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Economic News Release
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Employment Cost Index News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                     USDL-23-2314
8:30 a.m. (ET) Tuesday, October 31, 2023

Technical information: (202) 691-6199    ncsinfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/eci
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902    pressoffice@bls.gov

                                EMPLOYMENT COST INDEX  SEPTEMBER 2023

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 1.1 percent, seasonally adjusted, for the 3-month
period ending in September 2023, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries
increased 1.2 percent and benefit costs increased 0.9 percent from June 2023. (See tables A, 1, 2, 
and 3.)

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 4.3 percent for the 12-month period ending in 
September 2023 and increased 5.0 percent in September 2022. Wages and salaries increased 4.6 percent 
for the 12-month period ending in September 2023 and increased 5.1 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in September 2022. Benefit costs increased 4.1 percent over the year and increased 4.9 percent 
for the 12-month period ending in September 2022. (See tables A, 4, 8, and 12.)

Compensation costs for private industry workers increased 4.3 percent over the year. In September 2022, 
the increase was 5.2 percent. Wages and salaries increased 4.5 percent for the 12-month period ending in 
September 2023 and increased 5.2 percent in September 2022. The cost of benefits increased 3.9 percent 
for the 12-month period ending in September 2023 and increased 5.0 percent in September 2022. Inflation-
adjusted (constant dollar) compensation costs for private industry increased 0.6 percent for the 
12-month period ending in September 2023. Inflation-adjusted wages and salaries increased 0.8 percent 
for the 12 months ending September 2023. Inflation-adjusted benefit costs in the private sector 
increased 0.2 percent over that same period. (See tables A, 5, 9, and 12.)

Among private industry occupational groups, compensation cost increases for the 12-month period ending 
in September 2023 ranged from 3.9 percent for production, transportation, and material moving 
occupations to 4.5 percent for service occupations. Within industry supersectors, compensation cost 
increases ranged from 3.7 percent for manufacturing to 4.9 percent for both education and health 
services and for other services, except public administration. (See table 5.)

Compensation costs for state and local government workers increased 4.8 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in September 2023, compared with an increase of 4.6 percent in September 2022. Wages and salaries 
increased 4.8 percent for the 12-month period ending in September 2023 and increased 4.4 percent a year 
ago. Benefit costs increased 4.7 percent for the 12-month period ending in September 2023. The prior 
year increase was 5.0 percent. (See tables A, 7, 11, and 12.)

Table A. Major series of the Employment Cost Index [Percent change]
Category 3-month,
seasonally adjusted
12-month, not seasonally adjusted, current dollar 12-month, not seasonally adjusted, constant dollar
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

Civilian workers(1)

Compensation(2)

1.0 1.1 5.0 4.5 4.3 -2.9 1.6 0.6

Wages and salaries

1.0 1.2 5.1 4.6 4.6 -3.0 1.7 0.9

Benefits

0.9 0.9 4.9 4.2 4.1 -3.0 1.2 0.4

Private industry

Compensation(2)

1.0 1.0 5.2 4.5 4.3 -2.8 1.5 0.6

Wages and salaries

1.0 1.1 5.2 4.6 4.5 -2.7 1.7 0.8

Benefits

0.9 0.8 5.0 3.9 3.9 -3.0 0.9 0.2

Health benefits

- - 4.9 2.1 1.9 - - -

State and local government

Compensation(2)

1.0 1.5 4.6 4.9 4.8 -3.3 1.9 1.0

Wages and salaries

0.8 1.8 4.4 4.7 4.8 -3.5 1.7 1.0

Benefits

1.0 1.2 5.0 5.2 4.7 -3.0 2.1 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes private industry and state and local government.
(2) Includes wages and salaries and benefits.

Note: All estimates in the table can be found in the public database at www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm. Dashes indicate data not available.



					   TECHNICAL NOTE

The Employment Cost Index (ECI) measures the change in the cost of labor, free from the influence 
of employment shifts among occupations and industries. For information on survey concepts, coverage, 
methods, nonresponse adjustment, and imputation, see National Compensation Measures Handbook of Methods
at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Sample size
Data for this reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 27,900 
occupational observations selected from a sample of about 6,900 private industry establishments and 
approximately 7,500 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and local 
government establishments that provided data at the initial interview. Beginning December 2021, an 
additional (fourth) private industry sample is used in estimation to mitigate the impact of decreasing 
response rates.

Standard errors
To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ECI series, standard errors of all current quarter 
not seasonally adjusted 3- and 12-month percent change series are also available, see www.bls.gov/eci/
factsheets/eci-standard-errors.htm and the database query tool at www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm. Standard 
errors provide users a measure of the precision of an estimate to ensure that it is within an acceptable
range for their intended purpose. 

Historical listings
Historical ECI data are available in (xlsx) format at www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. The continuous 
occupational and industry series listing uses the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual and 
Occupational Classification System (OCS) series from 1975 through 2005 and the North American Industry 
Classification System (NAICS) and Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) from 2006 to the present. 
It provides the official series deemed continuous after the change in classification systems. For more 
information on the criteria used in defining continuous series, see the article published in the Monthly 
Labor Review at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/04/art2full.pdf.

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation data
The costs per hour worked of compensation components are published as part of the Employer Costs for 
Employee Compensation (ECEC) news release. The ECEC release dates are available at www.bls.gov/schedule/
news_release/ecec.htm. Historical ECEC data are available in xlsx format at www.bls.gov/ecec/tables.htm.
Since the ECEC is calculated with current employment weights rather than the fixed weights used in 
computing the ECI, year-to-year changes in the cost levels usually differ from those in the ECI.

Fixed employment weights
For additional information on the use of fixed employment weights in computing the ECI, see 
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/introducing-2012-fixed-employment-weights-for-the-employment-cost-
index.htm. Beginning with the December 2022 release, the ECI introduced new employment weights, see 
www.bls.gov/eci/notices/2022/eci-2021-fixed-weights-and-2018-soc-update.htm.

Additional information
Historical tables are available in (xlsx) format for constant dollar, current dollar, and continuous
series, see www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. ECI release dates are available on the release calendar at 
www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/eci.htm. Subscribe to receive the BLS Economic News Release email 
at public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new. If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have
a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications relay services. 

Table 1. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(2)

159.0 160.7 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

153.8 155.1 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.8 0.8

Manufacturing

153.6 154.6 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.7

Service-providing industries(4)

160.1 161.9 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1

Education and health services

157.4 159.6 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.5 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.4

Educational services

155.9 158.1 0.8 0.6 1.1 0.9 1.6 1.1 1.2 0.7 1.4

Elementary and secondary schools

156.4 158.8 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.7 1.7 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.5

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

154.3 156.3 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.5 1.1 1.3 0.7 1.3

Health care and social assistance

159.0 161.0 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.3

Hospitals

159.5 161.4 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

159.6 161.7 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.3

Public administration

162.1 164.8 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.6 1.1 0.8 1.2 1.7

Private industry workers

All workers

158.9 160.5 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

154.6 156.1 1.3 0.8 1.2 1.3 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0

Management, business, and financial

155.6 157.1 1.5 0.6 1.2 1.4 0.5 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.0

Professional and related

153.9 155.5 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.0

Sales and office

162.5 163.6 1.3 1.1 1.6 2.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.7

Sales and related

160.7 161.3 1.5 1.0 1.8 2.6 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 0.4

Office and administrative support

163.4 165.0 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

156.3 158.1 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

155.6 157.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair

157.1 159.1 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.4 0.9 1.3

Production, transportation, and material moving

162.3 163.5 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.2 1.1 0.7

Production

158.5 159.8 1.5 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.3 0.9 1.4 0.9 0.8

Transportation and material moving

167.0 168.2 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.2 0.7

Service occupations

170.6 172.2 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

153.7 155.0 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.3 0.7 0.8

Construction

154.5 156.2 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.5 0.5 1.1

Manufacturing

153.6 154.6 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.7

Aircraft manufacturing

134.1 134.5 7.1 0.4 2.1 0.7 -5.6 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.3

Service-providing industries(5)

160.3 161.9 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

164.1 165.6 1.4 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.3 0.9

Wholesale trade

157.4 158.4 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.6 0.7 1.1 0.8 1.5 0.6

Retail trade

168.9 170.8 1.6 2.5 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.1

Transportation and warehousing

163.1 164.4 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.4 0.8

Utilities

169.0 171.1 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.2

Information

156.0 156.5 1.3 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.3

Financial activities

156.8 159.0 2.3 -0.4 1.2 1.9 1.0 1.3 0.2 1.0 1.4

Finance and insurance

157.2 159.4 2.5 -0.9 1.0 1.9 0.9 1.4 0.1 1.0 1.4

Credit intermediation and related activities

156.8 159.4 5.3 -1.3 0.0 2.0 -0.1 1.6 1.5 -0.5 1.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

159.2 160.5 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.7 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

155.3 157.2 1.1 1.6 1.8 1.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2

Professional and business services

159.0 160.4 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.5 0.8 0.9

Professional, scientific, and technical services

160.2 161.4 1.6 0.8 1.1 1.6 1.1 0.8 1.5 0.9 0.7

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

159.3 161.0 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.0 1.1 1.5 0.8 1.1

Education and health services

157.6 159.6 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.3

Educational services

154.0 156.0 1.4 0.5 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.3 0.6 1.3

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

153.2 155.1 1.2 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.7 1.2

Health care and social assistance

158.3 160.3 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3

Hospitals

159.4 161.1 1.0 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

158.3 160.3 1.6 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.4 1.1 1.3

Leisure and hospitality

171.2 172.3 2.2 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.1 0.6

Accommodation and food services

175.1 175.9 2.2 2.0 2.1 1.7 1.5 1.1 1.5 1.2 0.5

Other services, except public administration

161.4 163.2 1.4 1.6 1.3 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.7 1.2 1.1

State and local government workers

All workers

159.2 161.6 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.7 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.5

Industry

Education and health services

157.2 159.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.7 1.1 1.2 0.8 1.5

Educational services

156.4 158.7 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.8 1.1 1.2 0.8 1.5

Schools

156.3 158.6 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.7 1.1 1.2 0.8 1.5

Elementary and secondary schools

156.8 159.2 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.7 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.5

Health care and social assistance

163.8 166.3 0.7 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.5

Hospitals

160.2 162.6 0.6 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.5

Public administration

162.1 164.8 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.6 1.1 0.8 1.2 1.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 2. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

158.6 160.5 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.2

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

157.2 158.5 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.5 0.6 0.8

Manufacturing

157.4 158.4 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.6

Service-providing industries(3)

159.0 160.9 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2

Education and health services

153.1 155.4 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.5

Educational services

146.1 148.5 0.7 0.5 0.9 0.8 1.6 1.1 1.0 0.7 1.6

Elementary and secondary schools

144.6 147.2 0.5 0.4 1.0 0.5 1.9 1.1 0.9 0.7 1.8

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

147.5 149.4 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.7 1.3

Health care and social assistance

160.1 162.4 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.1 1.4

Hospitals

160.2 162.2 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.7 1.2 1.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

162.8 165.3 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 2.0 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.5

Private industry workers

All workers

161.1 162.8 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.1

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

155.8 157.4 1.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0

Professional and related

155.6 157.3 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.1 1.1

Management, business, and financial

156.1 157.8 1.7 0.4 1.0 1.5 0.4 0.9 0.8 1.3 1.1

Sales and office

164.6 165.7 1.4 1.1 1.5 2.1 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.1 0.7

Office and administrative support

164.6 166.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

157.7 159.6 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.5 0.9 1.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

157.3 159.0 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair

158.3 160.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.7 0.8 1.4

Production, transportation, and material moving

166.3 167.6 1.5 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.1 0.8

Production

162.3 163.6 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.1 1.5 0.9 0.8

Transportation and material moving

171.1 172.5 1.8 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.8

Service occupations

175.3 177.1 2.2 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.0

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

157.3 158.6 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.5 0.6 0.8

Construction

156.9 158.6 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.8 0.4 1.1

Manufacturing

157.4 158.4 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.6

Aircraft manufacturing

159.2 160.1 0.1 0.5 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.4 1.1 0.5

Service-providing industries(4)

162.1 163.8 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

165.3 166.9 1.6 2.1 1.2 1.5 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.0

Wholesale trade

154.8 155.8 1.6 1.8 1.5 1.8 0.5 1.1 0.7 1.6 0.6

Retail trade

172.0 174.0 1.8 2.8 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.2

Transportation and warehousing

166.3 167.7 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.5 0.8

Utilities

162.9 164.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.4 1.2

Information

155.0 155.3 1.4 0.7 1.4 0.8 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.0 0.2

Financial activities

157.8 160.7 3.0 -1.1 0.7 1.8 0.9 1.6 -0.4 1.3 1.8

Finance and insurance

158.3 161.3 3.4 -1.8 0.5 1.8 1.0 1.6 -0.7 1.3 1.9

Credit intermediation and related activities

156.0 159.0 7.5 -2.3 -0.9 1.7 -0.6 1.9 1.3 -0.7 1.9

Insurance carriers and related activities

158.1 160.0 1.0 0.9 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

156.2 158.4 1.2 1.8 1.9 2.0 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.4

Professional and business services

160.6 162.1 1.4 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.5 0.8 0.9

Professional, scientific, and technical services

161.2 162.5 1.6 0.7 1.1 1.6 1.2 0.7 1.4 0.8 0.8

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

163.6 165.4 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.3 1.1 1.5 0.8 1.1

Education and health services

159.1 161.3 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.1 1.4

Educational services

152.9 154.9 1.5 0.4 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.1 1.3 0.6 1.3

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

150.2 152.1 1.0 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.7 1.2

Health care and social assistance

160.4 162.6 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.4

Hospitals

161.1 163.0 1.2 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.2 1.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

163.8 166.3 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.5

Leisure and hospitality

177.2 178.4 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.1 0.7

Accommodation and food services

181.2 182.0 2.3 2.3 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.3 0.4

Other services, except public administration

163.9 165.5 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.0 1.1 0.8 1.9 1.4 1.0

State and local government workers

All workers

147.9 150.6 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.8 1.8

Industry

Education and health services

146.0 148.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.8 1.7

Educational services

144.7 147.2 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.6 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.7 1.7

Schools

144.7 147.2 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.6 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.7 1.7

Elementary and secondary schools

144.1 146.7 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.5 1.9 1.1 0.8 0.7 1.8

Health care and social assistance

156.7 159.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.4 1.9 1.3 1.3 0.8 1.8

Hospitals

155.4 158.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.7 1.1 1.4 0.9 1.9

Public administration

151.1 154.3 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.7 1.2 0.7 1.0 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 3. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

159.8 161.3 0.9 1.0 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.9

Private industry workers

All workers

153.7 155.0 1.1 1.1 1.7 1.3 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

151.9 153.1 1.0 1.1 1.6 1.3 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.1 0.8

Sales and office

157.1 158.3 1.0 1.2 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

153.2 154.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.0

Production, transportation, and material moving

154.2 155.4 1.6 0.7 1.9 1.0 0.7 0.6 1.0 1.0 0.8

Service occupations

155.3 156.5 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.6 1.3 1.3 0.7 0.7 0.8

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

146.5 147.9 1.4 0.6 1.8 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.0

Manufacturing

146.3 147.5 1.8 0.4 2.2 0.8 0.3 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.8

Service-providing industries(3)

156.2 157.4 1.1 1.1 1.7 1.4 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.0 0.8

State and local government workers

All workers(1)

181.2 183.3 0.4 0.9 1.4 0.9 1.6 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 4. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

All workers(2)

154.1 159.0 160.8 1.3 1.0 1.1 5.0 4.5 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(3)

153.9 158.9 160.7 1.4 1.0 1.1 5.2 4.7 4.4

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

150.3 155.0 157.0 1.3 1.0 1.3 4.2 4.4 4.5

Management, business, and financial

151.1 155.9 157.6 0.7 1.2 1.1 3.8 3.9 4.3

Professional and related

149.8 154.5 156.7 1.6 0.8 1.4 4.5 4.7 4.6

Sales and office

157.5 163.0 164.2 1.2 1.1 0.7 5.9 4.7 4.3

Sales and related

155.2 160.9 161.3 0.9 1.1 0.2 6.4 4.6 3.9

Office and administrative support

158.5 163.9 165.7 1.3 1.0 1.1 5.5 4.7 4.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

152.2 156.8 158.6 1.1 1.0 1.1 4.5 4.1 4.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

151.8 156.2 157.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 4.2 3.9 3.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

152.6 157.6 159.7 1.1 1.0 1.3 4.7 4.4 4.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

157.3 162.2 163.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 5.4 4.4 3.9

Production

153.6 158.7 159.8 1.2 1.0 0.7 5.3 4.5 4.0

Transportation and material moving

162.6 167.4 168.9 1.3 1.0 0.9 5.5 4.3 3.9

Service occupations

164.0 169.7 171.8 1.9 1.0 1.2 7.0 5.4 4.8

Industry

Goods-producing industries(4)

149.4 154.1 155.1 0.8 1.0 0.6 4.5 4.0 3.8

Manufacturing

149.1 153.7 154.6 0.7 0.9 0.6 4.6 3.9 3.7

Service-providing industries(5)

154.9 159.9 161.9 1.4 1.0 1.3 5.2 4.6 4.5

Education and health services

152.4 156.9 159.7 2.0 0.7 1.8 5.0 5.0 4.8

Educational services

151.4 154.7 158.4 2.5 0.4 2.4 4.3 4.7 4.6

Elementary and secondary schools

151.9 155.0 158.9 2.8 0.4 2.5 4.3 4.9 4.6

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

150.1 153.4 156.7 2.3 0.3 2.2 4.3 4.6 4.4

Health care and social assistance

153.4 159.0 161.1 1.5 1.0 1.3 5.8 5.2 5.0

Hospitals

153.7 159.4 161.3 1.4 0.9 1.2 5.7 5.1 4.9

Nursing and residential care facilities

154.0 159.3 161.7 2.0 1.0 1.5 7.1 5.5 5.0

Public administration

157.4 161.2 165.1 2.2 0.7 2.4 5.2 4.7 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(4) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 5. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

All workers

154.0 159.2 160.6 1.0 1.1 0.9 5.2 4.5 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

153.7 159.0 160.4 1.1 1.1 0.9 5.3 4.5 4.4

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

149.6 154.7 156.2 0.7 1.2 1.0 4.3 4.2 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

148.7 153.8 155.2 0.9 1.1 0.9 4.6 4.3 4.4

Management, business, and financial

150.9 155.8 157.2 0.5 1.3 0.9 3.9 3.7 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

149.5 154.6 155.8 0.7 1.2 0.8 4.6 4.2 4.2

Professional and related

148.7 154.0 155.5 1.1 1.0 1.0 4.6 4.7 4.6

Sales and office

157.4 163.1 164.0 1.0 1.1 0.6 6.0 4.7 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

158.8 164.8 166.0 1.2 1.1 0.7 6.2 5.0 4.5

Sales and related

155.1 160.8 161.2 0.8 1.1 0.2 6.5 4.6 3.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

159.2 165.6 166.5 1.4 1.1 0.5 7.4 5.5 4.6

Office and administrative support

158.1 163.7 165.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 5.6 4.7 4.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

151.8 156.6 158.2 0.9 1.2 1.0 4.3 4.1 4.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

151.4 155.8 157.3 0.9 1.1 1.0 4.1 3.8 3.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

152.2 157.3 159.2 0.9 1.1 1.2 4.7 4.3 4.6

Production, transportation, and material moving

157.0 161.9 163.2 1.2 1.0 0.8 5.4 4.3 3.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

156.6 161.7 162.9 1.1 1.0 0.7 5.4 4.4 4.0

Production

153.5 158.7 159.8 1.1 1.0 0.7 5.4 4.5 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

154.0 159.1 160.2 1.0 1.0 0.7 5.4 4.4 4.0

Transportation and material moving

162.2 167.1 168.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 5.4 4.2 3.9

Service occupations

164.9 170.7 172.3 1.7 1.0 0.9 7.7 5.3 4.5

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(3)

149.4 154.1 155.1 0.8 1.0 0.6 4.6 4.0 3.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

149.3 153.8 154.8 0.8 1.0 0.7 4.5 3.8 3.7

Management, professional, and related

143.4 147.8 148.4 0.1 1.0 0.4 3.5 3.2 3.5

Sales and office

155.4 162.6 163.0 1.0 1.4 0.2 6.0 5.7 4.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

150.8 155.2 156.6 0.9 1.1 0.9 4.1 3.9 3.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

152.0 156.7 157.7 1.2 1.0 0.6 5.5 4.3 3.7

Construction

150.2 155.1 156.3 0.8 1.2 0.8 4.4 4.1 4.1

Manufacturing

149.1 153.7 154.6 0.7 0.9 0.6 4.6 3.9 3.7

Management, professional, and related

144.7 148.9 149.5 0.1 0.9 0.4 3.5 3.0 3.3

Sales and office occupations

153.2 158.5 159.4 1.4 1.1 0.6 5.7 4.9 4.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

148.5 153.4 154.4 0.7 1.0 0.7 3.6 4.0 4.0

Production, transportation, and material moving

151.7 156.5 157.4 1.2 1.0 0.6 5.5 4.4 3.8

Aircraft manufacturing

130.8 134.6 134.6 -7.8 0.7 0.0 -4.4 -5.1 2.9

Service-providing industries(4)

155.3 160.6 162.1 1.0 1.1 0.9 5.4 4.5 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

155.0 160.6 162.0 1.1 1.1 0.9 5.5 4.8 4.5

Management, professional, and related

150.7 155.9 157.5 0.9 1.2 1.0 4.4 4.4 4.5

Sales and office

157.6 163.1 164.1 1.0 1.1 0.6 6.0 4.6 4.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

153.3 158.6 160.6 0.9 1.1 1.3 4.7 4.4 4.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

162.6 167.7 169.2 1.2 1.0 0.9 5.3 4.4 4.1

Service occupations

164.9 170.7 172.4 1.7 1.0 1.0 7.7 5.3 4.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

158.8 164.4 165.6 0.8 1.4 0.7 5.8 4.3 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

158.8 164.7 166.0 1.0 1.2 0.8 5.7 4.8 4.5

Wholesale trade

152.2 157.9 158.5 0.5 1.7 0.4 5.8 4.2 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

154.7 160.7 161.8 1.2 1.5 0.7 5.9 5.1 4.6

Retail trade

163.2 169.3 170.6 0.9 1.1 0.8 7.2 4.7 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

161.6 167.9 169.2 1.2 1.1 0.8 7.2 5.1 4.7

Transportation and warehousing

158.4 163.1 164.5 0.9 1.2 0.9 3.5 3.9 3.9

Utilities

163.1 169.2 170.9 0.7 1.4 1.0 3.4 4.5 4.8

Information

150.6 156.2 156.4 0.9 1.1 0.1 4.7 4.7 3.9

Financial activities

152.9 157.9 159.1 0.3 1.8 0.8 3.6 3.5 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

153.2 158.6 159.2 0.7 1.1 0.4 5.8 4.3 3.9

Finance and insurance

153.3 158.4 159.5 0.1 1.9 0.7 3.0 3.5 4.0

Credit intermediation and related activities

153.7 158.4 160.4 -0.4 1.3 1.3 0.6 2.7 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

157.0 162.4 163.4 1.2 0.8 0.6 6.4 4.7 4.1

Insurance carriers and related activities

154.4 160.0 160.6 0.7 1.4 0.4 5.5 4.3 4.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

152.1 157.8 157.9 0.5 1.3 0.1 5.0 4.2 3.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

151.1 155.6 157.4 0.8 1.1 1.2 6.3 3.8 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

155.1 160.0 161.2 0.7 1.2 0.7 5.9 3.9 3.9

Professional and business services

154.1 159.2 160.7 1.1 0.8 0.9 5.0 4.5 4.3

Professional, scientific, and technical services

155.5 160.2 161.7 1.3 0.8 0.9 4.8 4.4 4.0

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

154.1 159.5 161.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 5.8 4.5 4.5

Education and health services

152.2 157.5 159.7 1.4 0.9 1.4 5.5 4.9 4.9

Educational services

149.9 153.5 156.5 1.7 0.5 2.0 4.4 4.1 4.4

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

149.8 152.6 155.6 1.8 0.5 2.0 4.0 3.7 3.9

Health care and social assistance

152.7 158.4 160.4 1.4 1.0 1.3 5.8 5.2 5.0

Hospitals

153.4 159.4 160.9 1.3 1.0 0.9 5.8 5.2 4.9

Nursing and residential care facilities

152.7 158.1 160.4 1.9 1.0 1.5 7.2 5.5 5.0

Nursing care facilities(2)

152.1 157.9 160.2 1.9 1.2 1.5 7.3 5.8 5.3

Leisure and hospitality

165.2 171.1 172.5 1.7 1.1 0.8 7.2 5.4 4.4

Accommodation and food service

168.8 175.2 176.1 1.6 1.3 0.5 7.4 5.5 4.3

Other services, except public administration

155.8 161.6 163.4 1.1 1.2 1.1 5.0 4.9 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 6. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

Bargaining status

Union

155.0 159.6 160.9 0.6 0.9 0.8 3.3 3.6 3.8

Goods-producing industries(2)

149.0 152.1 153.2 0.1 1.0 0.7 2.5 2.1 2.8

Manufacturing

142.8 145.6 146.1 -0.5 0.8 0.3 2.4 1.5 2.3

Service-providing industries(3)

159.4 164.9 166.4 0.9 0.9 0.9 3.6 4.4 4.4

Nonunion

153.7 159.0 160.4 1.1 1.1 0.9 5.4 4.5 4.4

Goods-producing industries(2)

149.2 154.4 155.3 0.9 1.1 0.6 5.0 4.4 4.1

Manufacturing

150.7 155.7 156.6 1.0 1.0 0.6 5.1 4.4 3.9

Service-providing industries(3)

154.8 160.1 161.6 1.0 1.1 0.9 5.4 4.5 4.4

Census region and division(4)

Northeast

155.5 160.7 162.2 1.0 1.1 0.9 4.8 4.4 4.3

New England

160.3 165.1 166.7 1.1 1.3 1.0 5.3 4.1 4.0

Middle Atlantic

153.8 159.2 160.5 1.1 1.1 0.8 4.6 4.6 4.4

South

151.8 157.1 158.8 0.9 1.3 1.1 5.0 4.4 4.6

South Atlantic

154.5 160.2 162.2 1.5 1.3 1.2 5.6 5.3 5.0

East South Central

151.0 156.6 158.1 0.8 1.2 1.0 5.2 4.5 4.7

West South Central

147.6 152.2 153.4 -0.1 1.3 0.8 3.9 3.0 3.9

Midwest

151.8 156.4 157.5 1.3 1.2 0.7 5.8 4.3 3.8

East North Central

150.1 155.0 156.3 1.4 1.2 0.8 5.8 4.7 4.1

West North Central

155.9 159.8 160.2 0.9 1.2 0.3 5.8 3.4 2.8

West

157.8 163.5 164.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 5.1 4.5 4.4

Mountain

155.4 161.2 162.9 0.6 0.7 1.1 5.4 4.4 4.8

Pacific

158.9 164.6 165.7 1.0 0.9 0.7 5.0 4.6 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(4) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 7. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

All workers

154.4 158.1 161.8 2.5 0.5 2.3 4.6 4.9 4.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

152.0 155.2 159.1 2.6 0.4 2.5 4.3 4.7 4.7

Professional and related

151.8 155.2 158.8 2.6 0.5 2.3 4.2 4.9 4.6

Sales and office

157.8 161.9 165.5 2.3 0.7 2.2 4.8 4.9 4.9

Office and administrative support

157.8 162.0 165.5 2.3 0.7 2.2 4.7 5.0 4.9

Service occupations

161.3 166.3 169.6 2.3 0.7 2.0 5.6 5.5 5.1

Industry

Education and health services

152.6 156.0 159.7 2.7 0.4 2.4 4.4 5.0 4.7

Educational services

151.8 155.0 158.9 2.7 0.3 2.5 4.3 4.9 4.7

Schools

151.8 155.0 158.8 2.7 0.3 2.5 4.3 4.9 4.6

Elementary and secondary schools

152.3 155.4 159.3 2.8 0.4 2.5 4.2 4.9 4.6

Health care and social assistance

158.4 163.0 166.3 2.3 0.6 2.0 5.5 5.2 5.0

Hospitals

155.0 159.6 162.7 2.0 0.6 1.9 5.2 5.1 5.0

Public administration

157.4 161.2 165.1 2.2 0.7 2.4 5.2 4.7 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 8. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

All workers(1)

153.7 158.7 160.7 1.3 1.0 1.3 5.1 4.6 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

153.1 158.1 160.1 1.5 1.0 1.3 5.4 4.8 4.6

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

148.4 152.9 155.1 1.3 1.1 1.4 4.0 4.4 4.5

Management, business, and financial

150.9 155.1 157.2 0.7 1.3 1.4 3.5 3.5 4.2

Professional and related

147.0 151.7 154.1 1.7 0.9 1.6 4.3 4.9 4.8

Sales and office

158.2 163.9 165.2 1.2 1.0 0.8 5.8 4.8 4.4

Sales and related

158.1 163.9 164.3 0.8 1.1 0.2 6.2 4.5 3.9

Office and administrative support

157.9 163.5 165.6 1.4 1.0 1.3 5.5 5.0 4.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

152.2 157.3 159.2 1.2 1.0 1.2 4.7 4.6 4.6

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

151.9 157.0 158.5 1.1 1.2 1.0 4.5 4.5 4.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair

152.6 157.8 160.1 1.3 1.0 1.5 5.0 4.7 4.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

160.1 165.4 166.9 1.5 1.0 0.9 5.8 4.9 4.2

Production

156.6 162.3 163.5 1.6 1.1 0.7 5.8 5.3 4.4

Transportation and material moving

165.0 170.0 171.8 1.5 1.0 1.1 5.9 4.6 4.1

Service occupations

165.0 170.9 173.1 2.0 1.0 1.3 7.7 5.6 4.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

152.3 157.6 158.5 1.1 1.1 0.6 5.0 4.6 4.1

Manufacturing

152.5 157.5 158.4 1.2 1.0 0.6 5.2 4.5 3.9

Service-providing industries(4)

154.0 158.9 161.1 1.4 1.0 1.4 5.1 4.7 4.6

Education and health services

148.2 152.7 155.7 2.1 0.8 2.0 5.0 5.2 5.1

Educational services

142.8 145.4 149.2 2.6 0.4 2.6 3.9 4.5 4.5

Elementary and secondary schools

141.5 143.9 148.0 2.9 0.4 2.8 3.8 4.7 4.6

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

144.1 146.7 150.1 2.3 0.3 2.3 4.0 4.2 4.2

Health care and social assistance

154.0 160.1 162.4 1.6 1.1 1.4 6.0 5.6 5.5

Hospitals

153.6 160.0 162.1 1.5 1.0 1.3 5.9 5.8 5.5

Nursing and residential care facilities

156.6 162.6 165.4 2.2 1.1 1.7 7.6 6.1 5.6

Public administration

147.3 150.5 154.8 2.4 0.5 2.9 5.4 4.7 5.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 9. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Index value (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

All workers

155.9 161.3 162.9 1.1 1.1 1.0 5.2 4.6 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

155.3 160.8 162.3 1.2 1.1 0.9 5.6 4.8 4.5

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

150.8 155.8 157.6 0.9 1.2 1.2 4.1 4.2 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

149.3 154.4 155.9 1.0 1.2 1.0 4.6 4.5 4.4

Management, business, and financial

151.8 156.3 158.0 0.5 1.4 1.1 3.3 3.4 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

149.4 154.0 155.3 0.9 1.2 0.8 4.6 4.1 3.9

Professional and related

150.0 155.6 157.3 1.1 1.0 1.1 4.5 4.9 4.9

Sales and office

159.4 165.3 166.3 1.1 1.1 0.6 6.0 4.8 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

160.3 166.7 168.1 1.3 1.1 0.8 6.3 5.4 4.9

Sales and related

158.3 164.1 164.5 0.9 1.1 0.2 6.3 4.6 3.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

161.8 168.5 169.5 1.6 1.0 0.6 7.5 5.8 4.8

Office and administrative support

158.8 164.7 166.4 1.3 1.0 1.0 5.6 5.0 4.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

152.6 157.9 159.7 1.1 1.1 1.1 4.7 4.6 4.7

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

152.4 157.5 159.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 4.5 4.5 4.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair

152.9 158.5 160.6 1.1 1.1 1.3 4.9 4.8 5.0

Production, transportation, and material moving

160.5 165.8 167.2 1.5 1.0 0.8 5.9 4.8 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

160.1 165.6 167.0 1.5 1.0 0.8 5.9 4.9 4.3

Production

156.7 162.4 163.6 1.6 1.0 0.7 5.9 5.2 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

157.1 162.8 164.0 1.4 1.0 0.7 5.8 5.1 4.4

Transportation and material moving

165.8 170.9 172.6 1.3 1.0 1.0 5.8 4.5 4.1

Service occupations

168.9 175.3 177.1 1.8 1.1 1.0 8.1 5.7 4.9

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(2)

152.4 157.7 158.6 1.1 1.1 0.6 5.0 4.6 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

152.2 157.2 158.2 1.1 1.0 0.6 4.9 4.5 3.9

Management, professional, and related

147.2 151.9 152.4 0.5 1.0 0.3 3.9 3.7 3.5

Sales and office

159.9 168.2 168.6 0.9 1.4 0.2 6.4 6.2 5.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

152.1 157.2 158.7 1.1 1.2 1.0 4.4 4.5 4.3

Production, transportation, and material moving

155.5 160.7 161.7 1.6 1.0 0.6 6.0 5.0 4.0

Construction

151.9 157.6 158.7 0.8 1.3 0.7 4.7 4.6 4.5

Manufacturing

152.5 157.5 158.4 1.2 1.0 0.6 5.2 4.5 3.9

Management, professional, and related

148.0 152.5 153.0 0.5 0.9 0.3 3.9 3.6 3.4

Sales and office

155.8 161.8 162.8 1.5 1.2 0.6 5.9 5.4 4.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

152.3 157.9 159.4 1.1 0.8 0.9 4.0 4.8 4.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

155.4 160.7 161.7 1.6 1.0 0.6 6.1 5.0 4.1

Aircraft manufacturing

155.3 159.7 159.9 0.5 0.9 0.1 3.3 3.4 3.0

Service-providing industries(3)

156.9 162.3 164.0 1.2 1.2 1.0 5.3 4.6 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

156.1 161.7 163.4 1.2 1.1 1.1 5.7 4.9 4.7

Management, professional, and related

151.4 156.5 158.3 0.9 1.3 1.2 4.1 4.3 4.6

Sales and office

159.3 164.9 166.0 1.1 1.0 0.7 5.9 4.6 4.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

153.3 158.9 161.2 1.1 1.1 1.4 5.0 4.7 5.2

Production, transportation, and material moving

165.5 170.9 172.6 1.3 1.1 1.0 5.8 4.7 4.3

Service occupations

168.9 175.3 177.2 1.8 1.1 1.1 8.1 5.7 4.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

159.7 165.5 166.8 0.8 1.4 0.8 5.9 4.4 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

159.4 165.4 166.9 1.2 1.2 0.9 6.1 5.0 4.7

Wholesale trade

149.8 155.2 155.9 0.3 1.7 0.5 5.6 3.9 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

151.6 157.2 158.5 1.3 1.3 0.8 6.0 5.1 4.6

Retail trade

166.1 172.3 173.9 1.0 1.2 0.9 7.3 4.8 4.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

163.9 170.4 172.0 1.3 1.2 0.9 7.3 5.3 4.9

Transportation and warehousing

160.8 166.0 167.6 0.9 1.2 1.0 3.7 4.2 4.2

Utilities

157.7 163.1 164.8 0.7 1.2 1.0 3.4 4.2 4.5

Information

149.3 155.1 155.1 1.0 0.9 0.0 4.2 4.9 3.9

Financial activities

154.1 159.1 160.8 0.1 2.2 1.1 2.3 3.4 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

152.7 158.2 159.0 0.9 1.2 0.5 5.5 4.6 4.1

Finance and insurance

154.8 159.8 161.3 0.0 2.4 0.9 1.3 3.2 4.2

Credit intermediation and related activities

153.4 157.8 160.3 -0.9 1.7 1.6 -2.1 1.9 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

155.4 160.8 161.8 1.4 0.9 0.6 6.1 5.0 4.1

Insurance carriers and related activities

152.9 158.8 160.0 0.7 1.5 0.8 4.9 4.6 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

148.9 154.8 155.4 0.5 1.3 0.4 4.4 4.5 4.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

151.3 156.3 158.5 0.9 1.2 1.4 6.7 4.2 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

155.9 161.2 162.8 0.8 1.2 1.0 6.3 4.2 4.4

Professional and business services

155.9 160.6 162.4 1.3 0.7 1.1 5.1 4.4 4.2

Professional, scientific, and technical services

156.9 161.1 162.8 1.4 0.8 1.1 4.7 4.1 3.8

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

158.5 163.8 165.5 1.3 0.8 1.0 6.4 4.7 4.4

Education and health services

153.3 159.0 161.4 1.6 1.0 1.5 5.7 5.4 5.3

Educational services

148.9 152.3 155.5 1.8 0.5 2.1 4.3 4.1 4.4

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

147.1 149.7 152.7 1.9 0.5 2.0 3.7 3.7 3.8

Health care and social assistance

154.2 160.4 162.7 1.5 1.1 1.4 6.1 5.6 5.5

Hospitals

154.3 161.0 162.8 1.4 1.1 1.1 6.0 5.8 5.5

Nursing and residential care facilities

157.4 163.6 166.4 2.1 1.1 1.7 7.8 6.2 5.7

Nursing care facilities(1)

156.2 163.0 165.9 2.2 1.3 1.8 7.6 6.6 6.2

Leisure and hospitality

171.1 177.3 178.8 1.8 1.1 0.8 7.5 5.5 4.5

Accommodation and food service

174.7 181.3 182.4 1.7 1.3 0.6 7.7 5.5 4.4

Other services, except public administration

157.9 164.0 165.8 1.2 1.4 1.1 5.2 5.1 5.0

Footnotes
(1) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 10. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

Bargaining status

Union

152.5 157.8 159.3 1.1 1.1 1.0 3.6 4.6 4.5

Goods-producing industries(1)

146.0 149.9 150.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 3.2 3.6 3.4

Manufacturing

144.4 148.4 149.0 0.8 0.7 0.4 3.2 3.6 3.2

Service-providing industries(2)

156.6 162.7 164.5 1.2 1.2 1.1 3.8 5.2 5.0

Nonunion

156.3 161.7 163.3 1.1 1.2 1.0 5.4 4.6 4.5

Goods-producing industries(1)

153.8 159.4 160.3 1.1 1.1 0.6 5.3 4.8 4.2

Manufacturing

154.1 159.4 160.3 1.2 1.0 0.6 5.4 4.7 4.0

Service-providing industries(2)

156.9 162.2 164.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 5.4 4.6 4.5

Census region and division(3)

Northeast

156.4 161.6 163.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 4.6 4.5 4.4

New England

163.6 168.1 170.1 1.2 1.5 1.2 5.3 4.0 4.0

Middle Atlantic

153.8 159.2 160.7 1.1 1.0 0.9 4.3 4.6 4.5

South

154.7 160.2 162.1 1.0 1.4 1.2 5.0 4.6 4.8

South Atlantic

157.6 163.7 166.0 1.6 1.4 1.4 5.6 5.5 5.3

East South Central

152.6 158.6 160.1 1.2 1.2 0.9 5.6 5.2 4.9

West South Central

150.7 155.0 156.5 -0.3 1.3 1.0 3.6 2.5 3.8

Midwest

153.0 157.7 158.9 1.3 1.2 0.8 6.0 4.4 3.9

East North Central

151.1 156.1 157.6 1.5 1.2 1.0 5.9 4.8 4.3

West North Central

157.7 161.6 162.0 1.1 1.3 0.2 6.2 3.6 2.7

West

160.4 166.4 167.9 1.1 0.8 0.9 5.5 4.9 4.7

Mountain

158.2 164.4 166.3 0.8 0.7 1.2 5.9 4.7 5.1

Pacific

161.5 167.5 168.8 1.3 0.9 0.8 5.3 5.1 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(2) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(3) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 11. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

All workers

144.3 147.2 151.2 2.6 0.4 2.7 4.4 4.7 4.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

142.2 144.7 148.7 2.7 0.4 2.8 3.9 4.5 4.6

Professional and related

141.9 144.5 148.4 2.7 0.3 2.7 3.8 4.6 4.6

Sales and office

145.0 148.6 152.7 2.4 0.7 2.8 4.6 4.9 5.3

Office and administrative support

145.4 149.1 153.2 2.4 0.7 2.7 4.5 5.0 5.4

Service occupations

152.0 156.2 159.9 2.6 0.6 2.4 6.1 5.5 5.2

Industry

Education and health services

142.6 145.2 149.1 2.7 0.3 2.7 4.0 4.6 4.6

Educational services

141.6 143.9 147.9 2.8 0.3 2.8 3.9 4.5 4.4

Schools

141.6 143.9 147.9 2.8 0.3 2.8 3.9 4.5 4.4

Elementary and secondary schools

141.1 143.4 147.5 2.9 0.4 2.9 3.7 4.6 4.5

Health care and social assistance

151.6 156.1 159.6 2.4 0.5 2.2 5.6 5.4 5.3

Hospitals

150.3 154.8 158.4 2.2 0.5 2.3 5.4 5.2 5.4

Public administration

147.3 150.5 154.8 2.4 0.5 2.9 5.4 4.7 5.1

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 12. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group, industry, and bargaining status [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group, industry, and bargaining status Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

154.8 159.7 161.1 1.0 0.9 0.9 4.9 4.2 4.1

Private industry workers

All workers

149.2 154.0 155.0 0.7 1.0 0.6 5.0 3.9 3.9

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

146.9 152.2 153.1 0.6 1.1 0.6 4.7 4.2 4.2

Sales and office

152.2 157.4 158.0 0.8 1.2 0.4 6.1 4.2 3.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

150.0 153.5 154.9 0.6 1.1 0.9 3.6 3.0 3.3

Production, transportation, and material moving

149.8 154.0 154.9 0.5 0.9 0.6 4.2 3.3 3.4

Service occupations

151.3 155.5 156.5 1.1 0.6 0.6 6.1 3.9 3.4

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

143.3 146.9 147.9 0.2 1.0 0.7 3.7 2.7 3.2

Manufacturing

142.8 146.6 147.4 0.0 1.0 0.5 3.7 2.7 3.2

Aircraft manufacturing

104.7 107.8 107.7 -18.1 0.6 -0.1 -14.3 -15.6 2.9

Service-providing industries(3)

151.3 156.5 157.4 0.9 1.1 0.6 5.4 4.3 4.0

Bargaining status

Union

159.2 162.7 163.8 -0.1 0.7 0.7 2.8 2.1 2.9

Nonunion

147.1 152.1 153.0 0.8 1.1 0.6 5.3 4.2 4.0

State and local government workers

All workers

175.4 180.5 183.7 2.2 0.6 1.8 5.0 5.2 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 13. Employment Cost Index for total compensation and wages and salaries, for private industry workers by area [Not seasonally adjusted]
Census region and metropolitan area(1) Percent changes for 12-months ended-
Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Sep.
2022
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023

Northeast

Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT CSA

5.6 3.8 4.1 5.7 4.2 4.7

New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA

4.7 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.8

Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA

4.4 5.8 5.2 4.9 6.6 5.5

South

Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA CSA

5.0 4.3 4.0 5.2 4.6 4.6

Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK CSA

5.3 4.1 3.6 5.7 4.3 3.8

Houston-The Woodlands, TX CSA

5.4 3.3 4.3 5.9 2.6 3.9

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL CSA

6.7 5.8 5.2 7.1 5.5 4.9

Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA CSA

4.4 5.2 5.2 4.1 5.7 5.5

Midwest

Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI CSA

4.8 4.1 4.2 4.6 4.2 4.1

Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI CSA

5.6 4.3 3.7 5.0 4.1 4.1

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI CSA

5.7 4.0 3.6 5.9 4.1 3.6

West

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA

5.8 5.0 4.6 6.1 5.3 4.9

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ MSA

5.5 3.9 3.5 6.6 4.3 3.8

San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA

4.5 4.3 3.3 4.4 4.4 3.5

Seattle-Tacoma, WA CSA

3.0 1.9 4.3 5.9 5.4 4.9

Footnotes
(1) These areas include Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) and Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Beginning with the December 2018 release, area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 13-01, dated February 28, 2013. Previous area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 04-03, dated February 18, 2004. For more information on metropolitan area definitions, see www.census.gov/programs-surveys/metro-micro.html.
(2) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Last Modified Date: October 31, 2023