private households

715 670 583 - - - - - -

Other industries

119,358 121,220 121,758 119,241 120,441 120,457 120,964 120,712 121,570

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,607 8,631 8,871 8,599 8,550 8,753 8,475 8,602 8,856

Unpaid family workers

64 69 42 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,550 5,204 4,818 5,874 5,219 5,326 5,282 5,255 5,122

Slack work or business conditions

3,376 3,214 2,908 3,587 3,082 3,286 3,161 3,266 3,121

Could only find part-time work

1,921 1,564 1,702 1,972 1,789 1,727 1,754 1,645 1,733

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,782 19,405 21,001 20,742 21,020 20,791 21,260 21,447 21,011

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,468 5,130 4,740 5,770 5,154 5,282 5,231 5,179 5,032

Slack work or business conditions

3,316 3,158 2,864 3,510 3,045 3,249 3,137 3,217 3,071

Could only find part-time work

1,914 1,558 1,682 1,959 1,776 1,720 1,739 1,633 1,713

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,419 19,066 20,677 20,409 20,677 20,443 20,909 21,087 20,689

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
May
2017
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

151,977 153,576 154,494 151,926 152,923 153,168 153,513 153,439 154,345

16 to 19 years

4,810 5,487 5,011 5,034 5,017 5,220 5,084 5,092 5,230

16 to 17 years

1,867 2,151 2,036 1,832 1,888 1,931 1,816 1,918 1,983

18 to 19 years

2,943 3,336 2,975 3,186 3,145 3,285 3,265 3,165 3,229

20 years and over

147,168 148,089 149,482 146,892 147,906 147,949 148,429 148,347 149,114

20 to 24 years

13,883 14,551 14,108 14,004 14,177 13,992 14,199 14,209 14,235

25 years and over

133,285 133,538 135,375 132,845 133,647 134,010 134,349 134,125 134,845

25 to 54 years

98,580 98,289 99,686 98,205 98,481 98,666 98,906 98,559 99,222

25 to 34 years

34,094 34,242 34,793 33,979 34,160 34,404 34,500 34,310 34,655

35 to 44 years

31,736 31,770 32,232 31,567 31,794 31,913 31,889 31,824 32,035

45 to 54 years

32,750 32,277 32,661 32,659 32,527 32,349 32,517 32,425 32,533

55 years and over

34,705 35,249 35,688 34,641 35,166 35,344 35,442 35,566 35,622

Men, 16 years and over

80,952 81,975 82,119 80,735 81,290 81,290 81,273 81,310 81,883

16 to 19 years

2,494 2,720 2,457 2,545 2,489 2,583 2,443 2,463 2,506

16 to 17 years

872 1,027 932 840 884 893 798 883 903

18 to 19 years

1,622 1,693 1,525 1,714 1,614 1,677 1,643 1,574 1,609

20 years and over

78,459 79,255 79,662 78,191 78,801 78,707 78,830 78,847 79,377

20 to 24 years

7,134 7,627 7,263 7,188 7,335 7,240 7,351 7,369 7,326

25 years and over

71,324 71,628 72,398 70,969 71,422 71,488 71,551 71,470 72,002

25 to 54 years

52,775 52,686 53,247 52,515 52,678 52,657 52,692 52,531 52,956

25 to 34 years

18,313 18,482 18,684 18,237 18,362 18,425 18,473 18,420 18,599

35 to 44 years

17,076 17,141 17,361 16,979 17,169 17,226 17,129 17,085 17,255

45 to 54 years

17,386 17,063 17,202 17,299 17,147 17,006 17,091 17,026 17,102

55 years and over

18,549 18,942 19,152 18,454 18,743 18,831 18,858 18,939 19,047

Women, 16 years and over

71,025 71,601 72,375 71,191 71,633 71,878 72,240 72,129 72,461

16 to 19 years

2,316 2,767 2,554 2,489 2,528 2,637 2,641 2,629 2,724

16 to 17 years

995 1,124 1,104 992 1,004 1,038 1,018 1,036 1,080

18 to 19 years

1,321 1,643 1,450 1,472 1,531 1,608 1,621 1,591 1,620

20 years and over

68,709 68,835 69,820 68,702 69,105 69,241 69,599 69,500 69,737

20 to 24 years

6,749 6,925 6,844 6,816 6,842 6,752 6,849 6,841 6,909

25 years and over

61,960 61,910 62,976 61,877 62,226 62,522 62,798 62,655 62,842

25 to 54 years

45,804 45,603 46,440 45,690 45,803 46,010 46,214 46,027 46,267

25 to 34 years

15,780 15,760 16,110 15,743 15,798 15,980 16,027 15,890 16,056

35 to 44 years

14,660 14,630 14,871 14,588 14,624 14,687 14,760 14,739 14,780

45 to 54 years

15,364 15,213 15,460 15,359 15,380 15,343 15,427 15,399 15,431

55 years and over

16,156 16,307 16,536 16,187 16,423 16,513 16,584 16,628 16,576

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,872 45,370 45,846 45,647 45,784 45,913 45,574 45,327 45,646

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,675 34,966 35,696 35,495 36,121 35,803 35,946 35,475 35,571

Women who maintain families(2)

9,958 9,573 9,673 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

124,728 127,353 127,235 124,253 125,620 125,975 125,921 125,755 126,690

Part-time workers(4)

27,250 26,223 27,259 27,684 27,366 27,142 27,535 27,569 27,650

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,846 6,961 7,359 7,845 7,589 7,639 7,589 7,346 7,366

Percent of total employed

5.2 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,734 5,829 5,974 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,486 9,376 9,602 9,488 9,383 9,571 9,183 9,325 9,603

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Sept.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
May
2017
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,904 7,132 6,801 4.9 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.2

16 to 19 years

953 803 778 15.9 14.3 13.3 13.2 13.6 12.9

16 to 17 years

385 329 313 17.4 13.1 13.9 15.5 14.7 13.6

18 to 19 years

574 477 472 15.3 14.6 13.2 11.6 13.1 12.8

20 years and over

6,951 6,330 6,023 4.5 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.9

20 to 24 years

1,246 1,092 1,160 8.2 6.7 7.5 7.4 7.1 7.5

25 years and over

5,734 5,267 4,877 4.1 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.5

25 to 54 years

4,426 4,090 3,684 4.3 3.8 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.6

25 to 34 years

1,839 1,761 1,588 5.1 4.9 4.4 4.6 4.9 4.4

35 to 44 years

1,367 1,135 1,051 4.1 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.2

45 to 54 years

1,220 1,194 1,045 3.6 3.2 3.6 3.2 3.6 3.1

55 years and over

1,280 1,165 1,175 3.6 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2

Men, 16 years and over

4,307 3,826 3,636 5.1 4.2 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.3

16 to 19 years

509 422 444 16.7 15.7 14.4 15.2 14.6 15.1

16 to 17 years

199 156 164 19.1 13.7 14.4 17.9 15.0 15.4

18 to 19 years

317 271 289 15.6 16.4 14.8 13.4 14.7 15.2

20 years and over

3,798 3,405 3,192 4.6 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.9

20 to 24 years

731 610 692 9.2 7.9 8.4 8.0 7.6 8.6

25 years and over

3,094 2,799 2,518 4.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.4

25 to 54 years

2,346 2,169 1,907 4.3 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.5

25 to 34 years

995 966 842 5.2 4.6 4.5 4.5 5.0 4.3

35 to 44 years

728 581 519 4.1 3.0 3.2 3.5 3.3 2.9

45 to 54 years

622 621 545 3.5 3.0 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.1

55 years and over

748 630 611 3.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.2 3.1

Women, 16 years and over

3,597 3,306 3,165 4.8 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.2

16 to 19 years

444 381 333 15.1 12.8 12.2 11.3 12.7 10.9

16 to 17 years

187 173 149 15.8 12.6 13.5 13.5 14.3 12.1

18 to 19 years

258 207 184 14.9 12.6 11.3 9.7 11.5 10.2

20 years and over

3,154 2,925 2,831 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9

20 to 24 years

515 482 468 7.0 5.3 6.4 6.7 6.6 6.3

25 years and over

2,640 2,467 2,359 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.6

25 to 54 years

2,080 1,921 1,777 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.7

25 to 34 years

844 794 745 5.1 5.1 4.2 4.6 4.8 4.4

35 to 44 years

638 554 532 4.2 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.5

45 to 54 years

598 573 500 3.7 3.5 3.9 3.2 3.6 3.1

55 years and over

560 533 571 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.1 3.3

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,343 1,217 1,059 2.9 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.3

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,098 1,039 915 3.0 2.5 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.5

Women who maintain families(2)

680 742 672 6.4 6.8 6.9 6.8 7.2 6.5

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

6,486 5,861 5,556 5.0 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.2

Part-time workers(4)

1,435 1,271 1,230 4.9 4.8 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
May
2017
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,536 3,536 2,992 3,930 3,327 3,444 3,378 3,523 3,359

On temporary layoff

694 1,051 568 1,068 814 900 1,044 1,032 895

Not on temporary layoff

2,842 2,485 2,424 2,862 2,513 2,545 2,334 2,490 2,464

Permanent job losers

1,968 1,788 1,742 1,963 1,741 1,758 1,676 1,799 1,759

Persons who completed temporary jobs

874 697 682 899 772 787 658 691 705

Job leavers

991 874 805 900 804 820 757 804 738

Reentrants

2,367 2,151 2,127 2,327 2,100 2,043 2,083 2,132 2,079

New entrants

764 725 631 802 656 682 703 656 669

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

46.2 48.5 45.6 49.4 48.3 49.3 48.8 49.5 49.1

On temporary layoff

9.1 14.4 8.7 13.4 11.8 12.9 15.1 14.5 13.1

Not on temporary layoff

37.1 34.1 37.0 36.0 36.5 36.4 33.7 35.0 36.0

Job leavers

12.9 12.0 12.3 11.3 11.7 11.7 10.9 11.3 10.8

Reentrants

30.9 29.5 32.4 29.2 30.5 29.2 30.1 30.0 30.4

New entrants

10.0 10.0 9.6 10.1 9.5 9.8 10.2 9.2 9.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.2 2.2 1.9 2.5 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1

Job leavers

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.5 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

New entrants

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
May
2017
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,562 2,199 2,227 2,584 2,154 2,305 2,133 2,222 2,226

5 to 14 weeks

2,092 2,411 1,740 2,220 1,960 1,933 2,017 2,015 1,874

15 weeks and over

3,004 2,677 2,589 3,127 2,820 2,612 2,742 2,795 2,696

15 to 26 weeks

1,083 936 889 1,164 1,157 948 957 1,055 963

27 weeks and over

1,921 1,741 1,700 1,963 1,663 1,664 1,785 1,740 1,733

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

27.2 23.7 26.9 27.3 24.7 24.7 24.9 24.4 26.8

Median duration, in weeks

10.2 10.1 10.3 10.3 10.4 9.6 10.6 10.5 10.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

33.5 30.2 34.0 32.6 31.1 33.6 30.9 31.6 32.8

5 to 14 weeks

27.3 33.1 26.5 28.0 28.3 28.2 29.3 28.7 27.6

15 weeks and over

39.2 36.7 39.5 39.4 40.7 38.1 39.8 39.7 39.7

15 to 26 weeks

14.1 12.8 13.6 14.7 16.7 13.8 13.9 15.0 14.2

27 weeks and over

25.1 23.9 25.9 24.7 24.0 24.3 25.9 24.7 25.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017

Total, 16 years and over(1)

151,977 154,494 7,658 6,556 4.8 4.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,599 60,990 1,652 1,463 2.7 2.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,729 25,309 708 636 2.8 2.5

Professional and related occupations

34,870 35,681 944 827 2.6 2.3

Service occupations

27,100 27,429 1,690 1,414 5.9 4.9

Sales and office occupations

33,435 33,697 1,614 1,415 4.6 4.0

Sales and related occupations

15,704 15,798 855 605 5.2 3.7

Office and administrative support occupations

17,731 17,899 760 810 4.1 4.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,106 14,110 772 746 5.2 5.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,159 1,155 116 105 9.1 8.3

Construction and extraction occupations

8,101 8,010 489 470 5.7 5.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,845 4,945 167 171 3.3 3.4

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,738 18,268 1,151 873 6.1 4.6

Production occupations

8,261 8,282 561 405 6.4 4.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,477 9,986 590 468 5.9 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,658 6,556 4.8 4.1

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,828 5,063 4.6 4.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

43 24 5.7 3.0

Construction

474 433 5.2 4.7

Manufacturing

668 587 4.2 3.8

Durable goods

410 365 4.1 3.8

Nondurable goods

258 221 4.3 3.9

Wholesale and retail trade

1,002 843 5.0 4.1

Transportation and utilities

283 282 4.3 4.1

Information

139 141 5.2 5.1

Financial activities

296 240 3.0 2.5

Professional and business services

902 723 5.3 4.1

Education and health services

860 804 3.7 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

917 708 6.5 5.0

Other services

245 280 3.7 4.2

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

139 111 8.1 6.7

Government workers

538 438 2.5 2.1

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

389 312 3.9 3.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
May
2017
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 1.7 1.6 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.2 2.2 1.9 2.5 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.8 4.5 4.1 4.9 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.2

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

5.1 4.8 4.3 5.3 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.5

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.9 5.4 5.0 6.0 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.1

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.3 8.6 8.0 9.7 8.4 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.3

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2017

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,456 94,513 37,779 37,999 56,677 56,514

Persons who currently want a job

5,753 5,415 2,745 2,494 3,008 2,922

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,844 1,569 993 798 851 772

Discouraged workers(2)

553 421 321 275 232 146

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,292 1,148 672 522 619 625

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,846 7,359 3,691 3,699 4,154 3,660

Percent of total employed

5.2 4.8 4.6 4.5 5.8 5.1

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,298 4,053 2,358 2,236 1,939 1,816

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,087 2,040 637 753 1,451 1,287

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

319 305 195 190 124 115

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,065 923 470 502 595 421

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)
Change from:
Aug.2017 - Sept.2017(p)

Total nonfarm

145,084 146,288 146,540 146,880 144,882 146,523 146,692 146,659 -33

Total private

122,847 125,240 125,301 124,604 122,566 124,198 124,362 124,322 -40

Goods-producing

19,983 20,352 20,444 20,335 19,718 20,004 20,070 20,079 9

Mining and logging

668 723 729 729 661 713 719 721 2

Logging

52.2 51.2 50.9 50.6 50.7 49.6 49.0 49.2 0.2

Mining

615.9 671.8 677.6 678.1 610.2 663.7 669.9 672.2 2.3

Oil and gas extraction

177.5 179.9 179.5 181.1 177.7 178.4 178.7 181.0 2.3

Mining, except oil and gas

181.9 189.5 190.2 189.3 178.7 185.6 186.0 186.7 0.7

Coal mining

48.5 50.4 51.8 52.2 48.6 50.8 51.6 52.1 0.5

Metal ore mining

39.1 39.7 39.4 39.1 39.3 39.3 39.2 39.2 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

94.3 99.4 99.0 98.0 90.8 95.5 95.2 95.4 0.2

Support activities for mining

256.5 302.4 307.9 307.7 253.8 299.7 305.2 304.5 -0.7

Construction

6,943 7,143 7,171 7,116 6,727 6,884 6,903 6,911 8

Construction of buildings

1,528.3 1,567.6 1,571.6 1,562.1 1,494.3 1,522.5 1,526.9 1,527.8 0.9

Residential building

764.5 786.3 783.2 773.9 746.4 761.6 761.0 757.1 -3.9

Nonresidential building

763.8 781.3 788.4 788.2 747.9 760.9 765.9 770.7 4.8

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,002.5 1,032.5 1,039.9 1,033.6 941.1 972.3 974.1 972.5 -1.6

Specialty trade contractors

4,411.7 4,542.7 4,559.1 4,520.5 4,291.6 4,389.1 4,401.7 4,410.6 8.9

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,924.5 2,000.9 2,008.1 1,984.9 1,865.9 1,926.4 1,935.4 1,935.8 0.4

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,487.2 2,541.8 2,551.0 2,535.6 2,425.7 2,462.7 2,466.3 2,474.8 8.5

Manufacturing

12,372 12,486 12,544 12,490 12,330 12,407 12,448 12,447 -1

Durable goods

7,702 7,765 7,805 7,784 7,693 7,738 7,771 7,775 4

Wood products

392.9 397.9 399.5 394.5 391.3 394.0 394.3 392.8 -1.5

Nonmetallic mineral products

415.1 423.5 424.5 421.8 408.0 414.6 415.6 415.0 -0.6

Primary metals

375.2 385.0 385.3 383.3 375.4 384.4 384.2 382.4 -1.8

Fabricated metal products

1,417.2 1,449.6 1,449.0 1,449.3 1,418.6 1,443.4 1,446.3 1,450.1 3.8

Machinery

1,073.3 1,099.1 1,100.0 1,096.5 1,074.6 1,093.7 1,096.9 1,098.6 1.7

Computer and electronic products

1,042.5 1,044.3 1,046.5 1,043.8 1,043.1 1,038.9 1,041.1 1,044.1 3.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

163.5 162.7 166.0 166.5 163.8 161.6 164.7 166.4 1.7

Communications equipment

85.0 85.6 85.5 84.9 85.2 85.1 85.1 85.0 -0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

363.6 363.2 362.3 361.3 364.1 361.4 360.1 361.8 1.7

Electronic instruments

395.0 398.9 398.9 397.4 394.6 397.0 397.4 397.4 0.0

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

35.4 33.9 33.8 33.7 35.5 33.9 33.8 33.6 -0.2

Electrical equipment and appliances

382.3 393.1 393.3 392.7 382.1 390.5 391.8 392.5 0.7

Transportation equipment(1)

1,624.1 1,584.5 1,621.5 1,621.9 1,621.3 1,595.3 1,619.0 1,617.8 -1.2

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

940.9 905.2 944.2 942.3 937.6 918.9 942.8 939.6 -3.2

Furniture and related products

388.3 393.9 393.4 391.3 387.8 391.7 390.8 391.6 0.8

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

590.8 593.9 592.1 589.3 591.2 591.2 590.5 590.0 -0.5

Nondurable goods

4,670 4,721 4,739 4,706 4,637 4,669 4,677 4,672 -5

Food manufacturing

1,585.5 1,625.0 1,644.3 1,631.4 1,564.1 1,596.5 1,603.1 1,607.3 4.2

Textile mills

112.3 109.0 109.4 110.6 112.9 109.4 109.8 110.8 1.0

Textile product mills

115.6 111.5 111.3 110.2 114.5 110.8 111.0 109.5 -1.5

Apparel

132.3 119.6 119.1 117.9 130.7 120.9 118.6 116.7 -1.9

Paper and paper products

368.8 370.2 370.0 367.2 368.8 368.2 368.2 367.6 -0.6

Printing and related support activities

444.2 439.3 439.2 434.8 444.1 438.1 438.7 435.1 -3.6

Petroleum and coal products

113.3 115.5 115.6 114.5 111.9 112.5 112.9 112.8 -0.1

Chemicals

810.8 825.7 822.7 816.2 811.5 819.6 819.3 817.3 -2.0

Plastics and rubber products

699.2 706.9 709.5 706.5 699.6 703.0 705.9 706.6 0.7

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

288.0 298.5 298.0 297.0 279.2 290.2 289.4 288.6 -0.8

Private service-providing

102,864 104,888 104,857 104,269 102,848 104,194 104,292 104,243 -49

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,186 27,372 27,346 27,277 27,322 27,377 27,379 27,405 26

Wholesale trade

5,878.3 5,956.1 5,950.5 5,933.1 5,877.5 5,924.3 5,926.1 5,932.8 6.7

Durable goods

2,930.6 2,973.8 2,971.6 2,964.6 2,930.7 2,957.3 2,957.8 2,965.8 8.0

Nondurable goods

2,052.0 2,069.1 2,067.3 2,061.7 2,051.1 2,057.5 2,059.1 2,059.2 0.1

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

895.7 913.2 911.6 906.8 895.7 909.5 909.2 907.8 -1.4

Retail trade

15,734.9 15,842.7 15,805.9 15,665.5 15,887.4 15,819.2 15,811.9 15,809.0 -2.9

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,995.7 2,031.8 2,031.2 2,019.4 1,988.6 2,014.3 2,014.6 2,012.9 -1.7

Automobile dealers

1,291.0 1,310.6 1,310.6 1,306.4 1,288.2 1,304.8 1,303.8 1,303.3 -0.5

Other motor vehicle dealers

153.5 166.2 164.0 155.1 150.7 155.7 155.9 152.7 -3.2

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

551.2 555.0 556.6 557.9 549.8 553.8 554.9 556.8 1.9

Furniture and home furnishings stores

472.3 477.3 478.4 477.5 477.1 482.7 483.4 484.0 0.6

Electronics and appliance stores

516.6 494.7 494.9 494.1 530.2 503.8 503.9 502.1 -1.8

Building material and garden supply stores

1,256.1 1,326.3 1,294.5 1,275.1 1,279.1 1,290.1 1,291.3 1,296.6 5.3

Food and beverage stores

3,093.2 3,105.0 3,093.8 3,060.8 3,096.2 3,075.8 3,074.3 3,067.4 -6.9

Health and personal care stores

1,045.4 1,046.3 1,042.6 1,039.1 1,051.8 1,050.2 1,047.8 1,048.0 0.2

Gasoline stations

938.1 950.9 953.7 947.0 932.4 938.9 939.0 940.5 1.5

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,317.6 1,321.3 1,321.3 1,283.2 1,351.8 1,328.5 1,323.6 1,321.1 -2.5

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

605.6 588.0 591.3 590.4 618.7 603.6 601.8 601.2 -0.6

General merchandise stores

3,126.9 3,099.1 3,103.0 3,079.9 3,188.6 3,131.9 3,133.2 3,130.7 -2.5

Department stores

1,272.3 1,256.7 1,256.1 1,239.5 1,314.8 1,279.0 1,277.3 1,275.1 -2.2

Other general merchandise stores

1,854.6 1,842.4 1,846.9 1,840.4 1,873.9 1,852.9 1,855.8 1,855.6 -0.2

Miscellaneous store retailers

832.0 841.1 840.2 834.3 833.2 832.0 830.9 834.4 3.5

Nonstore retailers

535.4 560.9 561.0 564.7 539.7 567.4 568.1 570.1 2.0

Transportation and warehousing

5,018.1 5,015.1 5,033.9 5,126.4 5,001.0 5,080.7 5,088.7 5,110.5 21.8

Air transportation

479.0 491.1 493.3 494.4 478.6 487.7 490.4 493.7 3.3

Rail transportation

214.1 207.2 207.2 207.2 213.2 207.0 206.7 206.3 -0.4

Water transportation

66.3 67.6 67.4 66.6 66.0 64.8 65.2 65.9 0.7

Truck transportation

1,469.3 1,491.0 1,490.7 1,485.8 1,454.4 1,473.0 1,471.3 1,471.2 -0.1

Transit and ground passenger transportation

483.0 415.5 413.9 495.0 472.6 475.6 473.1 482.5 9.4

Pipeline transportation

48.9 47.1 47.0 46.5 49.0 46.9 47.0 46.6 -0.4

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

42.2 48.5 47.3 42.7 35.1 36.3 35.9 35.9 0.0

Support activities for transportation

662.3 669.4 671.3 671.8 660.9 667.8 669.3 670.2 0.9

Couriers and messengers

624.8 630.3 642.0 654.3 645.2 669.6 673.6 677.2 3.6

Warehousing and storage

928.2 947.4 953.8 962.1 926.0 952.0 956.2 961.0 4.8

Utilities

555.1 558.2 555.4 551.8 555.9 553.0 552.7 552.7 0.0

Information

2,773 2,735 2,729 2,695 2,786 2,720 2,716 2,707 -9

Publishing industries, except Internet

731.4 723.8 721.6 717.0 730.7 720.4 718.8 716.8 -2.0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

415.5 410.1 408.0 385.2 425.0 401.7 399.2 394.6 -4.6

Broadcasting, except Internet

268.6 258.0 257.7 260.1 268.9 259.1 258.7 259.8 1.1

Telecommunications

794.0 761.5 759.6 755.1 797.4 761.0 759.9 758.0 -1.9

Data processing, hosting and related services

300.8 306.0 304.3 304.2 301.4 304.7 303.9 304.2 0.3

Other information services

262.5 275.8 277.7 273.2 262.4 273.4 275.6 273.2 -2.4

Financial activities

8,328 8,538 8,533 8,478 8,324 8,455 8,463 8,473 10

Finance and insurance

6,157.6 6,289.6 6,286.1 6,257.3 6,167.0 6,259.6 6,262.7 6,267.2 4.5

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.4 19.0 18.8 18.7 18.4 18.8 18.8 18.7 -0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,618.3 2,676.2 2,678.1 2,652.6 2,622.1 2,661.3 2,664.1 2,657.5 -6.6

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,698.6 1,729.2 1,725.9 1,711.5 1,702.9 1,719.7 1,718.4 1,716.9 -1.5

Commercial banking

1,306.0 1,324.3 1,322.3 1,310.3 1,308.7 1,317.5 1,316.6 1,313.5 -3.1

Nondepository credit intermediation

614.9 631.2 630.9 627.8 614.8 629.3 628.9 628.1 -0.8

Activities related to credit intermediation

304.8 315.8 321.3 313.3 304.4 312.3 316.8 312.5 -4.3

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

933.0 959.0 957.8 948.8 932.8 949.8 948.4 948.7 0.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,587.9 2,635.4 2,631.4 2,637.2 2,593.7 2,629.7 2,631.4 2,642.3 10.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,170.5 2,248.3 2,246.7 2,220.3 2,156.5 2,195.2 2,200.4 2,206.0 5.6

Real estate

1,576.8 1,627.9 1,628.6 1,609.8 1,572.3 1,600.4 1,604.1 1,606.2 2.1

Rental and leasing services

570.4 596.6 594.4 587.4 560.8 571.5 572.9 576.6 3.7

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.3 23.8 23.7 23.1 23.4 23.3 23.4 23.2 -0.2

Professional and business services

20,351 20,873 20,933 20,879 20,279 20,751 20,794 20,807 13

Professional and technical services

8,864.6 9,162.2 9,157.7 9,098.3 8,956.5 9,156.8 9,174.6 9,186.5 11.9

Legal services

1,117.7 1,137.2 1,130.2 1,125.0 1,121.3 1,127.0 1,127.7 1,128.6 0.9

Accounting and bookkeeping services

923.1 942.4 947.1 939.6 997.5 1,005.8 1,009.3 1,010.1 0.8

Architectural and engineering services

1,416.6 1,482.3 1,480.4 1,465.1 1,415.2 1,459.3 1,462.7 1,463.9 1.2

Specialized design services

140.4 143.3 139.0 138.4 142.2 142.2 139.2 140.0 0.8

Computer systems design and related services

2,004.8 2,068.4 2,071.1 2,058.9 2,012.6 2,057.8 2,062.7 2,066.9 4.2

Management and technical consulting services

1,396.0 1,456.5 1,457.5 1,451.4 1,398.4 1,448.4 1,451.1 1,453.0 1.9

Scientific research and development services

682.1 716.9 714.2 706.7 686.5 707.4 709.7 711.9 2.2

Advertising and related services

491.0 491.2 491.4 486.9 491.9 488.7 488.7 487.5 -1.2

Other professional and technical services

692.9 724.0 726.8 726.3 691.0 720.3 723.4 724.7 1.3

Management of companies and enterprises

2,248.7 2,299.6 2,294.5 2,278.0 2,246.5 2,280.8 2,282.0 2,277.8 -4.2

Administrative and waste services

9,238.0 9,411.0 9,481.1 9,502.3 9,076.1 9,313.3 9,337.4 9,342.6 5.2

Administrative and support services

8,828.2 8,989.8 9,059.5 9,083.7 8,669.7 8,901.1 8,922.8 8,926.9 4.1

Office administrative services

499.2 526.1 526.9 527.3 499.4 524.7 525.8 527.6 1.8

Facilities support services

142.1 144.4 145.5 146.0 141.9 144.6 145.3 145.3 0.0

Employment services(1)

3,674.3 3,676.2 3,742.4 3,804.9 3,587.3 3,706.5 3,714.3 3,718.7 4.4

Temporary help services

3,013.1 3,004.5 3,066.3 3,126.6 2,940.9 3,040.3 3,047.8 3,053.7 5.9

Business support services

917.2 899.9 906.1 911.4 922.5 914.4 915.9 916.3 0.4

Travel arrangement and reservation services

217.8 219.6 219.2 214.1 217.6 215.8 216.5 214.1 -2.4

Investigation and security services

907.9 914.4 922.1 924.8 900.9 916.8 918.7 918.6 -0.1

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,150.1 2,279.7 2,265.6 2,223.8 2,082.2 2,151.1 2,155.5 2,157.3 1.8

Other support services

319.6 329.5 331.7 331.4 318.0 327.3 330.9 329.2 -1.7

Waste management and remediation services

409.8 421.2 421.6 418.6 406.4 412.2 414.6 415.7 1.1

Education and health services

22,665 22,802 22,857 23,142 22,745 23,145 23,190 23,217 27

Educational services

3,542.7 3,317.6 3,334.2 3,632.3 3,587.1 3,632.1 3,656.0 3,669.9 13.9

Health care and social assistance

19,122.7 19,484.5 19,522.3 19,509.9 19,157.9 19,513.3 19,534.2 19,547.3 13.1

Health care(3)

15,490.9 15,796.0 15,816.7 15,809.6 15,499.8 15,773.4 15,795.0 15,817.5 22.5

Ambulatory health care services

7,122.0 7,325.0 7,339.8 7,348.8 7,134.8 7,323.0 7,334.0 7,358.7 24.7

Offices of physicians

2,538.7 2,599.6 2,600.8 2,606.9 2,542.7 2,597.2 2,600.5 2,609.3 8.8

Offices of dentists

926.8 943.9 945.4 941.7 930.6 942.9 942.8 945.8 3.0

Offices of other health practitioners

866.3 906.0 910.7 907.7 870.0 906.0 908.5 911.7 3.2

Outpatient care centers

866.1 911.2 913.9 914.7 867.4 910.3 913.6 916.4 2.8

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

262.4 258.4 260.6 260.6 264.2 258.0 260.3 261.0 0.7

Home health care services

1,371.9 1,410.7 1,413.6 1,419.0 1,371.1 1,413.4 1,414.6 1,417.6 3.0

Other ambulatory health care services

289.8 295.2 294.8 298.2 288.8 295.1 293.8 296.8 3.0

Hospitals

5,052.6 5,123.8 5,125.3 5,131.8 5,047.5 5,116.6 5,122.7 5,127.2 4.5

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,316.3 3,347.2 3,351.6 3,329.0 3,317.5 3,333.8 3,338.3 3,331.6 -6.7

Nursing care facilities

1,647.1 1,640.7 1,643.4 1,628.4 1,644.8 1,634.5 1,637.5 1,628.1 -9.4

Residential mental health facilities

614.0 624.9 623.5 621.7 614.1 622.2 621.8 622.2 0.4

Community care facilities for the elderly

891.0 911.1 913.1 910.0 894.2 908.9 909.4 912.5 3.1

Other residential care facilities

164.2 170.5 171.6 168.9 164.5 168.2 169.5 168.9 -0.6

Social assistance

3,631.8 3,688.5 3,705.6 3,700.3 3,658.1 3,739.9 3,739.2 3,729.8 -9.4

Individual and family services

2,232.8 2,313.2 2,306.2 2,287.3 2,249.6 2,310.8 2,306.6 2,305.1 -1.5

Emergency and other relief services

162.8 169.0 167.7 167.9 163.6 168.8 168.3 169.0 0.7

Vocational rehabilitation services

336.0 343.5 342.2 336.5 337.5 337.6 338.3 337.6 -0.7

Child day care services

900.2 862.8 889.5 908.6 907.3 922.7 926.0 918.1 -7.9

Leisure and hospitality

15,866 16,735 16,653 16,049 15,684 15,984 15,984 15,873 -111

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,297.1 2,636.5 2,565.2 2,318.3 2,235.2 2,274.7 2,269.5 2,263.6 -5.9

Performing arts and spectator sports

473.7 492.7 484.8 478.1 457.5 463.5 457.0 459.7 2.7

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

162.6 187.8 181.6 170.2 161.5 169.3 168.0 168.6 0.6

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,660.8 1,956.0 1,898.8 1,670.0 1,616.2 1,641.9 1,644.5 1,635.3 -9.2

Accommodation and food services

13,569.3 14,098.2 14,088.2 13,730.6 13,449.2 13,709.0 13,714.5 13,609.1 -105.4

Accommodation

1,990.2 2,114.6 2,095.6 1,992.6 1,950.2 1,957.8 1,954.7 1,954.0 -0.7

Food services and drinking places

11,579.1 11,983.6 11,992.6 11,738.0 11,499.0 11,751.2 11,759.8 11,655.1 -104.7

Other services

5,695 5,833 5,806 5,749 5,708 5,762 5,766 5,761 -5

Repair and maintenance

1,288.0 1,302.6 1,299.1 1,291.5 1,288.0 1,295.7 1,295.2 1,292.4 -2.8

Personal and laundry services

1,459.4 1,500.3 1,497.2 1,492.1 1,458.5 1,489.0 1,491.3 1,491.7 0.4

Membership associations and organizations

2,947.7 3,029.7 3,009.2 2,964.9 2,961.5 2,977.3 2,979.8 2,976.5 -3.3

Government

22,237 21,048 21,239 22,276 22,316 22,325 22,330 22,337 7

Federal

2,815.0 2,822.0 2,813.0 2,811.0 2,811.0 2,808.0 2,806.0 2,806.0 0.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,203.2 2,205.1 2,203.6 2,198.5 2,196.1 2,189.9 2,190.0 2,189.2 -0.8

U.S. Postal Service

611.3 617.1 609.6 612.2 614.5 617.9 615.9 616.3 0.4

State government

5,150.0 4,767.0 4,803.0 5,156.0 5,101.0 5,096.0 5,098.0 5,100.0 2.0

State government education

2,471.6 2,086.2 2,124.3 2,489.1 2,422.8 2,431.2 2,431.6 2,434.4 2.8

State government, excluding education

2,678.6 2,680.4 2,678.4 2,666.5 2,678.5 2,664.8 2,666.2 2,665.4 -0.8

Local government

14,272.0 13,459.0 13,623.0 14,309.0 14,404.0 14,421.0 14,426.0 14,431.0 5.0

Local government education

7,843.3 6,737.9 6,968.9 7,842.9 7,967.6 7,946.6 7,955.1 7,957.0 1.9

Local government, excluding education

6,429.0 6,721.1 6,654.3 6,466.2 6,436.0 6,473.9 6,471.0 6,474.2 3.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.4 34.4 34.4

Goods-producing

40.2 40.4 40.2 40.2

Mining and logging

43.7 45.3 44.8 45.0

Construction

38.8 39.1 38.9 38.8

Manufacturing

40.7 40.9 40.7 40.7

Durable goods

41.2 41.3 41.2 41.2

Nondurable goods

39.9 40.2 39.9 39.9

Private service-providing

33.2 33.3 33.2 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 34.4 34.4 34.3

Wholesale trade

38.9 39.1 39.1 39.1

Retail trade

30.8 31.0 30.9 30.9

Transportation and warehousing

38.8 38.8 38.8 38.6

Utilities

42.4 42.3 41.6 42.3

Information

35.8 36.3 36.2 36.3

Financial activities

37.5 37.4 37.5 37.5

Professional and business services

36.1 36.1 36.0 36.0

Education and health services

32.9 32.9 32.9 32.8

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 26.0 26.0 26.0

Other services

31.9 31.8 31.8 31.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Durable goods

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Nondurable goods

3.2 3.4 3.4 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)

Total private

$25.81 $26.39 $26.43 $26.55 $887.86 $907.82 $909.19 $913.32

Goods-producing

27.09 27.69 27.61 27.75 1,089.02 1,118.68 1,109.92 1,115.55

Mining and logging

32.12 32.95 32.57 32.58 1,403.64 1,492.64 1,459.14 1,466.10

Construction

28.33 28.94 29.00 29.19 1,099.20 1,131.55 1,128.10 1,132.57

Manufacturing

26.16 26.69 26.56 26.68 1,064.71 1,091.62 1,080.99 1,085.88

Durable goods

27.46 27.95 27.81 27.95 1,131.35 1,154.34 1,145.77 1,151.54

Nondurable goods

23.95 24.56 24.42 24.49 955.61 987.31 974.36 977.15

Private service-providing

25.52 26.09 26.15 26.27 847.26 868.80 868.18 872.16

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.45 22.86 22.89 22.95 767.79 786.38 787.42 787.19

Wholesale trade

29.73 30.15 30.14 30.25 1,156.50 1,178.87 1,178.47 1,182.78

Retail trade

17.91 18.20 18.27 18.27 551.63 564.20 564.54 564.54

Transportation and warehousing

23.41 23.94 23.97 24.03 908.31 928.87 930.04 927.56

Utilities

38.35 39.27 38.87 39.38 1,626.04 1,661.12 1,616.99 1,665.77

Information

36.98 38.56 38.48 38.90 1,323.88 1,399.73 1,392.98 1,412.07

Financial activities

32.55 33.22 33.31 33.44 1,220.63 1,242.43 1,249.13 1,254.00

Professional and business services

30.97 31.69 31.79 32.00 1,118.02 1,144.01 1,144.44 1,152.00

Education and health services

25.87 26.39 26.44 26.50 851.12 868.23 869.88 869.20

Leisure and hospitality

15.01 15.45 15.49 15.55 391.76 401.70 402.74 404.30

Other services

23.17 23.71 23.79 23.91 739.12 753.98 756.52 757.95

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2017 - Sept.
2017(p)
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2017 - Sept.
2017(p)

Total private

105.8 107.2 107.4 107.3 -0.1 130.6 135.3 135.7 136.2 0.4

Goods-producing

90.3 92.1 91.9 92.0 0.1 110.6 115.2 114.7 115.3 0.5

Mining and logging

90.8 101.5 101.2 102.0 0.8 117.1 134.3 132.4 133.4 0.8

Construction

90.0 92.8 92.6 92.4 -0.2 110.8 116.7 116.6 117.2 0.5

Manufacturing

90.3 91.3 91.1 91.1 0.0 109.8 113.3 112.6 113.1 0.4

Durable goods

89.2 90.0 90.1 90.2 0.1 108.8 111.7 111.3 111.9 0.5

Nondurable goods

92.3 93.7 93.1 93.0 -0.1 112.2 116.7 115.4 115.6 0.2

Private service-providing

109.9 111.6 111.4 111.3 -0.1 136.2 141.5 141.6 142.1 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

101.6 102.4 102.4 102.2 -0.2 122.8 126.0 126.2 126.3 0.1

Wholesale trade

99.8 101.1 101.1 101.2 0.1 123.8 127.2 127.2 127.8 0.5

Retail trade

99.4 99.6 99.2 99.2 0.0 117.7 119.9 119.9 119.9 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

111.1 112.8 113.0 112.9 -0.1 131.9 137.1 137.5 137.7 0.1

Utilities

102.0 101.2 99.5 101.2 1.7 129.2 131.3 127.8 131.6 3.0

Information

91.1 90.2 89.8 89.7 -0.1 119.9 123.8 123.0 124.3 1.1

Financial activities

102.2 103.6 103.9 104.1 0.2 129.8 134.2 135.0 135.7 0.5

Professional and business services

115.1 117.8 117.7 117.8 0.1 144.5 151.3 151.6 152.7 0.7

Education and health services

122.2 124.3 124.6 124.3 -0.2 152.1 157.9 158.5 158.5 0.0

Leisure and hospitality

116.8 118.6 118.6 117.8 -0.7 141.4 147.8 148.2 147.7 -0.3

Other services

105.0 105.6 105.7 105.3 -0.4 133.3 137.3 137.8 138.0 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)

Total nonfarm

71,873 72,542 72,620 72,579 49.6 49.5 49.5 49.5

Total private

59,073 59,724 59,794 59,753 48.2 48.1 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,325 4,400 4,413 4,424 21.9 22.0 22.0 22.0

Mining and logging

99 100 100 100 15.0 14.0 13.9 13.9

Construction

841 872 876 882 12.5 12.7 12.7 12.8

Manufacturing

3,385 3,428 3,437 3,442 27.5 27.6 27.6 27.7

Durable goods

1,805 1,815 1,821 1,826 23.5 23.5 23.4 23.5

Nondurable goods

1,580 1,613 1,616 1,616 34.1 34.5 34.6 34.6

Private service-providing

54,748 55,324 55,381 55,329 53.2 53.1 53.1 53.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,110 10,973 10,959 10,956 40.7 40.1 40.0 40.0

Wholesale trade

1,740.8 1,744.3 1,746.2 1,749.0 29.6 29.4 29.5 29.5

Retail trade

8,009.2 7,864.9 7,847.3 7,836.4 50.4 49.7 49.6 49.6

Transportation and warehousing

1,230.7 1,236.3 1,238.3 1,243.8 24.6 24.3 24.3 24.3

Utilities

129.4 127.5 127.6 127.0 23.3 23.1 23.1 23.0

Information

1,115 1,083 1,079 1,070 40.0 39.8 39.7 39.5

Financial activities

4,730 4,770 4,781 4,768 56.8 56.4 56.5 56.3

Professional and business services

9,115 9,328 9,341 9,349 44.9 45.0 44.9 44.9

Education and health services

17,533 17,836 17,863 17,882 77.1 77.1 77.0 77.0

Leisure and hospitality

8,145 8,289 8,309 8,253 51.9 51.9 52.0 52.0

Other services

3,000 3,045 3,049 3,051 52.6 52.8 52.9 53.0

Government

12,800 12,818 12,826 12,826 57.4 57.4 57.4 57.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)

Total private

100,854 102,339 102,463 102,414

Goods-producing

14,149 14,371 14,423 14,440

Mining and logging

457 512 518 523

Construction

5,052 5,158 5,173 5,179

Manufacturing

8,640 8,701 8,732 8,738

Durable goods

5,278 5,306 5,333 5,338

Nondurable goods

3,362 3,395 3,399 3,400

Private service-providing

86,705 87,968 88,040 87,974

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,943 23,073 23,076 23,104

Wholesale trade

4,705.3 4,746.2 4,747.5 4,746.9

Retail trade

13,464.0 13,469.2 13,469.0 13,477.7

Transportation and warehousing

4,326.2 4,413.2 4,414.9 4,434.6

Utilities

447.2 444.7 444.5 445.1

Information

2,240 2,196 2,189 2,176

Financial activities

6,460 6,578 6,583 6,590

Professional and business services

16,589 16,952 16,968 16,966

Education and health services

19,952 20,340 20,386 20,403

Leisure and hospitality

13,784 14,059 14,066 13,967

Other services

4,737 4,770 4,772 4,768

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.7 33.6 33.6

Goods-producing

41.1 41.3 41.3 41.1

Mining and logging

45.6 45.8 45.5 45.9

Construction

39.6 39.6 39.6 39.4

Manufacturing

41.8 42.0 42.0 41.8

Durable goods

42.3 42.2 42.3 42.2

Nondurable goods

41.1 41.6 41.5 41.3

Private service-providing

32.3 32.5 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.5 33.9 33.8 33.8

Wholesale trade

38.7 39.0 39.0 39.0

Retail trade

29.6 30.3 30.1 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

38.8 38.5 38.4 38.2

Utilities

42.7 42.6 42.1 42.6

Information

35.7 35.8 35.6 35.9

Financial activities

36.9 36.8 36.9 36.9

Professional and business services

35.4 35.5 35.4 35.4

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.2 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.8 24.7 24.5

Other services

30.8 30.8 30.8 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.4 4.4 4.4

Durable goods

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

Nondurable goods

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)

Total private

$21.68 $22.09 $22.14 $22.23 $728.45 $744.43 $743.90 $746.93

Goods-producing

22.73 23.18 23.21 23.29 934.20 957.33 958.57 957.22

Mining and logging

27.09 27.87 27.75 27.63 1,235.30 1,276.45 1,262.63 1,268.22

Construction

26.21 26.77 26.80 27.01 1,037.92 1,060.09 1,061.28 1,064.19

Manufacturing

20.55 20.87 20.91 20.93 858.99 876.54 878.22 874.87

Durable goods

21.56 21.87 21.91 21.93 911.99 922.91 926.79 925.45

Nondurable goods

18.90 19.30 19.30 19.31 776.79 802.88 800.95 797.50

Private service-providing

21.46 21.86 21.92 22.01 693.16 710.45 710.21 713.12

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.06 19.38 19.41 19.49 638.51 656.98 656.06 658.76

Wholesale trade

24.35 24.80 24.80 24.87 942.35 967.20 967.20 969.93

Retail trade

15.03 15.32 15.35 15.42 444.89 464.20 462.04 465.68

Transportation and warehousing

21.03 21.34 21.42 21.50 815.96 821.59 822.53 821.30

Utilities

35.47 36.25 35.91 36.29 1,514.57 1,544.25 1,511.81 1,545.95

Information

30.33 30.79 30.76 30.88 1,082.78 1,102.28 1,095.06 1,108.59

Financial activities

26.33 26.60 26.59 26.62 971.58 978.88 981.17 982.28

Professional and business services

25.62 26.10 26.21 26.31 906.95 926.55 927.83 931.37

Education and health services

22.62 23.05 23.10 23.16 728.36 742.21 743.82 745.75

Leisure and hospitality

12.96 13.36 13.41 13.47 322.70 331.33 331.23 330.02

Other services

19.43 19.96 20.04 20.13 598.44 614.77 617.23 617.99

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2017 - Sept.
2017(p)
Sept.
2016
July
2017
Aug.
2017(p)
Sept.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2017 - Sept.
2017(p)

Total private

112.9 114.9 114.7 114.6 -0.1 163.6 169.6 169.7 170.3 0.4

Goods-producing

88.9 90.7 91.0 90.7 -0.3 123.7 128.7 129.4 129.3 -0.1

Mining and logging

110.7 124.6 125.2 127.6 1.9 174.5 202.0 202.1 205.0 1.4

Construction

100.2 102.3 102.6 102.2 -0.4 141.8 147.8 148.4 149.0 0.4

Manufacturing

82.9 83.9 84.2 83.8 -0.5 111.4 114.5 115.1 114.8 -0.3

Durable goods

83.9 84.2 84.8 84.7 -0.1 112.9 114.9 116.0 115.9 -0.1

Nondurable goods

81.4 83.2 83.1 82.7 -0.5 108.7 113.5 113.4 112.9 -0.4

Private service-providing

119.3 121.8 121.5 121.4 -0.1 175.5 182.5 182.6 183.2 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.1 109.0 108.7 108.9 0.2 145.7 150.7 150.6 151.4 0.5

Wholesale trade

107.2 109.0 109.0 109.0 0.0 153.8 159.2 159.3 159.7 0.3

Retail trade

100.9 103.3 102.6 103.0 0.4 130.0 135.6 135.0 136.2 0.9

Transportation and warehousing

126.4 127.9 127.6 127.5 -0.1 168.6 173.1 173.4 173.9 0.3

Utilities

97.7 96.9 95.7 97.0 1.4 144.6 146.6 143.4 146.9 2.4

Information

91.3 89.7 88.9 89.2 0.3 137.0 136.8 135.4 136.3 0.7

Financial activities

112.2 114.0 114.4 114.5 0.1 181.8 186.5 187.1 187.5 0.2

Professional and business services

131.6 134.9 134.6 134.6 0.0 200.7 209.5 210.0 210.7 0.3

Education and health services

137.0 139.6 140.0 140.1 0.1 204.5 212.5 213.4 214.1 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

125.7 127.7 127.3 125.3 -1.6 185.0 193.8 193.8 191.7 -1.1

Other services

102.3 103.0 103.1 102.7 -0.4 144.9 149.8 150.5 150.6 0.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: October 06, 2017