Union Membership (Annual) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Thursday, January 28, 2016 			      USDL-16-0158

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378   •  cpsinfo@bls.gov   •   www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact: 	        (202) 691-5902   •  PressOffice@bls.gov


				UNION MEMBERS -- 2015


The union membership rate--the percent of wage and salary workers who were members of
unions--was 11.1 percent in 2015, unchanged from 2014, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. The number of wage and salary workers belonging to unions, at 14.8
million in 2015, was little different from 2014. In 1983, the first year for which
comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 percent, and
there were 17.7 million union workers.

The data on union membership are collected as part of the Current Population Survey
(CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households that obtains
information on employment and unemployment among the nation's civilian noninstitutional
population age 16 and over. For more information, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2015 data:

•	Public-sector workers had a union membership rate (35.2 percent) more
	than five times higher than that of private-sector workers (6.7 percent).
	(See table 3.)

•	Workers in protective service occupations and in education, training,
	and library occupations had the highest unionization rates (36.3 percent
	and 35.5 percent, respectively). (See table 3.)

•	Men continued to have a slightly higher union membership rate (11.5
	percent) than women (10.6 percent). (See table 1.)

•	Black workers were more likely to be union members than were White,
	Asian, or Hispanic workers. (See table 1.)

•	Median weekly earnings of nonunion workers ($776) were 79 percent of
	earnings for workers who were union members ($980). (The comparisons
	of earnings in this release are on a broad level and do not control for
	many factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences.)
	(See table 2.)

•	Among states, New York continued to have the highest union membership
	rate (24.7 percent), while South Carolina had the lowest (2.1 percent).
	(See table 5.)

Industry and Occupation of Union Members

In 2015, 7.2 million employees in the public sector belonged to a union, compared with
7.6 million workers in the private sector. The union membership rate for public-sector
workers (35.2 percent) was substantially higher than the rate for private-sector workers
(6.7 percent). Within the public sector, the union membership rate was highest for local
government (41.3 percent), which includes employees in heavily unionized occupations,
such as teachers, police officers, and firefighters. In the private sector, industries
with high unionization rates included utilities (21.4 percent), transportation and
warehousing (18.9 percent), educational services (13.7 percent), telecommunications
(13.3 percent), and construction (13.2 percent). Low unionization rates occurred in
agriculture and related industries (1.2 percent), finance (1.3 percent), food services
and drinking places (1.5 percent), and professional and technical services (1.7 percent).
(See table 3.)

Among occupational groups, the highest unionization rates in 2015 were in protective
service occupations (36.3 percent) and in education, training, and library occupations
(35.5 percent). The lowest unionization rates were in farming, fishing, and forestry
occupations (1.9 percent) and in sales and related occupations (3.3 percent).
(See table 3.)

Selected Characteristics of Union Members

In 2015, the union membership rate continued to be slightly higher for men (11.5
percent) than for women (10.6 percent). (See table 1.) The gap between their rates
has narrowed considerably since 1983 (the earliest year for which comparable data are
available), when rates for men and women were 24.7 percent and 14.6 percent, respectively.

Among major race and ethnicity groups, Black workers continued to have a higher union
membership rate in 2015 (13.6 percent) than workers who were White (10.8 percent), Asian
(9.8 percent), or Hispanic (9.4 percent).

By age, union membership rates continued to be highest among workers ages 45 to 64.
In 2015, 13.6 percent of workers ages 45 to 54 and 14.3 percent of those ages 55 to
64 were union members.

The union membership rate was 12.2 percent for full-time workers, more than twice
the rate for part-time workers, 5.9 percent.

Union Representation

In 2015, 16.4 million wage and salary workers were represented by a union. This group
includes both union members (14.8 million) and workers who report no union affiliation
but whose jobs are covered by a union contract (1.6 million). (See table 1.)

Earnings

Among full-time wage and salary workers, union members had median usual weekly
earnings of $980 in 2015, while those who were not union members had median weekly
earnings of $776. In addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, this
earnings difference reflects a variety of influences, including variations in the
distributions of union members and nonunion employees by occupation, industry, age,
firm size, or geographic region. (See tables 2 and 4.)

Union Membership by State

In 2015, 30 states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates below
that of the U.S. average, 11.1 percent, and 20 states had rates above it. All states
in the East South Central and West South Central divisions had union membership rates
below the national average, and all states in the Middle Atlantic and Pacific divisions
had rates above it. Union membership rates increased over the year in 24 states and
the District of Columbia, declined in 23 states, and were unchanged in 3 states.
(See table 5.)

Five states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent in 2015: South Carolina
(2.1 percent), North Carolina (3.0 percent), Utah (3.9 percent), Georgia (4.0 percent),
and Texas (4.5 percent). Two states had union membership rates over 20.0 percent in
2015: New York (24.7 percent) and Hawaii (20.4 percent). 

State union membership levels depend on both the employment level and the union
membership rate. The largest numbers of union members lived in California (2.5 million)
and New York (2.0 million). Roughly half of the 14.8 million union members in the
U.S. lived in just seven states (California, 2.5 million; New York, 2.0 million;
Illinois, 0.8 million; Pennsylvania, 0.7 million; and Michigan, Ohio, and New Jersey,
0.6 million each), though these states accounted for only about one-third of wage and
salary employment nationally.




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
which provides basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment.
The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census
Bureau from a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible households.
The union membership and earnings data are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly
sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded.

   Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in the
CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS website at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon
request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample
estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference,
or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or
level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 
standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are
generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The state section of this release
preserves the long-time practice of highlighting the direction of the movements in state
union membership rates and levels regardless of their statistical significance.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many
reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to
provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating standard
errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Union membership questions 

   Employed wage and salary workers are classified as union members if they answer “yes” to 
the following question: On this job, are you a member of a labor union or of an employee
association similar to a union? If the response is “no” to that question, then the interviewer
asks a second question: On this job, are you covered by a union or employee association
contract? If the response is “yes,” then these persons, along with those who responded “yes”
to being union members, are classified as represented by a union.  If the response is “no”
to both the first and second questions, then they are classified as nonunion.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar
to a union.

   Union membership rate. Data refer to the proportion of total wage and salary workers who
are union members.
   
   Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union
affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

   Nonunion. Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a
union on their job.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions and
include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in the
case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they usually
earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify the easiest
way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly, annually,
other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings reported on a
basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term "usual" is as perceived
by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed
to define the term as more than half of the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution into
two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings below the
median. The estimating procedure places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value into
$50-wide intervals which are centered around multiples of $50. The actual value is estimated
through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the median lies.

   Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in
kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors.
Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers, both those with
incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or
principal job.

   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their sole or
principal job.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the enumeration
process as being Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic
or Latino may be of any race.




Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2014-2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2014 2015
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

131,431 14,576 11.1 16,152 12.3 133,743 14,795 11.1 16,441 12.3

16 to 24 years

18,019 804 4.5 956 5.3 18,311 800 4.4 967 5.3

25 years and over

113,412 13,772 12.1 15,196 13.4 115,431 13,995 12.1 15,474 13.4

25 to 34 years

30,158 2,879 9.5 3,205 10.6 30,870 2,985 9.7 3,363 10.9

35 to 44 years

27,948 3,460 12.4 3,823 13.7 28,101 3,457 12.3 3,785 13.5

45 to 54 years

28,540 3,927 13.8 4,286 15.0 28,764 3,909 13.6 4,306 15.0

55 to 64 years

20,781 2,924 14.1 3,229 15.5 21,288 3,035 14.3 3,329 15.6

65 years and over

5,985 582 9.7 653 10.9 6,408 610 9.5 691 10.8

Men, 16 years and over

68,048 7,939 11.7 8,717 12.8 69,298 7,963 11.5 8,760 12.6

16 to 24 years

9,141 462 5.1 540 5.9 9,250 485 5.2 563 6.1

25 years and over

58,907 7,476 12.7 8,177 13.9 60,048 7,478 12.5 8,197 13.7

25 to 34 years

16,172 1,611 10.0 1,773 11.0 16,550 1,639 9.9 1,825 11.0

35 to 44 years

14,769 1,913 13.0 2,108 14.3 14,844 1,857 12.5 2,023 13.6

45 to 54 years

14,508 2,085 14.4 2,256 15.6 14,696 2,079 14.1 2,281 15.5

55 to 64 years

10,419 1,553 14.9 1,689 16.2 10,698 1,588 14.8 1,717 16.0

65 years and over

3,040 315 10.4 351 11.5 3,259 315 9.7 352 10.8

Women, 16 years and over

63,383 6,638 10.5 7,434 11.7 64,445 6,833 10.6 7,681 11.9

16 to 24 years

8,879 342 3.8 416 4.7 9,061 315 3.5 405 4.5

25 years and over

54,505 6,296 11.6 7,019 12.9 55,384 6,518 11.8 7,277 13.1

25 to 34 years

13,985 1,268 9.1 1,431 10.2 14,320 1,346 9.4 1,538 10.7

35 to 44 years

13,180 1,548 11.7 1,715 13.0 13,257 1,600 12.1 1,762 13.3

45 to 54 years

14,032 1,842 13.1 2,030 14.5 14,068 1,830 13.0 2,025 14.4

55 to 64 years

10,362 1,371 13.2 1,541 14.9 10,590 1,447 13.7 1,613 15.2

65 years and over

2,946 267 9.1 302 10.2 3,149 294 9.3 339 10.8

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

104,065 11,274 10.8 12,503 12.0 104,991 11,301 10.8 12,627 12.0

Men

54,747 6,295 11.5 6,900 12.6 55,402 6,222 11.2 6,875 12.4

Women

49,318 4,979 10.1 5,602 11.4 49,590 5,079 10.2 5,752 11.6

Black or African American, 16 years and over

15,830 2,097 13.2 2,303 14.6 16,552 2,246 13.6 2,427 14.7

Men

7,243 1,047 14.5 1,147 15.8 7,558 1,097 14.5 1,174 15.5

Women

8,586 1,050 12.2 1,156 13.5 8,995 1,149 12.8 1,253 13.9

Asian, 16 years and over

7,476 779 10.4 866 11.6 7,883 770 9.8 860 10.9

Men

3,921 361 9.2 416 10.6 4,113 367 8.9 416 10.1

Women

3,555 418 11.8 450 12.6 3,770 403 10.7 444 11.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

21,571 1,978 9.2 2,220 10.3 22,351 2,104 9.4 2,365 10.6

Men

12,339 1,155 9.4 1,286 10.4 12,670 1,211 9.6 1,346 10.6

Women

9,232 823 8.9 933 10.1 9,681 892 9.2 1,019 10.5

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS(3)

Full-time workers

106,526 13,132 12.3 14,491 13.6 109,080 13,340 12.2 14,768 13.5

Part-time workers

24,707 1,424 5.8 1,636 6.6 24,445 1,431 5.9 1,646 6.7

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics, 2014-2015 annual averages
Characteristic 2014 2015
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

$791 $970 $965 $763 $809 $980 $975 $776

16 to 24 years

477 602 605 470 487 616 605 482

25 years and over

839 987 985 810 860 997 994 831

25 to 34 years

726 874 867 705 735 886 882 716

35 to 44 years

881 1,034 1,029 848 900 1,050 1,048 870

45 to 54 years

899 1,025 1,022 872 923 1,029 1,024 899

55 to 64 years

911 1,014 1,017 885 927 1,020 1,017 904

65 years and over

824 908 920 813 873 961 963 852

Men, 16 years and over

871 1,015 1,013 840 895 1,017 1,014 869

16 to 24 years

493 644 643 485 510 655 633 505

25 years and over

922 1,036 1,035 899 947 1,041 1,038 927

25 to 34 years

755 896 889 740 770 888 889 756

35 to 44 years

964 1,102 1,097 933 983 1,093 1,094 963

45 to 54 years

1,011 1,083 1,088 994 1,040 1,107 1,110 1,023

55 to 64 years

1,021 1,068 1,076 1,007 1,064 1,084 1,082 1,059

65 years and over

942 921 936 943 1,003 1,010 998 1,005

Women, 16 years and over

719 904 899 687 726 928 921 697

16 to 24 years

451 557 562 445 450 567 565 443

25 years and over

752 921 917 728 761 944 940 736

25 to 34 years

679 848 843 655 690 884 876 667

35 to 44 years

781 962 956 751 804 1,002 1,001 764

45 to 54 years

780 951 945 754 799 958 950 768

55 to 64 years

780 931 935 757 784 937 934 759

65 years and over

740 879 887 719 740 894 905 718

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

816 997 992 784 835 1,007 999 803

Men

897 1,043 1,041 867 920 1,051 1,044 895

Women

734 929 923 704 743 952 944 715

Black or African American, 16 years and over

639 810 807 611 641 800 798 617

Men

680 835 833 648 680 824 821 650

Women

611 792 788 590 615 768 768 595

Asian, 16 years and over

953 979 998 948 993 1,094 1,107 977

Men

1,080 1,028 1,041 1,087 1,129 1,097 1,125 1,130

Women

841 939 950 823 877 1,091 1,090 835

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

594 811 795 573 604 862 847 586

Men

616 860 838 596 631 901 887 610

Women

548 757 739 520 566 778 783 541

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2014-2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2014 2015
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

48,890 5,835 11.9 6,612 13.5 50,939 6,132 12.0 6,983 13.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18,717 870 4.6 1,016 5.4 19,636 871 4.4 1,057 5.4

Management occupations

12,550 562 4.5 653 5.2 13,213 581 4.4 701 5.3

Business and financial operations occupations

6,168 308 5.0 362 5.9 6,423 290 4.5 356 5.5

Professional and related occupations

30,173 4,965 16.5 5,597 18.5 31,302 5,261 16.8 5,926 18.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,057 169 4.2 223 5.5 4,195 162 3.9 221 5.3

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,635 160 6.1 190 7.2 2,777 190 6.8 219 7.9

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,232 122 9.9 149 12.1 1,309 109 8.3 139 10.6

Community and social service occupations

2,373 358 15.1 396 16.7 2,517 386 15.3 412 16.4

Legal occupations

1,440 86 6.0 107 7.5 1,475 83 5.6 100 6.8

Education, training, and library occupations

8,437 2,976 35.3 3,279 38.9 8,766 3,112 35.5 3,466 39.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2,071 117 5.6 137 6.6 2,120 161 7.6 187 8.8

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

7,928 977 12.3 1,115 14.1 8,142 1,059 13.0 1,183 14.5

Service occupations

23,481 2,498 10.6 2,740 11.7 23,503 2,492 10.6 2,759 11.7

Healthcare support occupations

3,326 305 9.2 346 10.4 3,305 279 8.4 314 9.5

Protective service occupations

3,128 1,103 35.3 1,166 37.3 3,092 1,123 36.3 1,189 38.5

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,021 338 4.2 389 4.9 8,016 329 4.1 381 4.8

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4,916 504 10.2 560 11.4 4,868 473 9.7 537 11.0

Personal care and service occupations

4,090 248 6.1 279 6.8 4,222 288 6.8 338 8.0

Sales and office occupations

30,903 2,023 6.5 2,277 7.4 30,931 2,055 6.6 2,311 7.5

Sales and related occupations

13,529 415 3.1 499 3.7 13,574 441 3.3 505 3.7

Office and administrative support occupations

17,374 1,608 9.3 1,778 10.2 17,357 1,614 9.3 1,806 10.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,627 1,782 15.3 1,909 16.4 11,694 1,751 15.0 1,868 16.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

935 24 2.5 30 3.2 971 18 1.9 25 2.5

Construction and extraction occupations

6,196 1,104 17.8 1,167 18.8 6,193 1,067 17.2 1,133 18.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,496 655 14.6 711 15.8 4,530 666 14.7 710 15.7

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

16,530 2,438 14.8 2,614 15.8 16,676 2,365 14.2 2,521 15.1

Production occupations

8,098 1,066 13.2 1,150 14.2 8,180 1,031 12.6 1,098 13.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,432 1,372 16.3 1,464 17.4 8,496 1,334 15.7 1,422 16.7

INDUSTRY

Private sector

111,228 7,359 6.6 8,224 7.4 113,152 7,554 6.7 8,411 7.4

Agriculture and related industries

1,199 14 1.1 19 1.6 1,269 15 1.2 22 1.7

Nonagricultural industries

110,028 7,345 6.7 8,205 7.5 111,882 7,539 6.7 8,389 7.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,040 50 4.8 61 5.9 866 47 5.4 57 6.5

Construction

6,968 968 13.9 1,023 14.7 7,109 940 13.2 992 14.0

Manufacturing

14,471 1,409 9.7 1,517 10.5 14,547 1,369 9.4 1,462 10.0

Durable goods

9,111 876 9.6 944 10.4 9,288 874 9.4 933 10.0

Nondurable goods

5,359 534 10.0 572 10.7 5,258 494 9.4 529 10.1

Wholesale and retail trade

18,372 769 4.2 892 4.9 18,798 871 4.6 962 5.1

Wholesale trade

3,232 107 3.3 129 4.0 3,346 126 3.8 139 4.2

Retail trade

15,141 662 4.4 763 5.0 15,452 745 4.8 823 5.3

Transportation and utilities

5,750 1,153 20.1 1,217 21.2 5,722 1,106 19.3 1,159 20.3

Transportation and warehousing

4,814 945 19.6 996 20.7 4,765 901 18.9 946 19.8

Utilities

935 209 22.3 221 23.7 957 205 21.4 213 22.3

Information(3)

2,681 231 8.6 255 9.5 2,525 217 8.6 249 9.9

Publishing, except Internet

581 21 3.6 22 3.8 495 19 3.9 22 4.4

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

347 25 7.3 29 8.2 314 37 11.7 40 12.8

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

569 40 7.0 43 7.6 561 37 6.7 48 8.5

Telecommunications

915 135 14.8 151 16.5 883 118 13.3 131 14.8

Financial activities

8,481 169 2.0 200 2.4 8,781 208 2.4 242 2.8

Finance and insurance

6,409 92 1.4 112 1.8 6,550 103 1.6 129 2.0

Finance

4,039 53 1.3 63 1.6 4,126 53 1.3 70 1.7

Insurance

2,370 39 1.6 49 2.1 2,424 51 2.1 59 2.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,071 77 3.7 88 4.2 2,231 105 4.7 113 5.1

Professional and business services

13,300 309 2.3 389 2.9 13,738 348 2.5 458 3.3

Professional and technical services

8,045 109 1.4 157 2.0 8,327 142 1.7 218 2.6

Management, administrative, and waste services

5,254 199 3.8 232 4.4 5,411 206 3.8 240 4.4

Education and health services

21,147 1,728 8.2 2,003 9.5 21,572 1,867 8.7 2,132 9.9

Educational services

4,338 508 11.7 599 13.8 4,551 625 13.7 720 15.8

Health care and social assistance

16,809 1,220 7.3 1,404 8.4 17,021 1,242 7.3 1,412 8.3

Leisure and hospitality

11,997 387 3.2 454 3.8 12,357 389 3.1 449 3.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,166 140 6.5 158 7.3 2,250 144 6.4 158 7.0

Accommodation and food services

9,831 247 2.5 296 3.0 10,107 245 2.4 291 2.9

Accommodation

1,455 130 8.9 143 9.8 1,575 116 7.4 127 8.0

Food services and drinking places

8,377 117 1.4 153 1.8 8,532 129 1.5 165 1.9

Other services(3)

5,821 171 2.9 193 3.3 5,867 177 3.0 227 3.9

Other services, except private households

5,026 157 3.1 178 3.5 5,055 166 3.3 205 4.1

Public sector

20,203 7,218 35.7 7,927 39.2 20,591 7,241 35.2 8,031 39.0

Federal government

3,408 939 27.5 1,078 31.6 3,591 979 27.3 1,160 32.3

State government

6,264 1,867 29.8 2,056 32.8 6,875 2,079 30.2 2,312 33.6

Local government

10,532 4,412 41.9 4,793 45.5 10,126 4,183 41.3 4,559 45.0

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry, 2014-2015 annual averages
Occupation and industry 2014 2015
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

$1,137 $1,132 $1,129 $1,139 $1,158 $1,152 $1,148 $1,160

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,227 1,246 1,243 1,226 1,258 1,273 1,291 1,257

Management occupations

1,295 1,333 1,333 1,292 1,351 1,386 1,380 1,349

Business and financial operations occupations

1,107 1,135 1,131 1,104 1,137 1,108 1,132 1,138

Professional and related occupations

1,078 1,117 1,112 1,068 1,112 1,140 1,132 1,103

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,368 1,288 1,277 1,373 1,428 1,388 1,327 1,434

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,377 1,416 1,424 1,370 1,424 1,393 1,399 1,427

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,168 1,271 1,276 1,141 1,206 1,249 1,266 1,187

Community and social service occupations

858 1,017 1,010 822 889 1,014 1,008 855

Legal occupations

1,271 1,208 1,333 1,270 1,391 1,551 1,547 1,373

Education, training, and library occupations

953 1,077 1,069 851 956 1,095 1,074 860

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

956 1,130 1,110 946 1,001 1,228 1,212 984

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,033 1,128 1,115 1,020 1,041 1,211 1,194 1,014

Service occupations

505 762 751 482 509 753 742 489

Healthcare support occupations

498 569 558 493 498 544 546 495

Protective service occupations

833 1,107 1,093 687 796 1,031 1,029 687

Food preparation and serving related occupations

439 535 525 433 441 515 512 436

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

480 644 633 456 486 648 628 469

Personal care and service occupations

487 591 583 480 498 515 521 496

Sales and office occupations

666 788 788 654 673 810 801 662

Sales and related occupations

705 728 724 704 716 702 710 716

Office and administrative support occupations

651 801 801 632 656 831 821 639

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

756 1,076 1,062 705 761 1,070 1,052 711

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

429 - - 423 464 - - 460

Construction and extraction occupations

756 1,095 1,078 697 749 1,082 1,064 695

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

821 1,064 1,057 782 839 1,066 1,051 799

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

642 838 830 614 656 850 842 622

Production occupations

646 825 824 620 663 824 826 635

Transportation and material moving occupations

637 850 836 608 646 876 859 610

INDUSTRY

Private sector

763 907 900 753 776 917 912 765

Agriculture and related industries

502 - - 501 522 - - 519

Nonagricultural industries

767 907 901 756 781 918 913 769

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,136 1,150 1,176 1,130 1,162 - 1,170 1,162

Construction

775 1,123 1,108 724 784 1,099 1,093 743

Manufacturing

812 861 854 807 839 876 868 833

Durable goods

840 888 886 833 872 889 881 871

Nondurable goods

765 808 795 761 776 849 841 768

Wholesale and retail trade

641 669 670 638 653 673 671 652

Wholesale trade

818 772 773 821 841 876 863 840

Retail trade

602 641 643 600 610 621 622 609

Transportation and utilities

826 1,011 1,009 785 843 1,007 1,003 803

Transportation and warehousing

780 947 947 748 790 980 977 754

Utilities

1,156 1,275 1,283 1,078 1,133 1,194 1,188 1,116

Information(4)

1,040 1,115 1,090 1,029 1,102 1,260 1,242 1,077

Publishing, except Internet

1,068 - - 1,081 1,098 - - 1,102

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

1,021 - - 993 996 - - 935

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

902 - - 879 980 - - 968

Telecommunications

1,145 1,143 1,114 1,151 1,162 1,212 1,208 1,148

Financial activities

941 879 884 942 964 915 924 964

Finance and insurance

989 880 893 991 1,024 983 1,004 1,024

Finance

1,012 862 889 1,014 1,061 923 1,082 1,060

Insurance

959 - - 960 973 988 981 973

Real estate and rental and leasing

768 876 869 762 782 891 893 772

Professional and business services

915 805 851 918 951 874 906 953

Professional and technical services

1,199 1,081 1,145 1,203 1,256 1,297 1,268 1,255

Management, administrative, and waste services

$580 $743 $735 $575 $605 $684 $672 $603

Education and health services

777 926 925 763 787 962 946 768

Educational services

902 967 978 879 918 1,025 1,015 896

Health care and social assistance

750 893 886 740 754 916 904 742

Leisure and hospitality

505 636 624 500 515 606 592 511

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

650 688 683 642 657 672 680 655

Accommodation and food services

481 602 591 478 492 579 558 489

Accommodation

544 639 639 522 546 645 639 532

Food services and drinking places

465 496 485 465 480 492 490 480

Other services(4)

644 871 843 636 684 903 879 677

Other services, except private households

671 887 865 662 710 916 900 703

Public sector

927 1,014 1,014 850 944 1,029 1,023 878

Federal government

1,103 1,050 1,072 1,136 1,113 1,058 1,064 1,159

State government

886 967 966 821 909 988 982 867

Local government

899 1,026 1,020 780 914 1,043 1,033 783

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.
(4) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

- Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2014-2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
State 2014 2015
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,887 204 10.8 228 12.1 1,863 190 10.2 204 11.0

Alaska

307 70 22.8 75 24.4 304 60 19.6 66 21.7

Arizona

2,593 138 5.3 173 6.7 2,661 138 5.2 163 6.1

Arkansas

1,108 52 4.7 60 5.4 1,155 58 5.1 74 6.4

California

15,135 2,472 16.3 2,652 17.5 15,657 2,486 15.9 2,689 17.2

Colorado

2,328 221 9.5 250 10.7 2,310 194 8.4 215 9.3

Connecticut

1,564 231 14.8 245 15.7 1,587 269 17.0 277 17.4

Delaware

384 38 9.9 43 11.3 412 38 9.2 43 10.4

District of Columbia

325 28 8.6 35 10.7 334 35 10.4 40 12.1

Florida

8,042 455 5.7 561 7.0 7,994 546 6.8 671 8.4

Georgia

3,926 170 4.3 193 4.9 4,016 162 4.0 206 5.1

Hawaii

572 124 21.8 131 22.9 583 119 20.4 126 21.7

Idaho

641 34 5.3 43 6.7 679 46 6.8 50 7.3

Illinois

5,500 831 15.1 880 16.0 5,566 847 15.2 892 16.0

Indiana

2,802 299 10.7 335 12.0 2,828 283 10.0 319 11.3

Iowa

1,459 156 10.7 184 12.6 1,435 138 9.6 174 12.2

Kansas

1,287 95 7.4 116 9.0 1,255 110 8.7 136 10.8

Kentucky

1,714 189 11.0 219 12.8 1,705 187 11.0 207 12.1

Louisiana

1,834 96 5.2 118 6.4 1,847 107 5.8 126 6.8

Maine

566 62 11.0 71 12.5 549 64 11.6 75 13.6

Maryland

2,612 310 11.9 347 13.3 2,757 287 10.4 337 12.2

Massachusetts

3,036 415 13.7 445 14.7 3,103 402 12.9 441 14.2

Michigan

4,028 585 14.5 631 15.7 4,083 621 15.2 672 16.5

Minnesota

2,538 360 14.2 380 15.0 2,565 363 14.2 385 15.0

Mississippi

1,028 38 3.7 46 4.5 1,103 60 5.4 75 6.8

Missouri

2,559 214 8.4 249 9.7 2,615 230 8.8 257 9.8

Montana

414 52 12.7 57 13.8 427 52 12.2 59 13.9

Nebraska

877 64 7.3 79 9.0 882 68 7.7 80 9.0

Nevada

1,173 169 14.4 192 16.4 1,232 177 14.3 203 16.5

New Hampshire

626 62 9.9 72 11.5 641 62 9.7 73 11.4

New Jersey

3,860 635 16.5 664 17.2 3,880 596 15.4 644 16.6

New Mexico

763 43 5.7 56 7.4 782 49 6.2 61 7.9

New York

8,060 1,980 24.6 2,081 25.8 8,249 2,038 24.7 2,141 26.0

North Carolina

3,936 76 1.9 126 3.2 4,089 123 3.0 167 4.1

North Dakota

353 18 5.0 24 6.9 352 19 5.4 24 6.8

Ohio

4,958 615 12.4 688 13.9 4,914 606 12.3 670 13.6

Oklahoma

1,465 89 6.0 106 7.2 1,567 88 5.6 116 7.4

Oregon

1,554 243 15.6 264 17.0 1,586 235 14.8 256 16.2

Pennsylvania

5,525 703 12.7 754 13.7 5,601 747 13.3 804 14.4

Rhode Island

453 68 15.1 72 15.8 483 68 14.2 72 14.9

South Carolina

1,884 41 2.2 61 3.2 1,960 41 2.1 57 2.9

South Dakota

363 18 4.9 22 6.0 382 22 5.9 26 6.9

Tennessee

2,514 127 5.0 141 5.6 2,693 146 5.4 175 6.5

Texas

11,205 543 4.8 700 6.2 11,177 503 4.5 626 5.6

Utah

1,236 46 3.7 57 4.6 1,274 50 3.9 67 5.2

Vermont

286 32 11.1 37 13.1 284 36 12.6 42 14.7

Virginia

3,665 179 4.9 228 6.2 3,736 202 5.4 258 6.9

Washington

2,914 491 16.8 536 18.4 2,977 500 16.8 536 18.0

West Virginia

687 73 10.6 80 11.6 665 83 12.4 91 13.7

Wisconsin

2,626 306 11.7 327 12.5 2,682 223 8.3 253 9.4

Wyoming

255 17 6.7 19 7.5 261 19 7.1 22 8.2

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: January 28, 2016