Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT), Wednesday, July 26, 2017                                        	USDL-17-1046

Technical Information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm
Media Contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS – FOURTH QUARTER 2016

From September 2016 to December 2016, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector 
establishments were 7.5 million, a decrease of 185,000 jobs over the quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from closing and contracting private-sector 
establishments were 7.1 million, an increase of 127,000 jobs from the previous quarter. The difference 
between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net employment 
gain of 376,000 jobs in the private-sector during the fourth quarter of 2016. (See tables A and 1.) 

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment 
that occur at all private businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics 
track these changes in employment at private-sector establishments from the third month of one quarter 
to the third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See Technical Note.) The BED data series include 
gross job gains and gross job losses by industry subsector, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, 
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by 
employer size class.

Gross Job Gains

In the fourth quarter of 2016, gross job gains represented 6.2 percent of private-sector employment. 
Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment due to expansions at existing establishments and 
the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 
6.0 million in the fourth quarter of 2016, a decrease of 191,000 compared to the previous quarter. 
Opening establishments accounted for 1.4 million of the jobs gained in the fourth quarter of 2016, an 
increase of 6,000 jobs from the previous quarter. (See tables A, 1, 2, and 3.)

Gross Job Losses

In the fourth quarter of 2016, gross job losses represented 5.8 percent of private-sector employment. 
Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of 
jobs at closing establishments. Contracting establishments lost 5.7 million jobs in the fourth quarter of 
2016, a decrease of 6,000 jobs from the prior quarter. In the fourth quarter of 2016, closing 
establishments lost 1.4 million jobs, an increase of 121,000 jobs from the previous quarter. (See tables 
A, 1, 2, and 3.)

Establishment Births and Deaths

In the fourth quarter of 2016, the number of establishment births (a subset of the openings data, see the 
Technical Note for more information) increased by 8,000, to a total of 246,000 establishments. These 
new establishments accounted for 919,000 jobs, an increase of 53,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are available through the first quarter of 
2016, when 667,000 jobs were lost at 204,000 establishments. (See table 8.) 

Industries

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 8 of 13 industries in the fourth quarter of 2016. The 
service-providing industries experienced a net job increase of 371,000 jobs in the fourth quarter of 2016. 
Within service-providing industries, transportation and warehousing had the largest over-the-quarter net 
job increase, with a gain of 154,000 jobs. The net job increase in transportation and warehousing was the 
result of 386,000 gross job gains and 232,000 gross job losses. The goods-producing industries 
experienced a net job increase of 5,000 jobs in the fourth quarter of 2016. Among the goods-producing 
industries, a net gain of 14,000 jobs in manufacturing and a net gain of 12,000 jobs in construction offset 
the 21,000 net job losses in natural resources and mining. (See table 3.)

 Table A. Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          |                  3 months ended                 
                 Category                 |    Dec. |    Mar. |    June |   Sept. |    Dec.
                                          |    2015 |    2016 |    2016 |    2016 |    2016
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          |              Levels (in thousands)              
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
 Gross job gains......................... |   7,843 |   6,977 |   7,463 |   7,650 |   7,465
        At expanding establishments...... |   6,375 |   5,778 |   6,056 |   6,207 |   6,016
        At opening establishments........ |   1,468 |   1,199 |   1,407 |   1,443 |   1,449
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Gross job losses........................ |   6,842 |   6,783 |   7,156 |   6,962 |   7,089
        At contracting establishments.... |   5,573 |   5,617 |   5,829 |   5,720 |   5,726
        At closing establishments........ |   1,269 |   1,166 |   1,327 |   1,242 |   1,363
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Net employment change (1)............... |   1,001 |     194 |     307 |     688 |     376
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
                                          |                 Rates (percent)                 
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
 Gross job gains......................... |     6.6 |     5.8 |     6.2 |     6.4 |     6.2
        At expanding establishments...... |     5.4 |     4.8 |     5.0 |     5.2 |     5.0
        At opening establishments........ |     1.2 |     1.0 |     1.2 |     1.2 |     1.2
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Gross job losses........................ |     5.8 |     5.7 |     6.0 |     5.8 |     5.8
        At contracting establishments.... |     4.7 |     4.7 |     4.9 |     4.8 |     4.7
        At closing establishments........ |     1.1 |     1.0 |     1.1 |     1.0 |     1.1
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Net employment change (1)............... |     0.8 |     0.1 |     0.2 |     0.6 |     0.4
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(1) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross 
    job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.

Firm Size

In the fourth quarter of 2016, firms with 1-49 employees had a net employment gain of 68,000. Firms 
with 50-249 employees had a net employment gain of 47,000. Firms with 250 or more employees had a 
net employment gain of 201,000. Of the 1.5 million net jobs created over the last four quarters, firms 
with 1-49 employees contributed 29.4 percent of net job growth, while firms with 50-249 employees 
contributed 20.0 percent, and firms with 250 or more employees contributed 50.6 percent. (See tables 4 
and 5.)

States

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 41 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico in the 
fourth quarter of 2016. Over this period, 25 states exceeded the U.S. rate of gross job gains as a percent 
of employment, which was 6.2 percent. Alaska had the highest rate of gross job gains as a percent of 
employment, at 9.6 percent. Alaska also had the highest rate of gross job losses as a percent of 
employment at 10.0 percent, above the national rate of 5.8 percent. Connecticut had the lowest rate of 
gross job gains as a percent of employment at 5.1 percent. Tennessee had the lowest rate of gross job 
losses as a percent of employment at 5.0 percent. (See tables 6 and 7.)

For More Information

Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. 
This information includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by firm 
size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, 
charts of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked questions 
on firm size data. Additional information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be found 
in the Technical Note of this release or can be obtained by emailing BDMinfo@bls.gov. 

_____________
The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2017 are scheduled to be released on 
Wednesday, November 8, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                                                          |
|             Administrative Change Affecting Missouri Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data             |
|                                                                                                          |
| Fourth quarter 2016 data were affected by an administrative change to the Missouri Unemployment          |
| Insurance (UI) tax system. This non-economic change has resulted in an increase in the tabulated         |
| number of establishment openings and closings as well as an increase in employment attributed to those   |
| openings and closings in the state, as reported by the Business Employment Dynamics statistics.          |
|                                                                                                          |
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                                                          |
|                           Revisions to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data                           |
|                                                                                                          |
| Data in the next release, published on Wednesday, November 8, 2017, will incorporate annual revisions    |
| to the BED series. Annual revisions are published each year with the release of first quarter data.      |
| These revisions will cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted data and five years of      |
| seasonally adjusted data.                                                                                |
|                                                                                                          |
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative 
program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are 
compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most 
employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of 
workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce 
Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to 
render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and 
form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and 
the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and losses. The QCEW is also the employment 
benchmark for the Current Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics 
(OES), and Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input to 
the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s Personal Income Accounts.

In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a 
longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net 
employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained 
at opening and expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment measures for any given 
quarter. Each of these measures--Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), Business 
Employment Dynamics (BED), and Current Employment Statistics (CES)--makes use of the 
quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; however, each measure has a somewhat 
different universe coverage, estimation procedure, and publication product.

Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat different measures of 
employment change over time. It is important to understand program differences and the intended 
uses of the program products. (See table.) Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  623,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.6   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.7    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         |
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Coverage

Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment Compensation for 
Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly contribution reports submitted to the 
SWAs by employers. In addition to the quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate 
multiple establishments within a state complete a questionnaire, called the “Multiple Worksite 
Report,” which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.  These 
reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. UI and UCFE coverage is 
broad and basically comparable from state to state. 

Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious organizations, most 
agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the Armed Forces, elected officials in most 
states, most employees of railroads, some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and 
employees of certain small nonprofit organizations.

Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from longitudinal histories of 7.7 
million private sector employer reports out of 9.6 million total reports of employment and wages 
submitted by states to BLS in the first quarter of 2016. Gross job gains and gross job losses data in 
this release do not report estimates for government employees or private households (NAICS 
814110), and do not include establishments with zero employment in both previous and current 
quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are also excluded from the national data. As 
an illustration, the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establishments 
excluded from the national gross job gains and gross job losses data in the first quarter 2016:

                         Number of active establishments included in                       
                   Business Employment Dynamics data at the national level                 
                                                                                           
 Total establishments QCEW program.................................................... 9.6 
                                                                                           
   Excluded: Public sector............................................................ 0.3 
           Private households......................................................... 0.2 
           Zero employment............................................................ 1.3 
           Establishments in Puerto Rico..............................................     
                 and the Virgin Islands............................................... 0.1 
                                                                                           
 Total establishments included in Business                                                 
 Employment Dynamics data............................................................. 7.7 

Unit of analysis

Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by industry and firms are used in the 
tabulation of the BED size class statistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that 
produces goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in one or 
predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either corporate or otherwise, and may 
consist of several establishments. Firm-level data are compiled based on an aggregation of 
establishments under common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification 
numbers. The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of corporations as the 
economic decision makers are used for the measurement of the BED data elements by size class.

Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains and gross job losses by size 
class are lower than total gross job gains and gross job losses by industry, as some establishment 
gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process. However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are similar for seasonally 
adjusted data.

Concepts and methodology

The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employment at the 
establishment or firm level. These changes come about in one of four ways. A net increase in 
employment can come from either opening units or expanding units. A net decrease in 
employment can come from either closing units or contracting units. Gross job gains include the 
sum of all jobs added at either opening or expanding units. Gross job losses include the sum of all 
jobs lost in either closing or contracting units. The net change in employment is the difference 
between gross job gains and gross job losses.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either units with positive third month employment for the first time in the 
current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the 
current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and 
current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either units with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with 
no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and 
current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Births. These are units with positive third month employment for the first time in the current 
quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or units with positive third month employment in the 
current quarter and zero employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

Deaths. These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in the third month of 
four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with positive employment. Deaths are a subset 
of closings not including temporary shutdowns of seasonal businesses. A unit that closes during the 
quarter may be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent closing 
or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three quarters for the publication of 
death statistics.

All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous quarter to the third 
month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and firms change their employment levels. 
Units with no change in employment count towards estimates of total employment, but not for 
levels of gross job gains and gross job losses.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average 
of employment in the current and previous quarters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The 
rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For 
instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net 
growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments that appear in the 
longitudinal database for the first time with positive employment in the third month of a quarter, or 
showed four consecutive quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month. Similarly, deaths are defined as 
establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal database or an establishment that had 
positive employment in the third month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of 
showing zero employment in the third month. Although the data for establishment births and 
deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and closings, the concepts are not 
mutually exclusive. An establishment that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an 
opening as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing. Since 
openings include seasonal and other re-openings and closings include temporary shutdowns, the 
not seasonally adjusted values for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and 
closings. However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary 
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from 
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally adjusted value of the former 
is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW records are linked across 
two quarters. The linkage process matches establishments' unique SWA identification numbers 
(SWA-ID). Between 95 to 97 percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to 
quarter are matched by SWA-ID. The rest are linked in one of three ways. The first method uses 
predecessor and successor information, identified by the States, which relates records with 
different SWA-IDs across quarters. Predecessor and successor relations can come about for a 
variety of reasons, including a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account 
restructuring. If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is used. This 
match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-IDs as continuous. The match is 
based upon comparisons such as the same name, address, and phone number. Third, an analyst 
examines unmatched records individually and makes a possible match.

In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with employers and update, if 
necessary, the industry, location, and ownership classification of all establishments on a 4-year 
cycle. Changes in establishment classification codes resulting from the verification process are 
introduced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year. Changes resulting from improved 
employer reporting also are introduced in the first quarter. 
 
Sizing methodology

The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size class data series. Dynamic 
sizing allocates each firm’s employment gain or loss during a quarter to each respective size class 
in which the change occurred. For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be allocated to the first size 
class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates any systematic effects 
which may be caused by the transitory and reverting changes in firms’ sizes over time. 
Additionally, it allocates each job gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change in employment at the 
establishment level from the third month of a quarter in the previous year to the third month of the 
same quarter in the current year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March 
changes once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual data based on over-
the-year changes for other quarters of the year are available upon request. The definitions and 
methodology in measuring annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor relations that may come 
about due to changes in ownership and corporate restructuring over the entire year. At the 
establishment level, some of the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation 
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains and gross job losses are not 
equal to annual gross job gains and gross job losses. The net change in employment over the year, 
however, is equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally adjusted basis. 

Seasonal adjustment

Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated job flows undergo sharp 
fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes in the weather, reduced or expanded 
production, harvests, major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of such 
seasonal variation can be very large.

Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year, their influence can 
be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from quarter to quarter. These adjustments make 
nonseasonal developments, such as declines in economic activity, easier to recognize. For 
example, the large number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine if the level of economic 
activity has risen or declined. However, because the effect of students finishing school in previous 
years is known, the statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable change. 
The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in economic 
activity.

The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units are 
independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated based on the difference between 
gross job gains and gross job losses. Similarly, for industry data, the establishment counts data 
series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number of opening and 
closing establishments. Additionally establishment and employment levels are independently 
seasonally adjusted to calculate the seasonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is 
run using X-12 ARIMA. Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of seasonally 
adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, which is not separately published.

The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series will differ from 
the net employment change estimated from the seasonally adjusted total private employment series 
from the CES program. The intended use of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market 
changes that underlie the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested 
particularly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying this change 
should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment changes.

Reliability of the data

Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on administrative rather than 
sample data, there are no issues related to sampling error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists. 
Nonsampling errors can occur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected 
employment data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses when 
providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distributed randomly throughout the 
dataset. 

Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the linkage process. This can 
result in overstating openings and closings while understating expansions and contractions. The 
BLS continues to refine methods for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these 
complications.

The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on corrections in QCEW 
records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter data. These revisions 
cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.

Additional statistics and other information

Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information. The QCEW program 
provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed 
industry. News releases on quarterly county employment and wages and an annual bulletin: 
Employment and Wages Annual Averages, are available upon request from the Division of 
Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of 
Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: 
QCEWInfo@bls.gov). 

The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, and earnings by 
detailed industry. These estimates are part of the Employment Situation report put out monthly by 
BLS. 

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides monthly measures of 
job openings, as well as employee hires and separations. 

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. 
Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD message referral number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2006  March                896      7,880       6,383         1,497       6,984       5,661           1,323
      June                 342      7,766       6,228         1,538       7,424       6,026           1,398
      September             92      7,545       6,076         1,469       7,453       6,067           1,386
      December             431      7,770       6,226         1,544       7,339       5,964           1,375

2007  March                584      7,815       6,331         1,484       7,231       5,894           1,337
      June                 132      7,647       6,205         1,442       7,515       6,084           1,431
      September           -209      7,376       5,870         1,506       7,585       6,190           1,395
      December             268      7,687       6,181         1,506       7,419       6,040           1,379

2008  March               -199      7,320       5,860         1,460       7,519       6,111           1,408
      June                -593      7,281       5,833         1,448       7,874       6,363           1,511
      September           -913      6,944       5,535         1,409       7,857       6,436           1,421
      December          -1,838      6,738       5,345         1,393       8,576       7,056           1,520

2009  March             -2,680      5,918       4,675         1,243       8,598       7,142           1,456
      June              -1,667      6,425       5,080         1,345       8,092       6,674           1,418
      September           -849      6,399       5,139         1,260       7,248       5,854           1,394
      December            -264      6,665       5,308         1,357       6,929       5,605           1,324

2010  March               -247      6,325       5,108         1,217       6,572       5,324           1,248
      June                 698      6,995       5,674         1,321       6,297       5,090           1,207
      September            237      6,741       5,438         1,303       6,504       5,231           1,273
      December             566      7,052       5,639         1,413       6,486       5,219           1,267

2011  March                334      6,540       5,322         1,218       6,206       5,025           1,181
      June                 582      6,966       5,625         1,341       6,384       5,115           1,269
      September            841      7,205       5,810         1,395       6,364       5,172           1,192
      December             335      6,865       5,503         1,362       6,530       5,273           1,257

2012  March                954      7,080       5,751         1,329       6,126       5,002           1,124
      June                 603      7,048       5,721         1,327       6,445       5,272           1,173
      September            271      6,898       5,581         1,317       6,627       5,429           1,198
      December             688      7,103       5,744         1,359       6,415       5,224           1,191

2013  March                565      6,933       5,704         1,229       6,368       5,190           1,178
      June                 661      7,154       5,832         1,322       6,493       5,284           1,209
      September            487      7,060       5,719         1,341       6,573       5,428           1,145
      December             712      7,261       5,927         1,334       6,549       5,344           1,205

2014  March                447      6,947       5,681         1,266       6,500       5,357           1,143
      June                 870      7,456       6,116         1,340       6,586       5,364           1,222
      September            540      7,243       5,912         1,331       6,703       5,517           1,186
      December           1,071      7,634       6,260         1,374       6,563       5,324           1,239

2015  March                237      7,036       5,727         1,309       6,799       5,600           1,199
      June                 815      7,588       6,244         1,344       6,773       5,573           1,200
      September            427      7,338       5,972         1,366       6,911       5,698           1,213
      December           1,001      7,843       6,375         1,468       6,842       5,573           1,269

2016  March                194      6,977       5,778         1,199       6,783       5,617           1,166
      June                 307      7,463       6,056         1,407       7,156       5,829           1,327
      September            688      7,650       6,207         1,443       6,962       5,720           1,242
      December             376      7,465       6,016         1,449       7,089       5,726           1,363

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.






Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2006  March                 .8       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.2          5.0            1.2
      June                  .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.4          5.2            1.2
      June                  .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September            -.2       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.5       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.9       6.1         4.9           1.2         7.0          5.7            1.3
      December            -1.7       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.7          6.3            1.4

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.7           1.3         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.8       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.3       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3

2010  March                -.2       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .3       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.7            1.2
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .4       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .8       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                 .5       6.2         5.1           1.1         5.7          4.6            1.1
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2014  March                 .4       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .7       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .9       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.7          4.6            1.1

2015  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.8            1.0
      June                  .7       6.4         5.3           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .8       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2016  March                 .1       5.8         4.8           1.0         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      September             .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .4       6.2         5.0           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage of the previous and current 
    quarter employment levels.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.






Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept.  Dec.
                                   2015    2016    2016    2016    2016   2015   2016   2016   2016   2016
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,843   6,977   7,463   7,650   7,465    6.6    5.8    6.2    6.4    6.2
 At expanding establishments      6,375   5,778   6,056   6,207   6,016    5.4    4.8    5.0    5.2    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,468   1,199   1,407   1,443   1,449    1.2    1.0    1.2    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,842   6,783   7,156   6,962   7,089    5.8    5.7    6.0    5.8    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,573   5,617   5,829   5,720   5,726    4.7    4.7    4.9    4.8    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,269   1,166   1,327   1,242   1,363    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.1
Net employment change             1,001     194     307     688     376     .8     .1     .2     .6     .4

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,368   1,292   1,332   1,299   1,306    6.6    6.1    6.4    6.3    6.2
 At expanding establishments      1,162   1,119   1,145   1,101   1,114    5.6    5.3    5.5    5.3    5.3
 At opening establishments          206     173     187     198     192    1.0     .8     .9    1.0     .9
Gross job losses                  1,316   1,282   1,381   1,297   1,301    6.3    6.2    6.6    6.2    6.3
 At contracting establishments    1,120   1,099   1,171   1,105   1,098    5.4    5.3    5.6    5.3    5.3
 At closing establishments          196     183     210     192     203     .9     .9    1.0     .9    1.0
Net employment change                52      10     -49       2       5     .3    -.1    -.2     .1    -.1

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     248     254     260     248     249   12.8   13.1   13.8   13.5   13.5
 At expanding establishments        214     223     228     215     217   11.0   11.5   12.1   11.7   11.8
 At opening establishments           34      31      32      33      32    1.8    1.6    1.7    1.8    1.7
Gross job losses                    301     272     297     253     270   15.5   14.1   15.9   13.7   14.6
 At contracting establishments      266     239     264     223     239   13.7   12.4   14.1   12.1   12.9
 At closing establishments           35      33      33      30      31    1.8    1.7    1.8    1.6    1.7
Net employment change               -53     -18     -37      -5     -21   -2.7   -1.0   -2.1    -.2   -1.1

Construction

Gross job gains                     705     661     657     654     648   10.8   10.0    9.8    9.9    9.7
 At expanding establishments        574     550     541     529     528    8.8    8.3    8.1    8.0    7.9
 At opening establishments          131     111     116     125     120    2.0    1.7    1.7    1.9    1.8
Gross job losses                    589     607     650     618     636    9.1    9.1    9.7    9.3    9.4
 At contracting establishments      474     499     523     503     513    7.3    7.5    7.8    7.6    7.6
 At closing establishments          115     108     127     115     123    1.8    1.6    1.9    1.7    1.8
Net employment change               116      54       7      36      12    1.7     .9     .1     .6     .3

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     415     377     415     397     409    3.3    3.1    3.4    3.2    3.3
 At expanding establishments        374     346     376     357     369    3.0    2.8    3.1    2.9    3.0
 At opening establishments           41      31      39      40      40     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    426     403     434     426     395    3.5    3.2    3.5    3.5    3.2
 At contracting establishments      380     361     384     379     346    3.1    2.9    3.1    3.1    2.8
 At closing establishments           46      42      50      47      49     .4     .3     .4     .4     .4
Net employment change               -11     -26     -19     -29      14    -.2    -.1    -.1    -.3     .1

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   6,475   5,685   6,131   6,351   6,159    6.6    5.7    6.2    6.4    6.2
 At expanding establishments      5,213   4,659   4,911   5,106   4,902    5.3    4.7    5.0    5.1    4.9
 At opening establishments        1,262   1,026   1,220   1,245   1,257    1.3    1.0    1.2    1.3    1.3
Gross job losses                  5,526   5,501   5,775   5,665   5,788    5.6    5.6    5.8    5.7    5.8
 At contracting establishments    4,453   4,518   4,658   4,615   4,628    4.5    4.6    4.7    4.6    4.6
 At closing establishments        1,073     983   1,117   1,050   1,160    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.2
Net employment change               949     184     356     686     371    1.0     .1     .4     .7     .4

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     294     256     276     274     277    4.9    4.4    4.7    4.6    4.7
 At expanding establishments        244     216     227     225     224    4.1    3.7    3.9    3.8    3.8
 At opening establishments           50      40      49      49      53     .8     .7     .8     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    268     265     273     262     263    4.5    4.5    4.6    4.5    4.5
 At contracting establishments      209     208     213     208     200    3.5    3.5    3.6    3.6    3.4
 At closing establishments           59      57      60      54      63    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9    1.1
Net employment change                26      -9       3      12      14     .4    -.1     .1     .1     .2

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     925     948     926     947     896    5.9    6.0    5.8    5.9    5.6
 At expanding establishments        798     833     798     812     779    5.1    5.3    5.0    5.1    4.9
 At opening establishments          127     115     128     135     117     .8     .7     .8     .8     .7
Gross job losses                    921     850     900     949     916    5.8    5.4    5.7    6.0    5.8
 At contracting establishments      789     747     790     827     792    5.0    4.7    5.0    5.2    5.0
 At closing establishments          132     103     110     122     124     .8     .7     .7     .8     .8
Net employment change                 4      98      26      -2     -20     .1     .6     .1    -.1    -.2

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     343     229     246     288     386    7.3    4.8    5.2    6.0    7.9
 At expanding establishments        305     200     209     250     342    6.5    4.2    4.4    5.2    7.0
 At opening establishments           38      29      37      38      44     .8     .6     .8     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    227     293     250     227     232    4.8    6.1    5.3    4.7    4.7
 At contracting establishments      188     258     211     188     192    4.0    5.4    4.5    3.9    3.9
 At closing establishments           39      35      39      39      40     .8     .7     .8     .8     .8
Net employment change               116     -64      -4      61     154    2.5   -1.3    -.1    1.3    3.2

Utilities

Gross job gains                      12       9      13      11      12    2.2    1.6    2.4    2.0    2.2
 At expanding establishments         11       8      11      10      10    2.0    1.4    2.0    1.8    1.8
 At opening establishments            1       1       2       1       2     .2     .2     .4     .2     .4
Gross job losses                     11      10      13      14      13    2.0    1.8    2.4    2.6    2.4
 At contracting establishments       10       9      11      12      11    1.8    1.6    2.0    2.2    2.0
 At closing establishments            1       1       2       2       2     .2     .2     .4     .4     .4
Net employment change                 1      -1       0      -3      -1     .2    -.2     .0    -.6    -.2

Information

Gross job gains                     162     135     157     152     144    5.9    4.9    5.6    5.4    5.1
 At expanding establishments        135     116     132     124     116    4.9    4.2    4.7    4.4    4.1
 At opening establishments           27      19      25      28      28    1.0     .7     .9    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                    140     138     139     149     151    5.0    5.0    5.0    5.4    5.4
 At contracting establishments      112     110     109     125     122    4.0    4.0    3.9    4.5    4.4
 At closing establishments           28      28      30      24      29    1.0    1.0    1.1     .9    1.0
Net employment change                22      -3      18       3      -7     .9    -.1     .6     .0    -.3

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     394     344     389     386     386    5.0    4.3    4.9    4.9    4.8
 At expanding establishments        307     278     313     308     296    3.9    3.5    3.9    3.9    3.7
 At opening establishments           87      66      76      78      90    1.1     .8    1.0    1.0    1.1
Gross job losses                    353     333     354     347     358    4.5    4.2    4.4    4.3    4.5
 At contracting establishments      270     258     272     274     272    3.4    3.3    3.4    3.4    3.4
 At closing establishments           83      75      82      73      86    1.1     .9    1.0     .9    1.1
Net employment change                41      11      35      39      28     .5     .1     .5     .6     .3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,600   1,237   1,426   1,469   1,395    8.1    6.3    7.2    7.3    6.9
 At expanding establishments      1,292   1,026   1,165   1,201   1,112    6.5    5.2    5.9    6.0    5.5
 At opening establishments          308     211     261     268     283    1.6    1.1    1.3    1.3    1.4
Gross job losses                  1,311   1,355   1,363   1,272   1,363    6.6    6.8    6.9    6.4    6.8
 At contracting establishments    1,037   1,111   1,065   1,014   1,064    5.2    5.6    5.4    5.1    5.3
 At closing establishments          274     244     298     258     299    1.4    1.2    1.5    1.3    1.5
Net employment change               289    -118      63     197      32    1.5    -.5     .3     .9     .1

Education and health services

Gross job gains                   1,006     878     962   1,034     967    4.8    4.1    4.5    4.8    4.4
 At expanding establishments        824     726     776     867     769    3.9    3.4    3.6    4.0    3.5
 At opening establishments          182     152     186     167     198     .9     .7     .9     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    801     813     888     822     918    3.8    3.8    4.2    3.8    4.2
 At contracting establishments      635     658     701     650     707    3.0    3.1    3.3    3.0    3.2
 At closing establishments          166     155     187     172     211     .8     .7     .9     .8    1.0
Net employment change               205      65      74     212      49    1.0     .3     .3    1.0     .2

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,344   1,247   1,312   1,330   1,301    8.8    8.0    8.4    8.5    8.3
 At expanding establishments      1,048   1,013   1,025   1,045   1,013    6.9    6.5    6.6    6.7    6.5
 At opening establishments          296     234     287     285     288    1.9    1.5    1.8    1.8    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,184   1,138   1,273   1,297   1,238    7.8    7.4    8.2    8.4    7.9
 At contracting establishments      977     939   1,055   1,082   1,024    6.4    6.1    6.8    7.0    6.5
 At closing establishments          207     199     218     215     214    1.4    1.3    1.4    1.4    1.4
Net employment change               160     109      39      33      63    1.0     .6     .2     .1     .4

Other services

Gross job gains                     294     272     301     305     280    7.2    6.7    7.4    7.4    6.8
 At expanding establishments        232     219     235     240     219    5.7    5.4    5.8    5.8    5.3
 At opening establishments           62      53      66      65      61    1.5    1.3    1.6    1.6    1.5
Gross job losses                    273     266     284     285     293    6.8    6.5    7.0    7.0    7.1
 At contracting establishments      213     207     219     221     230    5.3    5.1    5.4    5.4    5.6
 At closing establishments           60      59      65      64      63    1.5    1.4    1.6    1.6    1.5
Net employment change                21       6      17      20     -13     .4     .2     .4     .4    -.3

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately






Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2006  March            782      6,460    5,678         312       3,538    3,226        211        1,216    1,005         259        1,706    1,447
      June             369      6,329    5,960         111       3,425    3,314        102        1,179    1,077         156        1,725    1,569
      September         86      6,120    6,034          -5       3,334    3,339         48        1,133    1,085          43        1,653    1,610
      December         446      6,388    5,942         137       3,406    3,269         80        1,153    1,073         229        1,829    1,600

2007  March            478      6,333    5,855         173       3,445    3,272         98        1,158    1,060         207        1,730    1,523
      June             163      6,239    6,076         -33       3,330    3,363         99        1,171    1,072          97        1,738    1,641
      September       -215      5,920    6,135        -116       3,263    3,379        -34        1,079    1,113         -65        1,578    1,643
      December         270      6,251    5,981          10       3,317    3,307         56        1,139    1,083         204        1,795    1,591

2008  March           -274      5,831    6,105        -152       3,235    3,387        -11        1,079    1,090        -111        1,517    1,628
      June            -548      5,850    6,398        -287       3,174    3,461        -44        1,090    1,134        -217        1,586    1,803
      September       -956      5,532    6,488        -343       3,051    3,394       -140        1,020    1,160        -473        1,461    1,934
      December      -1,886      5,338    7,224        -689       2,910    3,599       -375          947    1,322        -822        1,481    2,303

2009  March         -2,638      4,617    7,255        -983       2,721    3,704       -616          810    1,426      -1,039        1,086    2,125
      June          -1,763      5,169    6,932        -474       2,946    3,420       -281          950    1,231      -1,008        1,273    2,281
      September       -906      5,164    6,070        -372       2,826    3,198       -110          932    1,042        -424        1,406    1,830
      December        -317      5,403    5,720        -159       2,940    3,099        -45          962    1,007        -113        1,501    1,614

2010  March           -234      5,115    5,349        -195       2,863    3,058         -2          914      916         -37        1,338    1,375
      June             664      5,805    5,141         235       3,093    2,858        204        1,071      867         225        1,641    1,416
      September        226      5,525    5,299          26       2,946    2,920         87          998      911         113        1,581    1,468
      December         502      5,781    5,279          92       3,051    2,959         92        1,034      942         318        1,696    1,378

2011  March            340      5,375    5,035          99       2,983    2,884        122          971      849         119        1,421    1,302
      June             537      5,746    5,209         190       3,073    2,883        169        1,063      894         178        1,610    1,432
      September        852      5,974    5,122         272       3,137    2,865        171        1,066      895         409        1,771    1,362
      December         297      5,585    5,288          45       2,970    2,925         44          981      937         208        1,634    1,426

2012  March            975      5,903    4,928         397       3,178    2,781        221        1,055      834         357        1,670    1,313
      June             605      5,828    5,223         170       3,039    2,869        160        1,076      916         275        1,713    1,438
      September        245      5,595    5,350          57       2,965    2,908         55        1,007      952         133        1,623    1,490
      December         623      5,767    5,144         174       3,019    2,845         90        1,011      921         359        1,737    1,378

2013  March            593      5,741    5,148         230       3,082    2,852        156        1,026      870         207        1,633    1,426
      June             642      5,909    5,267         219       3,084    2,865        138        1,075      937         285        1,750    1,465
      September        458      5,764    5,306         210       3,056    2,846         62        1,018      956         186        1,690    1,504
      December         632      5,881    5,249         126       3,021    2,895        100        1,031      931         406        1,829    1,423

2014  March            469      5,663    5,194         260       3,084    2,824        154        1,033      879          55        1,546    1,491
      June             878      6,140    5,262         293       3,177    2,884        218        1,125      907         367        1,838    1,471
      September        516      5,858    5,342         168       3,052    2,884        102        1,059      957         246        1,747    1,501
      December         969      6,154    5,185         218       3,107    2,889        151        1,083      932         600        1,964    1,364

2015  March            244      5,662    5,418         191       3,106    2,915         81        1,022      941         -28        1,534    1,562
      June             823      6,253    5,430         312       3,197    2,885        191        1,136      945         320        1,920    1,600
      September        397      5,898    5,501         114       3,040    2,926         58        1,038      980         225        1,820    1,595
      December         882      6,258    5,376         247       3,179    2,932         98        1,075      977         537        2,004    1,467

2016  March            224      5,624    5,400         175       3,020    2,845         57        1,002      945          -8        1,602    1,610
      June             302      6,072    5,770          72       3,133    3,061        116        1,111      995         114        1,828    1,714
      September        681      6,223    5,542         133       3,106    2,973         84        1,082      998         464        2,035    1,571
      December         316      5,896    5,580          68       3,046    2,978         47        1,031      984         201        1,819    1,618

(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment, as some 
    establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.






Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept.  Dec.
                                   2015    2016    2016    2016    2016   2015   2016   2016   2016   2016
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   6,258   5,624   6,072   6,223   5,896    5.3    4.7    5.1    5.2    4.9
 At expanding firms               5,295   4,790   5,149   5,283   4,969    4.5    4.0    4.3    4.4    4.1
 At opening firms                   963     834     923     940     927     .8     .7     .8     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  5,376   5,400   5,770   5,542   5,580    4.5    4.5    4.8    4.6    4.6
 At contracting firms             4,528   4,579   4,842   4,692   4,721    3.8    3.8    4.0    3.9    3.9
 At closing firms                   848     821     928     850     859     .7     .7     .8     .7     .7

Net employment change               882     224     302     681     316     .8     .2     .3     .6     .3


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,179   3,020   3,133   3,106   3,046    9.5    9.0    9.3    9.3    9.0
 At expanding firms               2,265   2,218   2,253   2,208   2,161    6.8    6.6    6.7    6.6    6.4
 At opening firms                   914     802     880     898     885    2.7    2.4    2.6    2.7    2.6

Gross job losses                  2,932   2,845   3,061   2,973   2,978    8.8    8.4    9.1    8.8    8.8
 At contracting firms             2,123   2,057   2,175   2,157   2,155    6.4    6.1    6.5    6.4    6.4
 At closing firms                   809     788     886     816     823    2.4    2.3    2.6    2.4    2.4

Net employment change               247     175      72     133      68     .7     .6     .2     .5     .2


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,075   1,002   1,111   1,082   1,031    5.0    4.6    5.1    5.0    4.8
 At expanding firms               1,041     974   1,072   1,044     996    4.8    4.5    4.9    4.8    4.6
 At opening firms                    34      28      39      38      35     .2     .1     .2     .2     .2

Gross job losses                    977     945     995     998     984    4.6    4.3    4.6    4.6    4.5
 At contracting firms               943     917     962     969     953    4.4    4.2    4.4    4.5    4.4
 At closing firms                    34      28      33      29      31     .2     .1     .2     .1     .1

Net employment change                98      57     116      84      47     .4     .3     .5     .4     .3


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   2,004   1,602   1,828   2,035   1,819    3.1    2.5    2.8    3.1    2.8
 At expanding firms               1,989   1,598   1,824   2,031   1,812    3.1    2.5    2.8    3.1    2.8
 At opening firms                    15       4       4       4       7     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,467   1,610   1,714   1,571   1,618    2.3    2.5    2.6    2.4    2.5
 At contracting firms             1,462   1,605   1,705   1,566   1,613    2.3    2.5    2.6    2.4    2.5
 At closing firms                     5       5       9       5       5     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               537      -8     114     464     201     .8     .0     .2     .7     .3

(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower than total gross job gains and gross job 
    losses by establishment, as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the 
    aggregation process.






Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Dec.       Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec.       Dec.         Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec.
                        2015       2016       2016        2016      2016       2015         2016       2016        2016      2016

United States(1)...  7,843,000  6,977,000  7,463,000   7,650,000  7,465,000  6,842,000   6,783,000   7,156,000  6,962,000  7,089,000

Alabama.....            96,646     89,239     90,468      95,974     91,192     81,804      84,673      90,158     89,745     89,343
Alaska.....             24,329     23,755     26,030      22,411     23,748     26,571      24,612      29,972     27,596     24,810
Arizona.....           154,720    136,475    137,186     163,612    138,172    123,146     130,066     138,390    119,918    126,569
Arkansas.....           62,679     53,819     53,228      61,167     57,122     52,402      53,379      57,344     54,494     51,883
California.....      1,075,178    921,636    969,310     987,259    968,213    929,638     889,698     946,963    872,725    901,739
Colorado.....          147,332    140,016    148,006     153,349    142,224    134,691     130,052     138,701    135,109    141,376
Connecticut.....        77,156     74,339     77,489      74,208     72,208     70,694      70,865      75,829     75,109     73,722
Delaware.....           27,199     24,510     25,219      23,511     23,248     23,117      24,200      25,084     24,397     23,381
District of Columbia    31,569     26,719     29,684      31,411     28,585     23,562      28,186      31,218     28,869     28,501
Florida.....           510,696    439,847    460,188     537,172    490,012    412,905     410,669     428,183    416,981    446,536

Georgia.....           247,757    218,517    252,375     243,567    237,672    202,861     199,712     240,381    214,828    209,913
Hawaii.....             30,040     25,200     28,174      30,518     27,652     23,183      25,729      31,217     25,963     27,072
Idaho.....              43,766     46,359     40,993      44,973     43,414     38,441      35,558      40,443     40,480     38,443
Illinois.....          321,551    271,116    299,699     293,311    307,488    283,941     274,351     301,559    289,298    291,031
Indiana.....           158,633    141,057    137,024     149,640    141,154    126,844     136,213     134,813    132,940    137,271
Iowa.....               77,648     77,795     72,903      78,243     73,751     73,121      69,140      79,614     74,162     76,129
Kansas.....             70,502     64,980     63,336      70,015     66,916     62,764      66,896      70,605     63,173     64,620
Kentucky.....          103,547     88,881     96,696     104,901     94,712     83,693      90,733      91,777     97,403     87,660
Louisiana.....         106,451     96,609     94,903     105,759     93,098    103,367     105,846     111,231    102,408    103,821
Maine.....              43,068     40,502     39,055      33,573     36,267     35,516      34,636      34,077     37,485     35,878

Maryland.....          141,865    130,869    134,394     139,730    141,007    124,463     127,811     134,582    128,257    135,555
Massachusetts.....     176,932    158,738    181,391     173,891    169,035    156,781     152,250     158,315    166,349    165,216
Michigan.....          218,432    196,117    218,793     206,985    203,905    192,084     179,106     194,637    205,425    200,642
Minnesota.....         145,443    131,059    143,945     149,566    141,588    137,636     126,838     135,847    134,632    140,856
Mississippi.....        62,596     51,367     50,079      55,451     56,564     47,996      54,142      58,052     49,333     50,563
Missouri.....          145,011    131,177    133,514     132,069    181,050    121,021     124,222     128,070    125,311    186,321
Montana.....            31,491     29,163     29,552      28,143     28,782     26,762      26,815      32,061     28,704     27,811
Nebraska.....           49,121     47,050     45,488      51,210     46,186     44,211      44,379      48,210     47,154     49,758
Nevada.....             76,024     70,313     73,080      76,079     76,787     58,645      64,506      63,512     61,819     64,094
New Hampshire.....      37,269     33,406     36,483      35,989     35,377     31,119      32,615      33,058     35,405     33,269

New Jersey.....        227,731    198,701    220,836     210,721    218,012    197,598     198,223     195,999    197,194    199,380
New Mexico.....         43,231     39,261     40,168      42,559     40,990     42,850      39,633      41,720     38,728     40,414
New York.....          492,245    469,294    484,162     488,741    470,026    445,177     442,368     451,921    457,571    462,887
North Carolina.....    232,642    213,396    221,808     219,357    225,078    192,138     195,124     206,971    206,445    200,246
North Dakota.....       24,038     23,501     23,222      27,858     23,040     28,948      31,279      31,169     24,555     26,586
Ohio.....              274,448    251,839    257,809     260,780    257,128    236,802     234,642     260,094    258,978    247,337
Oklahoma.....           79,854     72,627     71,683      78,448     79,388     81,960      80,611      84,340     74,654     76,784
Oregon.....            106,625    106,558    104,631     105,869    102,987     93,530      88,983     100,510     98,653     96,138
Pennsylvania.....      288,170    271,355    267,682     285,600    274,145    258,949     264,903     272,140    258,787    259,210
Rhode Island.....       27,173     24,014     25,497      23,215     23,939     23,455      24,234      25,797     24,839     23,877

South Carolina.....    115,442     98,841    103,090     104,132    109,616     85,611      95,873      96,435     93,785     90,460
South Dakota.....       22,966     21,499     21,895      22,031     21,028     20,376      21,188      21,613     21,592     21,226
Tennessee.....         153,086    130,023    140,634     146,834    143,900    116,059     125,798     131,687    128,999    124,788
Texas.....             600,731    460,303    617,972     615,542    588,118    543,729     543,545     531,640    537,088    534,816
Utah.....               81,519     84,042     78,366      86,072     78,902     68,467      68,450      73,446     75,466     74,856
Vermont.....            18,140     16,825     18,741      18,293     17,874     16,671      17,717      18,300     18,753     17,725
Virginia.....          195,967    181,750    196,598     187,117    191,763    172,197     182,918     185,928    188,363    179,824
Washington.....        177,055    187,946    192,605     177,742    192,603    159,981     148,670     154,150    169,322    179,378
West Virginia.....      36,337     32,562     31,986      35,381     34,784     35,335      37,995      37,599     35,652     33,754
Wisconsin.....         145,150    136,563    137,744     133,492    133,351    126,012     126,353     139,248    134,073    131,301

Wyoming.....            19,048     16,868     15,896      16,789     17,778     19,747      19,826      21,419     17,993     17,529
Puerto Rico.....        42,057     38,292     37,884      39,108     39,503     38,537      40,072      38,038     38,260     35,843
Virgin Islands.....      1,979      1,549      1,746       1,712      1,629      1,451       1,469       1,602      1,794      1,689

The sum of the states will not necessarily add to the U.S. total because of the independent seasonal adjustment of each state.
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.






Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Dec.    Mar.     June     Sept.   Dec.        Dec.     Mar.      June    Sept.    Dec. 
                        2015    2016     2016     2016    2016        2015     2016      2016    2016     2016

United States(1)...      6.6     5.8      6.2      6.4     6.2         5.8      5.7       6.0      5.8     5.8

Alabama.....             6.2     5.8      5.8      6.2     5.8         5.3      5.4       5.8      5.7     5.7
Alaska.....              9.6     9.4     10.3      9.0     9.6        10.5      9.7      11.9     11.1    10.0
Arizona.....             6.9     6.0      6.1      7.1     6.0         5.4      5.7       6.1      5.2     5.5
Arkansas.....            6.3     5.4      5.4      6.2     5.7         5.3      5.3       5.8      5.4     5.2
California.....          7.6     6.5      6.8      6.9     6.7         6.7      6.3       6.7      6.1     6.3
Colorado.....            7.0     6.6      6.9      7.1     6.6         6.4      6.1       6.5      6.2     6.6
Connecticut.....         5.5     5.2      5.4      5.2     5.1         4.9      5.0       5.3      5.3     5.1
Delaware.....            7.3     6.5      6.7      6.3     6.2         6.2      6.4       6.6      6.5     6.2
District of Columbia..   6.2     5.2      5.8      6.2     5.5         4.6      5.6       6.1      5.7     5.6
Florida.....             7.2     6.1      6.4      7.4     6.7         5.8      5.8       5.9      5.7     6.1

Georgia.....             6.9     6.1      7.0      6.7     6.5         5.7      5.6       6.6      5.9     5.8
Hawaii.....              5.8     4.9      5.4      5.8     5.2         4.4      4.9       6.0      5.0     5.1
Idaho.....               7.9     8.2      7.1      7.9     7.6         6.9      6.3       7.1      7.1     6.6
Illinois.....            6.4     5.3      5.9      5.7     6.1         5.6      5.4       5.9      5.7     5.7
Indiana.....             6.2     5.5      5.2      5.8     5.4         4.9      5.3       5.2      5.1     5.2
Iowa.....                6.0     6.0      5.6      6.0     5.7         5.7      5.3       6.1      5.8     5.9
Kansas.....              6.2     5.8      5.6      6.2     5.9         5.6      5.9       6.3      5.6     5.7
Kentucky.....            6.7     5.7      6.2      6.7     6.0         5.4      5.8       5.8      6.2     5.6
Louisiana.....           6.5     6.0      5.9      6.6     5.9         6.4      6.6       6.9      6.5     6.6
Maine.....               8.6     8.0      7.7      6.7     7.2         7.1      6.9       6.7      7.4     7.1

Maryland.....            6.8     6.2      6.3      6.5     6.6         5.9      6.0       6.3      6.0     6.3
Massachusetts.....       5.9     5.2      6.0      5.7     5.5         5.2      5.0       5.2      5.5     5.4
Michigan.....            6.1     5.4      5.9      5.6     5.6         5.3      4.9       5.3      5.6     5.4
Minnesota.....           6.1     5.4      5.9      6.1     5.8         5.7      5.2       5.6      5.6     5.8
Mississippi.....         7.1     5.7      5.7      6.3     6.3         5.4      6.1       6.5      5.6     5.7
Missouri.....            6.3     5.7      5.7      5.7     7.7         5.3      5.3       5.4      5.4     8.0
Montana.....             8.5     7.8      7.9      7.6     7.8         7.3      7.2       8.6      7.8     7.5
Nebraska.....            6.1     5.8      5.7      6.4     5.7         5.5      5.5       6.0      5.9     6.2
Nevada.....              6.8     6.3      6.5      6.7     6.7         5.3      5.7       5.6      5.5     5.6
New Hampshire.....       6.7     6.0      6.5      6.4     6.3         5.6      5.8       5.9      6.3     5.9

New Jersey.....          6.7     5.9      6.5      6.3     6.3         5.9      5.9       5.8      5.8     5.8
New Mexico.....          7.0     6.2      6.5      6.8     6.6         6.9      6.3       6.7      6.2     6.5
New York.....            6.4     6.1      6.2      6.3     6.0         5.7      5.7       5.8      5.9     5.9
North Carolina.....      6.7     6.0      6.3      6.1     6.3         5.5      5.6       5.8      5.8     5.6
North Dakota.....        6.7     6.6      6.8      8.1     6.7         8.1      8.9       9.0      7.1     7.8
Ohio.....                6.0     5.4      5.6      5.6     5.5         5.1      5.1       5.6      5.6     5.3
Oklahoma.....            6.3     5.7      5.8      6.3     6.3         6.5      6.4       6.8      6.0     6.1
Oregon.....              7.0     7.0      6.7      6.9     6.6         6.2      5.8       6.5      6.4     6.2
Pennsylvania.....        5.7     5.4      5.3      5.7     5.4         5.1      5.2       5.4      5.1     5.1
Rhode Island.....        6.6     5.8      6.2      5.6     5.7         5.7      5.9       6.2      6.0     5.8

South Carolina.....      7.1     6.1      6.3      6.3     6.6         5.3      5.8       5.8      5.7     5.4
South Dakota.....        6.7     6.2      6.4      6.4     6.0         5.9      6.1       6.2      6.2     6.1
Tennessee.....           6.3     5.2      5.7      5.9     5.7         4.8      5.1       5.3      5.2     5.0
Texas.....               6.1     4.7      6.3      6.2     5.9         5.5      5.5       5.4      5.4     5.4
Utah.....                7.2     7.3      6.7      7.4     6.7         6.0      5.9       6.4      6.5     6.3
Vermont.....             7.2     6.6      7.4      7.2     7.0         6.5      6.9       7.2      7.4     7.0
Virginia.....            6.4     5.9      6.4      6.0     6.2         5.6      5.9       6.0      6.1     5.9
Washington.....          6.8     7.1      7.2      6.7     7.2         6.2      5.6       5.8      6.4     6.7
West Virginia.....       6.6     5.9      5.8      6.6     6.4         6.3      6.9       6.9      6.6     6.2
Wisconsin.....           6.0     5.6      5.7      5.5     5.4         5.2      5.2       5.7      5.5     5.3

Wyoming.....             9.0     7.9      7.7      8.3     8.8         9.3      9.4      10.4      8.9     8.7
Puerto Rico.....         6.3     5.7      5.6      5.8     5.9         5.7      6.0       5.6      5.7     5.3
Virgin Islands.....      7.3     5.7      6.3      6.2     5.9         5.3      5.4       5.8      6.5     6.1

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.






Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2006  March               236      3.3       195     2.8          949        .8      767        .7
      June                233      3.3       206     2.9          987        .9      850        .8
      September           224      3.1       210     2.9          934        .8      843        .7
      December            236      3.3       207     2.9          976        .9      812        .7

2007  March               232      3.2       205     2.8          918        .8      787        .7
      June                225      3.1       215     3.0          898        .8      859        .8
      September           233      3.2       216     3.0          952        .8      845        .7
      December            228      3.1       218     3.0          922        .8      836        .7

2008  March               226      3.1       224     3.1          919        .8      832        .7
      June                221      3.0       238     3.3          876        .8      913        .8
      September           216      3.0       233     3.2          849        .8      881        .8
      December            211      2.9       253     3.5          819        .7      951        .9

2009  March               197      2.7       247     3.4          738        .7      869        .8
      June                201      2.8       238     3.3          767        .7      837        .8
      September           192      2.7       227     3.2          725        .7      793        .7
      December            202      2.8       218     3.1          728        .7      749        .7

2010  March               193      2.7       211     3.0          706        .7      687        .7
      June                193      2.7       202     2.9          730        .7      665        .6
      September           207      2.9       204     2.9          754        .7      701        .7
      December            216      3.0       201     2.8          805        .8      700        .7

2011  March               204      2.9       200     2.8          715        .7      632        .6
      June                210      2.9       205     2.9          767        .7      689        .6
      September           206      2.9       196     2.7          794        .7      675        .6
      December            214      3.0       198     2.8          800        .7      700        .6

2012  March               236      3.3       186     2.6          784        .7      614        .6
      June                216      3.0       195     2.7          799        .7      676        .6
      September           210      2.9       197     2.7          805        .7      693        .6
      December            218      3.0       183     2.5          809        .7      673        .6

2013  March               204      2.8       192     2.6          745        .7      645        .6
      June                222      3.0       215     2.9          790        .7      695        .6
      September           219      2.9       195     2.6          822        .7      678        .6
      December            216      2.9       187     2.5          806        .7      673        .6

2014  March               220      2.9       188     2.5          780        .7      629        .6
      June                220      2.9       205     2.7          806        .7      718        .6
      September           225      3.0       200     2.6          829        .7      705        .6
      December            223      2.9       197     2.6          838        .7      709        .6

2015  March               234      3.1       206     2.7          813        .7      690        .6
      June                234      3.1       213     2.8          839        .7      735        .6
      September           242      3.1       207     2.7          882        .7      704        .6
      December            246      3.2       208     2.7          895        .8      733        .6

2016  March               220      2.8       204     2.6          734        .6      667        .6
      June                252      3.2       N/A     N/A          889        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           238      3.0       N/A     N/A          866        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            246      3.1       N/A     N/A          919        .8      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters by definition. See the 
    Technical Note for more information.
(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage of the average of the previous and current 
    quarter employment levels or total number of establishments.






Last Modified Date: July 26, 2017