Job Openings and Labor Turnover Summary


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, March 10, 2015	USDL-15-0385

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – JANUARY 2015

There were 5.0 million job openings on the last business day of January, little changed from 4.9 million 
in December, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Hires decreased to 5.0 million in 
January and separations were little changed at 4.8 million. Within separations, the quits rate was little 
changed at 2.0 percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 1.2 percent. This release 
includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector 
by industry and by four geographic regions. The release also includes 2014 annual estimates for hires 
and separations. The annual number of hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations 
increased in 2014.

Job Openings

There were 5.0 million job openings on the last business day of January, little changed from December. 
This was the highest level of job openings since January 2001. The job openings rate for January was 
3.4 percent. The number of job openings was little changed for total private and government in January. 
Job openings increased for accommodation and food services and in the West region. (See table 1.)
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|                                 Revisions to the JOLTS Data                                          |
|Effective with this release, revisions to data from January 2010 forward incorporate annual updates to|
|the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the Job Openings and Labor Turnover        |
|Survey seasonal adjustment factors. See page 4 for more information on the revisions.                 |
|______________________________________________________________________________________________________|

The number of job openings (not seasonally adjusted) increased over the 12 months ending in January 
for total nonfarm, total private, and government. Job openings increased over the year for many 
industries including professional and business services, health care and social assistance, and 
accommodation and food services. Job openings decreased over the year in mining and logging. The 
number of openings increased over the year in all four regions. (See table 7.)

Hires

There were 5.0 million hires in January, down from December. The hires rate in January was 3.5 
percent. The number of hires decreased for total private in January and was little changed in 
government. Hires decreased over the month in construction and in the Northeast region. (See table 2.)

Over the 12 months ending in January, the number of hires (not seasonally adjusted) increased for total 
nonfarm and total private, and was little changed for government. Hires increased over the year in retail 
trade and in finance and insurance. Hires decreased over the year in educational services. In the regions, 
hires increased over the year in the Midwest. (See table 8.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations include separations 
due to retirement, death, and disability, as well as transfers to other locations of the same firm.

There were 4.8 million total separations in January, little changed from December. The separations rate 
was 3.4 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and government, 
and in all four regions. (See table 3.)

There were 2.8 million quits in January, little changed from December. The quits rate in January was 
2.0 percent. The number of quits was little changed for total private and unchanged for government over 
the month. Quits increased in January in professional and business services and in health care and social 
assistance. The number of quits increased in the Midwest region. (See table 4.)

The number of quits (not seasonally adjusted) increased over the 12 months ending in January for total 
nonfarm and total private and was little changed for government. Over the year, quits increased for 
several industries, including the professional and business services and the accommodation and food 
services industries. The number of quits increased over the year in all four regions. (See table 10.)

There were 1.7 million layoffs and discharges in January, little changed from December. The layoffs 
and discharges rate was 1.2 percent. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed over the 
month for total private and government, and in all four regions. (See table 5.) Seasonally adjusted 
estimates of layoffs and discharges are not available for individual industries.

The number of layoffs and discharges (not seasonally adjusted) was little changed over the 12 months 
ending in January for total nonfarm, total private, and government. The number of layoffs and 
discharges increased in mining and logging, construction, and federal government. The number 
decreased over the year in finance and insurance; educational services; and health care and social 
assistance. Layoffs and discharges was little changed in all four regions. (See table 11.)

In January, there were 354,000 other separations for total nonfarm, a decrease from December. Over 
the month, the number of other separations decreased for total private to 287,000 and was little changed 
for government at 67,000. (See table 6.) Seasonally adjusted estimates of other separations are not 
available for individual industries or regions.

Over the 12 months ending in January, the number of other separations (not seasonally adjusted) was 
little changed for total nonfarm, total private, and government. Other separations increased over the year 
in retail trade and educational services. The number decreased in wholesale trade, information, and 
federal government. Other separations increased in the West region but decreased in the Midwest region. 
(See table 12.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in January 2015, hires totaled 59.1 
million and separations totaled 56.0 million, yielding a net employment gain of 3.1 million. These 
figures include workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

Annual Levels and Rates

This release contains the 2014 annual levels and rates for hires, total separations, quits, layoffs and 
discharges, and other separations. Note that annual figures for job openings are not calculated because 
job openings are measured on a stock, or point-in-time, basis rather than on a flow basis over a specified 
time period. The annual figures and additional tables are published with the release of January data each 
year. (See the Technical Note for additional information on these measures.)

Calculating annual levels and rates allows additional comparisons across years. In 2014, annual levels 
for hires, quits, and other separations rose for the fourth consecutive year. The layoffs and discharges 
annual level rose in 2014 after declining in 2013.

In 2014, annual hires increased to 58.7 million (42.2 percent of employment) and annual total 
separations rose to 55.5 million (39.9 percent of employment). Annual quits increased to 30.5 million 
(22.0 percent of employment) in 2014. Annual layoffs and discharges increased in 2014 to 20.4 million 
(14.7 percent of employment). Annual other separations rose in 2014 to 4.6 million (3.3 percent of 
employment). (See tables 13 through 22.)
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for February 2015 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, April 7, 2015 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
          Category             | Jan. | Dec. | Jan. | Jan. | Dec. | Jan. | Jan. | Dec. | Jan.
                               | 2014 | 2014 | 2015p| 2014 | 2014 | 2015p| 2014 | 2014 | 2015p
-------------------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     LEVELS BY INDUSTRY        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
       (in thousands)          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..........................|3,906 |4,877 |4,998 |4,600 |5,239 |4,996 |4,473 |4,901 |4,821 
                               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..............|3,518 |4,396 |4,523 |4,317 |4,920 |4,686 |4,172 |4,593 |4,495
  Construction.................|  131 |  140 |  120 |  295 |  438 |  364 |  237 |  393 |  332
  Manufacturing................|  263 |  310 |  330 |  248 |  276 |  262 |  236 |  253 |  252
   Durable goods...............|  166 |  195 |  202 |  143 |  164 |  157 |  137 |  146 |  145
   Nondurable goods............|   96 |  115 |  127 |  106 |  112 |  105 |  100 |  108 |  107
  Trade, transportation,       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities(2)............|  670 |  831 |  876 |  947 |1,118 |1,087 |  973 |1,079 |1,074
   Retail trade................|  381 |  516 |  516 |  627 |  787 |  768 |  669 |  767 |  738
  Professional and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   business services...........|  644 |  967 |  927 |  961 |1,040 |1,022 |  923 |  942 |  984
  Education and health         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services(3).................|  721 |  923 |  889 |  571 |  602 |  559 |  573 |  541 |  529
   Health care and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    social assistance..........|  646 |  837 |  801 |  482 |  528 |  497 |  487 |  470 |  464
  Leisure and hospitality......|  599 |  651 |  755 |  819 |  930 |  881 |  788 |  881 |  845
   Arts, entertainment         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and recreation.............|   88 |   65 |   66 |  132 |  137 |  147 |  126 |  131 |  148
   Accommodation and           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    food services..............|  512 |  586 |  689 |  687 |  793 |  734 |  661 |  750 |  698
 Government(4).................|  388 |  482 |  475 |  283 |  319 |  310 |  301 |  308 |  327
  State and local..............|  339 |  409 |  422 |  258 |  289 |  276 |  256 |  280 |  276
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
                               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     RATES BY INDUSTRY         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
         (percent)             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..........................|  2.8 |  3.4 |  3.4 |  3.3 |  3.7 |  3.5 |  3.2 |  3.5 |  3.4
                               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..............|  2.9 |  3.6 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  4.1 |  3.9 |  3.6 |  3.9 |  3.8
  Construction.................|  2.1 |  2.2 |  1.9 |  4.9 |  7.0 |  5.8 |  3.9 |  6.3 |  5.3
  Manufacturing................|  2.1 |  2.5 |  2.6 |  2.1 |  2.2 |  2.1 |  2.0 |  2.1 |  2.0
   Durable goods...............|  2.1 |  2.4 |  2.5 |  1.9 |  2.1 |  2.0 |  1.8 |  1.9 |  1.9
   Nondurable goods............|  2.1 |  2.5 |  2.7 |  2.3 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.4 |  2.4
  Trade, transportation,       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities(2)............|  2.5 |  3.0 |  3.2 |  3.6 |  4.2 |  4.1 |  3.7 |  4.0 |  4.0
   Retail trade................|  2.4 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  4.1 |  5.1 |  4.9 |  4.4 |  4.9 |  4.7
  Professional and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   business services...........|  3.3 |  4.7 |  4.5 |  5.1 |  5.3 |  5.2 |  4.9 |  4.8 |  5.0
  Education and health         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services(3).................|  3.3 |  4.1 |  3.9 |  2.7 |  2.8 |  2.6 |  2.7 |  2.5 |  2.4
   Health care and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    social assistance..........|  3.5 |  4.4 |  4.2 |  2.7 |  2.9 |  2.7 |  2.7 |  2.6 |  2.5
  Leisure and hospitality......|  4.0 |  4.2 |  4.8 |  5.7 |  6.2 |  5.9 |  5.4 |  5.9 |  5.6
   Arts, entertainment         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and recreation.............|  4.0 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  6.4 |  6.4 |  6.9 |  6.1 |  6.1 |  6.9
   Accommodation and           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    food services..............|  4.0 |  4.4 |  5.1 |  5.5 |  6.2 |  5.7 |  5.3 |  5.9 |  5.4
 Government(4).................|  1.7 |  2.2 |  2.1 |  1.3 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.5
  State and local..............|  1.7 |  2.1 |  2.2 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.3 |  1.5 |  1.4
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not
shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown
separately.
  3 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  4 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p Preliminary
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current
Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment
factors.


                    Revisions to Job Openings and Labor Turnover Data

In accordance with annual practice, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) data have 
been revised to reflect annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics (CES), or establishment 
survey, employment estimates. The JOLTS employment levels (not published) are ratio-adjusted to the 
CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios are applied to all JOLTS data elements. This annual 
benchmark process resulted in revisions to all not seasonally adjusted JOLTS data series from April 
2013 forward, the time period since the last benchmark was established. Additionally, the seasonally 
adjusted JOLTS data series have been recalculated from January 2010 forward to reflect updated 
seasonal adjustment factors. Further, the methodology incorporated in 2009 to more closely align the 
hires and separations estimates with the monthly payroll employment change created a dependency of 
the not seasonally adjusted estimates on the seasonal adjustment process. Therefore, the not seasonally 
adjusted data series have been recalculated from January 2010 forward to reflect the updated seasonal 
adjustment factors’ effect on the alignment process.

Tables B through G below present revised total nonfarm data for January through December 2014. The 
December 2014 revisions also reflect the routine incorporation of additional sample receipts into the 
final December estimates. Tables presenting revisions to total nonfarm data for January 2010 through 
December 2013 will be available later today on the JOLTS website. The website also contains all 
revised seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data. The revision tables and data can be 
accessed through the JOLTS homepage at //www.bls.gov/jlt.


Table B. Revisions in job openings data January 2014 - December 2014,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2014   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    3,874   |  3,906  |     32     |     2.7    |  2.8    |    0.1
February..|    4,125   |  4,160  |     35     |     2.9    |  2.9    |     .0
March.....|    4,166   |  4,210  |     44     |     2.9    |  3.0    |     .1
April.....|    4,464   |  4,417  |    -47     |     3.1    |  3.1    |     .0
May.......|    4,577   |  4,608  |     31     |     3.2    |  3.2    |     .0
June......|    4,675   |  4,710  |     35     |     3.3    |  3.3    |     .0
July......|    4,605   |  4,726  |    121     |     3.2    |  3.3    |     .1
August....|    4,853   |  4,925  |     72     |     3.4    |  3.4    |     .0
September.|    4,685   |  4,678  |     -7     |     3.2    |  3.2    |     .0
October...|    4,830   |  4,849  |     19     |     3.3    |  3.4    |     .1
November..|    4,847   |  4,886  |     39     |     3.3    |  3.4    |     .1
December..|    5,028   |  4,877  |   -151     |     3.5    |  3.4    |    -.1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________


Table C. Revisions in hires data January 2014 - December 2014,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2014   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    4,516   |  4,600  |     84     |     3.3    |  3.3    |    0.0
February..|    4,699   |  4,698  |     -1     |     3.4    |  3.4    |     .0
March.....|    4,706   |  4,744  |     38     |     3.4    |  3.4    |     .0
April.....|    4,770   |  4,790  |     20     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
May.......|    4,738   |  4,805  |     67     |     3.4    |  3.5    |     .1
June......|    4,791   |  4,820  |     29     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
July......|    4,934   |  5,003  |     69     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
August....|    4,742   |  4,792  |     50     |     3.4    |  3.4    |     .0
September.|    5,075   |  5,061  |    -14     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
October...|    5,101   |  5,106  |      5     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
November..|    5,054   |  5,026  |    -28     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
December..|    5,148   |  5,239  |     91     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________


Table D. Revisions in total separations data January 2014 - December 2014,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2014   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    4,419   |  4,473  |     54     |     3.2    |  3.2    |    0.0
February..|    4,459   |  4,486  |     27     |     3.2    |  3.3    |     .1
March.....|    4,491   |  4,519  |     28     |     3.3    |  3.3    |     .0
April.....|    4,550   |  4,522  |    -28     |     3.3    |  3.3    |     .0
May.......|    4,530   |  4,543  |     13     |     3.3    |  3.3    |     .0
June......|    4,520   |  4,523  |      3     |     3.3    |  3.3    |     .0
July......|    4,629   |  4,711  |     82     |     3.3    |  3.4    |     .1
August....|    4,531   |  4,569  |     38     |     3.3    |  3.3    |     .0
September.|    4,809   |  4,829  |     20     |     3.4    |  3.5    |     .1
October...|    4,863   |  4,906  |     43     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
November..|    4,700   |  4,628  |    -72     |     3.4    |  3.3    |    -.1
December..|    4,886   |  4,901  |     15     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________


Table E. Revisions in quits data January 2014 - December 2014,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2014   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    2,368   |  2,384  |     16     |     1.7    |  1.7    |    0.0
February..|    2,475   |  2,438  |    -37     |     1.8    |  1.8    |     .0
March.....|    2,461   |  2,430  |    -31     |     1.8    |  1.8    |     .0
April.....|    2,467   |  2,413  |    -54     |     1.8    |  1.7    |    -.1
May.......|    2,487   |  2,494  |      7     |     1.8    |  1.8    |     .0
June......|    2,484   |  2,469  |    -15     |     1.8    |  1.8    |     .0
July......|    2,547   |  2,542  |     -5     |     1.8    |  1.8    |     .0
August....|    2,510   |  2,516  |      6     |     1.8    |  1.8    |     .0
September.|    2,735   |  2,733  |     -2     |     2.0    |  2.0    |     .0
October...|    2,712   |  2,746  |     34     |     1.9    |  2.0    |     .1
November..|    2,661   |  2,662  |      1     |     1.9    |  1.9    |     .0
December..|    2,717   |  2,715  |     -2     |     1.9    |  1.9    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________


Table F. Revisions in layoffs and discharges data January 2014 - December 2014,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2014   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    1,703   |  1,752  |     49     |     1.2    |  1.3    |    0.1
February..|    1,596   |  1,671  |     75     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
March.....|    1,638   |  1,684  |     46     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
April.....|    1,701   |  1,703  |      2     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
May.......|    1,656   |  1,659  |      3     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
June......|    1,657   |  1,700  |     43     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
July......|    1,726   |  1,827  |    101     |     1.2    |  1.3    |     .1
August....|    1,619   |  1,663  |     44     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
September.|    1,653   |  1,694  |     41     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
October...|    1,757   |  1,745  |    -12     |     1.3    |  1.2    |    -.1
November..|    1,655   |  1,595  |    -60     |     1.2    |  1.1    |    -.1
December..|    1,726   |  1,725  |     -1     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________


Table G. Revisions in other separations data January 2014 - December 2014,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2014   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|      348   |    337  |    -11     |     0.3    |  0.2    |   -0.1
February..|      388   |    377  |    -11     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
March.....|      392   |    405  |     13     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
April.....|      382   |    406  |     24     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
May.......|      387   |    390  |      3     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
June......|      378   |    354  |    -24     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
July......|      356   |    343  |    -13     |      .3    |   .2    |    -.1
August....|      402   |    390  |    -12     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
September.|      420   |    402  |    -18     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
October...|      394   |    414  |     20     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
November..|      384   |    371  |    -13     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
December..|      443   |    461  |     18     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

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Last Modified Date: March 10, 2015