Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until      	USDL-16-0662
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, April 1, 2016

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MARCH 2016


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 215,000 in March, and the unemployment 
rate was little changed at 5.0 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. Employment increased in retail trade, construction, and health 
care. Job losses occurred in manufacturing and mining.

Household Survey Data

In March, the unemployment rate (5.0 percent) and the number of unemployed 
persons (8.0 million) were little changed. Both measures have shown little 
movement since August. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (4.5 percent), 
adult women (4.6 percent), teenagers (15.9 percent), Whites (4.3 percent), Blacks 
(9.0 percent), Asians (4.0 percent), and Hispanics (5.6 percent) showed little or 
no change in March. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was 
essentially unchanged at 2.2 million in March and has shown little movement since 
June. In March, these individuals accounted for 27.6 percent of the unemployed. 
(See table A-12.)

In March, the labor force participation rate (63.0 percent) and the employment-
population ratio (59.9 percent) changed little. Both measures were up by 0.6 
percentage point since September. (See table A-1.) 

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (also referred to 
as involuntary part-time workers) was about unchanged in March at 6.1 million and 
has shown little movement since November. These individuals, who would have 
preferred full-time employment, were working part-time because their hours had been 
cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time job. (See table A-8.)

In March, 1.7 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down 
by 335,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These 
individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and 
had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as 
unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the 
survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 585,000 discouraged workers in March, 
down by 153,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) 
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they 
believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.1 million persons 
marginally attached to the labor force in March had not searched for work for 
reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 215,000 in March. Employment gains 
occurred in retail trade, construction, and health care, while job losses 
occurred in manufacturing and mining. (See table B-1.)

Retail trade added 48,000 jobs in March. Employment gains occurred in general 
merchandise stores (+12,000), health and personal care stores (+10,000), building 
material and garden supply stores (+10,000), and automobile dealers (+5,000). 
Over the past 12 months, retail trade has added 378,000 jobs.

Construction employment rose by 37,000 in March. Job gains occurred among 
residential specialty trade contractors (+12,000) and in heavy and civil
engineering construction (+11,000). Over the year, construction has added
301,000 jobs.

Employment in health care increased by 37,000 over the month, about in line with
the average monthly gain over the prior 12 months. In March, employment rose
in ambulatory health care services (+27,000) and hospitals (+10,000). Over the
year, health care employment has increased by 503,000.

Over the month, employment continued to trend up in food services and drinking 
places (+25,000) and in financial activities (+15,000). 

In March, employment in professional and business services changed little for the 
third month in a row. In 2015, the industry added an average of 52,000 jobs per 
month.

Employment in manufacturing declined by 29,000 in March. Most of the job losses 
occurred in durable goods industries (-24,000), including machinery (-7,000), 
primary metals (-3,000), and semiconductors and electronic components (-3,000). 

Mining employment continued to decline in March (-12,000) with losses concentrated 
in support activities for mining (-10,000). Since reaching a peak in September 2014, 
employment in mining has decreased by 185,000.

Employment in other major industries, including wholesale trade, transportation 
and warehousing, information, and government, changed little over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged 
at 34.4 hours in March. The manufacturing workweek edged down by 0.1 hour to 40.6 
hours. Factory overtime was 3.3 hours for the fourth month in a row. The average 
workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
was unchanged at 33.6 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In March, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
increased by 7 cents to $25.43, following a 2-cent decline in February. Over the 
year, average hourly earnings have risen by 2.3 percent. In March, average hourly 
earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 
4 cents to $21.37. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for January was revised from 
+172,000 to +168,000, and the change for February was revised from +242,000 to 
+245,000. With these revisions, employment gains in January and February 
combined were 1,000 less than previously reported. Over the past 3 months, job 
gains have averaged 209,000 per month.

_____________
The Employment Situation for April is scheduled to be released on Friday, 
May 6, 2016, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Change from:
Feb.
2016-
Mar.
2016

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

250,080 252,397 252,577 252,768 191

Civilian labor force

156,890 158,335 158,890 159,286 396

Participation rate

62.7 62.7 62.9 63.0 0.1

Employed

148,333 150,544 151,074 151,320 246

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.6 59.8 59.9 0.1

Unemployed

8,557 7,791 7,815 7,966 151

Unemployment rate

5.5 4.9 4.9 5.0 0.1

Not in labor force

93,190 94,062 93,688 93,482 -206

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

5.5 4.9 4.9 5.0 0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

5.1 4.5 4.5 4.5 0.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.9 4.5 4.5 4.6 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

17.6 16.0 15.6 15.9 0.3

White

4.7 4.3 4.3 4.3 0.0

Black or African American

10.0 8.8 8.8 9.0 0.2

Asian

3.2 3.7 3.8 4.0 0.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

6.8 5.9 5.4 5.6 0.2

Total, 25 years and over

4.4 4.0 4.1 4.1 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

8.6 7.4 7.3 7.4 0.1

High school graduates, no college

5.3 5.3 5.3 5.4 0.1

Some college or associate degree

4.8 4.2 4.2 4.1 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4,194 3,664 3,749 3,835 86

Job leavers

870 766 760 833 73

Reentrants

2,666 2,468 2,467 2,495 28

New entrants

812 827 833 778 -55

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,488 2,249 2,297 2,412 115

5 to 14 weeks

2,330 2,282 2,236 2,205 -31

15 to 26 weeks

1,255 1,135 1,132 1,178 46

27 weeks and over

2,547 2,089 2,165 2,213 48

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

6,673 5,988 5,988 6,123 135

Slack work or business conditions

4,063 3,544 3,579 3,631 52

Could only find part-time work

2,318 2,134 2,104 2,154 50

Part time for noneconomic reasons

19,774 20,311 20,615 20,428 -187

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,055 2,089 1,803 1,720 -

Discouraged workers

738 623 599 585 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

84 168 245 215

Total private

90 155 236 195

Goods-producing

-20 24 -15 -4

Mining and logging

-16 -12 -17 -12

Construction

-7 18 20 37

Manufacturing

3 18 -18 -29

Durable goods(1)

0 11 -17 -24

Motor vehicles and parts

2.3 3.1 0.3 -1.5

Nondurable goods

3 7 -1 -5

Private service-providing

110 131 251 199

Wholesale trade

2.7 12.6 1.0 5.5

Retail trade

25.2 66.5 67.1 47.7

Transportation and warehousing

10.1 -20.9 -6.5 -2.5

Utilities

0.4 0.1 1.8 0.0

Information

-3 0 10 1

Financial activities

12 17 5 15

Professional and business services(1)

27 -2 30 33

Temporary help services

10.3 -43.8 -12.4 4.0

Education and health services(1)

38 26 84 51

Health care and social assistance

32.2 43.4 58.4 44.0

Leisure and hospitality

0 34 45 40

Other services

-2 -3 14 8

Government

-6 13 9 20

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

190 240 228 209

Total private

185 231 217 195

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.3 49.4 49.5 49.5

Total private women employees

47.9 48.0 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.5 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.6 34.4 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$24.87 $25.38 $25.36 $25.43

Average weekly earnings

$858.02 $878.15 $872.38 $874.79

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

103.1 105.3 104.9 105.1

Over-the-month percent change

-0.2 0.4 -0.4 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

122.5 127.8 127.2 127.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 0.9 -0.5 0.4

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (262 industries)

55.0 59.4 58.0 58.4

Manufacturing (79 industries)

48.1 57.6 42.4 37.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.pdf.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 146,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 623,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

250,080 252,577 252,768 250,080 251,747 251,936 252,397 252,577 252,768

Civilian labor force

156,318 158,279 158,854 156,890 157,367 157,833 158,335 158,890 159,286

Participation rate

62.5 62.7 62.8 62.7 62.5 62.6 62.7 62.9 63.0

Employed

147,635 150,060 150,738 148,333 149,444 149,929 150,544 151,074 151,320

Employment-population ratio

59.0 59.4 59.6 59.3 59.4 59.5 59.6 59.8 59.9

Unemployed

8,682 8,219 8,116 8,557 7,924 7,904 7,791 7,815 7,966

Unemployment rate

5.6 5.2 5.1 5.5 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0

Not in labor force

93,762 94,298 93,914 93,190 94,380 94,103 94,062 93,688 93,482

Persons who currently want a job

6,065 5,949 5,446 6,310 5,637 5,886 5,973 5,870 5,712

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

120,738 122,017 122,112 120,738 121,577 121,671 121,926 122,017 122,112

Civilian labor force

83,229 84,052 84,384 83,656 83,503 83,876 84,238 84,673 84,765

Participation rate

68.9 68.9 69.1 69.3 68.7 68.9 69.1 69.4 69.4

Employed

78,275 79,415 79,884 78,994 79,182 79,546 80,104 80,491 80,543

Employment-population ratio

64.8 65.1 65.4 65.4 65.1 65.4 65.7 66.0 66.0

Unemployed

4,954 4,637 4,499 4,663 4,321 4,330 4,134 4,181 4,222

Unemployment rate

6.0 5.5 5.3 5.6 5.2 5.2 4.9 4.9 5.0

Not in labor force

37,509 37,965 37,729 37,081 38,074 37,795 37,688 37,344 37,347

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

112,304 113,566 113,653 112,304 113,149 113,241 113,483 113,566 113,653

Civilian labor force

80,533 81,306 81,659 80,731 80,623 80,927 81,333 81,667 81,815

Participation rate

71.7 71.6 71.8 71.9 71.3 71.5 71.7 71.9 72.0

Employed

76,122 77,148 77,639 76,647 76,823 77,119 77,704 77,991 78,096

Employment-population ratio

67.8 67.9 68.3 68.3 67.9 68.1 68.5 68.7 68.7

Unemployed

4,411 4,158 4,020 4,084 3,800 3,808 3,629 3,677 3,719

Unemployment rate

5.5 5.1 4.9 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.5

Not in labor force

31,771 32,260 31,995 31,572 32,526 32,314 32,151 31,898 31,838

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

129,342 130,561 130,656 129,342 130,170 130,265 130,471 130,561 130,656

Civilian labor force

73,089 74,227 74,470 73,234 73,865 73,957 74,097 74,217 74,520

Participation rate

56.5 56.9 57.0 56.6 56.7 56.8 56.8 56.8 57.0

Employed

69,360 70,646 70,854 69,339 70,262 70,383 70,440 70,583 70,777

Employment-population ratio

53.6 54.1 54.2 53.6 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.1 54.2

Unemployed

3,729 3,582 3,617 3,894 3,603 3,574 3,657 3,634 3,743

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.8 4.9 5.3 4.9 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0

Not in labor force

56,253 56,333 56,185 56,108 56,305 56,308 56,374 56,344 56,135

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,152 122,345 122,433 121,152 121,979 122,071 122,263 122,345 122,433

Civilian labor force

70,374 71,518 71,700 70,364 71,139 71,069 71,171 71,313 71,610

Participation rate

58.1 58.5 58.6 58.1 58.3 58.2 58.2 58.3 58.5

Employed

67,022 68,305 68,451 66,909 67,891 67,911 67,940 68,094 68,293

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.8 55.9 55.2 55.7 55.6 55.6 55.7 55.8

Unemployed

3,352 3,213 3,248 3,455 3,249 3,157 3,231 3,219 3,317

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.5 4.5 4.9 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6

Not in labor force

50,779 50,828 50,733 50,788 50,840 51,002 51,092 51,032 50,823

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,624 16,666 16,682 16,624 16,619 16,624 16,651 16,666 16,682

Civilian labor force

5,411 5,456 5,496 5,794 5,605 5,837 5,832 5,909 5,860

Participation rate

32.5 32.7 32.9 34.9 33.7 35.1 35.0 35.5 35.1

Employed

4,491 4,608 4,648 4,777 4,729 4,899 4,901 4,990 4,931

Employment-population ratio

27.0 27.6 27.9 28.7 28.5 29.5 29.4 29.9 29.6

Unemployed

920 848 848 1,018 875 938 931 920 929

Unemployment rate

17.0 15.5 15.4 17.6 15.6 16.1 16.0 15.6 15.9

Not in labor force

11,213 11,211 11,186 10,830 11,014 10,787 10,819 10,757 10,822

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

196,482 197,718 197,809 196,482 197,377 197,471 197,639 197,718 197,809

Civilian labor force

123,196 124,262 124,663 123,694 123,496 123,815 124,362 124,748 125,018

Participation rate

62.7 62.8 63.0 63.0 62.6 62.7 62.9 63.1 63.2

Employed

117,178 118,584 119,137 117,868 118,115 118,295 119,029 119,442 119,674

Employment-population ratio

59.6 60.0 60.2 60.0 59.8 59.9 60.2 60.4 60.5

Unemployed

6,018 5,678 5,526 5,827 5,381 5,520 5,333 5,306 5,345

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.6 4.4 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.3

Not in labor force

73,286 73,456 73,146 72,788 73,881 73,656 73,277 72,970 72,791

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,674 64,988 65,175 64,862 64,503 64,691 65,002 65,304 65,296

Participation rate

72.1 71.9 72.1 72.3 71.6 71.7 72.0 72.3 72.3

Employed

61,538 62,078 62,355 62,010 61,884 61,988 62,482 62,787 62,739

Employment-population ratio

68.6 68.7 69.0 69.2 68.7 68.7 69.2 69.5 69.4

Unemployed

3,136 2,910 2,820 2,852 2,619 2,702 2,520 2,517 2,557

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.2 3.9 3.9 3.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,239 54,984 55,192 54,264 54,638 54,521 54,753 54,803 55,142

Participation rate

57.4 57.8 58.0 57.4 57.6 57.4 57.6 57.6 58.0

Employed

52,027 52,830 53,087 51,999 52,466 52,391 52,603 52,659 52,992

Employment-population ratio

55.1 55.6 55.8 55.0 55.3 55.2 55.4 55.4 55.7

Unemployed

2,212 2,153 2,105 2,265 2,172 2,130 2,150 2,144 2,149

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.9 3.8 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,283 4,290 4,296 4,568 4,355 4,603 4,607 4,641 4,580

Participation rate

34.7 34.8 34.8 37.0 35.4 37.4 37.4 37.7 37.1

Employed

3,613 3,676 3,695 3,859 3,765 3,916 3,944 3,995 3,942

Employment-population ratio

29.3 29.8 30.0 31.3 30.6 31.8 32.0 32.4 32.0

Unemployed

670 614 601 709 590 687 663 645 638

Unemployment rate

15.6 14.3 14.0 15.5 13.5 14.9 14.4 13.9 13.9

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

31,257 31,716 31,753 31,257 31,557 31,594 31,679 31,716 31,753

Civilian labor force

19,020 19,387 19,421 19,071 19,447 19,442 19,536 19,569 19,513

Participation rate

60.8 61.1 61.2 61.0 61.6 61.5 61.7 61.7 61.5

Employed

17,117 17,665 17,670 17,165 17,628 17,819 17,821 17,851 17,759

Employment-population ratio

54.8 55.7 55.6 54.9 55.9 56.4 56.3 56.3 55.9

Unemployed

1,902 1,721 1,751 1,906 1,819 1,623 1,716 1,718 1,754

Unemployment rate

10.0 8.9 9.0 10.0 9.4 8.3 8.8 8.8 9.0

Not in labor force

12,237 12,329 12,332 12,186 12,110 12,152 12,143 12,147 12,240

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,714 8,826 8,871 8,710 8,752 8,780 8,844 8,910 8,881

Participation rate

67.2 66.9 67.1 67.2 66.7 66.8 67.1 67.5 67.2

Employed

7,810 8,014 8,063 7,847 7,885 8,017 8,101 8,146 8,112

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.7 61.0 60.5 60.1 61.0 61.5 61.7 61.4

Unemployed

904 812 809 862 867 763 743 764 768

Unemployment rate

10.4 9.2 9.1 9.9 9.9 8.7 8.4 8.6 8.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,714 9,897 9,842 9,717 10,009 9,928 9,970 9,938 9,868

Participation rate

61.5 61.8 61.4 61.5 62.8 62.2 62.3 62.0 61.5

Employed

8,853 9,129 9,062 8,835 9,218 9,241 9,179 9,152 9,076

Employment-population ratio

56.0 57.0 56.5 55.9 57.8 57.9 57.4 57.1 56.6

Unemployed

862 767 781 882 791 686 791 786 792

Unemployment rate

8.9 7.8 7.9 9.1 7.9 6.9 7.9 7.9 8.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

591 664 708 644 686 734 722 720 764

Participation rate

23.7 26.6 28.3 25.8 27.6 29.5 28.9 28.8 30.5

Employed

455 522 546 482 525 560 540 552 571

Employment-population ratio

18.2 20.9 21.8 19.3 21.1 22.5 21.7 22.1 22.8

Unemployed

137 142 162 162 161 174 182 168 193

Unemployment rate

23.1 21.4 22.9 25.1 23.5 23.7 25.2 23.3 25.3

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,296 14,974 14,911 14,296 14,476 14,553 14,816 14,974 14,911

Civilian labor force

8,967 9,483 9,478 8,928 9,132 9,168 9,192 9,426 9,411

Participation rate

62.7 63.3 63.6 62.5 63.1 63.0 62.0 62.9 63.1

Employed

8,685 9,115 9,112 8,639 8,778 8,805 8,856 9,070 9,038

Employment-population ratio

60.7 60.9 61.1 60.4 60.6 60.5 59.8 60.6 60.6

Unemployed

282 368 366 289 354 363 337 355 373

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.9 3.9 3.2 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.8 4.0

Not in labor force

5,329 5,491 5,433 5,368 5,344 5,385 5,623 5,548 5,500

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

39,323 40,302 40,386 39,323 40,005 40,090 40,215 40,302 40,386

Civilian labor force

25,991 26,528 26,709 26,088 26,225 26,270 26,451 26,642 26,782

Participation rate

66.1 65.8 66.1 66.3 65.6 65.5 65.8 66.1 66.3

Employed

24,177 24,967 25,183 24,317 24,543 24,614 24,893 25,193 25,289

Employment-population ratio

61.5 61.9 62.4 61.8 61.3 61.4 61.9 62.5 62.6

Unemployed

1,814 1,561 1,526 1,771 1,682 1,655 1,558 1,449 1,493

Unemployment rate

7.0 5.9 5.7 6.8 6.4 6.3 5.9 5.4 5.6

Not in labor force

13,332 13,774 13,677 13,235 13,780 13,821 13,764 13,660 13,604

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,407 14,639 14,759 14,461 14,377 14,454 14,590 14,705 14,799

Participation rate

81.3 80.6 81.1 81.6 79.7 79.9 80.5 80.9 81.3

Employed

13,519 13,834 13,995 13,624 13,601 13,659 13,878 14,018 14,085

Employment-population ratio

76.3 76.1 76.9 76.9 75.4 75.6 76.5 77.2 77.4

Unemployed

888 806 764 836 776 795 712 688 714

Unemployment rate

6.2 5.5 5.2 5.8 5.4 5.5 4.9 4.7 4.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,453 10,754 10,836 10,445 10,754 10,646 10,649 10,742 10,814

Participation rate

58.4 58.5 58.8 58.3 59.0 58.2 58.0 58.4 58.7

Employed

9,748 10,163 10,226 9,757 10,031 9,978 10,022 10,167 10,218

Employment-population ratio

54.4 55.3 55.5 54.5 55.0 54.6 54.6 55.3 55.5

Unemployed

705 591 610 687 723 668 627 576 596

Unemployment rate

6.7 5.5 5.6 6.6 6.7 6.3 5.9 5.4 5.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,131 1,135 1,115 1,183 1,095 1,170 1,212 1,194 1,168

Participation rate

30.6 30.3 29.7 32.0 29.4 31.3 32.5 31.9 31.1

Employed

909 970 962 935 912 977 994 1,008 986

Employment-population ratio

24.6 25.9 25.6 25.3 24.5 26.2 26.6 26.9 26.3

Unemployed

222 165 153 248 183 193 218 186 182

Unemployment rate

19.6 14.5 13.7 20.9 16.7 16.5 18.0 15.6 15.6

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

11,113 10,386 10,817 11,070 10,958 10,847 11,037 10,648 10,777

Participation rate

45.2 45.0 46.4 45.0 45.7 45.4 46.0 46.2 46.2

Employed

10,067 9,530 9,926 10,116 10,210 10,125 10,221 9,871 9,978

Employment-population ratio

40.9 41.3 42.6 41.1 42.6 42.4 42.6 42.8 42.8

Unemployed

1,046 856 891 954 748 722 816 777 799

Unemployment rate

9.4 8.2 8.2 8.6 6.8 6.7 7.4 7.3 7.4

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,620 35,489 35,654 35,772 35,224 34,744 35,347 35,626 35,615

Participation rate

57.2 57.3 57.5 57.4 57.2 57.0 57.8 57.5 57.4

Employed

33,591 33,425 33,599 33,870 33,315 32,812 33,475 33,747 33,688

Employment-population ratio

53.9 54.0 54.2 54.4 54.1 53.8 54.7 54.5 54.3

Unemployed

2,029 2,063 2,055 1,902 1,910 1,933 1,872 1,878 1,927

Unemployment rate

5.7 5.8 5.8 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.3 5.3 5.4

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,411 38,156 37,929 37,456 37,610 37,869 38,098 38,106 37,958

Participation rate

67.3 66.8 66.3 67.4 66.7 66.5 66.5 66.7 66.3

Employed

35,568 36,412 36,309 35,676 35,957 36,304 36,493 36,496 36,396

Employment-population ratio

64.0 63.7 63.4 64.2 63.8 63.8 63.7 63.9 63.6

Unemployed

1,843 1,744 1,620 1,780 1,653 1,565 1,605 1,610 1,562

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.6 4.3 4.8 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

51,573 53,563 53,715 51,318 52,757 53,054 52,674 53,112 53,447

Participation rate

74.8 74.4 74.9 74.4 74.0 74.0 73.8 73.8 74.5

Employed

50,333 52,237 52,323 50,059 51,451 51,746 51,358 51,805 52,051

Employment-population ratio

73.0 72.6 73.0 72.6 72.1 72.2 71.9 72.0 72.6

Unemployed

1,240 1,326 1,391 1,259 1,306 1,307 1,316 1,307 1,396

Unemployment rate

2.4 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,300 20,982 19,307 18,973 1,993 2,009

Civilian labor force

10,869 10,570 9,610 9,305 1,259 1,265

Participation rate

51.0 50.4 49.8 49.0 63.2 62.9

Employed

10,334 10,095 9,147 8,887 1,187 1,208

Employment-population ratio

48.5 48.1 47.4 46.8 59.6 60.1

Unemployed

535 475 463 419 72 57

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.5 4.8 4.5 5.7 4.5

Not in labor force

10,431 10,412 9,697 9,668 734 744

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,431 3,783 2,863 3,141 568 642

Civilian labor force

2,826 3,039 2,423 2,556 402 483

Participation rate

82.4 80.3 84.6 81.4 70.8 75.2

Employed

2,642 2,848 2,267 2,392 375 456

Employment-population ratio

77.0 75.3 79.2 76.2 66.0 71.1

Unemployed

184 191 156 165 27 26

Unemployment rate

6.5 6.3 6.5 6.4 6.8 5.4

Not in labor force

605 744 440 584 166 160

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,540 3,404 2,954 2,858 586 546

Civilian labor force

2,859 2,778 2,429 2,363 431 415

Participation rate

80.8 81.6 82.2 82.7 73.5 76.0

Employed

2,760 2,688 2,348 2,288 411 400

Employment-population ratio

78.0 79.0 79.5 80.0 70.2 73.3

Unemployed

100 90 80 75 20 15

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.2 3.3 3.2 4.5 3.5

Not in labor force

681 626 525 495 155 131

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

9,023 8,606 8,702 8,298 321 308

Civilian labor force

2,438 2,161 2,352 2,100 86 61

Participation rate

27.0 25.1 27.0 25.3 26.8 19.7

Employed

2,319 2,076 2,239 2,015 80 61

Employment-population ratio

25.7 24.1 25.7 24.3 25.1 19.7

Unemployed

119 85 113 85 6 0

Unemployment rate

4.9 3.9 4.8 4.0 6.6 -

Not in labor force

6,585 6,445 6,350 6,198 235 247

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,306 5,189 4,788 4,676 518 513

Civilian labor force

2,746 2,592 2,406 2,286 340 306

Participation rate

51.8 50.0 50.3 48.9 65.6 59.7

Employed

2,613 2,483 2,293 2,192 321 290

Employment-population ratio

49.3 47.8 47.9 46.9 61.9 56.6

Unemployed

133 110 113 94 19 16

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.2 4.7 4.1 5.7 5.2

Not in labor force

2,560 2,597 2,382 2,390 178 207

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

220,025 222,857 96,988 98,685 123,037 124,172

Civilian labor force

143,700 146,417 72,780 74,219 70,920 72,198

Participation rate

65.3 65.7 75.0 75.2 57.6 58.1

Employed

135,856 139,128 68,461 70,344 67,395 68,785

Employment-population ratio

61.7 62.4 70.6 71.3 54.8 55.4

Unemployed

7,844 7,289 4,320 3,875 3,525 3,414

Unemployment rate

5.5 5.0 5.9 5.2 5.0 4.7

Not in labor force

76,325 76,440 24,208 24,466 52,117 51,974

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,919 29,661 220,161 223,107

Civilian labor force

5,917 5,907 150,401 152,948

Participation rate

19.8 19.9 68.3 68.6

Employed

5,222 5,269 142,413 145,469

Employment-population ratio

17.5 17.8 64.7 65.2

Unemployed

695 638 7,988 7,479

Unemployment rate

11.7 10.8 5.3 4.9

Not in labor force

24,002 23,754 69,760 70,160

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,674 2,561 75,765 76,673

Participation rate

34.2 33.7 82.0 82.2

Employed

2,306 2,233 71,365 72,689

Employment-population ratio

29.5 29.4 77.2 77.9

Unemployed

368 328 4,400 3,984

Unemployment rate

13.8 12.8 5.8 5.2

Not in labor force

5,140 5,039 16,647 16,593

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,312 2,295 66,766 68,062

Participation rate

28.1 28.4 69.9 70.7

Employed

2,053 2,049 63,434 64,842

Employment-population ratio

25.0 25.4 66.4 67.3

Unemployed

259 245 3,332 3,220

Unemployment rate

11.2 10.7 5.0 4.7

Not in labor force

5,909 5,773 28,777 28,248

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

931 1,051 7,870 8,212

Participation rate

6.7 7.5 24.4 24.5

Employed

864 987 7,614 7,938

Employment-population ratio

6.2 7.0 23.6 23.7

Unemployed

67 65 255 275

Unemployment rate

7.2 6.2 3.2 3.3

Not in labor force

12,953 12,943 24,337 25,318

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

40,198 41,148 19,460 20,028 20,738 21,119

Civilian labor force

26,328 27,029 15,321 15,596 11,006 11,432

Participation rate

65.5 65.7 78.7 77.9 53.1 54.1

Employed

24,937 25,741 14,539 14,938 10,398 10,803

Employment-population ratio

62.0 62.6 74.7 74.6 50.1 51.2

Unemployed

1,391 1,288 782 658 608 630

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.8 5.1 4.2 5.5 5.5

Not in labor force

13,870 14,119 4,139 4,432 9,731 9,687

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

209,882 211,620 101,278 102,084 108,604 109,536

Civilian labor force

129,990 131,825 67,907 68,787 62,083 63,038

Participation rate

61.9 62.3 67.1 67.4 57.2 57.5

Employed

122,698 124,997 63,736 64,946 58,962 60,051

Employment-population ratio

58.5 59.1 62.9 63.6 54.3 54.8

Unemployed

7,292 6,828 4,171 3,841 3,120 2,987

Unemployment rate

5.6 5.2 6.1 5.6 5.0 4.7

Not in labor force

79,892 79,795 33,371 33,297 46,522 46,498

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,405 2,274 2,491 2,556 2,424 2,411 2,385 2,456 2,623

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,490 1,402 1,535 1,611 1,557 1,562 1,538 1,571 1,643

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

881 857 933 900 822 814 827 878 938

Unpaid family workers

34 15 23 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

145,230 147,787 148,247 145,681 147,110 147,587 148,115 148,620 148,704

Wage and salary workers(1)

136,563 139,112 139,398 136,802 138,478 139,054 139,371 139,815 139,703

Government

20,729 21,104 20,911 20,312 21,088 20,824 20,715 20,775 20,548

Private industries

115,834 118,008 118,487 116,588 117,368 118,193 118,690 119,024 119,223

Private households

798 685 629 - - - - - -

Other industries

115,037 117,322 117,858 115,780 116,626 117,432 118,025 118,332 118,584

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,588 8,606 8,791 8,714 8,593 8,551 8,699 8,735 8,869

Unpaid family workers

79 69 58 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,672 6,106 6,138 6,673 6,085 6,022 5,988 5,988 6,123

Slack work or business conditions

4,027 3,726 3,656 4,063 3,536 3,548 3,544 3,579 3,631

Could only find part-time work

2,333 2,062 2,199 2,318 2,221 2,172 2,134 2,104 2,154

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,159 21,347 20,824 19,774 20,171 20,243 20,311 20,615 20,428

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,569 6,005 6,032 6,586 5,970 5,910 5,851 5,897 6,032

Slack work or business conditions

3,966 3,654 3,588 4,013 3,469 3,482 3,467 3,519 3,575

Could only find part-time work

2,320 2,053 2,182 2,293 2,208 2,161 2,116 2,099 2,138

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,786 20,991 20,463 19,398 19,783 19,932 19,973 20,238 20,084

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

147,635 150,060 150,738 148,333 149,444 149,929 150,544 151,074 151,320

16 to 19 years

4,491 4,608 4,648 4,777 4,729 4,899 4,901 4,990 4,931

16 to 17 years

1,445 1,530 1,515 1,605 1,559 1,648 1,669 1,731 1,688

18 to 19 years

3,046 3,078 3,133 3,171 3,142 3,232 3,222 3,279 3,252

20 years and over

143,144 145,453 146,090 143,556 144,714 145,030 145,644 146,085 146,389

20 to 24 years

13,584 13,848 13,932 13,825 13,920 14,061 14,056 14,109 14,171

25 years and over

129,560 131,605 132,158 129,657 130,837 130,995 131,597 131,922 132,116

25 to 54 years

96,300 97,380 97,866 96,514 96,960 96,976 97,583 97,736 97,932

25 to 34 years

32,563 33,322 33,421 32,697 32,814 32,891 33,320 33,370 33,493

35 to 44 years

31,103 31,370 31,560 31,111 31,361 31,466 31,511 31,548 31,555

45 to 54 years

32,634 32,688 32,884 32,706 32,785 32,620 32,752 32,818 32,883

55 years and over

33,260 34,225 34,292 33,143 33,877 34,019 34,014 34,186 34,184

Men, 16 years and over

78,275 79,415 79,884 78,994 79,182 79,546 80,104 80,491 80,543

16 to 19 years

2,153 2,267 2,245 2,346 2,358 2,427 2,400 2,501 2,447

16 to 17 years

668 701 654 758 781 780 813 830 770

18 to 19 years

1,485 1,565 1,592 1,575 1,571 1,631 1,587 1,681 1,674

20 years and over

76,122 77,148 77,639 76,647 76,823 77,119 77,704 77,991 78,096

20 to 24 years

6,932 7,107 7,145 7,080 7,026 7,173 7,191 7,293 7,284

25 years and over

69,190 70,041 70,494 69,528 69,767 69,945 70,500 70,637 70,750

25 to 54 years

51,615 52,013 52,343 51,935 51,862 51,935 52,436 52,513 52,580

25 to 34 years

17,639 17,905 18,102 17,798 17,732 17,785 18,069 18,056 18,199

35 to 44 years

16,746 16,895 16,937 16,832 16,829 16,933 17,010 17,075 17,018

45 to 54 years

17,230 17,213 17,303 17,305 17,302 17,217 17,357 17,382 17,363

55 years and over

17,575 18,027 18,151 17,593 17,905 18,010 18,064 18,125 18,170

Women, 16 years and over

69,360 70,646 70,854 69,339 70,262 70,383 70,440 70,583 70,777

16 to 19 years

2,339 2,341 2,402 2,431 2,371 2,472 2,501 2,489 2,485

16 to 17 years

778 829 861 847 778 868 856 901 918

18 to 19 years

1,561 1,512 1,541 1,596 1,571 1,601 1,635 1,598 1,578

20 years and over

67,022 68,305 68,451 66,909 67,891 67,911 67,940 68,094 68,293

20 to 24 years

6,652 6,741 6,787 6,744 6,894 6,888 6,865 6,817 6,887

25 years and over

60,370 61,564 61,664 60,129 61,070 61,051 61,096 61,285 61,366

25 to 54 years

44,685 45,367 45,523 44,579 45,098 45,042 45,147 45,224 45,351

25 to 34 years

14,924 15,417 15,319 14,899 15,082 15,106 15,250 15,315 15,294

35 to 44 years

14,356 14,475 14,623 14,279 14,533 14,533 14,501 14,474 14,537

45 to 54 years

15,404 15,475 15,582 15,401 15,483 15,403 15,395 15,435 15,520

55 years and over

15,685 16,197 16,141 15,550 15,972 16,009 15,950 16,061 16,015

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

45,103 44,874 45,153 45,260 44,816 45,187 45,231 45,175 45,266

Married women, spouse present

35,232 35,344 35,626 35,110 35,185 35,080 34,997 35,100 35,387

Women who maintain families

9,443 9,638 9,744 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

119,981 121,757 122,522 120,976 122,099 122,603 123,141 123,206 123,447

Part-time workers(2)

27,655 28,303 28,216 27,293 27,332 27,359 27,364 27,853 27,818

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,264 7,454 7,592 7,132 7,414 7,738 7,504 7,339 7,466

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.0 5.0 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.9

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,514 5,793 5,567 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,469 9,463 9,724 9,614 9,415 9,364 9,526 9,613 9,807

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Mar.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

8,557 7,815 7,966 5.5 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0

16 to 19 years

1,018 920 929 17.6 15.6 16.1 16.0 15.6 15.9

16 to 17 years

354 401 402 18.0 17.1 17.4 17.9 18.8 19.2

18 to 19 years

648 525 529 17.0 15.2 15.2 14.9 13.8 14.0

20 years and over

7,540 6,895 7,036 5.0 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.6

20 to 24 years

1,581 1,328 1,299 10.3 9.6 9.4 8.2 8.6 8.4

25 years and over

5,932 5,571 5,717 4.4 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1

25 to 54 years

4,559 4,229 4,311 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.2

25 to 34 years

1,955 1,775 1,819 5.6 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.2

35 to 44 years

1,339 1,257 1,266 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.9

45 to 54 years

1,264 1,196 1,227 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6

55 years and over

1,353 1,344 1,387 3.9 3.7 3.2 3.7 3.8 3.9

Men, 16 years and over

4,663 4,181 4,222 5.6 5.2 5.2 4.9 4.9 5.0

16 to 19 years

579 504 503 19.8 18.1 17.7 17.4 16.8 17.0

16 to 17 years

195 226 227 20.4 19.1 20.6 19.8 21.4 22.8

18 to 19 years

377 285 280 19.3 17.8 15.8 16.1 14.5 14.3

20 years and over

4,084 3,677 3,719 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.5

20 to 24 years

885 745 729 11.1 11.2 10.3 9.0 9.3 9.1

25 years and over

3,176 2,938 2,970 4.4 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.0

25 to 54 years

2,430 2,182 2,221 4.5 4.2 4.3 4.0 4.0 4.1

25 to 34 years

1,048 959 947 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.0 5.0 4.9

35 to 44 years

716 637 632 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6

45 to 54 years

665 586 642 3.7 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.6

55 years and over

747 756 749 4.1 3.7 3.5 3.7 4.0 4.0

Women, 16 years and over

3,894 3,634 3,743 5.3 4.9 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0

16 to 19 years

439 415 426 15.3 13.0 14.4 14.5 14.3 14.6

16 to 17 years

159 176 175 15.8 15.1 14.2 16.1 16.3 16.0

18 to 19 years

271 240 248 14.5 12.5 14.7 13.8 13.1 13.6

20 years and over

3,455 3,219 3,317 4.9 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6

20 to 24 years

696 583 570 9.4 7.9 8.5 7.3 7.9 7.6

25 years and over

2,755 2,632 2,747 4.4 4.2 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.3

25 to 54 years

2,129 2,047 2,089 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.4

25 to 34 years

907 817 872 5.7 5.4 5.0 5.2 5.1 5.4

35 to 44 years

623 619 633 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.2

45 to 54 years

598 610 584 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.6

55 years and over

603 577 629 3.7 3.6 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.8

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

1,297 1,182 1,357 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.9

Married women, spouse present

1,092 1,077 1,135 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1

Women who maintain families(1)

830 729 713 8.1 6.9 5.8 7.1 7.0 6.8

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

7,139 6,380 6,586 5.6 5.1 5.1 4.9 4.9 5.1

Part-time workers(3)

1,411 1,430 1,389 4.9 4.9 4.6 5.0 4.9 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4,503 4,244 4,149 4,194 3,873 3,796 3,664 3,749 3,835

On temporary layoff

1,199 1,282 1,106 1,004 939 937 923 960 921

Not on temporary layoff

3,304 2,962 3,044 3,190 2,934 2,859 2,741 2,790 2,914

Permanent job losers

2,298 2,049 2,153 2,229 2,112 2,044 1,876 1,969 2,068

Persons who completed temporary jobs

1,006 912 891 961 822 815 865 821 845

Job leavers

853 766 829 870 800 821 766 760 833

Reentrants

2,597 2,467 2,450 2,666 2,449 2,476 2,468 2,467 2,495

New entrants

729 742 688 812 847 858 827 833 778

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

51.9 51.6 51.1 49.1 48.6 47.7 47.4 48.0 48.3

On temporary layoff

13.8 15.6 13.6 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.9 12.3 11.6

Not on temporary layoff

38.0 36.0 37.5 37.3 36.8 36.0 35.5 35.7 36.7

Job leavers

9.8 9.3 10.2 10.2 10.0 10.3 9.9 9.7 10.5

Reentrants

29.9 30.0 30.2 31.2 30.7 31.1 31.9 31.6 31.4

New entrants

8.4 9.0 8.5 9.5 10.6 10.8 10.7 10.7 9.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.9 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.7 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

New entrants

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,108 2,057 2,083 2,488 2,412 2,405 2,249 2,297 2,412

5 to 14 weeks

2,511 2,636 2,382 2,330 2,253 2,192 2,282 2,236 2,205

15 weeks and over

4,064 3,525 3,651 3,801 3,324 3,320 3,224 3,297 3,391

15 to 26 weeks

1,428 1,277 1,346 1,255 1,270 1,235 1,135 1,132 1,178

27 weeks and over

2,635 2,248 2,305 2,547 2,054 2,085 2,089 2,165 2,213

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

31.3 29.0 29.1 30.4 27.9 27.6 28.9 29.0 28.4

Median duration, in weeks

13.2 11.7 12.7 12.1 10.7 10.5 10.9 11.2 11.4

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

24.3 25.0 25.7 28.9 30.2 30.4 29.0 29.3 30.1

5 to 14 weeks

28.9 32.1 29.3 27.0 28.2 27.7 29.4 28.6 27.5

15 weeks and over

46.8 42.9 45.0 44.1 41.6 41.9 41.6 42.1 42.4

15 to 26 weeks

16.5 15.5 16.6 14.6 15.9 15.6 14.6 14.5 14.7

27 weeks and over

30.4 27.4 28.4 29.5 25.7 26.3 26.9 27.7 27.6

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016

Total, 16 years and over(1)

147,635 150,738 8,682 8,116 5.6 5.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

57,805 60,080 1,398 1,477 2.4 2.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

23,955 25,220 638 642 2.6 2.5

Professional and related occupations

33,850 34,860 760 835 2.2 2.3

Service occupations

25,010 25,643 1,782 1,797 6.6 6.5

Sales and office occupations

33,927 33,445 2,000 1,710 5.6 4.9

Sales and related occupations

15,949 15,963 976 726 5.8 4.4

Office and administrative support occupations

17,977 17,482 1,024 983 5.4 5.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,437 13,482 1,366 1,237 9.2 8.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

999 1,043 186 153 15.7 12.8

Construction and extraction occupations

7,439 7,564 922 807 11.0 9.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,000 4,875 259 277 4.9 5.4

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,456 18,088 1,372 1,169 7.3 6.1

Production occupations

8,631 8,864 593 558 6.4 5.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,825 9,224 779 611 8.1 6.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016

Total, 16 years and over(1)

8,682 8,116 5.6 5.1

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

6,736 6,187 5.5 5.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

84 87 8.0 9.8

Construction

831 768 9.5 8.7

Manufacturing

734 669 4.8 4.3

Durable goods

469 398 4.8 4.0

Nondurable goods

265 271 4.7 4.6

Wholesale and retail trade

1,252 1,031 6.0 5.1

Transportation and utilities

263 262 4.3 3.9

Information

84 124 3.0 4.4

Financial activities

248 294 2.6 3.0

Professional and business services

1,019 910 6.5 5.5

Education and health services

742 788 3.3 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

1,135 981 8.6 7.2

Other services

344 273 5.4 4.3

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

251 176 14.9 10.7

Government workers

509 656 2.4 3.0

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

456 409 4.5 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.6 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.9 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

5.6 5.2 5.1 5.5 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

6.0 5.6 5.5 5.9 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.3

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.8 6.3 6.1 6.7 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.0 6.0

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

11.0 10.1 9.9 10.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.7 9.8

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
Mar.
2016

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

93,762 93,914 37,509 37,729 56,253 56,185

Persons who currently want a job

6,065 5,446 2,911 2,451 3,154 2,995

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,055 1,720 1,083 903 972 816

Discouraged workers(2)

738 585 485 361 254 224

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,317 1,135 599 542 718 592

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,264 7,592 3,580 3,730 3,684 3,862

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.0 4.6 4.7 5.3 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,872 4,254 2,132 2,337 1,741 1,917

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,988 2,051 702 715 1,287 1,336

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

244 281 154 187 90 93

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,120 976 571 473 549 503

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)
Change from:
Feb.2016 - Mar.2016(p)

Total nonfarm

140,099 141,150 141,987 142,877 140,972 143,314 143,559 143,774 215

Total private

117,751 119,229 119,645 120,411 119,011 121,261 121,497 121,692 195

Goods-producing

19,153 19,197 19,167 19,280 19,548 19,702 19,687 19,683 -4

Mining and logging

848 740 716 703 859 749 732 720 -12

Logging

50.7 49.4 49.9 49.4 53.0 50.4 51.5 51.5 0.0

Mining

797.1 690.1 666.3 653.7 806.1 698.5 680.4 668.0 -12.4

Oil and gas extraction

195.9 181.9 178.7 176.4 197.9 181.7 179.8 178.7 -1.1

Mining, except oil and gas

197.1 182.2 181.0 181.2 203.1 190.3 188.8 187.4 -1.4

Coal mining

68.0 58.9 57.2 56.0 67.9 59.4 57.8 56.7 -1.1

Metal ore mining

42.7 39.1 39.0 38.3 43.0 39.2 39.1 38.5 -0.6

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

86.4 84.2 84.8 86.9 92.2 91.8 92.0 92.2 0.2

Support activities for mining

404.1 326.0 306.6 296.1 405.1 326.5 311.8 301.9 -9.9

Construction

6,051 6,212 6,215 6,349 6,371 6,615 6,635 6,672 37

Construction of buildings

1,362.6 1,394.4 1,392.9 1,416.1 1,414.8 1,451.9 1,458.4 1,466.4 8.0

Residential building

656.5 682.8 680.7 687.8 686.9 713.4 715.9 717.7 1.8

Nonresidential building

706.1 711.6 712.2 728.3 727.9 738.5 742.5 748.7 6.2

Heavy and civil engineering construction

845.6 831.2 836.3 872.6 925.7 939.6 942.0 953.2 11.2

Specialty trade contractors

3,842.5 3,986.8 3,986.0 4,060.6 4,030.9 4,223.4 4,234.5 4,252.6 18.1

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,647.8 1,738.7 1,750.3 1,780.3 1,745.2 1,855.0 1,868.8 1,880.4 11.6

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,194.7 2,248.1 2,235.7 2,280.3 2,285.7 2,368.4 2,365.7 2,372.2 6.5

Manufacturing

12,254 12,245 12,236 12,228 12,318 12,338 12,320 12,291 -29

Durable goods

7,744 7,696 7,684 7,677 7,769 7,742 7,725 7,701 -24

Wood products

372.9 378.0 377.3 376.4 378.0 383.4 382.4 381.6 -0.8

Nonmetallic mineral products

383.5 386.2 385.0 392.3 393.3 400.9 401.6 402.6 1.0

Primary metals

399.7 382.8 379.6 377.9 399.7 382.1 380.4 377.8 -2.6

Fabricated metal products

1,465.0 1,438.1 1,431.2 1,429.1 1,470.7 1,446.5 1,438.8 1,434.6 -4.2

Machinery

1,134.0 1,098.5 1,095.2 1,088.6 1,134.8 1,099.1 1,095.2 1,088.7 -6.5

Computer and electronic products

1,050.4 1,042.9 1,041.8 1,040.3 1,052.8 1,045.6 1,045.1 1,041.7 -3.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

158.4 161.6 161.9 162.9 159.7 161.4 162.5 163.5 1.0

Communications equipment

88.9 85.5 84.7 84.7 89.0 85.6 85.1 84.9 -0.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

368.3 364.4 364.4 361.8 368.9 365.2 364.8 362.1 -2.7

Electronic instruments

398.5 396.8 395.8 395.9 398.7 398.5 397.4 396.1 -1.3

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

36.3 34.6 35.0 35.0 36.5 34.8 35.2 35.1 -0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

382.1 384.9 385.1 384.8 383.6 385.8 385.5 386.2 0.7

Transportation equipment(1)

1,596.8 1,603.4 1,606.3 1,606.0 1,591.1 1,609.9 1,605.7 1,601.4 -4.3

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

904.5 918.7 922.1 923.5 899.5 921.2 921.5 920.0 -1.5

Furniture and related products

375.4 385.1 386.7 387.5 377.4 389.5 391.4 389.6 -1.8

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

584.1 596.0 595.6 593.9 587.2 599.0 598.9 597.1 -1.8

Nondurable goods

4,510 4,549 4,552 4,551 4,549 4,596 4,595 4,590 -5

Food manufacturing

1,482.0 1,497.4 1,497.0 1,494.3 1,505.7 1,521.3 1,518.2 1,516.9 -1.3

Textile mills

117.1 115.0 114.4 114.5 117.2 116.2 114.8 114.4 -0.4

Textile product mills

114.7 116.3 116.9 117.0 115.8 117.9 118.2 117.9 -0.3

Apparel

137.3 134.3 134.7 133.4 137.0 134.1 134.4 133.6 -0.8

Paper and paper products

371.4 372.4 371.1 371.1 373.3 373.3 373.0 373.0 0.0

Printing and related support activities

449.9 446.6 443.9 444.8 450.5 448.2 446.0 445.8 -0.2

Petroleum and coal products

105.4 111.6 111.2 112.7 108.2 115.9 115.6 115.7 0.1

Chemicals

805.8 813.1 815.7 817.3 807.0 815.3 817.0 817.9 0.9

Plastics and rubber products

683.3 686.6 687.9 689.1 684.5 690.4 690.3 690.2 -0.1

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

242.7 255.7 258.9 257.2 250.1 263.7 267.0 264.6 -2.4

Private service-providing

98,598 100,032 100,478 101,131 99,463 101,559 101,810 102,009 199

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26,449 26,997 26,830 26,953 26,788 27,173 27,236 27,287 51

Wholesale trade

5,832.1 5,865.8 5,871.6 5,891.0 5,862.7 5,913.7 5,914.7 5,920.2 5.5

Durable goods

2,920.5 2,934.6 2,933.7 2,937.1 2,930.6 2,947.9 2,946.5 2,946.6 0.1

Nondurable goods

2,011.2 2,027.1 2,033.1 2,045.0 2,027.7 2,054.4 2,057.4 2,060.9 3.5

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

900.4 904.1 904.8 908.9 904.4 911.4 910.8 912.7 1.9

Retail trade

15,305.3 15,717.5 15,594.7 15,692.2 15,564.4 15,827.3 15,894.4 15,942.1 47.7

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,900.1 1,957.5 1,964.2 1,979.5 1,913.3 1,982.7 1,986.4 1,992.1 5.7

Automobile dealers

1,219.8 1,265.4 1,269.4 1,276.5 1,225.7 1,274.5 1,277.3 1,282.3 5.0

Other motor vehicle dealers

139.6 141.5 143.2 146.7 143.6 151.9 151.7 150.9 -0.8

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

540.7 550.6 551.6 556.3 544.0 556.3 557.4 559.0 1.6

Furniture and home furnishings stores

460.9 475.7 471.7 473.1 468.2 474.0 477.3 479.8 2.5

Electronics and appliance stores

510.5 547.8 528.9 520.9 518.8 528.2 530.6 529.1 -1.5

Building material and garden supply stores

1,222.7 1,197.7 1,221.8 1,272.9 1,234.7 1,264.4 1,271.5 1,281.0 9.5

Food and beverage stores

3,023.1 3,050.9 3,060.8 3,064.3 3,060.1 3,072.4 3,093.3 3,100.0 6.7

Health and personal care stores

1,027.0 1,037.5 1,030.4 1,040.6 1,034.1 1,036.0 1,036.1 1,046.3 10.2

Gasoline stations

885.9 906.2 903.8 909.3 899.5 917.9 920.2 922.3 2.1

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,299.4 1,385.5 1,340.7 1,331.2 1,355.0 1,380.2 1,391.8 1,387.4 -4.4

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

609.3 633.0 625.7 624.5 629.3 632.3 639.6 640.8 1.2

General merchandise stores

3,071.8 3,179.1 3,112.3 3,149.1 3,120.4 3,173.0 3,185.8 3,197.8 12.0

Department stores

1,305.4 1,341.3 1,288.5 1,291.4 1,340.3 1,320.3 1,321.8 1,325.7 3.9

Other general merchandise stores

1,766.4 1,837.8 1,823.8 1,857.7 1,780.1 1,852.6 1,864.0 1,872.2 8.2

Miscellaneous store retailers

799.0 821.2 816.5 809.8 823.2 839.3 833.3 835.5 2.2

Nonstore retailers

495.6 525.4 517.9 517.0 507.8 526.9 528.5 530.0 1.5

Transportation and warehousing

4,758.6 4,852.1 4,800.8 4,805.9 4,806.1 4,867.9 4,861.4 4,858.9 -2.5

Air transportation

449.2 460.4 459.9 460.7 450.6 462.8 462.7 462.3 -0.4

Rail transportation

247.0 222.9 219.5 217.5 247.4 223.9 220.8 218.0 -2.8

Water transportation

65.1 59.6 59.1 59.2 66.6 61.5 60.9 60.9 0.0

Truck transportation

1,417.9 1,436.8 1,432.3 1,434.0 1,446.1 1,465.6 1,464.7 1,462.3 -2.4

Transit and ground passenger transportation

488.1 483.8 484.3 490.8 475.3 472.5 473.9 477.3 3.4

Pipeline transportation

48.2 50.3 49.5 48.9 48.4 50.3 49.6 49.2 -0.4

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

25.1 21.0 21.1 22.3 31.0 28.9 28.7 28.8 0.1

Support activities for transportation

641.3 648.2 647.2 645.5 645.3 652.4 651.8 649.7 -2.1

Couriers and messengers

587.3 633.4 592.5 590.9 600.0 608.3 604.9 605.9 1.0

Warehousing and storage

789.4 835.7 835.4 836.1 795.4 841.7 843.4 844.5 1.1

Utilities

553.3 562.0 562.9 563.9 555.2 563.8 565.6 565.6 0.0

Information

2,730 2,726 2,764 2,770 2,735 2,763 2,773 2,774 1

Publishing industries, except Internet

723.5 724.0 723.9 723.6 726.2 726.1 726.7 725.7 -1.0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

391.1 375.0 408.5 414.4 391.5 405.2 410.3 413.3 3.0

Broadcasting, except Internet

279.5 278.3 279.8 279.7 279.9 279.5 280.3 279.9 -0.4

Telecommunications

807.7 801.4 799.9 800.6 807.7 803.0 801.4 801.0 -0.4

Data processing, hosting and related services

292.3 295.1 296.3 297.1 292.8 297.2 297.8 298.0 0.2

Other information services

235.5 252.3 255.8 254.6 237.2 251.7 256.2 256.1 -0.1

Financial activities

8,037 8,155 8,158 8,181 8,082 8,207 8,212 8,227 15

Finance and insurance

5,992.2 6,085.9 6,088.5 6,104.7 6,004.2 6,096.3 6,101.8 6,116.9 15.1

Monetary authorities - central bank

17.7 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,556.8 2,578.8 2,574.5 2,584.2 2,563.7 2,581.8 2,581.7 2,591.0 9.3

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,679.3 1,678.5 1,675.4 1,682.0 1,682.4 1,678.1 1,678.2 1,684.7 6.5

Commercial banking

1,277.3 1,264.8 1,261.7 1,267.3 1,278.5 1,264.4 1,263.5 1,268.4 4.9

Nondepository credit intermediation

586.5 600.9 600.3 602.5 589.2 602.7 603.6 605.4 1.8

Activities related to credit intermediation

291.0 299.4 298.8 299.7 292.1 301.0 299.9 300.9 1.0

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

895.7 916.8 916.7 919.9 897.7 919.8 919.0 922.1 3.1

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,522.0 2,572.5 2,579.5 2,582.8 2,524.9 2,576.8 2,583.2 2,585.9 2.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,044.6 2,068.8 2,069.6 2,076.5 2,078.1 2,110.6 2,110.6 2,110.0 -0.6

Real estate

1,490.7 1,517.5 1,519.5 1,524.5 1,510.3 1,541.5 1,543.3 1,544.3 1.0

Rental and leasing services

530.6 528.3 526.9 528.8 544.3 545.5 543.7 542.1 -1.6

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.3 23.0 23.2 23.2 23.5 23.6 23.6 23.6 0.0

Professional and business services

19,233 19,643 19,723 19,828 19,436 19,979 20,009 20,042 33

Professional and technical services

8,581.7 8,797.6 8,868.5 8,873.1 8,527.2 8,789.3 8,806.6 8,820.1 13.5

Legal services

1,112.9 1,114.7 1,116.7 1,120.8 1,116.6 1,123.5 1,123.6 1,124.8 1.2

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,084.6 1,087.9 1,135.1 1,123.5 968.6 1,008.7 1,008.5 1,009.0 0.5

Architectural and engineering services

1,379.8 1,415.0 1,413.4 1,414.8 1,398.8 1,431.0 1,433.8 1,434.1 0.3

Specialized design services

130.3 137.0 137.2 137.5 131.4 140.1 138.9 138.9 0.0

Computer systems design and related services

1,863.1 1,952.0 1,957.9 1,952.1 1,876.5 1,957.4 1,963.2 1,967.3 4.1

Management and technical consulting services

1,244.0 1,289.2 1,300.0 1,307.5 1,255.2 1,305.4 1,311.2 1,318.0 6.8

Scientific research and development services

649.9 657.9 657.6 663.1 651.7 664.3 663.1 664.9 1.8

Advertising and related services

475.2 489.7 489.8 487.9 477.9 493.3 491.9 491.0 -0.9

Other professional and technical services

641.9 654.2 660.8 665.9 650.3 665.6 672.3 672.2 -0.1

Management of companies and enterprises

2,189.6 2,243.6 2,244.1 2,251.1 2,197.4 2,250.5 2,256.1 2,259.1 3.0

Administrative and waste services

8,462.0 8,601.8 8,610.5 8,703.8 8,711.2 8,939.2 8,945.9 8,962.4 16.5

Administrative and support services

8,076.8 8,207.7 8,217.1 8,306.3 8,317.7 8,537.2 8,543.3 8,557.4 14.1

Office administrative services

464.0 480.2 482.2 484.7 466.4 483.3 484.8 486.4 1.6

Facilities support services

138.8 141.1 143.4 145.7 138.1 142.7 143.6 145.1 1.5

Employment services(1)

3,382.3 3,427.4 3,417.0 3,443.7 3,487.0 3,572.0 3,565.4 3,559.2 -6.2

Temporary help services

2,747.9 2,774.9 2,760.1 2,791.6 2,836.9 2,900.3 2,887.9 2,891.9 4.0

Business support services

887.9 905.3 904.7 903.4 888.7 902.5 902.0 904.2 2.2

Travel arrangement and reservation services

199.0 196.3 199.4 204.1 199.9 201.3 203.5 205.2 1.7

Investigation and security services

860.6 877.8 879.4 880.8 867.4 884.5 886.6 887.0 0.4

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,842.1 1,864.5 1,870.6 1,920.5 1,968.0 2,032.3 2,035.1 2,047.6 12.5

Other support services

302.1 315.1 320.4 323.4 302.1 318.7 322.2 322.8 0.6

Waste management and remediation services

385.2 394.1 393.4 397.5 393.5 402.0 402.6 405.0 2.4

Education and health services

21,973 22,261 22,590 22,687 21,828 22,404 22,488 22,539 51

Educational services

3,615.3 3,385.0 3,656.2 3,684.5 3,452.7 3,484.4 3,509.8 3,517.2 7.4

Health care and social assistance

18,358.1 18,876.3 18,934.2 19,002.4 18,374.9 18,919.4 18,977.8 19,021.8 44.0

Health care(3)

14,883.9 15,300.2 15,335.7 15,384.8 14,917.1 15,342.9 15,383.6 15,420.4 36.8

Ambulatory health care services

6,765.9 6,985.7 7,015.9 7,050.2 6,786.1 7,011.6 7,040.3 7,067.7 27.4

Offices of physicians

2,502.1 2,570.8 2,577.1 2,584.9 2,506.9 2,575.2 2,582.2 2,588.2 6.0

Offices of dentists

894.3 922.7 926.2 926.0 899.2 925.9 929.3 931.4 2.1

Offices of other health practitioners

801.9 829.3 835.7 841.4 804.8 833.3 837.9 842.7 4.8

Outpatient care centers

734.1 759.0 761.9 765.5 735.1 760.7 764.0 766.6 2.6

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

256.6 256.3 256.5 258.9 256.1 257.3 257.1 258.9 1.8

Home health care services

1,294.7 1,358.0 1,367.4 1,380.8 1,301.3 1,366.3 1,376.2 1,385.8 9.6

Other ambulatory health care services

282.2 289.6 291.1 292.7 282.8 293.0 293.6 294.0 0.4

Hospitals

4,853.3 5,013.5 5,022.8 5,034.4 4,856.3 5,018.0 5,029.5 5,039.7 10.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,264.7 3,301.0 3,297.0 3,300.2 3,274.7 3,313.3 3,313.8 3,313.0 -0.8

Nursing care facilities

1,639.7 1,650.5 1,642.0 1,640.9 1,644.6 1,655.3 1,650.8 1,647.6 -3.2

Residential mental health facilities

603.2 608.0 609.8 612.1 605.1 610.9 612.9 613.9 1.0

Community care facilities for the elderly

860.5 882.3 884.0 885.2 862.5 884.8 887.0 888.4 1.4

Other residential care facilities

161.3 160.2 161.2 162.0 162.5 162.2 163.1 163.1 0.0

Social assistance

3,474.2 3,576.1 3,598.5 3,617.6 3,457.8 3,576.5 3,594.2 3,601.4 7.2

Individual and family services

2,099.6 2,186.0 2,198.2 2,206.2 2,098.5 2,189.9 2,202.1 2,207.3 5.2

Emergency and other relief services

153.7 156.6 156.7 157.8 154.0 157.3 157.8 158.0 0.2

Vocational rehabilitation services

332.4 331.0 332.7 332.6 336.4 335.1 337.0 336.0 -1.0

Child day care services

888.5 902.5 910.9 921.0 868.9 894.3 897.4 900.1 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

14,599 14,661 14,792 15,060 14,989 15,376 15,421 15,461 40

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,982.2 1,950.1 1,985.5 2,059.3 2,139.7 2,199.7 2,208.0 2,221.3 13.3

Performing arts and spectator sports

428.9 412.5 431.0 450.5 446.6 464.5 467.2 469.5 2.3

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

142.9 139.7 138.9 145.0 150.3 152.0 150.8 152.5 1.7

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,410.4 1,397.9 1,415.6 1,463.8 1,542.8 1,583.2 1,590.0 1,599.3 9.3

Accommodation and food services

12,617.0 12,710.6 12,806.0 13,000.3 12,849.5 13,176.4 13,212.9 13,239.2 26.3

Accommodation

1,851.6 1,827.4 1,846.4 1,868.6 1,915.9 1,926.5 1,930.1 1,931.6 1.5

Food services and drinking places

10,765.4 10,883.2 10,959.6 11,131.7 10,933.6 11,249.9 11,282.8 11,307.6 24.8

Other services

5,577 5,589 5,621 5,652 5,605 5,657 5,671 5,679 8

Repair and maintenance

1,267.4 1,271.0 1,284.0 1,287.7 1,269.4 1,285.5 1,291.8 1,290.3 -1.5

Personal and laundry services

1,381.3 1,395.8 1,401.8 1,416.0 1,389.8 1,414.5 1,420.3 1,424.9 4.6

Membership associations and organizations

2,928.0 2,922.3 2,935.4 2,948.5 2,945.6 2,957.2 2,959.0 2,964.2 5.2

Government

22,348 21,921 22,342 22,466 21,961 22,053 22,062 22,082 20

Federal

2,734.0 2,748.0 2,754.0 2,759.0 2,747.0 2,763.0 2,768.0 2,770.0 2.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,141.7 2,152.6 2,151.8 2,154.5 2,152.2 2,165.1 2,165.1 2,164.7 -0.4

U.S. Postal Service

592.7 595.4 602.0 604.2 595.1 598.0 603.2 604.9 1.7

State government

5,250.0 5,022.0 5,225.0 5,253.0 5,094.0 5,107.0 5,101.0 5,100.0 -1.0

State government education

2,582.1 2,365.2 2,568.4 2,592.0 2,419.0 2,436.6 2,431.8 2,431.8 0.0

State government, excluding education

2,667.9 2,657.2 2,656.9 2,660.7 2,674.5 2,670.1 2,669.2 2,667.8 -1.4

Local government

14,364.0 14,151.0 14,363.0 14,454.0 14,120.0 14,183.0 14,193.0 14,212.0 19.0

Local government education

8,164.3 7,922.1 8,111.4 8,165.7 7,816.0 7,817.4 7,813.5 7,819.5 6.0

Local government, excluding education

6,199.3 6,228.6 6,251.4 6,288.7 6,304.1 6,365.9 6,379.4 6,392.2 12.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.6 34.4 34.4

Goods-producing

40.4 40.4 40.2 40.0

Mining and logging

44.5 43.5 43.2 42.6

Construction

39.0 39.3 38.9 38.7

Manufacturing

40.8 40.7 40.7 40.6

Durable goods

41.2 41.2 41.1 41.1

Nondurable goods

40.2 40.0 39.9 39.8

Private service-providing

33.4 33.4 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.6 34.6 34.5 34.4

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.9 39.0 38.8

Retail trade

31.4 31.4 31.3 31.1

Transportation and warehousing

38.9 39.0 38.9 38.9

Utilities

42.9 42.5 41.5 41.9

Information

36.4 36.2 35.9 35.9

Financial activities

37.5 37.7 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.2 36.3 36.1 36.0

Education and health services

32.8 32.9 32.8 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.2 26.2 26.2 26.1

Other services

31.8 32.0 31.9 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Durable goods

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.3 3.4 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)

Total private

$24.87 $25.38 $25.36 $25.43 $858.02 $878.15 $872.38 $874.79

Goods-producing

26.06 26.51 26.54 26.63 1,052.82 1,071.00 1,066.91 1,065.20

Mining and logging

31.04 31.73 31.48 31.56 1,381.28 1,380.26 1,359.94 1,344.46

Construction

27.24 27.63 27.72 27.85 1,062.36 1,085.86 1,078.31 1,077.80

Manufacturing

25.10 25.60 25.62 25.69 1,024.08 1,041.92 1,042.73 1,043.01

Durable goods

26.43 26.93 26.94 26.97 1,088.92 1,109.52 1,107.23 1,108.47

Nondurable goods

22.77 23.29 23.33 23.47 915.35 931.60 930.87 934.11

Private service-providing

24.58 25.12 25.09 25.15 820.97 839.01 835.50 837.50

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21.66 22.08 22.08 22.17 749.44 763.97 761.76 762.65

Wholesale trade

28.40 29.01 29.05 29.31 1,101.92 1,128.49 1,132.95 1,137.23

Retail trade

17.30 17.73 17.73 17.77 543.22 556.72 554.95 552.65

Transportation and warehousing

22.92 23.09 23.08 23.06 891.59 900.51 897.81 897.03

Utilities

36.85 37.81 37.68 37.91 1,580.87 1,606.93 1,563.72 1,588.43

Information

34.67 36.04 36.18 36.26 1,261.99 1,304.65 1,298.86 1,301.73

Financial activities

31.32 32.11 31.98 32.14 1,174.50 1,210.55 1,202.45 1,208.46

Professional and business services

29.90 30.52 30.44 30.53 1,082.38 1,107.88 1,098.88 1,099.08

Education and health services

25.13 25.58 25.60 25.59 824.26 841.58 839.68 841.91

Leisure and hospitality

14.23 14.61 14.61 14.65 372.83 382.78 382.78 382.37

Other services

22.35 22.81 22.79 22.75 710.73 729.92 727.00 725.73

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2016 - Mar.
2016(p)
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2016 - Mar.
2016(p)

Total private

103.1 105.3 104.9 105.1 0.2 122.5 127.8 127.2 127.7 0.4

Goods-producing

90.0 90.7 90.2 89.7 -0.6 106.0 108.7 108.2 108.0 -0.2

Mining and logging

120.1 102.4 99.4 96.4 -3.0 149.7 130.4 125.6 122.1 -2.8

Construction

85.7 89.6 89.0 89.0 0.0 101.4 107.6 107.2 107.7 0.5

Manufacturing

90.4 90.3 90.2 89.8 -0.4 105.5 107.6 107.5 107.3 -0.2

Durable goods

90.1 89.8 89.4 89.1 -0.3 105.8 107.4 106.9 106.7 -0.2

Nondurable goods

91.3 91.7 91.5 91.2 -0.3 105.4 108.4 108.3 108.6 0.3

Private service-providing

106.9 109.1 109.1 109.3 0.2 127.7 133.2 133.0 133.6 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

100.8 102.3 102.2 102.1 -0.1 117.5 121.5 121.4 121.8 0.3

Wholesale trade

99.2 100.4 100.6 100.2 -0.4 117.6 121.5 122.0 122.6 0.5

Retail trade

99.3 101.0 101.1 100.7 -0.4 113.5 118.3 118.5 118.3 -0.2

Transportation and warehousing

107.0 108.7 108.2 108.2 0.0 124.5 127.3 126.8 126.6 -0.2

Utilities

103.1 103.7 101.6 102.5 0.9 125.5 129.5 126.4 128.4 1.6

Information

90.9 91.3 90.9 90.9 0.0 112.2 117.2 117.1 117.4 0.3

Financial activities

99.3 101.3 101.1 101.3 0.2 121.3 126.9 126.1 127.0 0.7

Professional and business services

110.7 114.1 113.6 113.5 -0.1 134.0 141.0 140.1 140.4 0.2

Education and health services

116.9 120.4 120.4 121.1 0.6 141.3 148.0 148.3 149.0 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

112.1 114.9 115.3 115.1 -0.2 128.6 135.5 135.9 136.1 0.1

Other services

102.8 104.4 104.3 104.5 0.2 125.9 130.5 130.3 130.2 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)

Total nonfarm

69,541 70,835 71,013 71,156 49.3 49.4 49.5 49.5

Total private

56,983 58,210 58,381 58,514 47.9 48.0 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,275 4,295 4,294 4,295 21.9 21.8 21.8 21.8

Mining and logging

119 107 106 105 13.9 14.3 14.5 14.6

Construction

803 824 826 829 12.6 12.5 12.4 12.4

Manufacturing

3,353 3,364 3,362 3,361 27.2 27.3 27.3 27.3

Durable goods

1,800 1,801 1,799 1,799 23.2 23.3 23.3 23.4

Nondurable goods

1,553 1,563 1,563 1,562 34.1 34.0 34.0 34.0

Private service-providing

52,708 53,915 54,087 54,219 53.0 53.1 53.1 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,854 11,020 11,053 11,077 40.5 40.6 40.6 40.6

Wholesale trade

1,726.6 1,740.3 1,741.1 1,744.4 29.5 29.4 29.4 29.5

Retail trade

7,851.7 7,991.3 8,021.8 8,047.1 50.4 50.5 50.5 50.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,142.0 1,152.8 1,154.7 1,150.6 23.8 23.7 23.8 23.7

Utilities

133.7 135.2 135.0 134.6 24.1 24.0 23.9 23.8

Information

1,101 1,107 1,111 1,114 40.3 40.1 40.1 40.2

Financial activities

4,622 4,684 4,690 4,697 57.2 57.1 57.1 57.1

Professional and business services

8,637 8,926 8,950 8,972 44.4 44.7 44.7 44.8

Education and health services

16,796 17,264 17,326 17,370 76.9 77.1 77.0 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

7,772 7,957 7,993 8,016 51.9 51.7 51.8 51.8

Other services

2,926 2,957 2,964 2,973 52.2 52.3 52.3 52.4

Government

12,558 12,625 12,632 12,642 57.2 57.2 57.3 57.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)

Total private

98,154 99,910 100,095 100,250

Goods-producing

14,087 14,209 14,193 14,197

Mining and logging

630 541 525 511

Construction

4,784 4,981 5,000 5,028

Manufacturing

8,673 8,687 8,668 8,658

Durable goods

5,350 5,336 5,323 5,319

Nondurable goods

3,323 3,351 3,345 3,339

Private service-providing

84,067 85,701 85,902 86,053

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,585 22,841 22,907 22,946

Wholesale trade

4,717.3 4,737.2 4,737.2 4,735.2

Retail trade

13,257.4 13,444.2 13,505.1 13,547.8

Transportation and warehousing

4,163.8 4,207.4 4,211.6 4,209.8

Utilities

446.9 451.8 452.7 452.8

Information

2,214 2,228 2,240 2,241

Financial activities

6,240 6,350 6,357 6,372

Professional and business services

15,997 16,402 16,405 16,422

Education and health services

19,151 19,662 19,731 19,766

Leisure and hospitality

13,212 13,516 13,551 13,599

Other services

4,668 4,702 4,711 4,707

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.7 33.6 33.6

Goods-producing

41.1 41.3 41.2 40.9

Mining and logging

46.2 46.0 44.7 43.9

Construction

39.2 39.8 40.0 39.3

Manufacturing

41.8 41.9 41.7 41.7

Durable goods

42.1 42.3 42.1 42.1

Nondurable goods

41.4 41.2 41.1 41.1

Private service-providing

32.4 32.5 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.7 33.7 33.6 33.5

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.5 38.5 38.5

Retail trade

30.0 30.0 29.9 29.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.9 38.9 38.9

Utilities

42.8 42.9 41.7 42.3

Information

35.9 35.8 35.5 35.6

Financial activities

37.0 37.2 37.1 37.1

Professional and business services

35.4 35.6 35.4 35.5

Education and health services

32.0 32.2 32.1 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

25.1 24.9 24.9 24.8

Other services

30.7 30.6 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3

Durable goods

4.3 4.4 4.4 4.4

Nondurable goods

4.4 4.2 4.2 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)

Total private

$20.89 $21.33 $21.33 $21.37 $703.99 $718.82 $716.69 $718.03

Goods-producing

21.83 22.22 22.26 22.38 897.21 917.69 917.11 915.34

Mining and logging

26.45 26.77 26.77 26.73 1,221.99 1,231.42 1,196.62 1,173.45

Construction

25.08 25.41 25.42 25.68 983.14 1,011.32 1,016.80 1,009.22

Manufacturing

19.78 20.17 20.21 20.30 826.80 845.12 842.76 846.51

Durable goods

20.87 21.23 21.28 21.38 878.63 898.03 895.89 900.10

Nondurable goods

17.99 18.46 18.46 18.55 744.79 760.55 758.71 762.41

Private service-providing

20.70 21.14 21.14 21.16 670.68 687.05 684.94 685.58

Trade, transportation, and utilities

18.56 18.88 18.85 18.90 625.47 636.26 633.36 633.15

Wholesale trade

23.52 23.96 23.93 23.98 907.87 922.46 921.31 923.23

Retail trade

14.64 14.97 14.97 15.04 439.20 449.10 447.60 448.19

Transportation and warehousing

20.82 20.99 20.95 20.94 805.73 816.51 814.96 814.57

Utilities

33.90 34.55 34.59 34.58 1,450.92 1,482.20 1,442.40 1,462.73

Information

28.64 29.59 29.73 29.64 1,028.18 1,059.32 1,055.42 1,055.18

Financial activities

25.16 25.85 25.84 25.85 930.92 961.62 958.66 959.04

Professional and business services

24.58 25.11 25.08 25.11 870.13 893.92 887.83 891.41

Education and health services

21.98 22.34 22.42 22.42 703.36 719.35 719.68 721.92

Leisure and hospitality

12.34 12.66 12.67 12.70 309.73 315.23 315.48 314.96

Other services

18.90 19.19 19.19 19.16 580.23 587.21 589.13 588.21

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2016 - Mar.
2016(p)
Mar.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016(p)
Mar.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2016 - Mar.
2016(p)

Total private

110.2 112.2 112.1 112.2 0.1 153.9 159.9 159.7 160.3 0.4

Goods-producing

88.5 89.7 89.4 88.7 -0.8 118.3 122.0 121.8 121.6 -0.2

Mining and logging

154.7 132.2 124.7 119.2 -4.4 237.9 205.9 194.2 185.3 -4.6

Construction

93.9 99.3 100.1 98.9 -1.2 127.2 136.2 137.5 137.2 -0.2

Manufacturing

83.2 83.6 83.0 82.9 -0.1 107.7 110.2 109.7 110.0 0.3

Durable goods

84.6 84.8 84.2 84.1 -0.1 110.3 112.4 111.9 112.3 0.4

Nondurable goods

81.1 81.3 81.0 80.9 -0.1 103.0 106.1 105.7 106.0 0.3

Private service-providing

116.0 118.6 118.5 118.7 0.2 164.7 172.0 171.8 172.3 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.1 107.3 107.3 107.2 -0.1 140.5 144.5 144.3 144.5 0.1

Wholesale trade

107.2 107.4 107.4 107.4 0.0 148.6 151.6 151.4 151.7 0.2

Retail trade

100.7 102.1 102.2 102.2 0.0 126.3 131.0 131.1 131.7 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

121.3 123.2 123.3 123.3 0.0 160.2 164.0 163.9 163.7 -0.1

Utilities

97.8 99.1 96.5 97.9 1.5 138.4 142.9 139.4 141.4 1.4

Information

90.7 91.0 90.8 91.1 0.3 128.6 133.4 133.6 133.6 0.0

Financial activities

108.7 111.2 111.0 111.3 0.3 168.2 176.9 176.5 177.0 0.3

Professional and business services

126.9 130.9 130.2 130.7 0.4 185.6 195.5 194.2 195.2 0.5

Education and health services

130.6 135.0 135.0 135.7 0.5 189.5 199.0 199.8 200.8 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

121.5 123.3 123.6 123.5 -0.1 170.2 177.2 177.8 178.2 0.2

Other services

100.5 100.9 101.4 101.3 -0.1 138.4 141.1 141.8 141.5 -0.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: April 01, 2016