TEXT
Table 1. Hispanic or non-Hispanic origin identification by panel, May 1995
Table 2. Racial identification by panel, May 1995
Table 3. Preference for Hispanic origin as a racial category by panel, May 1995
Table 4. Preference for racial or ethnic terminology, all panels, May 1995
Table 5. Comparison of Hispanic-origin identification from the supplement and the
Table 6. Comparison of racial identification from the supplement and the initial CPS interview
Table 7. Hispanic national origin from the supplement by panel, May 1995
Table 8. Racial identification in the supplement of Hispanics with different national origins from the

Technical information:  (202) 606-7371    USDL 95-428
 
Media contact:                606-5902    For release:  Immediate
                                          Thursday, October 26, 1995
 
 
      A TEST OF METHODS FOR COLLECTING RACIAL AND ETHNIC INFORMATION
 
     The findings of a special survey to examine the effects of possible
changes in the standards for the classification of race and ethnicity in
federal government surveys were issued today by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.  The survey was conducted as a
supplement to the May 1995 Current Population Survey, a monthly sample
survey of about 56,000 households conducted by the Bureau of the Census for
the Bureau of Labor Statistics.  The May 1995 supplement was developed at
the request of the Interagency Committee for the Review of the Racial and
Ethnic Standards, established by the Office of Management and Budget.
 
     The attached report examines the initial results from the test
supplement.  More detailed findings will be issued in a November 1995
report in the BLS Statistical Working Papers series.
 
     Single copies of the report, "A CPS Supplement for Testing Methods of
Collecting Racial and Ethnic Information:  May 1995," are available from
BLS, 202-606-7375.
 
 
                                      ###
 
 
     This information will be made available to sensory-impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-606-7828, TDD phone:
202-606-5897, TDD message referral phone number:  1-800-326-2577.
 
                                  - 2 -
 
A CPS Supplement for Testing
Methods of Collecting Racial and
Ethnic Information: May 1995
___________________________________________________________________________
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
October 1995
 
 
 
Background
     In response to legislative and administrative needs, the Office of
Management and Budget (OMB) issued in 1977 the "Race and Ethnic Standards
for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting" contained in
Statistical Policy Directive No. 15.  The basic racial categories set forth
in the Directive are: American Indian or Alaskan Native; Asian or Pacific
Islander; Black; and White.  The ethnic categories specified in the
Directive are Hispanic origin and Not of Hispanic origin.
     The standards in Directive No.15 have been used for almost two decades
throughout the Federal Government for recordkeeping and the collection and
presentation of data on race and Hispanic origin. They have been used in
two decennial censuses, in surveys of the population, in data collection to
meet statutory requirements associated with civil rights monitoring and
enforcement, and in other administrative program reporting.  During the
past several years, the standards have come under increasing criticism from
those who believe that the minimum categories set forth in Directive No. 15
do not reflect the increasing racial and ethnic diversity of the Nation's
population.  Some also have proposed changing the names of several
categories.
     In response to these concerns, the House Subcommittee on Census,
Statistics, and Postal Personnel held hearings on the measurement of race
and ethnicity; and OMB announced, on July 29, 1993, that it would undertake
a comprehensive review of Directive No. 15.  A workshop convened by the
National Academy of Sciences on February 17-18, 1994 to elaborate issues
that should be addressed in the review included representatives from
government, academia, industry, and other interested groups.  OMB
established an Interagency Committee for the Review of the Racial and
Ethnic Standards.  The members of this committee represent the many and
diverse Federal needs for racial and ethnic data.  The committee created a
Research Working Group charged with developing a plan to study a number of
the important issues relevant to the review of the racial and ethnic
categories.  This led to an interagency research initiative to evaluate
proposals for revising racial and ethnic reporting categories as well as
the potential effects on data quality that could result from suggested
changes in the categories. The first project of the research agenda was
proposed in June 1994. That project was a supplement to the Current
Population Survey (CPS) designed to collect information on several of the
key issues under review.  The initial results from the supplement are
contained in this report.  The complete findings  will be considered by OMB
in reaching a decision concerning possible modifications to Directive No.
15.
 
                                  - 3 -
 
Supplement design
     The CPS is a monthly survey of the population using a scientifically
selected sample of close to 60,000 households in May representative of the
civilian noninstitutional population of the United States.  Households
selected in the sample are interviewed for 4 consecutive months, are not
interviewed for 8 months, and then are interviewed again for 4 consecutive
months.  The survey is administered by interviewers, who conduct a majority
 
of the interviews by telephone.  Race and ethnic origin of household
members are routinely collected during the first month in a face-to-face
interview.  A CPS supplement, a set of questions asked following the labor
force survey, provides the opportunity to evaluate new panels of questions
on race and ethnicity and to compare the results with answers given using
the current CPS questions.
     The Research Working Group prepared the supplement in consultation
with government questionnaire design experts and subject matter experts
from outside the Federal Government.  All questions were pretested using
cognitive methods before they were included on the supplement.  The
supplement addressed the following issues: (1) The effect of having a
multiracial category among the list of races; (2) the effect of adding
"Hispanic" to the list of racial categories; and (3) the preferences for
alternative names for racial and ethnic categories (e.g., African American
for Black and Latino for Hispanic).  The supplement was organized into four
panels, or versions, representing a two-by-two experimental design for
studying issues 1 and 2 above.  Questions relating to issue 3 were the same
for all panels.  This design permits numerous comparisons to estimate the
effects of the changes in the questions.  Each panel was given to one-
fourth of the sample, or about 15,000 households. All respondents in a
household received the same set of questions.  Household members 15 and
older were asked to respond for themselves, and and parents answered for
children too young to answer for themselves.  The panels were:
 
     Panel 1:  Separate race and Hispanic-origin questions; no multiracial
category
 
     Panel 2:  Separate race and Hispanic-origin questions with a
multiracial category
 
     Panel 3:  A combined race and Hispanic-origin question; no multiracial
category
 
     Panel 4:  A combined race and Hispanic-origin question with a
multiracial category
 
     In panels 1 and 2, the separate Hispanic-origin question was asked
before the race question.  The racial categories used in all four panels
(other than Hispanic and multiracial) were (1) White; (2) Black; (3)
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut; and (4) Asian or Pacific Islander.
Besides these specific racial categories, respondents were given the
opportunity to select "Something Else."  Those choosing the multiracial
category in panels 2 and 4 were asked to identify their specific races in a
follow-up question.    Respondents also were asked a question to determine
their preference for the name of their race or ethnic origin. Multiracial
respondents were asked the reasons why they identified themselves as
multiracial.  Hispanics were asked whether they preferred to identify
                                  - 4 -
 
themselves from a list of races that included Hispanic or through a
separate Hispanic-origin question.  All respondents were asked to specify
ancestry in an open-ended question.
 
Statistical methods
     The nonresponse rate for the labor force portion of the CPS was 6.5
percent in May.  An additional 10.6 percent of the households did not
respond to the Race and Ethnicity Supplement.  This level of nonresponse is
typical of many CPS supplements and did not differ by panel.  The data were
weighted to compensate for both sources of nonresponse and these new
weights were used throughout this analysis.  These weights, however, do not
compensate for the underrepresentation of  some racial or ethnic groups in
the CPS.  This correction would require weighting to racial and ethnic
census counts. Although this is routinely done for labor force estimates
 
from the CPS, to do it in this case would distort the effects of the
supplement's experimental design.  Therefore, racial and ethnic proportions
from the supplement must be interpreted within the context of the
experiment, .where only comparisons among the four panels are intended.
The proportions are not expected to match exactly official CPS figures.
     All statistical analyses on the effects of the different panels were
conducted using CPLX, a statistical software product of the U.S. Bureau of
the Census for log-linear model analysis that takes into account the
complex sample design of the CPS.  The analysis was designed to determine
the effects of the presence or absence of a separate Hispanic question and
the presence or absence of a separate multiracial category on  racial and
ethnic distributions.  Log-linear analyses were conducted treating each of
these effects as separate independent variables to isolate the effect of
each one.  Only statistically significant differences are reported, unless
stated otherwise.
 
Results
     Only results which address the major research issues are presented
here, and these must be taken in context.  That is, the questions were
administered by interviewers, largely over the telephone, and a majority of
the respondents had been asked in a previous non-telephone interview about
their ethnic and racial backgrounds.  Results using self-administered forms
might differ from those presented here.  More detailed findings will be
issued in a November 1995 report in the BLS Statistical Working Papers
series.
 
     Hispanic origin.  Table 1 shows the percentage of persons in each
panel that identified themselves as Hispanic. The percentage of Hispanics
in panel 4 includes multiracial respondents who selected Hispanic as one of
their races.  A higher percentage of people identified themselves as
Hispanic when they were asked a separate question than when "Hispanic" was
included as a racial category.  Even when respondents in panels 3 and 4,
where "Hispanic" was a racial category, were given another opportunity in a
later question to identify themselves as Hispanic, the proportion Hispanic
remained below that in panels 1 and 2.
 
                                  - 5 -
 
     Racial distributions.  Table 2 gives the racial distributions from the
four panels.  The distributions could be affected  both by the presence or
absence of an Hispanic category and by the presence or absence of a
multiracial category.  The percentage identifying themselves as "White" is
over 4 points higher in panels 1 and 2 when the Hispanic origin question is
asked separately.  When Hispanic origin was presented as a racial category
in panels 3 and 4, the portion of the samples identifying as Hispanic is
about 8 percent, drawing from both the white category and the "Something
Else" category.  The multiracial category was included in panels 2 and 4,
with very similar results--a little more than 1.5 percent identified as
multiracial.  When the multiracial category is included, the proportion of
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut drops on both panels 2 and 4.  The
measurement of American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut may not be
straightforward, and information presented later supports the notion that
identification as an American Indian or Alaskan Native may have a
reliability problem and be sensitive to methods effects (e.g., the way the
question is asked).  The proportions for Blacks and Asian or Pacific
Islanders were not affected by the introduction of either the Hispanic or
the multiracial  options in the list of racial categories.
     Table 2 also provides information about how those selecting the
multiracial category chose to identify themselves when given the
opportunity to specify their races.  A sizable percentage selected the
"Something Else" category or chose only one race.  Hispanics made up a
large portion of these respondents who selected multiracial in panel 2, but
not in panel 4, which included Hispanic as a racial category.  Some of
those who specified only one race, or indicated "Something Else," actually
went on to specify combinations of two or more races; but a number of
others were whites who gave both their race and their ethnic group. When
 
two or more .races were selected from the list of races by multiracial
respondents, it was most likely to be a combination including American
Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut.
 
     Hispanic as a racial category.  The question concerning whether
Hispanics prefer a separate ethnicity question or an Hispanic racial
category was asked differently depending on the panel.  Hispanic
respondents in panels 1 and 2, who had a separate ethnicity question, were
asked if they preferred that Hispanic be included in the list of races.
Those receiving panels 3 and 4, where Hispanic was a racial category, were
asked if they wanted a separate Hispanic origin question.  For comparison
across panels, respondents' answers were recoded to reflect the percentage
of Hispanics from each panel who preferred a racial category.  The results
in table 3 indicate that a substantial majority from each panel preferred
the racial category option.  Those who received the separate ethnicity
question had a somewhat lower percentage preferring the racial category.
 
     Preferred terminology.  People who identified themselves as Hispanic,
White, Black, American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut, or multiracial were given
a list of terms describing their respective racial or ethnic group and were
asked to choose which term they preferred, or to indicate whether they
preferred some other term or had no preference.  No statistically
significant differences were found across panels.  Some variation in
preferences for terms for American Indians and multiracials appeared to
exist, but these were not statistically significant given the small number
                                  - 6 -
 
of cases involved.  Table 4 gives the percentage from each group preferring
a particular term. These results have been collapsed across the panels.
The majority of Hispanic respondents chose "Hispanic" as the term they
preferred, and about 10 percent of the Hispanics chose each of the other
terms.  A majority of whites chose "White."  A large plurality of blacks
preferred the term "Black," but almost as many chose "African American" or
"Afro-American."  More than half of those identifying as American Indian or
one of the classes of Alaskan Native preferred either "American Indian" or
"Alaskan Native," but over a third chose the more generic "Native
American."  Almost 30 percent of those identifying as multiracial preferred
the term "Multiracial," but about as many had no preference.
 
     Comparison between CPS and Supplement measures.  One might expect some
inconsistency between the ethnic and racial measures collected during the
first CPS interview and those on the supplement because the questions
differ.  In addition, interviewers showed respondents a flashcard of races
and ethnic origins during the first CPS interview.  That was not the case
with the supplement, which usually was conducted by telephone.  Hispanic
origin in the CPS is determined from a general question that asks each
respondent about his or her origin or descent, and it is asked following
the race question.  Respondents who indicate that their origin is Mexican-
American, Chicano, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American,
or Other Spanish are classified as Hispanic.  The CPS race question (asked
before the origin question) gives respondents the following options: White;
Black; American Indian, Aleut, Eskimo; Asian or Pacific Islander; and
Other-Specify.  The race question on the first supplement panel most
closely resembles the CPS question.  The other panels have additional
categories.
     Table 5 shows the comparison between Hispanic classification in the
CPS and Hispanic classification in the four panels.  The level of
consistency differs across panels, and the differences can be attributed
largely to the method for ascertaining Hispanic origin in the supplement.
With a separate ethnicity question, the agreement is about 94 percent.  If
Hispanic is included as a race, the agreement between the CPS and the
supplement drops to 80 percent.  As noted above, the proportion identifying
themselves as Hispanic was significantly smaller when the supplement
included Hispanic as a racial category.  The agreement between the race
questions is found in table 6.  The "Something Else" and the "Don't
 
Know/Not Ascertained" categories have been collapsed into "All Other" for
the supplement distributions.  Regardless of the panel, almost 95 percent
of those identifying as "Black" in the CPS question also identify as
"Black" in the supplement.  The level of consistency for whites is about 96
percent in panels 1 and 2 but drops to below 91 percent in panels 3 and 4,
where some whites select "Hispanic" instead.  The agreement for Asian and
Pacific Islander respondents ranges between 86 and 93 percent, but no
detectable pattern emerges across panels.  Most of those who identified as
"Other" in the CPS question selected either "Something Else" (about 60
percent) or "White" (about 25 percent) in panels 1 and 2.  In panels 3 and
4, however, over 70 percent chose "Hispanic."  In contrast to the other
racial categories, the agreement rate between the CPS and the supplement
for the American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut category never reaches more than
75 percent in any panel.  It is only 60 percent when multiracial is
included as a category in panels 2 and 4.  These results provide another
                                  - 7 -
 
indication of the reliability problem that may be associated with the
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut category.  Furthermore, an analysis of
results by ancestry, not presented here, indicates that respondents with
both white and American Indian ancestry may not consistently identify with
one or the other.  Similar findings have been reported by others.
 
     Responses of Hispanics from different national origins.  Those
identifying as Hispanic in any panel were asked to identify  their Hispanic
heritage, in particular, their national origin.  Table 7 presents the
results by panel.  In panels 1 and 2, where Hispanic origin is determined
by a separate question, Mexicans make up a smaller proportion of those
identifying as Hispanic than in panels 3 and 4, where Hispanic origin is
determined by identification with the Hispanic racial category.  On the
other hand , those identifying as "Cuban" or "Other Hispanic, Latino, or
Spanish" make up a larger proportion of the Hispanics in panels 1 and 2.
Using the Hispanic nationalities identified by the ethnic origin question
from the first CPS interview, the responses of the different nationalities
to the supplement race questions were examined.  As shown in table 8, the
proportion of all nationalities identifying as "White" decreased
substantially when an Hispanic racial category was introduced in panels 3
and 4.  Cubans are more likely to identify as "White" in all panels
compared with the other nationalities.
 
Further analysis
     A November 1995 report in the BLS Statistical Working Papers Series
will offer additional analysis.  A public use data set is expected to be
available in early 1996.  For information on the November report or the
data set, call (202) 606-7371.  Material in this publication is in the
public domain and, with apppropriate credit, may be reproduced without
permission.  This information is available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request.  Voice phone:  (202) 606-7828; TDD phone:  (202) 606-5897;
TDD message referral phone: 1-800-326-2577.
 
     1See the following articles:
 
     Passel, Jeffrey S. and Berman, Patricia A., "Quality of 1980 Census
Data for American Indians," Social Biology, 33, 1986, pp. 163-182.
 
     Snipp, Matthew C., "Who are American Indians?  Some Observations About
the Perils and Pitfalls of Data for Race and Ethnicity," Population
Research and Policy Review, 5, 1986, pp. 237-252.
 
     McKenney, Nampeo R. and Cresce, Arthur R., "Measurement of Ethnicity
in the United States: Experience of the U.S. Census Bureau," in Challenges
of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, Politics and Reality, Proceedings of
the Joint Canada-United States Conference on the Measurement of Ethnicity,
April 1-3, 1992, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1993,
pp. 163-182.
 
     McKenney, Nampeo; Bennett, Claudette; Harrison, Roderick; and del
Pinal, Jorge; "Evaluating Racial and Ethnic reporting in the 1990 Census,"
Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods, American Statistical
Association, 1993," pp. 66-74.
 
 
 
                              Technical Note
 
 
                         CPS SUPPLEMENT QUESTIONS
 
RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN QUESTIONS
 
Panel 1
 
1a. First, are you one of the following: Hispanic, Latino, or of Spanish
Origin?
       1.  Yes
       2.  No
 
3a. Which one of the following list are you?  (READ ENTIRE LIST)
 
       1.  White
       2.  Black
       3.  American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
       4.  Asian or Pacific Islander
       5.  Something Else
 
Panel 2
 
1a. First, are you one of the following: Hispanic, Latino, or of Spanish
origin?
 
       1.  Yes
       2.  No
 
3a. Which one of the following list are you?  (READ  ENTIRE LIST)
 
      1.  White
      2.  Black
      3.  American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
      4.  Asian or Pacific Islander
      5.  Multiracial
      6.  Something Else
 
(If Multiracial)
4a. Which of the following list do you consider yourself to be?
      (READ ENTIRE LIST.  ENTER ALL THAT APPLY)
 
      1.  White
      2.  Black
      3.  American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
      4.  Asian or Pacific Islander
      5.  Something Else
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                  - 8 -
 
Panel 3
 
 
1a. First, which one of the following list are you?  (READ ENTIRE LIST)
 
      1.  White
      2.  Black
      3.  Hispanic, Latino, of Spanish origin
      4.  American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
      5.  Asian or Pacific Islander
      6.  Something Else
 
Panel 4
 
1a. First, which one of the following list are you?  (READ ENTIRE LIST)
 
      1.  White
      2.  Black
      3.  Hispanic, Latino, of Spanish origin
      4.  American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
      5.  Asian or Pacific Islander
      6.  Multiracial
      7.  Something Else
 
(If Multiracial)
1c. Which of the following list do you consider yourself to be?
      (READ ENTIRE LIST.  ENTER ALL THAT APPLY)
 
      1.  White
      2.  Black
      3.  Hispanic
      4.  American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
      5.  Asian or Pacific Islander
      6.  Something Else
 
 
HISPANIC NATIONAL ORIGIN QUESTION
 
The following question on Hispanic national origin appeared on all four
panels:
 
(If Hispanic)
Which one of the following are you?  (READ EACH ITEM TO THE RESPONDENT.)
 
      1.  Mexican or Mexican-American or Chicano
      2.  Puerto Rican
      3.  Cuban
      4.  Central American or South American
      5.  Other Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish Origin group
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                  - 9 -
 
QUESTIONS ON HISPANIC AS A RACIAL CATEGORY
 
The following question on Hispanic as a racial category/separate question
appeared on Panels 1 and 2:
 
(If Hispanic)
Earlier, when I read you the list of White; Black; American Indian, Eskimo,
or Aleut; Asian or Pacific Islander;  (Multiracial on Panel 2); and
Something else, you told me that you are [Fill from response on racial
category].  To best describe yourself, would you like to have had
"Hispanic, Latino, or of Spanish origin" added to this list?
 
      1.  Yes
      2.  No
 
The following question on Hispanic as a racial category/separate question
appeared on Panels 3 and 4:
 
(If Hispanic)
To best describe yourself, would you have liked to have had two separate
questions at the beginning, one where you could identify as Hispanic,
Latino, or of Spanish origin, and another where you could also identify as
White; Black; American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut; Asian or Pacific Islander;
or Something Else?
 
      1.  Yes
      2.  No
 
QUESTIONS ON PREFERRED RACIAL AND HISPANIC ORIGIN TERMS
 
The following questions on preferred racial and Hispanic origin terms were
asked across all four panels:
 
(If White on race question)
Earlier you told me that you are White.  Which one of the following terms
do you prefer? (READ ALL TERMS)
 
       1.  White
       2.  Caucasian
       3.  European American
       4.  Anglo
       5.  Some other term
 
(If Black on race question)
Earlier you told me that you are Black.  Which one of the following terms
do you prefer? (READ ALL TERMS)
 
       1.  Black
       2.  African American
       3.  Afro-American
       4.  Negro
       5.  Colored
       6.  Some other term
 
 
                                 - 10 -
 
 
(If American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut on race question)
Earlier you told me that you are American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut.  Which
one of the following terms do you prefer?  (READ ALL TERMS)
 
        1.  American Indian
        2.  Alaskan Native
        3.  Native American
        4.  Some other term
 
 
(If  Hispanic on race or Hispanic origin question)
You told me that you are Hispanic, Latino, or of Spanish Origin.  Which one
of the following terms do you prefer?  (READ ALL TERMS)
 
        1.  Hispanic
        2.  Latino
        3.  Of Spanish origin
        4.  Some other term
 
(If Multiracial on race question)
Earlier you told me that you are "Multiracial."  Which one of the following
terms do you prefer?  (READ ALL TERMS)
 
        1.  Multiracial
        2.  More than one race
        3.  Biracial
        4.  Mixed race
        5.  Mestizo or mestiza
        6.  Some other term
 
 
         CURRENT CPS QUESTIONS ASKED IN THE FIRST MONTH INTERVIEW
 
RACE
 
What is the race of each person in this household?
 
         1.  White
         2.  Black
         3.  American Indian, Aleut, Eskimo
         4.  Asian or Pacific Islander
             (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian,
              Vietnamese, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Samoan, other Asian)
         5.  Other-specify (not seen by respondent)
 
 
 
                                 - 11 -
 
ORIGIN OR DESCENT
 
What is the origin or descent of each person in this household?
 
01  German                                 12  Mexican
02  Italian                                14  Puerto Rican
03  Irish                                  15  Cuban
04  French                                 16  Central or South American
05  Polish                                 17  Other Hispanic
06  Russian                                20  Afro-American (Black,Negro)
07  English                                26  Dutch
08  Scottish                               27  Swedish
10  Mexican-American                       28  Hungarian
11  Chicano                                30  Another group not listed
 
 
 
 
Table 1. Hispanic or non-Hispanic origin identification by panel, May 1995
(Percent distribution)
__________________________________________________________________________________________
                           |
                           |                             Panel
                           |______________________________________________________________
                           |               |               |               |
                           |       1       |       2       |       3       |       4 1/
                           |_______________|_______________|_______________|_______________
          Origin           | Separate race | Separate race |  A combined   |  A combined
                           | and Hispanic- | and Hispanic- |    race and   |    race and
                           |     origin    |     origin    |Hispanic-origin|Hispanic-origin
                           | questions; no | questions with| question; no  | question with
                           |  multiracial  | a multiracial |  multiracial  | a multiracial
                           |    category   |    category   |    category   |    category
___________________________|_______________|_______________|_______________|________________
                           |               |               |               |
Hispanic origin............|     10.79     |     10.41     |      7.53     |      8.58
Non-Hispanic origin........|     89.21     |     89.59     |     92.47     |     91.42
___________________________|_______________|_______________|_______________|________________
 
   1/ Persons who identified themselves as multiracial
and chose Hispanic as one of their races are included
as Hispanics in this panel.
 
 
Table 2. Racial identification by panel, May 1995
(Percent distribution)
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                          |
                                          |                             Panel
                                          |________________________________________________________________
                                          |               |               |               |
                                          |       1       |       2       |       3       |       4
                                          |_______________|_______________|_______________|________________
                   Race                   | Separate race | Separate race |  A combined   |  A combined
                                          | and Hispanic- | and Hispanic- |    race and   |    race and
                                          |     origin    |     origin    |Hispanic-origin|Hispanic-origin
                                          | questions; no | questions with| question; no  | question with
                                          |  multiracial  | a multiracial |  multiracial  | a multiracial
                                          |    category   |    category   |    category   |    category
__________________________________________|_______________|_______________|_______________|________________
                                          |               |               |               |
        Single race identification        |               |               |               |
                                          |               |               |               |
White.....................................|     79.88     |     79.74     |     75.78     |     74.66
Black.....................................|     10.29     |     10.66     |     10.60     |     10.27
Hispanic origin...........................|       -       |       -       |      7.53     |      8.20
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut.........|       .97     |       .73     |      1.06     |       .79
Asian or Pacific Islander.................|      3.83     |      3.25     |      3.25     |      3.30
Something else............................|      4.68     |      3.70     |      1.50     |       .92
Don't know or not ascertained.............|       .34     |       .26     |       .28     |       .32
                                          |               |               |               |
        Multiracial identification        |               |               |               |
                                          |               |               |               |
    Total.................................|       -       |      1.65     |       -       |      1.55
No race, don't know, or not ascertained...|       -       |       .02     |       -       |       .00
Something else, as only race..............|       -       |       .51     |       -       |       .22
Only one race.............................|       -       |       .53     |       -       |       .15
White or black; black or white............|       -       |       .09     |       -       |       .16
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut, plus   |               |               |               |
     one other race.......................|       -       |       .20     |       -       |       .28
Asian or Pacific Islander, plus           |               |               |               |
     one other race.......................|       -       |       .07     |       -       |       .28
One race, plus something else.............|       -       |       .16     |       -       |       .07
Two other races...........................|       -       |       -       |       -       |       .20
Three or more races.......................|       -       |       .08     |       -       |       .21
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
   NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.
 
 
Table 3. Preference for Hispanic origin as a racial category by panel, May 1995
(Percent distribution)
__________________________________________________________________________________________
                           |
                           |                             Panel
                           |_______________________________________________________________
                           |               |               |               |
                           |       1       |       2 1/    |       3       |       4
                           |_______________|_______________|_______________|_______________
         Response          | Separate race | Separate race |  A combined   |  A combined
                           | and Hispanic- | and Hispanic- |    race and   |    race and
                           |     origin    |     origin    |Hispanic-origin|Hispanic-origin
                           | questions; no | questions with| question; no  | question with
                           |  multiracial  | a multiracial |  multiracial  | a multiracial
                           |    category   |    category   |    category   |    category
___________________________|_______________|_______________|_______________|________________
                           |               |               |               |
Yes........................|     63.62     |     60.69     |     73.60     |     73.81
No.........................|     36.38     |     39.31     |     26.40     |     26.19
___________________________|_______________|_______________|_______________|________________
 
   1/ Persons who responded "no preference" were
coded as "No" in panel 2; this option was not
available to other panels.
 
 
Table 4. Preference for racial or ethnic terminology, all panels, May 1995
(Percent distribution)
_______________________________________________________________________________
                                                                    |
                        Preferred terminology                       |  Percent
____________________________________________________________________|__________
                                                                    |
                           Hispanic origin                          |
                                                                    |
Hispanic............................................................|   57.88
Latino..............................................................|   11.74
Of Spanish origin...................................................|   12.34
Some other term.....................................................|    7.85
No preference.......................................................|   10.18
                                                                    |
                                White                               |
                                                                    |
White...............................................................|   61.66
Caucasian...........................................................|   16.53
European American...................................................|    2.35
Anglo...............................................................|     .96
Some other term.....................................................|    1.97
No preference.......................................................|   16.53
                                                                    |
                                Black                               |
                                                                    |
Black...............................................................|   44.15
African American....................................................|   28.07
Afro-American.......................................................|   12.12
Negro...............................................................|    3.28
Colored.............................................................|    1.09
Some other term.....................................................|    2.19
No preference.......................................................|    9.11
                                                                    |
                           American Indian                          |
                                                                    |
American Indian.....................................................|   49.76
Alaskan Native......................................................|    3.51
Native American.....................................................|   37.35
Some other term.....................................................|    3.66
No preference.......................................................|    5.72
                                                                    |
                            Multiracial                             |
                                                                    |
Multiracial.........................................................|   28.42
More than one race..................................................|    6.03
Biracial............................................................|    5.67
Mixed race..........................................................|   16.02
Mestizo or Mestiza..................................................|    2.25
Some other term.....................................................|   13.87
No preference.......................................................|   27.76
_______________________________________________________________________________
 
   NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.
 
 
 
 
 
Table 5. Comparison of Hispanic-origin identification from the supplement and the
initial CPS interview by panel, May 1995
(Percent distribution)
____________________________________________________________________________________
 
                           |Hispanic origin from the initial CPS interview 1/
                           |________________________________________________________
      Origin from the      |                    |
         supplement        |   Hispanic origin  |   Non-Hispanic origin
                           |____________________|___________________________________
                           |  Panel 1. Separate race and Hispanic-origin
                           |      questions; no multiracial category
___________________________|____________________|___________________________________
                           |                    |
Hispanic origin............|        93.27       |         1.88
Non-Hispanic origin........|         6.73       |        98.12
                           |____________________|___________________________________
                           |  Panel 2. Separate race and Hispanic-origin
                           |     questions with a multiracial category
                           |____________________|___________________________________
                           |                    |
Hispanic origin............|        95.30       |         1.72
Non-Hispanic origin........|         4.70       |        98.28
                           |____________________|___________________________________
                           |  Panel 3. A combined race and Hispanic-origin
                           |        question; no multiracial category
                           |____________________|___________________________________
                           |                    |
Hispanic origin............|        79.21       |          .48
Non-Hispanic origin........|        20.79       |        99.52
                           |____________________|___________________________________
                           |  Panel 4. A combined race and Hispanic-origin
                           |      question with a multiracial category
                           |____________________|___________________________________
                           |                    |
Hispanic origin............|        81.16       |          .68
Non-Hispanic origin........|        18.84       |        99.32
___________________________|____________________|___________________________________
 
   1/ Race and ethnic origin of CPS respondents are routinely
collected during the first month's interview.
 
 
Table 6. Comparison of racial identification from the supplement and the initial CPS interview
by panel, May 1995
(Percent distribution)
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |
                                   |                       Race from the initial CPS interview 1/
           Race from the           |____________________________________________________________________________________
             supplement            |               |               | American Indian, | Asian or Pacific |
                                   |     White     |     Black     | Eskimo, or Aleut |     Islander     |   All other
___________________________________|_______________|_______________|__________________|__________________|______________
                                   |   Panel 1. Separate race and Hispanic-origin questions; no multiracial category
                                   |____________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |               |               |                  |                  |
White..............................|     95.80     |       .78     |       17.90      |       2.50       |     24.36
Black..............................|       .19     |     95.02     |         .64      |        .22       |      3.71
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut..|       .36     |       .78     |       74.50      |        .27       |      1.53
Asian or Pacific Islander..........|       .25     |       .01     |         .70      |      90.91       |      5.19
All other..........................|      3.39     |      3.41     |        6.27      |       6.10       |     65.21
                                   |_______________|_______________|__________________|__________________|______________
                                   |  Panel 2. Separate race and Hispanic-origin questions with a multiracial category
                                   |____________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |               |               |                  |
White..............................|     95.64     |      1.23     |       22.10      |       1.09       |     25.85
Black..............................|       .17     |     93.70     |       10.17      |        .08       |      2.04
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut..|       .31     |       .21     |       58.93      |        .40       |      1.73
Asian or Pacific Islander..........|       .14     |       .06     |        1.95      |      92.67       |      2.69
Multiracial........................|      1.15     |      2.77     |        4.24      |       1.83       |     11.87
All other..........................|      2.60     |      2.03     |        2.60      |       3.93       |     55.82
                                   |_______________|_______________|__________________|__________________|______________
                                   |   Panel 3. A combined race and Hispanic-origin question; no multiracial category
                                   |____________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |               |               |                  |                  |
White..............................|     91.28     |       .63     |       14.24      |       1.63       |      3.91
Black..............................|       .16     |     94.72     |         .63      |        .27       |      1.97
Hispanic...........................|      7.10     |       .91     |        4.57      |        .61       |     72.03
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut..|       .35     |       .25     |       71.98      |       2.98       |       .59
Asian or Pacific Islander..........|       .09     |       .15     |        3.50      |      88.01       |      7.31
All other..........................|      1.03     |      3.34     |        5.07      |       6.50       |     14.20
                                   |_______________|_______________|__________________|__________________|______________
                                   |  Panel 4. A combined race and Hispanic-origin question with a multiracial category
                                   |____________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |               |               |                  |                  |
White..............................|     90.15     |       .57     |       14.45      |       1.44       |      3.06
Black..............................|       .16     |     94.62     |        2.52      |        -         |      1.11
Hispanic...........................|      7.64     |       .24     |        7.43      |        .68       |     75.36
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut..|       .24     |       .22     |       61.70      |        .43       |      1.29
Asian or Pacific Islander..........|       .12     |       .03     |        1.98      |      86.00       |      1.73
Multiracial........................|       .92     |      2.36     |        7.94      |       6.93       |      9.11
All other..........................|       .77     |      1.95     |        3.98      |       4.51       |      8.33
___________________________________|_______________|_______________|__________________|__________________|_______________
 
   1/ Race and ethnic origin of CPS repondents are
routinely collected during the first month's
interview.
 
  NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.
 
 
 
 
Table 7. Hispanic national origin from the supplement by panel, May 1995
(Percent distribution)
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                          |
                                          |                             Panel
                                          |________________________________________________________________
                                          |               |               |               |
                                          |       1       |       2       |       3       |       4
                                          |_______________|_______________|_______________|________________
             National origin              | Separate race | Separate race |  A combined   |  A combined
                                          | and Hispanic- | and Hispanic- |    race and   |    race and
                                          |     origin    |     origin    |Hispanic-origin|Hispanic-origin
                                          | questions; no | questions with| question; no  | question with
                                          |  multiracial  | a multiracial |  multiracial  | a multiracial
                                          |    category   |    category   |    category   |    category
__________________________________________|_______________|_______________|_______________|________________
                                          |               |               |               |
Mexican, Mexican American, or Chicano.....|     59.45     |     60.49     |     67.03     |     65.12
Puerto Rican..............................|      9.66     |      9.33     |     10.03     |     10.44
Cuban.....................................|      4.68     |      4.12     |      1.96     |      2.40
Central or South American.................|     13.00     |     10.61     |     11.92     |     11.76
Other Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish........|     11.81     |     13.89     |      8.73     |      9.56
Not really Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish...|       .85     |      1.29     |       .20     |       .42
Origin not known or ascertained...........|       .54     |       .28     |       .12     |       .30
                                          |               |               |               |
__________________________________________|_______________|_______________|_______________|________________
 
   NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.
 
 
 
 
Table 8. Racial identification in the supplement of Hispanics with different national origins from the
initial CPS interview by panel, May 1995
(Percent distribution)
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |
                                   |               Hispanic national origin from the initial CPS interview 1/
           Race from the           |____________________________________________________________________________________
             supplement            |Mexican, Mexican|              |           | Central or South |
                                   |  American, or  | Puerto Rican |   Cuban   |     American     |  Other Spanish
                                   |     Chicano    |              |           |                  |
___________________________________|________________|______________|___________|__________________|_____________________
                                   |  Panel 1. Separate race and Hispanic-origin questions; no multiracial category
                                   |____________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |                |              |           |                  |
White..............................|     64.67      |     61.20    |   93.30   |      42.91       |     59.82
Black..............................|       -        |      3.86    |     .83   |       3.95       |       .91
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut..|      1.77      |      1.02    |     -     |       4.70       |      1.38
Asian or Pacific Islander..........|       .35      |       .94    |     -     |       1.93       |       -
All other..........................|     33.20      |     32.97    |    5.87   |      46.51       |     37.89
                                   |________________|______________|___________|__________________|_____________________
                                   | Panel 2. Separate race and Hispanic-origin questions with a multiracial category
                                   |____________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |                |              |           |                  |
White..............................|     61.83      |    56.45     |   95.00   |      63.97       |     49.58
Black..............................|       -        |     3.60     |     -     |       3.85       |      5.03
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut..|      1.30      |      -       |     -     |       2.05       |       .50
Asian or Pacific Islander..........|       .15      |      .41     |     -     |       1.20       |      2.40
Multiracial........................|      2.98      |     7.00     |    1.17   |       3.03       |      7.15
All other..........................|     33.75      |    32.54     |    3.83   |      25.91       |     35.34
                                   |________________|______________|___________|__________________|_____________________
                                   |  Panel 3. A combined race and Hispanic-origin question; no multiracial category
                                   |____________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |                |              |           |                  |
White..............................|     10.85      |    21.62     |   57.95   |      19.19       |     18.90
Black..............................|       .26      |     1.90     |     -     |       1.99       |      6.10
Hispanic...........................|     85.15      |    71.51     |   39.92   |      77.68       |     67.31
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut..|       .47      |      -       |     -     |        .43       |       -
Asian or Pacific Islander..........|       .03      |      -       |     -     |        -         |       -
All other..........................|      3.24      |     4.97     |    2.13   |        .71       |      7.69
                                   |________________|______________|___________|__________________|_____________________
                                   | Panel 4. A combined race and Hispanic-origin question with a multiracial category
                                   |____________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |                |              |           |                  |
White..............................|      11.16     |    17.04     |   49.90   |      14.08       |     27.16
Black..............................|        .06     |     1.35     |    2.23   |       4.09       |       .59
Hispanic...........................|      84.04     |    77.30     |   46.40   |      75.42       |     65.66
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut..|        .02     |      -       |     -     |        .41       |       .11
Asian or Pacific Islander..........|        .05     |      -       |     -     |        .56       |       -
Multiracial........................|       1.96     |     2.50     |    1.46   |       1.05       |      4.61
All other..........................|       2.71     |     1.80     |     -     |       4.38       |      1.86
___________________________________|________________|______________|___________|__________________|_______________
 
   1/ Race and ethnic origin of CPS repondents are
routinely collected during the first month's
interview.
 
  NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.