Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until            USDL-18-1412
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, September 7, 2018

Technical information:
 Household data:      (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:  (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- AUGUST 2018


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 201,000 in August, and the unemployment
rate was unchanged at 3.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Job gains occurred in professional and business services, health care, wholesale trade,
transportation and warehousing, and mining.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate remained at 3.9 percent in August, and the number of unemployed
persons, at 6.2 million, changed little. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.5 percent),
adult women (3.6 percent), teenagers (12.8 percent), Whites (3.4 percent), Blacks
(6.3 percent), Asians (3.0 percent), and Hispanics (4.7 percent) showed little or no
change in August. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little
changed in August at 1.3 million and accounted for 21.5 percent of the unemployed.
Over the year, the number of long-term unemployed has declined by 403,000. (See
table A-12.)

Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.7 percent, and the employment-population
ratio, at 60.3 percent, declined by 0.2 percentage point in August. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as
involuntary part-time workers), at 4.4 million, changed little over the month but was
down by 830,000 over the year. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were
unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In August, 1.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little
different from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a
job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they
had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 434,000 discouraged workers in August,
essentially unchanged from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.)
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe
no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.0 million persons marginally attached
to the labor force in August had not searched for work for reasons such as school
attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 201,000 in August, in line with the
average monthly gain of 196,000 over the prior 12 months. Over the month, employment
increased in professional and business services, health care, wholesale trade,
transportation and warehousing, and mining. (See table B-1.)

Professional and business services added 53,000 jobs in August and 519,000 jobs over
the year.

In August, health care employment rose by 33,000, with job gains in ambulatory health
care services (+21,000) and hospitals (+8,000). Health care has added 301,000 jobs over
the year.

Wholesale trade employment increased by 22,000 in August and by 99,000 over the year.
Durable goods wholesalers added 14,000 jobs over the month and accounted for about
two-thirds of the over-the-year job gain in wholesale trade. 

Employment in transportation and warehousing rose by 20,000 in August and by 173,000
over the past 12 months. Within the industry, couriers and messengers added 4,000 jobs
in August.

Mining employment increased by 6,000 in August, after showing little change in July.
Since a recent trough in October 2016, the industry has added 104,000 jobs, almost
entirely in support activities for mining.

Employment in construction continued to trend up in August (+23,000) and has increased
by 297,000 over the year.

Manufacturing employment changed little in August (-3,000). Over the year, employment
in the industry was up by 254,000, with more than three-fourths of the gain in the
durable goods component.

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, including
retail trade, information, financial activities, leisure and hospitality, and
government.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at
34.5 hours in August. In manufacturing, the workweek held steady at 41.0 hours, and
overtime was unchanged at 3.5 hours. The average workweek for production and
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was 33.8 hours for the fifth
consecutive month. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In August, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose
by 10 cents to $27.16. Over the year, average hourly earnings have increased by 77
cents, or 2.9 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees increased by 7 cents to $22.73 in August. (See tables B-3
and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for June was revised down from +248,000
to +208,000, and the change for July was revised down from +157,000 to +147,000. With
these revisions, employment gains in June and July combined were 50,000 less than
previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the
recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 185,000
per month over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for September is scheduled to be released on Friday,
October 5, 2018, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Change from:
July
2018-
Aug.
2018

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

255,357 257,642 257,843 258,066 223

Civilian labor force

160,598 162,140 162,245 161,776 -469

Participation rate

62.9 62.9 62.9 62.7 -0.2

Employed

153,471 155,576 155,965 155,542 -423

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.4 60.5 60.3 -0.2

Unemployed

7,127 6,564 6,280 6,234 -46

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.0 3.9 3.9 0.0

Not in labor force

94,759 95,502 95,598 96,290 692

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.4 4.0 3.9 3.9 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.1 3.7 3.4 3.5 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.0 3.7 3.7 3.6 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.8 12.6 13.1 12.8 -0.3

White

3.8 3.5 3.4 3.4 0.0

Black or African American

7.6 6.5 6.6 6.3 -0.3

Asian

3.9 3.2 3.1 3.0 -0.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.1 4.6 4.5 4.7 0.2

Total, 25 years and over

3.7 3.3 3.2 3.2 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

6.2 5.5 5.1 5.7 0.6

High school graduates, no college

5.0 4.2 4.0 3.9 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

3.8 3.3 3.2 3.5 0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,497 3,065 3,017 2,875 -142

Job leavers

790 811 844 862 18

Reentrants

2,137 2,086 1,799 1,846 47

New entrants

653 578 591 584 -7

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,221 2,227 2,091 2,208 117

5 to 14 weeks

1,996 1,882 1,820 1,720 -100

15 to 26 weeks

1,067 836 971 923 -48

27 weeks and over

1,735 1,478 1,435 1,332 -103

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,209 4,743 4,567 4,379 -188

Slack work or business conditions

3,232 3,042 2,877 2,551 -326

Could only find part-time work

1,631 1,447 1,431 1,365 -66

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,468 21,304 21,532 21,781 249

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,548 1,437 1,498 1,443 -

Discouraged workers

448 359 512 434 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

221 208 147 201

Total private

208 192 153 204

Goods-producing

75 36 36 26

Mining and logging

8 7 0 6

Construction

28 8 18 23

Manufacturing

39 21 18 -3

Durable goods(1)

31 19 16 -4

Motor vehicles and parts

23.1 4.8 -3.5 -4.9

Nondurable goods

8 2 2 1

Private service-providing

133 156 117 178

Wholesale trade

3.6 12.7 10.8 22.4

Retail trade

3.9 -41.8 4.1 -5.9

Transportation and warehousing

12.4 15.0 6.6 20.2

Utilities

-0.2 -0.4 -3.1 0.3

Information

-1 -2 -1 -6

Financial activities

15 12 2 11

Professional and business services(1)

42 47 37 53

Temporary help services

5.3 -6.5 10.9 10.0

Education and health services(1)

48 67 41 53

Health care and social assistance

15.8 29.4 35.4 40.7

Leisure and hospitality

4 28 32 17

Other services

5 18 -12 13

Government

13 16 -6 -3

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

217 217 208 185

Total private

205 209 202 183

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.7 49.7 49.7

Total private women employees

48.1 48.3 48.3 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.6 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.39 $26.99 $27.06 $27.16

Average weekly earnings

$907.82 $933.85 $933.57 $937.02

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

107.6 109.9 109.7 109.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.5 -0.2 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

135.7 141.8 142.0 142.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.6 0.1 0.5

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

64.3 64.1 59.5 60.7

Manufacturing (76 industries)

71.7 65.8 61.2 52.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 149,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 651,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

255,357 257,843 258,066 255,357 257,272 257,454 257,642 257,843 258,066

Civilian labor force

160,863 163,734 161,909 160,598 161,527 161,539 162,140 162,245 161,776

Participation rate

63.0 63.5 62.7 62.9 62.8 62.7 62.9 62.9 62.7

Employed

153,576 157,004 155,539 153,471 155,181 155,474 155,576 155,965 155,542

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.9 60.3 60.1 60.3 60.4 60.4 60.5 60.3

Unemployed

7,287 6,730 6,370 7,127 6,346 6,065 6,564 6,280 6,234

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.1 3.9 4.4 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.9

Not in labor force

94,494 94,109 96,157 94,759 95,745 95,915 95,502 95,598 96,290

Persons who currently want a job

5,852 5,483 5,534 5,809 5,115 5,183 5,258 5,163 5,389

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,413 124,704 124,816 123,413 124,418 124,509 124,604 124,704 124,816

Civilian labor force

85,633 87,102 86,212 85,177 86,152 86,157 86,056 85,950 85,854

Participation rate

69.4 69.8 69.1 69.0 69.2 69.2 69.1 68.9 68.8

Employed

81,975 83,828 83,062 81,342 82,611 82,784 82,522 82,684 82,545

Employment-population ratio

66.4 67.2 66.5 65.9 66.4 66.5 66.2 66.3 66.1

Unemployed

3,659 3,274 3,150 3,836 3,541 3,373 3,534 3,266 3,309

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.8 3.7 4.5 4.1 3.9 4.1 3.8 3.9

Not in labor force

37,780 37,602 38,604 38,236 38,266 38,352 38,548 38,754 38,962

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,918 116,220 116,328 114,918 115,921 116,017 116,115 116,220 116,328

Civilian labor force

82,474 83,534 83,140 82,297 83,199 83,234 83,115 83,058 83,030

Participation rate

71.8 71.9 71.5 71.6 71.8 71.7 71.6 71.5 71.4

Employed

79,255 80,800 80,409 78,887 80,111 80,329 80,013 80,240 80,134

Employment-population ratio

69.0 69.5 69.1 68.6 69.1 69.2 68.9 69.0 68.9

Unemployed

3,219 2,734 2,731 3,410 3,088 2,905 3,102 2,818 2,895

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.3 3.3 4.1 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.4 3.5

Not in labor force

32,445 32,685 33,188 32,621 32,723 32,783 33,001 33,162 33,298

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

131,943 133,139 133,250 131,943 132,853 132,944 133,038 133,139 133,250

Civilian labor force

75,230 76,632 75,697 75,420 75,375 75,382 76,084 76,295 75,922

Participation rate

57.0 57.6 56.8 57.2 56.7 56.7 57.2 57.3 57.0

Employed

71,601 73,176 72,477 72,129 72,569 72,690 73,054 73,281 72,997

Employment-population ratio

54.3 55.0 54.4 54.7 54.6 54.7 54.9 55.0 54.8

Unemployed

3,628 3,456 3,220 3,291 2,805 2,692 3,030 3,013 2,925

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.5 4.3 4.4 3.7 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.9

Not in labor force

56,713 56,507 57,553 56,523 57,479 57,562 56,954 56,844 57,328

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,679 124,875 124,983 123,679 124,579 124,674 124,771 124,875 124,983

Civilian labor force

72,045 73,004 72,782 72,406 72,498 72,493 73,139 73,285 73,154

Participation rate

58.3 58.5 58.2 58.5 58.2 58.1 58.6 58.7 58.5

Employed

68,835 69,975 69,880 69,502 69,992 70,077 70,419 70,598 70,529

Employment-population ratio

55.7 56.0 55.9 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.4 56.5 56.4

Unemployed

3,210 3,028 2,902 2,903 2,506 2,415 2,720 2,687 2,625

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.7 3.6

Not in labor force

51,634 51,871 52,201 51,273 52,081 52,181 51,633 51,590 51,829

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,759 16,748 16,755 16,759 16,771 16,763 16,755 16,748 16,755

Civilian labor force

6,344 7,196 5,987 5,895 5,831 5,812 5,886 5,902 5,592

Participation rate

37.9 43.0 35.7 35.2 34.8 34.7 35.1 35.2 33.4

Employed

5,487 6,228 5,250 5,082 5,078 5,068 5,144 5,127 4,879

Employment-population ratio

32.7 37.2 31.3 30.3 30.3 30.2 30.7 30.6 29.1

Unemployed

858 967 737 813 752 745 743 775 714

Unemployment rate

13.5 13.4 12.3 13.8 12.9 12.8 12.6 13.1 12.8

Not in labor force

10,415 9,552 10,767 10,864 10,941 10,951 10,869 10,846 11,163

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

199,082 200,236 200,356 199,082 199,950 200,039 200,132 200,236 200,356

Civilian labor force

125,280 126,927 125,462 125,030 125,731 125,688 125,784 125,720 125,306

Participation rate

62.9 63.4 62.6 62.8 62.9 62.8 62.9 62.8 62.5

Employed

120,365 122,332 121,040 120,242 121,233 121,303 121,347 121,506 121,027

Employment-population ratio

60.5 61.1 60.4 60.4 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.7 60.4

Unemployed

4,915 4,595 4,421 4,788 4,498 4,385 4,437 4,214 4,279

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4

Not in labor force

73,802 73,309 74,894 74,053 74,219 74,350 74,348 74,517 75,049

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,455 65,957 65,601 65,298 65,982 65,890 65,855 65,614 65,505

Participation rate

71.9 71.9 71.5 71.7 72.1 72.0 71.9 71.6 71.4

Employed

63,281 64,110 63,702 62,997 63,746 63,785 63,695 63,690 63,486

Employment-population ratio

69.5 69.9 69.4 69.2 69.7 69.7 69.5 69.5 69.2

Unemployed

2,174 1,847 1,899 2,301 2,235 2,106 2,159 1,924 2,019

Unemployment rate

3.3 2.8 2.9 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.3 2.9 3.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,980 55,382 55,100 55,231 55,179 55,197 55,420 55,534 55,351

Participation rate

57.4 57.5 57.2 57.7 57.4 57.4 57.6 57.7 57.5

Employed

52,797 53,272 53,100 53,276 53,429 53,450 53,608 53,746 53,592

Employment-population ratio

55.2 55.3 55.1 55.7 55.6 55.6 55.7 55.8 55.6

Unemployed

2,183 2,110 2,000 1,955 1,750 1,747 1,812 1,787 1,759

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,845 5,588 4,761 4,500 4,570 4,601 4,510 4,572 4,450

Participation rate

39.3 45.4 38.7 36.5 37.1 37.3 36.6 37.2 36.2

Employed

4,288 4,950 4,239 3,968 4,057 4,068 4,044 4,069 3,949

Employment-population ratio

34.7 40.2 34.4 32.2 32.9 33.0 32.8 33.1 32.1

Unemployed

557 638 522 532 512 533 466 502 501

Unemployment rate

11.5 11.4 11.0 11.8 11.2 11.6 10.3 11.0 11.3

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,296 32,771 32,810 32,296 32,672 32,704 32,737 32,771 32,810

Civilian labor force

20,142 20,708 20,452 20,090 20,220 20,296 20,364 20,495 20,404

Participation rate

62.4 63.2 62.3 62.2 61.9 62.1 62.2 62.5 62.2

Employed

18,542 19,255 19,114 18,571 18,892 19,092 19,045 19,144 19,114

Employment-population ratio

57.4 58.8 58.3 57.5 57.8 58.4 58.2 58.4 58.3

Unemployed

1,600 1,453 1,338 1,519 1,328 1,204 1,319 1,351 1,289

Unemployment rate

7.9 7.0 6.5 7.6 6.6 5.9 6.5 6.6 6.3

Not in labor force

12,154 12,063 12,358 12,206 12,452 12,408 12,373 12,276 12,406

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,214 9,410 9,431 9,213 9,257 9,382 9,162 9,320 9,407

Participation rate

68.3 68.5 68.6 68.3 67.7 68.5 66.8 67.9 68.4

Employed

8,521 8,841 8,884 8,500 8,663 8,792 8,573 8,751 8,841

Employment-population ratio

63.2 64.4 64.6 63.0 63.3 64.2 62.5 63.7 64.3

Unemployed

693 570 546 713 594 590 589 569 566

Unemployment rate

7.5 6.1 5.8 7.7 6.4 6.3 6.4 6.1 6.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,108 10,391 10,345 10,127 10,229 10,233 10,406 10,426 10,361

Participation rate

62.0 62.8 62.4 62.1 62.0 62.0 63.0 63.0 62.5

Employed

9,405 9,709 9,690 9,487 9,707 9,754 9,838 9,793 9,766

Employment-population ratio

57.7 58.7 58.5 58.2 58.9 59.1 59.5 59.2 59.0

Unemployed

703 682 655 639 522 479 568 633 595

Unemployment rate

7.0 6.6 6.3 6.3 5.1 4.7 5.5 6.1 5.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

820 906 676 751 734 681 796 750 635

Participation rate

32.7 36.3 27.1 29.9 29.3 27.3 31.9 30.0 25.5

Employed

617 705 539 584 521 547 635 600 508

Employment-population ratio

24.6 28.2 21.6 23.3 20.8 21.9 25.4 24.1 20.3

Unemployed

204 201 137 167 213 135 162 149 128

Unemployment rate

24.8 22.2 20.3 22.2 29.0 19.8 20.3 19.9 20.1

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,341 15,922 16,093 15,341 15,933 15,874 15,934 15,922 16,093

Civilian labor force

9,894 10,227 10,279 9,876 10,034 9,932 10,140 10,153 10,259

Participation rate

64.5 64.2 63.9 64.4 63.0 62.6 63.6 63.8 63.7

Employed

9,498 9,889 9,967 9,489 9,755 9,720 9,817 9,838 9,950

Employment-population ratio

61.9 62.1 61.9 61.9 61.2 61.2 61.6 61.8 61.8

Unemployed

396 338 312 388 280 212 322 314 309

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.3 3.0 3.9 2.8 2.1 3.2 3.1 3.0

Not in labor force

5,446 5,695 5,814 5,464 5,898 5,942 5,794 5,769 5,834

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,492 42,767 42,863 41,492 42,507 42,592 42,679 42,767 42,863

Civilian labor force

27,335 28,701 28,219 27,325 28,229 28,205 28,369 28,495 28,242

Participation rate

65.9 67.1 65.8 65.9 66.4 66.2 66.5 66.6 65.9

Employed

25,922 27,380 26,898 25,925 26,860 26,827 27,077 27,223 26,927

Employment-population ratio

62.5 64.0 62.8 62.5 63.2 63.0 63.4 63.7 62.8

Unemployed

1,413 1,322 1,322 1,400 1,368 1,378 1,292 1,273 1,315

Unemployment rate

5.2 4.6 4.7 5.1 4.8 4.9 4.6 4.5 4.7

Not in labor force

14,157 14,066 14,644 14,167 14,278 14,387 14,310 14,272 14,621

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,038 15,578 15,428 15,012 15,535 15,444 15,557 15,519 15,421

Participation rate

80.5 80.7 79.7 80.4 81.0 80.3 80.8 80.4 79.7

Employed

14,367 15,141 14,899 14,303 14,901 14,845 14,961 15,017 14,849

Employment-population ratio

76.9 78.4 77.0 76.6 77.7 77.2 77.7 77.8 76.7

Unemployed

670 436 528 709 635 599 596 502 572

Unemployment rate

4.5 2.8 3.4 4.7 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.2 3.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,028 11,630 11,513 11,098 11,398 11,507 11,626 11,684 11,593

Participation rate

58.2 59.6 58.8 58.5 58.8 59.2 59.7 59.8 59.2

Employed

10,481 11,038 10,902 10,576 10,856 10,917 11,065 11,131 11,009

Employment-population ratio

55.3 56.5 55.7 55.8 56.0 56.2 56.8 57.0 56.3

Unemployed

547 592 611 522 541 590 561 553 584

Unemployment rate

5.0 5.1 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.1 4.8 4.7 5.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,269 1,494 1,279 1,215 1,296 1,254 1,186 1,292 1,228

Participation rate

32.9 37.9 32.4 31.5 33.0 31.9 30.2 32.8 31.1

Employed

1,073 1,200 1,097 1,046 1,103 1,065 1,051 1,075 1,068

Employment-population ratio

27.9 30.5 27.8 27.1 28.1 27.1 26.7 27.3 27.1

Unemployed

196 294 182 169 192 189 135 218 160

Unemployment rate

15.4 19.7 14.2 13.9 14.8 15.1 11.4 16.8 13.0

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,499 10,047 10,307 10,553 10,285 10,242 10,508 10,212 10,311

Participation rate

45.9 46.1 46.3 46.1 45.9 45.2 45.9 46.9 46.3

Employed

9,924 9,573 9,790 9,903 9,683 9,688 9,926 9,695 9,728

Employment-population ratio

43.4 44.0 44.0 43.3 43.3 42.7 43.4 44.5 43.7

Unemployed

575 474 516 649 602 554 582 517 583

Unemployment rate

5.5 4.7 5.0 6.2 5.9 5.4 5.5 5.1 5.7

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,098 36,368 36,344 35,908 35,468 35,702 36,050 36,534 36,121

Participation rate

57.9 57.6 57.6 57.6 56.9 57.2 57.9 57.9 57.3

Employed

34,278 34,900 34,919 34,116 33,940 34,306 34,549 35,056 34,699

Employment-population ratio

55.0 55.3 55.4 54.7 54.5 54.9 55.5 55.5 55.0

Unemployed

1,821 1,468 1,425 1,792 1,528 1,395 1,501 1,478 1,422

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.0 3.9 5.0 4.3 3.9 4.2 4.0 3.9

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,076 37,533 36,930 37,247 37,944 37,921 37,863 37,531 37,300

Participation rate

65.3 65.4 64.9 65.6 65.5 65.7 65.3 65.4 65.6

Employed

35,617 36,305 35,552 35,845 36,629 36,694 36,602 36,340 35,987

Employment-population ratio

62.7 63.2 62.5 63.1 63.2 63.6 63.2 63.3 63.3

Unemployed

1,458 1,229 1,378 1,402 1,315 1,228 1,261 1,191 1,313

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.3 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

55,222 56,771 57,237 55,576 56,794 56,739 56,613 56,940 57,638

Participation rate

73.4 73.2 73.5 73.9 74.2 74.1 74.0 73.4 74.0

Employed

53,720 55,330 55,906 54,247 55,616 55,593 55,296 55,672 56,452

Employment-population ratio

71.4 71.4 71.8 72.1 72.6 72.6 72.2 71.8 72.5

Unemployed

1,503 1,441 1,331 1,329 1,178 1,147 1,317 1,268 1,186

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.3 2.2 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,532 19,151 18,500 17,283 2,032 1,868

Civilian labor force

10,204 9,388 8,955 8,250 1,250 1,138

Participation rate

49.7 49.0 48.4 47.7 61.5 60.9

Employed

9,830 9,031 8,648 7,944 1,183 1,087

Employment-population ratio

47.9 47.2 46.7 46.0 58.2 58.2

Unemployed

374 357 307 307 67 51

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.8 3.4 3.7 5.4 4.5

Not in labor force

10,328 9,763 9,545 9,033 782 730

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,114 4,159 3,379 3,420 735 740

Civilian labor force

3,322 3,343 2,777 2,804 545 539

Participation rate

80.7 80.4 82.2 82.0 74.2 72.9

Employed

3,183 3,213 2,678 2,698 505 515

Employment-population ratio

77.4 77.3 79.3 78.9 68.7 69.6

Unemployed

139 130 99 106 40 24

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.9 3.5 3.8 7.4 4.4

Not in labor force

792 816 603 615 190 201

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,376 3,099 2,875 2,639 501 459

Civilian labor force

2,677 2,449 2,293 2,122 384 327

Participation rate

79.3 79.0 79.8 80.4 76.5 71.2

Employed

2,609 2,373 2,239 2,056 369 317

Employment-population ratio

77.3 76.6 77.9 77.9 73.7 69.1

Unemployed

68 76 54 66 14 10

Unemployment rate

2.5 3.1 2.4 3.1 3.7 3.0

Not in labor force

699 649 582 517 118 132

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,020 7,573 7,730 7,315 290 258

Civilian labor force

1,811 1,551 1,753 1,508 58 44

Participation rate

22.6 20.5 22.7 20.6 20.0 16.9

Employed

1,720 1,481 1,666 1,440 54 41

Employment-population ratio

21.5 19.6 21.6 19.7 18.8 15.7

Unemployed

91 71 87 68 4 3

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.6 5.0 4.5 - -

Not in labor force

6,209 6,022 5,977 5,807 232 214

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,022 4,320 4,516 3,909 506 411

Civilian labor force

2,395 2,044 2,132 1,816 263 228

Participation rate

47.7 47.3 47.2 46.5 52.0 55.5

Employed

2,318 1,963 2,065 1,749 254 214

Employment-population ratio

46.2 45.4 45.7 44.7 50.2 52.1

Unemployed

76 81 67 67 9 14

Unemployment rate

3.2 4.0 3.1 3.7 3.5 6.2

Not in labor force

2,627 2,276 2,384 2,093 243 183

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

225,806 230,011 100,305 103,000 125,501 127,012

Civilian labor force

148,156 150,271 75,497 76,886 72,659 73,386

Participation rate

65.6 65.3 75.3 74.6 57.9 57.8

Employed

141,595 144,538 72,300 74,183 69,295 70,355

Employment-population ratio

62.7 62.8 72.1 72.0 55.2 55.4

Unemployed

6,561 5,733 3,198 2,702 3,364 3,031

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.8 4.2 3.5 4.6 4.1

Not in labor force

77,650 79,740 24,808 26,114 52,842 53,626

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,547 29,823 224,810 228,243

Civilian labor force

6,276 6,207 154,587 155,702

Participation rate

20.5 20.8 68.8 68.2

Employed

5,750 5,713 147,826 149,826

Employment-population ratio

18.8 19.2 65.8 65.6

Unemployed

526 494 6,761 5,876

Unemployment rate

8.4 8.0 4.4 3.8

Not in labor force

24,271 23,616 70,223 72,540

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,798 2,651 77,501 77,953

Participation rate

35.4 35.1 83.1 82.8

Employed

2,544 2,429 74,271 75,207

Employment-population ratio

32.2 32.2 79.6 79.9

Unemployed

254 222 3,230 2,746

Unemployment rate

9.1 8.4 4.2 3.5

Not in labor force

5,101 4,896 15,784 16,221

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,321 2,377 68,708 68,862

Participation rate

29.6 31.0 71.1 70.9

Employed

2,097 2,172 65,459 66,043

Employment-population ratio

26.7 28.3 67.7 68.0

Unemployed

224 205 3,249 2,819

Unemployment rate

9.7 8.6 4.7 4.1

Not in labor force

5,518 5,291 27,918 28,314

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,157 1,179 8,378 8,887

Participation rate

7.8 8.1 24.0 24.1

Employed

1,109 1,112 8,096 8,576

Employment-population ratio

7.5 7.6 23.2 23.2

Unemployed

48 67 282 311

Unemployment rate

4.1 5.7 3.4 3.5

Not in labor force

13,652 13,429 26,521 28,006

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,630 42,695 20,232 20,671 21,398 22,023

Civilian labor force

27,673 28,053 15,798 16,140 11,875 11,914

Participation rate

66.5 65.7 78.1 78.1 55.5 54.1

Employed

26,520 27,110 15,190 15,716 11,330 11,395

Employment-population ratio

63.7 63.5 75.1 76.0 52.9 51.7

Unemployed

1,153 943 607 424 545 519

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.4 3.8 2.6 4.6 4.4

Not in labor force

13,957 14,642 4,434 4,532 9,523 10,110

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

213,726 215,371 103,182 104,145 110,545 111,226

Civilian labor force

133,190 133,856 69,836 70,073 63,355 63,783

Participation rate

62.3 62.2 67.7 67.3 57.3 57.3

Employed

127,056 128,429 66,784 67,346 60,271 61,082

Employment-population ratio

59.4 59.6 64.7 64.7 54.5 54.9

Unemployed

6,134 5,427 3,051 2,726 3,083 2,701

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.1 4.4 3.9 4.9 4.2

Not in labor force

80,536 81,515 33,346 34,072 47,190 47,443

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,508 2,656 2,465 2,368 2,294 2,345 2,350 2,498 2,345

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,750 1,822 1,660 1,596 1,517 1,573 1,567 1,658 1,528

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

745 806 789 725 745 742 736 783 772

Unpaid family workers

13 28 17 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

151,068 154,348 153,074 151,175 152,889 153,211 153,309 153,473 153,262

Wage and salary workers(1)

142,368 145,370 144,183 142,371 143,785 144,124 144,524 144,447 144,276

Government

20,479 20,036 20,218 21,037 21,222 21,045 20,986 20,900 20,791

Private industries

121,889 125,335 123,965 121,394 122,616 123,090 123,478 123,541 123,513

Private households

670 800 782 - - - - - -

Other industries

121,220 124,534 123,183 120,695 121,858 122,319 122,757 122,772 122,749

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,631 8,911 8,812 8,645 8,995 9,013 8,728 8,880 8,861

Unpaid family workers

69 66 79 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,204 4,766 4,319 5,209 4,985 4,948 4,743 4,567 4,379

Slack work or business conditions

3,214 2,922 2,521 3,232 2,994 3,004 3,042 2,877 2,551

Could only find part-time work

1,564 1,445 1,268 1,631 1,586 1,480 1,447 1,431 1,365

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,405 20,059 19,991 21,468 21,258 21,095 21,304 21,532 21,781

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,130 4,701 4,263 5,125 4,898 4,872 4,662 4,482 4,311

Slack work or business conditions

3,158 2,891 2,492 3,196 2,923 2,948 3,004 2,836 2,522

Could only find part-time work

1,558 1,425 1,263 1,622 1,575 1,464 1,431 1,415 1,355

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,066 19,694 19,653 21,133 20,891 20,766 20,941 21,177 21,448

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

153,576 157,004 155,539 153,471 155,181 155,474 155,576 155,965 155,542

16 to 19 years

5,487 6,228 5,250 5,082 5,078 5,068 5,144 5,127 4,879

16 to 17 years

2,151 2,296 1,971 1,923 1,838 1,771 1,797 1,815 1,770

18 to 19 years

3,336 3,933 3,280 3,150 3,257 3,285 3,344 3,315 3,110

20 years and over

148,089 150,775 150,289 148,389 150,102 150,406 150,432 150,838 150,663

20 to 24 years

14,551 14,668 14,122 14,227 14,172 14,069 14,046 14,128 13,841

25 years and over

133,538 136,107 136,167 134,086 135,906 136,373 136,422 136,762 136,749

25 to 54 years

98,289 100,005 99,902 98,584 99,965 100,105 100,204 100,417 100,276

25 to 34 years

34,242 35,353 35,200 34,317 35,083 35,221 35,288 35,444 35,316

35 to 44 years

31,770 32,546 32,568 31,830 32,614 32,492 32,566 32,690 32,636

45 to 54 years

32,277 32,107 32,134 32,437 32,268 32,392 32,350 32,283 32,324

55 years and over

35,249 36,102 36,265 35,502 35,941 36,268 36,218 36,346 36,473

Men, 16 years and over

81,975 83,828 83,062 81,342 82,611 82,784 82,522 82,684 82,545

16 to 19 years

2,720 3,028 2,653 2,455 2,500 2,455 2,509 2,444 2,410

16 to 17 years

1,027 1,072 935 884 858 849 855 814 812

18 to 19 years

1,693 1,956 1,718 1,564 1,651 1,610 1,644 1,629 1,598

20 years and over

79,255 80,800 80,409 78,887 80,111 80,329 80,013 80,240 80,134

20 to 24 years

7,627 7,522 7,227 7,357 7,291 7,205 7,191 7,149 6,990

25 years and over

71,628 73,278 73,182 71,506 72,840 73,131 72,869 73,126 73,106

25 to 54 years

52,686 53,794 53,638 52,574 53,686 53,728 53,588 53,673 53,599

25 to 34 years

18,482 19,126 19,020 18,438 18,946 18,992 19,006 19,054 19,007

35 to 44 years

17,141 17,737 17,692 17,085 17,644 17,634 17,598 17,691 17,642

45 to 54 years

17,063 16,931 16,927 17,051 17,096 17,101 16,984 16,928 16,950

55 years and over

18,942 19,484 19,543 18,933 19,154 19,403 19,281 19,453 19,507

Women, 16 years and over

71,601 73,176 72,477 72,129 72,569 72,690 73,054 73,281 72,997

16 to 19 years

2,767 3,201 2,597 2,627 2,578 2,613 2,635 2,683 2,468

16 to 17 years

1,124 1,224 1,036 1,039 980 922 942 1,001 958

18 to 19 years

1,643 1,977 1,561 1,586 1,606 1,675 1,700 1,687 1,512

20 years and over

68,835 69,975 69,880 69,502 69,992 70,077 70,419 70,598 70,529

20 to 24 years

6,925 7,146 6,895 6,870 6,882 6,864 6,855 6,979 6,851

25 years and over

61,910 62,829 62,985 62,580 63,067 63,243 63,553 63,636 63,643

25 to 54 years

45,603 46,211 46,264 46,011 46,280 46,377 46,616 46,744 46,677

25 to 34 years

15,760 16,226 16,180 15,880 16,137 16,229 16,282 16,390 16,309

35 to 44 years

14,630 14,809 14,876 14,745 14,970 14,858 14,969 14,998 14,994

45 to 54 years

15,213 15,176 15,207 15,386 15,172 15,291 15,366 15,355 15,374

55 years and over

16,307 16,618 16,722 16,569 16,787 16,865 16,937 16,892 16,966

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,370 45,626 45,882 45,319 45,995 46,041 45,689 45,751 45,858

Married women, spouse present(1)

34,966 35,272 35,542 35,519 36,140 35,978 35,976 35,986 36,070

Women who maintain families(2)

9,573 9,842 9,806 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

127,353 130,644 129,975 125,882 127,753 128,657 128,568 129,021 128,577

Part-time workers(4)

26,223 26,359 25,564 27,529 27,508 26,883 27,028 26,992 26,913

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

6,961 7,833 7,540 7,350 7,667 7,442 7,619 8,072 7,944

Percent of total employed

4.5 5.0 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.9 5.2 5.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,829 5,545 5,768 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,376 9,718 9,601 9,370 9,741 9,755 9,464 9,663 9,633

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,127 6,280 6,234 4.4 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.9

16 to 19 years

813 775 714 13.8 12.9 12.8 12.6 13.1 12.8

16 to 17 years

330 285 274 14.6 13.8 14.8 14.4 13.6 13.4

18 to 19 years

468 473 430 12.9 12.7 12.2 11.4 12.5 12.2

20 years and over

6,313 5,505 5,520 4.1 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.5

20 to 24 years

1,099 1,048 1,012 7.2 6.7 7.1 7.4 6.9 6.8

25 years and over

5,175 4,460 4,483 3.7 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.2

25 to 54 years

4,020 3,286 3,337 3.9 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.2

25 to 34 years

1,749 1,294 1,510 4.9 4.4 3.8 3.9 3.5 4.1

35 to 44 years

1,113 1,033 972 3.4 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.1 2.9

45 to 54 years

1,157 960 855 3.4 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.9 2.6

55 years and over

1,166 1,157 1,155 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.1 3.1

Men, 16 years and over

3,836 3,266 3,309 4.5 4.1 3.9 4.1 3.8 3.9

16 to 19 years

426 449 414 14.8 15.3 16.0 14.7 15.5 14.7

16 to 17 years

157 156 150 15.1 17.2 18.0 16.5 16.1 15.6

18 to 19 years

265 276 262 14.5 14.6 15.1 13.2 14.5 14.1

20 years and over

3,410 2,818 2,895 4.1 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.4 3.5

20 to 24 years

618 575 570 7.7 7.7 7.9 8.2 7.4 7.5

25 years and over

2,762 2,250 2,317 3.7 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.1

25 to 54 years

2,136 1,637 1,717 3.9 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.1

25 to 34 years

962 687 821 5.0 4.6 3.8 3.8 3.5 4.1

35 to 44 years

563 467 470 3.2 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.6

45 to 54 years

611 484 426 3.5 2.7 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.4

55 years and over

626 613 600 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.0

Women, 16 years and over

3,291 3,013 2,925 4.4 3.7 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.9

16 to 19 years

388 327 300 12.9 10.4 9.6 10.5 10.9 10.8

16 to 17 years

172 129 125 14.2 10.6 11.6 12.4 11.4 11.5

18 to 19 years

203 197 168 11.3 10.6 9.2 9.5 10.5 10.0

20 years and over

2,903 2,687 2,625 4.0 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.7 3.6

20 to 24 years

482 473 442 6.6 5.7 6.2 6.6 6.3 6.1

25 years and over

2,413 2,210 2,166 3.7 3.2 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.3

25 to 54 years

1,884 1,649 1,620 3.9 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.4

25 to 34 years

788 607 689 4.7 4.2 3.9 4.0 3.6 4.1

35 to 44 years

550 566 502 3.6 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.2

45 to 54 years

546 476 430 3.4 2.8 2.6 2.9 3.0 2.7

55 years and over

524 529 539 3.1 2.8 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.1

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,195 931 931 2.6 2.1 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.0

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,030 939 931 2.8 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.5

Women who maintain families(2)

742 588 556 7.2 5.5 4.7 5.5 5.6 5.4

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,808 5,058 4,993 4.4 3.9 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.7

Part-time workers(4)

1,274 1,242 1,196 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,536 3,164 2,885 3,497 2,958 2,854 3,065 3,017 2,875

On temporary layoff

1,051 1,080 893 1,030 862 803 906 890 872

Not on temporary layoff

2,485 2,084 1,992 2,467 2,096 2,052 2,159 2,127 2,003

Permanent job losers

1,788 1,438 1,337 1,777 1,418 1,439 1,486 1,455 1,345

Persons who completed temporary jobs

697 646 655 690 678 612 673 672 658

Job leavers

874 869 967 790 815 852 811 844 862

Reentrants

2,151 1,893 1,869 2,137 2,009 1,882 2,086 1,799 1,846

New entrants

725 803 649 653 623 571 578 591 584

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

48.5 47.0 45.3 49.4 46.2 46.3 46.9 48.3 46.6

On temporary layoff

14.4 16.0 14.0 14.6 13.5 13.0 13.9 14.2 14.1

Not on temporary layoff

34.1 31.0 31.3 34.9 32.7 33.3 33.0 34.0 32.5

Job leavers

12.0 12.9 15.2 11.2 12.7 13.8 12.4 13.5 14.0

Reentrants

29.5 28.1 29.3 30.2 31.4 30.6 31.9 28.8 29.9

New entrants

10.0 11.9 10.2 9.2 9.7 9.3 8.8 9.5 9.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.2 1.9 1.8 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1

New entrants

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,199 2,248 2,183 2,221 2,115 2,034 2,227 2,091 2,208

5 to 14 weeks

2,411 2,185 2,037 1,996 2,017 1,945 1,882 1,820 1,720

15 weeks and over

2,677 2,297 2,149 2,802 2,329 2,166 2,314 2,406 2,255

15 to 26 weeks

936 818 809 1,067 1,036 977 836 971 923

27 weeks and over

1,741 1,480 1,341 1,735 1,293 1,189 1,478 1,435 1,332

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

23.7 22.0 22.2 24.3 23.1 21.3 21.2 23.2 22.6

Median duration, in weeks

10.1 8.8 9.0 10.3 9.8 9.2 8.9 9.5 9.1

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

30.2 33.4 34.3 31.6 32.7 33.1 34.7 33.1 35.7

5 to 14 weeks

33.1 32.5 32.0 28.4 31.2 31.7 29.3 28.8 27.8

15 weeks and over

36.7 34.1 33.7 39.9 36.0 35.2 36.0 38.1 36.5

15 to 26 weeks

12.8 12.2 12.7 15.2 16.0 15.9 13.0 15.4 14.9

27 weeks and over

23.9 22.0 21.0 24.7 20.0 19.4 23.0 22.7 21.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

153,576 155,539 7,287 6,370 4.5 3.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,559 61,593 1,731 1,591 2.8 2.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,085 25,675 611 534 2.4 2.0

Professional and related occupations

34,474 35,918 1,120 1,057 3.1 2.9

Service occupations

27,582 27,032 1,554 1,317 5.3 4.6

Sales and office occupations

33,730 33,302 1,422 1,320 4.0 3.8

Sales and related occupations

15,616 15,786 691 575 4.2 3.5

Office and administrative support occupations

18,114 17,517 730 745 3.9 4.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,413 14,685 772 579 5.1 3.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,244 1,155 75 91 5.7 7.3

Construction and extraction occupations

8,256 8,508 520 357 5.9 4.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,913 5,021 177 131 3.5 2.5

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,293 18,927 1,064 887 5.5 4.5

Production occupations

8,248 8,694 497 324 5.7 3.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,045 10,234 567 562 5.3 5.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,287 6,370 4.5 3.9

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,399 4,708 4.2 3.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

31 15 4.5 1.9

Construction

448 328 4.7 3.4

Manufacturing

596 498 3.9 3.2

Durable goods

371 254 3.9 2.6

Nondurable goods

225 244 4.0 4.3

Wholesale and retail trade

919 874 4.6 4.3

Transportation and utilities

320 247 4.6 3.4

Information

131 94 5.1 3.5

Financial activities

243 266 2.5 2.7

Professional and business services

783 611 4.5 3.5

Education and health services

880 743 3.8 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

765 808 5.2 5.8

Other services

284 222 4.2 3.2

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

75 126 4.3 7.2

Government workers

766 584 3.6 2.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

321 304 3.3 3.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.7 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.2 1.9 1.8 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.5 4.1 3.9 4.4 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.8 4.4 4.2 4.7 4.2 4.0 4.3 4.2 4.1

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.4 5.0 4.8 5.4 4.7 4.6 4.9 4.8 4.7

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.6 7.9 7.4 8.6 7.8 7.6 7.8 7.5 7.4

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2017
Aug.
2018

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,494 96,157 37,780 38,604 56,713 57,553

Persons who currently want a job

5,852 5,534 2,538 2,568 3,315 2,966

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,548 1,443 832 783 717 660

Discouraged workers(2)

448 434 318 279 129 155

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,101 1,009 513 504 587 505

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

6,961 7,540 3,533 3,639 3,428 3,901

Percent of total employed

4.5 4.8 4.3 4.4 4.8 5.4

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,761 4,338 2,113 2,310 1,647 2,028

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,804 1,784 650 586 1,154 1,197

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

334 294 225 189 108 106

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,017 1,061 522 522 494 539

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)
Change from:
July2018 - Aug.2018(p)

Total nonfarm

146,801 150,040 148,892 149,226 146,949 148,931 149,078 149,279 201

Total private

125,528 127,761 127,813 127,912 124,610 126,582 126,735 126,939 204

Goods-producing

20,481 20,986 21,049 21,083 20,115 20,660 20,696 20,722 26

Mining and logging

698 747 750 760 690 740 740 746 6

Logging

50.6 48.5 49.9 49.7 48.6 48.1 48.6 48.2 -0.4

Mining

647.1 698.2 700.3 710.3 641.5 692.3 691.3 697.3 6.0

Oil and gas extraction

146.2 154.5 154.7 154.3 145.0 152.7 152.6 151.9 -0.7

Mining, except oil and gas

190.1 193.4 193.6 194.7 185.7 189.3 189.5 189.9 0.4

Coal mining

52.7 53.2 52.9 53.2 52.5 53.1 53.1 53.1 0.0

Metal ore mining

39.1 39.5 39.8 39.6 38.8 39.1 39.2 39.1 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

98.3 100.7 100.9 101.9 94.4 97.1 97.2 97.7 0.5

Support activities for mining

310.8 350.3 352.0 361.3 310.8 350.3 349.2 355.5 6.3

Construction

7,228 7,442 7,495 7,515 6,962 7,218 7,236 7,259 23

Construction of buildings

1,583.1 1,640.4 1,653.8 1,654.0 1,539.8 1,603.8 1,608.9 1,616.3 7.4

Residential building

768.2 814.4 820.2 819.4 748.9 795.4 797.5 801.7 4.2

Nonresidential building

814.9 826.0 833.6 834.6 790.9 808.4 811.4 814.6 3.2

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,062.4 1,072.7 1,084.6 1,086.8 991.4 1,015.0 1,016.5 1,016.3 -0.2

Specialty trade contractors

4,582.9 4,728.7 4,756.9 4,774.5 4,430.4 4,599.0 4,610.8 4,626.1 15.3

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,018.5 2,086.1 2,090.6 2,101.9 1,948.6 2,019.0 2,023.7 2,032.4 8.7

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,564.4 2,642.6 2,666.3 2,672.6 2,481.8 2,580.0 2,587.1 2,593.7 6.6

Manufacturing

12,555 12,797 12,804 12,808 12,463 12,702 12,720 12,717 -3

Durable goods

7,781 8,000 7,985 7,980 7,750 7,938 7,954 7,950 -4

Wood products

400.8 411.0 410.1 408.1 397.1 405.4 405.4 404.8 -0.6

Nonmetallic mineral products

419.9 427.5 426.6 426.7 411.3 419.2 418.8 418.5 -0.3

Primary metals

374.8 383.2 380.9 381.5 374.6 382.6 381.0 381.7 0.7

Fabricated metal products

1,436.1 1,499.3 1,498.7 1,498.4 1,434.4 1,488.8 1,491.5 1,495.6 4.1

Machinery

1,087.6 1,132.6 1,136.0 1,131.3 1,083.6 1,123.9 1,128.2 1,127.0 -1.2

Computer and electronic products

1,046.3 1,072.4 1,075.1 1,070.9 1,041.4 1,066.2 1,068.4 1,066.6 -1.8

Computer and peripheral equipment

161.2 170.6 170.6 169.7 159.9 169.5 169.2 168.2 -1.0

Communications equipment

87.4 86.5 86.0 84.0 87.0 85.6 85.4 84.1 -1.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

361.9 371.9 373.5 371.4 360.2 369.7 371.0 370.3 -0.7

Electronic instruments

401.6 410.8 412.7 413.1 400.2 409.0 410.6 411.8 1.2

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.2 32.6 32.3 32.7 34.1 32.3 32.2 32.3 0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

391.0 406.7 408.7 408.5 389.9 404.0 405.8 406.8 1.0

Transportation equipment(1)

1,636.5 1,673.3 1,653.5 1,662.0 1,633.8 1,661.8 1,664.9 1,660.6 -4.3

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

956.3 967.2 942.0 951.4 954.5 960.0 956.5 951.6 -4.9

Furniture and related products

395.4 393.2 394.2 393.9 392.8 390.6 391.2 389.9 -1.3

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

592.1 600.3 601.4 599.1 590.7 595.9 598.5 598.1 -0.4

Nondurable goods

4,774 4,797 4,819 4,828 4,713 4,764 4,766 4,767 1

Food manufacturing

1,651.8 1,651.6 1,671.2 1,680.7 1,609.2 1,638.9 1,641.0 1,639.7 -1.3

Textile mills

111.7 111.7 111.7 112.5 112.0 111.8 111.9 112.5 0.6

Textile product mills

115.3 111.5 111.5 112.2 114.8 110.7 111.0 111.0 0.0

Apparel

118.0 114.9 113.6 114.0 118.1 114.8 114.9 114.5 -0.4

Paper and paper products

369.3 377.2 377.2 378.1 368.5 375.4 375.6 377.4 1.8

Printing and related support activities

442.6 435.4 435.0 434.2 442.2 433.8 433.5 432.7 -0.8

Petroleum and coal products

118.5 119.0 120.5 120.6 115.7 116.5 117.0 117.0 0.0

Chemicals

825.1 835.6 836.3 839.4 822.9 831.6 831.4 836.0 4.6

Plastics and rubber products

721.0 729.9 731.1 725.6 718.0 726.7 726.6 723.0 -3.6

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

300.4 309.8 311.2 310.5 292.0 303.5 303.0 302.8 -0.2

Private service-providing

105,047 106,775 106,764 106,829 104,495 105,922 106,039 106,217 178

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,449 27,803 27,773 27,767 27,490 27,765 27,783 27,820 37

Wholesale trade

5,932.5 6,004.2 6,011.2 6,026.5 5,908.2 5,973.9 5,984.7 6,007.1 22.4

Durable goods

2,980.5 3,032.7 3,034.2 3,044.0 2,966.3 3,017.9 3,021.0 3,034.6 13.6

Nondurable goods

2,052.4 2,061.0 2,061.8 2,064.6 2,045.4 2,048.7 2,052.6 2,058.9 6.3

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

899.6 910.5 915.2 917.9 896.5 907.3 911.1 913.6 2.5

Retail trade

15,843.9 15,936.9 15,947.6 15,900.1 15,851.5 15,915.3 15,919.4 15,913.5 -5.9

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,022.7 2,043.8 2,049.6 2,051.7 2,008.9 2,030.8 2,034.3 2,038.7 4.4

Automobile dealers

1,301.4 1,311.4 1,314.1 1,315.3 1,296.7 1,308.3 1,309.4 1,311.5 2.1

Other motor vehicle dealers

163.7 165.2 164.6 163.2 156.3 155.5 155.3 155.7 0.4

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

557.6 567.2 570.9 573.2 555.9 567.0 569.5 571.4 1.9

Furniture and home furnishings stores

470.4 477.8 477.1 476.1 475.1 482.3 481.5 479.5 -2.0

Electronics and appliance stores

494.2 488.8 491.3 491.6 503.3 498.4 498.4 497.0 -1.4

Building material and garden supply stores

1,277.9 1,376.7 1,346.3 1,305.6 1,275.2 1,311.5 1,311.2 1,309.0 -2.2

Food and beverage stores

3,104.1 3,117.5 3,123.7 3,119.9 3,084.2 3,089.3 3,098.8 3,102.3 3.5

Health and personal care stores

1,053.5 1,053.7 1,048.2 1,046.9 1,058.8 1,056.7 1,054.0 1,055.6 1.6

Gasoline stations

946.3 950.1 951.3 950.3 931.0 938.3 939.2 938.6 -0.6

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,363.4 1,355.4 1,377.8 1,367.6 1,368.4 1,372.2 1,379.2 1,358.4 -20.8

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

592.5 579.7 550.8 558.1 604.1 594.2 563.9 573.1 9.2

General merchandise stores

3,113.7 3,067.3 3,097.9 3,098.5 3,142.8 3,117.3 3,129.9 3,126.8 -3.1

Department stores

1,157.5 1,136.4 1,149.2 1,138.7 1,179.7 1,170.4 1,169.2 1,160.0 -9.2

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,956.2 1,930.9 1,948.7 1,959.8 1,963.0 1,946.9 1,960.7 1,966.8 6.1

Miscellaneous store retailers

837.9 836.4 840.6 838.5 826.1 828.3 830.1 832.8 2.7

Nonstore retailers

567.3 589.7 593.0 595.3 573.6 596.0 598.9 601.7 2.8

Transportation and warehousing

5,116.4 5,305.5 5,258.8 5,287.3 5,176.3 5,322.2 5,328.8 5,349.0 20.2

Air transportation

498.6 508.1 509.2 509.2 494.3 503.8 504.8 505.6 0.8

Rail transportation

214.6 214.4 214.4 214.4 213.8 213.2 213.6 213.3 -0.3

Water transportation

67.4 68.3 69.1 68.8 65.0 65.9 66.1 66.1 0.0

Truck transportation

1,470.5 1,489.3 1,493.5 1,506.5 1,452.5 1,476.0 1,477.4 1,483.1 5.7

Transit and ground passenger transportation

425.5 492.0 430.9 434.3 488.5 498.3 491.6 496.6 5.0

Pipeline transportation

48.0 47.4 47.3 46.9 48.0 47.3 47.2 46.9 -0.3

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

46.7 44.1 46.1 45.8 35.5 35.1 35.0 35.5 0.5

Support activities for transportation

695.2 711.5 711.9 715.1 692.7 710.4 711.1 713.7 2.6

Couriers and messengers

658.9 709.5 708.5 715.3 691.2 740.7 748.1 751.9 3.8

Warehousing and storage

991.0 1,020.9 1,027.9 1,031.0 994.8 1,031.5 1,033.9 1,036.3 2.4

Utilities

556.3 556.3 555.2 552.6 553.8 553.3 550.2 550.5 0.3

Information

2,805 2,785 2,785 2,782 2,792 2,769 2,768 2,762 -6

Publishing industries, except Internet

722.9 715.0 716.3 716.9 720.6 715.5 713.1 713.0 -0.1

Motion picture and sound recording industries

434.0 418.8 422.9 421.3 425.0 410.2 413.1 409.3 -3.8

Broadcasting, except Internet

262.0 263.3 260.9 262.5 263.5 263.2 262.5 262.9 0.4

Telecommunications

779.5 763.0 758.7 752.5 779.2 760.5 757.3 753.3 -4.0

Data processing, hosting and related services

318.8 330.7 328.7 330.0 318.4 328.3 327.7 328.4 0.7

Other information services

287.3 293.9 297.1 298.3 285.1 291.1 294.1 294.9 0.8

Financial activities

8,542 8,638 8,660 8,654 8,477 8,575 8,577 8,588 11

Finance and insurance

6,306.7 6,353.3 6,359.9 6,353.4 6,287.3 6,331.3 6,328.1 6,333.5 5.4

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.1 19.3 19.5 19.4 19.0 19.2 19.2 19.3 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,672.2 2,681.7 2,683.2 2,679.6 2,662.9 2,670.1 2,667.7 2,669.0 1.3

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,723.4 1,731.1 1,731.3 1,726.6 1,716.3 1,722.9 1,720.2 1,719.1 -1.1

Commercial banking

1,330.4 1,331.2 1,330.2 1,325.8 1,325.8 1,326.7 1,322.6 1,320.4 -2.2

Nondepository credit intermediation

629.2 634.6 635.8 638.6 627.3 633.3 634.0 636.3 2.3

Activities related to credit intermediation

319.6 316.0 316.1 314.4 319.3 313.9 313.6 313.6 0.0

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

954.4 967.3 974.8 977.3 945.4 964.2 966.5 970.5 4.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,661.0 2,685.0 2,682.4 2,677.1 2,660.0 2,677.8 2,674.7 2,674.7 0.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,235.0 2,284.4 2,300.5 2,300.3 2,189.7 2,243.7 2,249.2 2,254.1 4.9

Real estate

1,620.4 1,646.5 1,658.2 1,657.5 1,596.6 1,627.7 1,631.3 1,632.2 0.9

Rental and leasing services

590.0 611.9 616.3 617.1 568.8 590.6 592.6 596.6 4.0

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

24.6 26.0 26.0 25.7 24.3 25.4 25.3 25.3 0.0

Professional and business services

20,679 21,129 21,139 21,215 20,543 20,972 21,009 21,062 53

Professional and technical services

9,020.8 9,220.6 9,264.6 9,272.1 9,034.4 9,229.7 9,247.8 9,275.4 27.6

Legal services

1,137.6 1,150.0 1,147.6 1,136.8 1,135.5 1,139.5 1,136.8 1,135.3 -1.5

Accounting and bookkeeping services

938.3 953.0 955.7 959.8 999.0 1,007.8 1,010.8 1,014.4 3.6

Architectural and engineering services

1,457.6 1,496.6 1,504.4 1,507.0 1,441.2 1,477.7 1,481.9 1,487.9 6.0

Specialized design services

136.6 139.3 137.5 139.3 136.7 138.4 136.7 138.9 2.2

Computer systems design and related services

2,058.9 2,101.4 2,125.8 2,126.5 2,049.1 2,103.3 2,110.9 2,114.8 3.9

Management and technical consulting services

1,414.9 1,451.4 1,458.1 1,462.5 1,407.9 1,448.2 1,450.8 1,457.2 6.4

Scientific research and development services

667.7 688.2 693.5 690.7 662.3 680.1 682.9 684.6 1.7

Advertising and related services

494.1 498.8 499.4 503.2 491.0 497.1 497.4 501.1 3.7

Other professional and technical services

715.1 741.9 742.6 746.3 711.8 737.6 739.5 741.3 1.8

Management of companies and enterprises

2,309.8 2,346.4 2,347.5 2,346.6 2,298.8 2,331.8 2,331.8 2,336.5 4.7

Administrative and waste services

9,348.4 9,561.9 9,526.7 9,596.5 9,210.0 9,410.5 9,429.1 9,450.0 20.9

Administrative and support services

8,929.4 9,125.8 9,087.9 9,159.7 8,797.8 8,981.6 8,999.3 9,019.5 20.2

Office administrative services

513.0 526.3 526.7 528.3 512.3 524.7 526.1 528.3 2.2

Facilities support services

153.8 156.0 156.1 157.5 153.8 155.6 156.3 156.5 0.2

Employment services(1)

3,651.1 3,733.3 3,693.5 3,758.6 3,625.8 3,711.7 3,723.5 3,728.3 4.8

Temporary help services

2,981.2 3,038.5 3,000.2 3,065.0 2,961.7 3,026.2 3,037.1 3,047.1 10.0

Business support services

897.5 894.3 894.9 902.1 906.9 908.9 910.4 913.6 3.2

Travel arrangement and reservation services

221.3 221.3 219.4 220.0 218.7 217.2 216.2 217.2 1.0

Investigation and security services

922.2 939.9 944.8 950.6 919.6 941.1 945.3 946.5 1.2

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,243.2 2,311.8 2,312.6 2,304.8 2,133.7 2,185.0 2,184.3 2,193.4 9.1

Other support services

327.3 342.9 339.9 337.8 326.9 337.3 337.3 335.6 -1.7

Waste management and remediation services

419.0 436.1 438.8 436.8 412.2 428.9 429.8 430.5 0.7

Education and health services

22,938 23,425 23,322 23,411 23,283 23,638 23,679 23,732 53

Educational services

3,364.9 3,519.1 3,423.0 3,443.0 3,703.5 3,747.6 3,753.1 3,765.0 11.9

Health care and social assistance

19,572.9 19,905.7 19,899.0 19,968.3 19,579.8 19,890.4 19,925.8 19,966.5 40.7

Health care(3)

15,793.2 16,031.0 16,058.3 16,100.1 15,770.2 16,016.6 16,038.1 16,071.3 33.2

Ambulatory health care services

7,330.7 7,491.7 7,502.6 7,531.7 7,323.8 7,488.2 7,501.5 7,522.6 21.1

Offices of physicians

2,597.0 2,634.9 2,641.6 2,644.3 2,595.5 2,636.9 2,638.8 2,643.7 4.9

Offices of dentists

934.6 950.3 947.5 955.0 932.0 946.7 947.1 950.2 3.1

Offices of other health practitioners

897.1 930.4 928.6 934.9 893.6 927.1 929.0 931.7 2.7

Outpatient care centers

903.1 930.1 935.2 935.6 902.8 930.5 933.9 935.5 1.6

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

270.1 281.5 282.9 283.8 270.1 281.4 282.4 283.4 1.0

Home health care services

1,422.9 1,456.2 1,459.3 1,472.6 1,424.5 1,456.9 1,462.4 1,470.3 7.9

Other ambulatory health care services

305.9 308.3 307.5 305.5 305.3 308.7 308.0 307.7 -0.3

Hospitals

5,096.9 5,174.0 5,187.6 5,194.9 5,094.7 5,175.0 5,181.1 5,189.3 8.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,365.6 3,365.3 3,368.1 3,373.5 3,351.7 3,353.4 3,355.5 3,359.4 3.9

Nursing care facilities

1,635.2 1,614.4 1,613.1 1,614.5 1,629.7 1,609.5 1,608.7 1,608.8 0.1

Residential mental health facilities

630.3 636.1 636.2 638.5 628.6 634.7 634.1 637.0 2.9

Community care facilities for the elderly

928.3 942.2 945.1 946.5 923.8 938.7 941.3 941.6 0.3

Other residential care facilities

171.8 172.6 173.7 174.0 169.7 170.5 171.5 172.1 0.6

Social assistance

3,779.7 3,874.7 3,840.7 3,868.2 3,809.6 3,873.8 3,887.7 3,895.2 7.5

Individual and family services

2,355.6 2,434.6 2,442.8 2,436.8 2,355.8 2,422.1 2,435.1 2,437.5 2.4

Emergency and other relief services

166.8 173.5 172.4 175.1 167.6 173.0 172.6 174.6 2.0

Vocational rehabilitation services

348.6 349.2 353.6 350.5 344.6 345.2 346.8 346.1 -0.7

Child day care services

908.7 917.4 871.9 905.8 941.6 933.5 933.1 936.9 3.8

Leisure and hospitality

16,809 17,040 17,149 17,082 16,121 16,325 16,357 16,374 17

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,635.9 2,658.5 2,717.6 2,652.1 2,339.3 2,344.8 2,346.2 2,343.2 -3.0

Performing arts and spectator sports

526.5 520.6 517.8 510.7 495.7 486.9 485.3 480.1 -5.2

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

180.9 191.5 193.0 187.8 167.2 173.4 173.9 174.2 0.3

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,928.5 1,946.4 2,006.8 1,953.6 1,676.4 1,684.5 1,687.0 1,688.9 1.9

Accommodation and food services

14,173.2 14,381.5 14,431.8 14,429.4 13,781.3 13,979.9 14,010.7 14,030.7 20.0

Accommodation

2,145.0 2,139.0 2,199.7 2,182.1 2,006.0 2,034.1 2,039.8 2,042.3 2.5

Food services and drinking places

12,028.2 12,242.5 12,232.1 12,247.3 11,775.3 11,945.8 11,970.9 11,988.4 17.5

Other services

5,825 5,955 5,936 5,918 5,789 5,878 5,866 5,879 13

Repair and maintenance

1,311.8 1,334.2 1,325.5 1,325.1 1,308.8 1,321.0 1,320.0 1,323.8 3.8

Personal and laundry services

1,495.2 1,549.1 1,533.5 1,540.3 1,490.0 1,530.9 1,523.2 1,531.9 8.7

Membership associations and organizations

3,018.1 3,072.1 3,077.0 3,052.9 2,990.3 3,026.2 3,022.7 3,023.3 0.6

Government

21,273 22,279 21,079 21,314 22,339 22,349 22,343 22,340 -3

Federal

2,811.0 2,811.0 2,811.0 2,806.0 2,803.0 2,795.0 2,796.0 2,796.0 0.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,201.6 2,207.0 2,205.8 2,202.2 2,189.1 2,189.3 2,189.9 2,190.0 0.1

U.S. Postal Service

609.4 603.8 605.0 603.5 613.7 605.4 606.3 606.4 0.1

State government

4,861.0 4,877.0 4,797.0 4,840.0 5,149.0 5,119.0 5,118.0 5,117.0 -1.0

State government education

2,171.2 2,189.5 2,113.5 2,159.8 2,471.7 2,453.0 2,452.9 2,455.3 2.4

State government, excluding education

2,689.6 2,687.8 2,683.7 2,680.4 2,677.0 2,666.0 2,665.4 2,662.1 -3.3

Local government

13,601.0 14,591.0 13,471.0 13,668.0 14,387.0 14,435.0 14,429.0 14,427.0 -2.0

Local government education

6,960.7 7,906.7 6,742.5 7,002.2 7,935.1 7,948.8 7,943.6 7,941.6 -2.0

Local government, excluding education

6,640.7 6,683.9 6,728.7 6,665.5 6,451.7 6,485.8 6,485.1 6,485.5 0.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.6 34.5 34.5

Goods-producing

40.3 40.6 40.6 40.6

Mining and logging

45.0 46.5 46.0 46.2

Construction

38.9 39.3 39.5 39.3

Manufacturing

40.8 41.0 41.0 41.0

Durable goods

41.3 41.4 41.4 41.3

Nondurable goods

39.9 40.2 40.3 40.3

Private service-providing

33.2 33.4 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.6 34.5 34.5

Wholesale trade

39.1 39.0 39.1 39.0

Retail trade

30.9 31.2 31.1 31.0

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.9 38.9 39.0

Utilities

41.7 42.0 41.9 42.1

Information

36.1 35.8 36.1 36.1

Financial activities

37.5 37.7 37.5 37.6

Professional and business services

36.0 36.2 36.2 36.1

Education and health services

32.9 33.0 32.9 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 26.2 26.1 26.1

Other services

31.7 31.8 31.8 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

Durable goods

3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.6 3.5 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)

Total private

$26.39 $26.99 $27.06 $27.16 $907.82 $933.85 $933.57 $937.02

Goods-producing

27.61 28.16 28.22 28.28 1,112.68 1,143.30 1,145.73 1,148.17

Mining and logging

32.06 32.61 32.55 32.55 1,442.70 1,516.37 1,497.30 1,503.81

Construction

28.99 29.75 29.89 29.95 1,127.71 1,169.18 1,180.66 1,177.04

Manufacturing

26.60 27.01 27.02 27.08 1,085.28 1,107.41 1,107.82 1,110.28

Durable goods

27.85 28.34 28.40 28.49 1,150.21 1,173.28 1,175.76 1,176.64

Nondurable goods

24.47 24.72 24.66 24.68 976.35 993.74 993.80 994.60

Private service-providing

26.10 26.71 26.79 26.89 866.52 892.11 892.11 895.44

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.84 23.30 23.35 23.48 783.41 806.18 805.58 810.06

Wholesale trade

30.02 30.58 30.51 30.63 1,173.78 1,192.62 1,192.94 1,194.57

Retail trade

18.26 18.66 18.73 18.85 564.23 582.19 582.50 584.35

Transportation and warehousing

23.93 24.32 24.36 24.48 926.09 946.05 947.60 954.72

Utilities

38.81 40.33 40.86 40.68 1,618.38 1,693.86 1,712.03 1,712.63

Information

38.50 39.51 39.54 39.79 1,389.85 1,414.46 1,427.39 1,436.42

Financial activities

33.36 34.67 34.82 34.92 1,251.00 1,307.06 1,305.75 1,312.99

Professional and business services

31.64 32.38 32.46 32.59 1,139.04 1,172.16 1,175.05 1,176.50

Education and health services

26.44 26.96 27.03 27.12 869.88 889.68 889.29 894.96

Leisure and hospitality

15.53 15.92 15.98 16.02 403.78 417.10 417.08 418.12

Other services

23.93 24.34 24.38 24.38 758.58 774.01 775.28 777.72

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
July
2018 - Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
July
2018 - Aug.
2018(p)

Total private

107.6 109.9 109.7 109.9 0.2 135.7 141.8 142.0 142.7 0.5

Goods-producing

92.4 95.6 95.7 95.9 0.2 115.3 121.6 122.1 122.5 0.3

Mining and logging

97.6 108.1 107.0 108.3 1.2 125.6 141.6 139.8 141.5 1.2

Construction

93.4 97.8 98.5 98.3 -0.2 117.6 126.4 128.0 128.0 0.0

Manufacturing

91.5 93.7 93.8 93.8 0.0 113.2 117.7 117.9 118.1 0.2

Durable goods

90.1 92.5 92.7 92.4 -0.3 111.5 116.5 116.9 117.0 0.1

Nondurable goods

93.9 95.6 95.9 95.9 0.0 116.5 119.9 120.0 120.1 0.1

Private service-providing

111.6 113.8 113.6 113.8 0.2 141.6 147.7 147.9 148.7 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

102.6 104.5 104.2 104.4 0.2 126.1 131.0 131.0 131.9 0.7

Wholesale trade

100.8 101.7 102.1 102.2 0.1 126.3 129.7 130.0 130.7 0.5

Retail trade

99.5 100.9 100.6 100.2 -0.4 120.1 124.4 124.5 124.9 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

114.7 118.5 118.6 119.4 0.7 139.2 146.2 146.7 148.3 1.1

Utilities

99.9 100.5 99.7 100.3 0.6 128.1 134.0 134.7 134.8 0.1

Information

92.0 90.5 91.3 91.1 -0.2 126.2 127.4 128.5 129.0 0.4

Financial activities

104.1 105.9 105.3 105.8 0.5 135.5 143.2 143.1 144.0 0.6

Professional and business services

116.3 119.4 119.6 119.6 0.0 149.1 156.6 157.3 157.9 0.4

Education and health services

125.1 127.4 127.2 127.9 0.6 159.1 165.2 165.4 166.8 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

119.6 122.0 121.8 121.9 0.1 149.8 156.7 157.0 157.6 0.4

Other services

105.8 107.8 107.6 108.1 0.5 138.8 143.8 143.7 144.5 0.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)

Total nonfarm

72,786 73,966 74,050 74,138 49.5 49.7 49.7 49.7

Total private

59,960 61,094 61,181 61,267 48.1 48.3 48.3 48.3

Goods-producing

4,415 4,575 4,595 4,603 21.9 22.1 22.2 22.2

Mining and logging

91 94 94 95 13.2 12.7 12.7 12.7

Construction

883 927 930 932 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.8

Manufacturing

3,441 3,554 3,571 3,576 27.6 28.0 28.1 28.1

Durable goods

1,814 1,872 1,886 1,888 23.4 23.6 23.7 23.7

Nondurable goods

1,627 1,682 1,685 1,688 34.5 35.3 35.4 35.4

Private service-providing

55,545 56,519 56,586 56,664 53.2 53.4 53.4 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,028 11,151 11,166 11,166 40.1 40.2 40.2 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,741.3 1,775.9 1,789.9 1,799.7 29.5 29.7 29.9 30.0

Retail trade

7,893.0 7,927.8 7,929.7 7,919.3 49.8 49.8 49.8 49.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,266.5 1,318.1 1,317.9 1,318.2 24.5 24.8 24.7 24.6

Utilities

127.5 129.1 128.6 128.7 23.0 23.3 23.4 23.4

Information

1,107 1,096 1,090 1,084 39.6 39.6 39.4 39.2

Financial activities

4,795 4,845 4,845 4,844 56.6 56.5 56.5 56.4

Professional and business services

9,239 9,501 9,501 9,523 45.0 45.3 45.2 45.2

Education and health services

17,930 18,222 18,266 18,307 77.0 77.1 77.1 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

8,383 8,581 8,596 8,605 52.0 52.6 52.6 52.6

Other services

3,063 3,123 3,122 3,135 52.9 53.1 53.2 53.3

Government

12,826 12,872 12,869 12,871 57.4 57.6 57.6 57.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)

Total private

102,713 104,319 104,419 104,568

Goods-producing

14,462 14,853 14,867 14,868

Mining and logging

501 553 549 553

Construction

5,216 5,387 5,393 5,401

Manufacturing

8,745 8,913 8,925 8,914

Durable goods

5,318 5,459 5,468 5,459

Nondurable goods

3,427 3,454 3,457 3,455

Private service-providing

88,251 89,466 89,552 89,700

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,178 23,476 23,494 23,511

Wholesale trade

4,736.0 4,789.3 4,803.0 4,821.3

Retail trade

13,501.8 13,611.6 13,606.3 13,592.3

Transportation and warehousing

4,494.5 4,632.2 4,644.5 4,655.9

Utilities

445.3 442.6 440.2 441.0

Information

2,250 2,230 2,225 2,223

Financial activities

6,592 6,644 6,636 6,649

Professional and business services

16,786 17,122 17,156 17,202

Education and health services

20,454 20,766 20,799 20,844

Leisure and hospitality

14,199 14,366 14,388 14,401

Other services

4,792 4,862 4,854 4,870

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.8 33.8 33.8

Goods-producing

41.2 41.5 41.7 41.6

Mining and logging

45.6 47.9 46.7 47.2

Construction

39.6 39.9 40.2 40.0

Manufacturing

42.0 42.1 42.3 42.2

Durable goods

42.3 42.5 42.5 42.5

Nondurable goods

41.4 41.5 41.9 41.7

Private service-providing

32.4 32.5 32.5 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.7 34.0 34.0 34.0

Wholesale trade

39.0 39.0 38.9 39.0

Retail trade

30.1 30.5 30.5 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 38.4 38.5 38.4

Utilities

42.2 42.7 42.4 43.0

Information

35.7 35.4 35.7 35.6

Financial activities

37.0 37.0 37.0 37.1

Professional and business services

35.4 35.4 35.4 35.4

Education and health services

32.1 32.3 32.3 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 25.0 24.9 24.8

Other services

30.7 30.8 30.7 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6

Durable goods

4.5 4.6 4.6 4.6

Nondurable goods

4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)

Total private

$22.11 $22.63 $22.66 $22.73 $742.90 $764.89 $765.91 $768.27

Goods-producing

23.23 23.86 23.90 23.95 957.08 990.19 996.63 996.32

Mining and logging

27.47 28.16 28.19 28.41 1,252.63 1,348.86 1,316.47 1,340.95

Construction

26.84 27.55 27.69 27.73 1,062.86 1,099.25 1,113.14 1,109.20

Manufacturing

20.93 21.45 21.43 21.47 879.06 903.05 906.49 906.03

Durable goods

21.94 22.43 22.44 22.46 928.06 953.28 953.70 954.55

Nondurable goods

19.33 19.86 19.81 19.88 800.26 824.19 830.04 829.00

Private service-providing

21.88 22.37 22.40 22.47 708.91 727.03 728.00 730.28

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.38 19.89 19.89 19.98 653.11 676.26 676.26 679.32

Wholesale trade

24.72 25.28 25.15 25.25 964.08 985.92 978.34 984.75

Retail trade

15.34 15.87 15.91 15.96 461.73 484.04 485.26 486.78

Transportation and warehousing

21.40 21.83 21.87 21.94 819.62 838.27 842.00 842.50

Utilities

35.92 36.56 36.59 36.97 1,515.82 1,561.11 1,551.42 1,589.71

Information

30.74 31.68 31.65 31.91 1,097.42 1,121.47 1,129.91 1,136.00

Financial activities

26.67 26.89 26.87 26.89 986.79 994.93 994.19 997.62

Professional and business services

26.07 26.71 26.76 26.83 922.88 945.53 947.30 949.78

Education and health services

23.10 23.62 23.65 23.72 741.51 762.93 763.90 763.78

Leisure and hospitality

13.43 13.81 13.87 13.91 333.06 345.25 345.36 344.97

Other services

20.19 20.57 20.63 20.60 619.83 633.56 633.34 634.48

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
July
2018 - Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
Aug.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
July
2018 - Aug.
2018(p)

Total private

115.0 117.5 117.6 117.8 0.2 169.9 177.7 178.1 178.9 0.4

Goods-producing

91.1 94.2 94.7 94.5 -0.2 129.5 137.6 138.6 138.6 0.0

Mining and logging

121.4 140.8 136.2 138.7 1.8 194.0 230.5 223.4 229.2 2.6

Construction

103.4 107.6 108.6 108.2 -0.4 149.9 160.1 162.3 162.0 -0.2

Manufacturing

84.3 86.1 86.7 86.4 -0.3 115.4 120.8 121.5 121.2 -0.2

Durable goods

84.5 87.2 87.3 87.2 -0.1 115.8 122.1 122.4 122.3 -0.1

Nondurable goods

83.6 84.5 85.3 84.9 -0.5 114.2 118.5 119.5 119.3 -0.2

Private service-providing

121.8 123.8 123.9 124.2 0.2 182.7 189.9 190.4 191.3 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

108.9 111.3 111.4 111.4 0.0 150.5 157.9 158.0 158.8 0.5

Wholesale trade

108.8 110.0 110.0 110.7 0.6 158.4 163.8 163.0 164.7 1.0

Retail trade

102.9 105.1 105.0 104.9 -0.1 135.3 142.9 143.2 143.5 0.2

Transportation and warehousing

129.6 133.9 134.6 134.6 0.0 175.9 185.4 186.7 187.3 0.3

Utilities

96.1 96.7 95.4 97.0 1.7 144.1 147.5 145.8 149.6 2.6

Information

91.7 90.1 90.7 90.3 -0.4 139.5 141.3 142.1 142.7 0.4

Financial activities

114.8 115.7 115.6 116.1 0.4 188.4 191.5 191.1 192.1 0.5

Professional and business services

133.2 135.8 136.1 136.5 0.3 206.6 215.9 216.7 217.9 0.6

Education and health services

140.0 143.0 143.2 143.1 -0.1 213.4 223.0 223.6 224.0 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

129.0 131.6 131.2 130.8 -0.3 196.7 206.3 206.7 206.7 0.0

Other services

103.2 105.0 104.5 105.2 0.7 151.8 157.4 157.1 157.9 0.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: September 07, 2018