Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until             USDL-16-0882
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 6, 2016

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2016


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 160,000 in April, and the unemployment 
rate was unchanged at 5.0 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 
today. Job gains occurred in professional and business services, health care, and 
financial activities. Job losses continued in mining.

Household Survey Data

In April, the unemployment rate held at 5.0 percent, and the number of unemployed 
persons was little changed at 7.9 million. Both measures have shown little 
movement since August. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Hispanics increased to 
6.1 percent in April, while the rates for adult men (4.6 percent), adult women 
(4.5 percent), teenagers (16.0 percent), Whites (4.3 percent), Blacks (8.8 percent), 
and Asians (3.8 percent) showed little or no change. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) declined 
by 150,000 to 2.1 million in April. These individuals accounted for 25.7 percent 
of the unemployed. (See table A-12.)

In April, the labor force participation rate decreased to 62.8 percent, and the 
employment-population ratio edged down to 59.7 percent. (See table A-1.) 

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (also referred to 
as involuntary part-time workers) was about unchanged in April at 6.0 million 
and has shown little movement since November. These individuals, who would have
preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had 
been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time job. 
(See table A-8.)

In April, 1.7 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down 
by 400,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These 
individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, 
and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted 
as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding 
the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 568,000 discouraged workers in April, 
down by 188,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) 
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they 
believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.1 million persons 
marginally attached to the labor force in April had not searched for work for 
reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 160,000 in April. Over the prior 
12 months, employment growth had averaged 232,000 per month. In April, 
employment gains occurred in professional and business services, health care, 
and financial activities, while mining continued to lose jobs. (See table B-1.)

Professional and business services added 65,000 jobs in April. The industry 
added an average of 51,000 jobs per month over the prior 12 months. In April, 
job gains occurred in management and technical consulting services (+21,000) 
and in computer systems design and related services (+7,000).

In April, health care employment rose by 44,000, with most of the increase 
occurring in hospitals (+23,000) and ambulatory health care services (+19,000). 
Over the year, health care employment has increased by 502,000.

Employment in financial activities rose by 20,000 in April, with credit 
intermediation and related activities (+8,000) contributing to the gain. 
Financial activities has added 160,000 jobs over the past 12 months.

Mining employment continued to decline in April (-7,000). Since reaching a 
peak in September 2014, employment in mining has decreased by 191,000, with 
more than three-quarters of the loss in support activities for mining.

Employment in other major industries, including construction, manufacturing, 
wholesale trade, retail trade, transportation and warehousing, information, 
leisure and hospitality, and government, showed little or no change over 
the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased 
by 0.1 hour to 34.5 hours in April. The manufacturing workweek and overtime 
remained unchanged at 40.7 hours and 3.3 hours, respectively. The average 
workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm 
payrolls was up by 0.1 hour to 33.7 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm 
payrolls increased by 8 cents to $25.53, following an increase of 6 cents 
in March. Over the year, average hourly earnings have risen by 2.5 percent. 
In April, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and 
nonsupervisory employees increased by 5 cents to $21.45. (See tables B-3 
and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised 
from +245,000 to +233,000, and the change for March was revised from +215,000 
to +208,000. With these revisions, employment gains in February and March 
combined were 19,000 less than previously reported. Over the past 3 months, 
job gains have averaged 200,000 per month.

_____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday, 
June 3, 2016, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Change from:
Mar.
2016-
Apr.
2016

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

250,266 252,577 252,768 252,969 201

Civilian labor force

157,032 158,890 159,286 158,924 -362

Participation rate

62.7 62.9 63.0 62.8 -0.2

Employed

148,509 151,074 151,320 151,004 -316

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.8 59.9 59.7 -0.2

Unemployed

8,523 7,815 7,966 7,920 -46

Unemployment rate

5.4 4.9 5.0 5.0 0.0

Not in labor force

93,234 93,688 93,482 94,044 562

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

5.4 4.9 5.0 5.0 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

5.0 4.5 4.5 4.6 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.9 4.5 4.6 4.5 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

17.1 15.6 15.9 16.0 0.1

White

4.7 4.3 4.3 4.3 0.0

Black or African American

9.6 8.8 9.0 8.8 -0.2

Asian

4.4 3.8 4.0 3.8 -0.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

6.9 5.4 5.6 6.1 0.5

Total, 25 years and over

4.4 4.1 4.1 4.1 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

8.5 7.3 7.4 7.5 0.1

High school graduates, no college

5.4 5.3 5.4 5.4 0.0

Some college or associate degree

4.6 4.2 4.1 4.1 0.0

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.7 2.5 2.6 2.4 -0.2

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4,130 3,749 3,835 3,855 20

Job leavers

824 760 833 851 18

Reentrants

2,649 2,467 2,495 2,357 -138

New entrants

867 833 778 839 61

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,707 2,297 2,412 2,545 133

5 to 14 weeks

2,339 2,236 2,205 2,131 -74

15 to 26 weeks

1,162 1,132 1,178 1,304 126

27 weeks and over

2,503 2,165 2,213 2,063 -150

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

6,549 5,988 6,123 5,962 -161

Slack work or business conditions

3,870 3,579 3,631 3,709 78

Could only find part-time work

2,349 2,104 2,154 2,009 -145

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,034 20,615 20,428 20,469 41

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,115 1,803 1,720 1,715 -

Discouraged workers

756 599 585 568 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

251 233 208 160

Total private

241 222 184 171

Goods-producing

21 -20 0 -3

Mining and logging

-15 -17 -12 -8

Construction

38 13 41 1

Manufacturing

-2 -16 -29 4

Durable goods(1)

-4 -14 -24 6

Motor vehicles and parts

4.4 3.0 -1.5 6.1

Nondurable goods

2 -2 -5 -2

Private service-providing

220 242 184 174

Wholesale trade

-1.5 2.4 9.7 2.7

Retail trade

13.4 52.0 39.0 -3.1

Transportation and warehousing

13.8 0.4 4.9 8.6

Utilities

0.8 1.5 -0.6 0.1

Information

10 11 6 0

Financial activities

7 8 14 20

Professional and business services(1)

69 35 37 65

Temporary help services

14.6 -2.2 9.3 9.3

Education and health services(1)

77 77 43 54

Health care and social assistance

75.6 56.7 34.0 38.2

Leisure and hospitality

21 37 24 22

Other services

9 18 7 5

Government

10 11 24 -11

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

200 224 203 200

Total private

194 212 187 192

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.3 49.5 49.5 49.5

Total private women employees

47.9 48.1 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.4 34.4 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$24.91 $25.39 $25.45 $25.53

Average weekly earnings

$859.40 $873.42 $875.48 $880.79

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

103.3 104.9 105.1 105.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 -0.4 0.2 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

123.0 127.3 127.8 128.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 -0.4 0.4 0.8

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (262 industries)

56.9 58.8 58.6 56.3

Manufacturing (79 industries)

49.4 43.0 36.7 47.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.pdf.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 146,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 623,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2015
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

250,266 252,768 252,969 250,266 251,936 252,397 252,577 252,768 252,969

Civilian labor force

156,554 158,854 158,488 157,032 157,833 158,335 158,890 159,286 158,924

Participation rate

62.6 62.8 62.7 62.7 62.6 62.7 62.9 63.0 62.8

Employed

148,587 150,738 151,075 148,509 149,929 150,544 151,074 151,320 151,004

Employment-population ratio

59.4 59.6 59.7 59.3 59.5 59.6 59.8 59.9 59.7

Unemployed

7,966 8,116 7,413 8,523 7,904 7,791 7,815 7,966 7,920

Unemployment rate

5.1 5.1 4.7 5.4 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0

Not in labor force

93,712 93,914 94,481 93,234 94,103 94,062 93,688 93,482 94,044

Persons who currently want a job

6,096 5,446 5,671 6,194 5,886 5,973 5,870 5,712 5,793

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

120,831 122,112 122,213 120,831 121,671 121,926 122,017 122,112 122,213

Civilian labor force

83,358 84,384 84,323 83,739 83,876 84,238 84,673 84,765 84,641

Participation rate

69.0 69.1 69.0 69.3 68.9 69.1 69.4 69.4 69.3

Employed

78,996 79,884 80,302 79,159 79,546 80,104 80,491 80,543 80,419

Employment-population ratio

65.4 65.4 65.7 65.5 65.4 65.7 66.0 66.0 65.8

Unemployed

4,362 4,499 4,021 4,580 4,330 4,134 4,181 4,222 4,222

Unemployment rate

5.2 5.3 4.8 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0

Not in labor force

37,473 37,729 37,890 37,092 37,795 37,688 37,344 37,347 37,572

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

112,400 113,653 113,746 112,400 113,241 113,483 113,566 113,653 113,746

Civilian labor force

80,670 81,659 81,655 80,836 80,927 81,333 81,667 81,815 81,748

Participation rate

71.8 71.8 71.8 71.9 71.5 71.7 71.9 72.0 71.9

Employed

76,749 77,639 78,028 76,773 77,119 77,704 77,991 78,096 77,999

Employment-population ratio

68.3 68.3 68.6 68.3 68.1 68.5 68.7 68.7 68.6

Unemployed

3,921 4,020 3,628 4,063 3,808 3,629 3,677 3,719 3,749

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.9 4.4 5.0 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.6

Not in labor force

31,730 31,995 32,090 31,564 32,314 32,151 31,898 31,838 31,998

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

129,434 130,656 130,756 129,434 130,265 130,471 130,561 130,656 130,756

Civilian labor force

73,196 74,470 74,164 73,293 73,957 74,097 74,217 74,520 74,284

Participation rate

56.6 57.0 56.7 56.6 56.8 56.8 56.8 57.0 56.8

Employed

69,591 70,854 70,773 69,350 70,383 70,440 70,583 70,777 70,586

Employment-population ratio

53.8 54.2 54.1 53.6 54.0 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.0

Unemployed

3,605 3,617 3,391 3,943 3,574 3,657 3,634 3,743 3,698

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.9 4.6 5.4 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0

Not in labor force

56,238 56,185 56,592 56,141 56,308 56,374 56,344 56,135 56,472

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,246 122,433 122,524 121,246 122,071 122,263 122,345 122,433 122,524

Civilian labor force

70,509 71,700 71,329 70,453 71,069 71,171 71,313 71,610 71,302

Participation rate

58.2 58.6 58.2 58.1 58.2 58.2 58.3 58.5 58.2

Employed

67,303 68,451 68,346 66,972 67,911 67,940 68,094 68,293 68,072

Employment-population ratio

55.5 55.9 55.8 55.2 55.6 55.6 55.7 55.8 55.6

Unemployed

3,206 3,248 2,983 3,481 3,157 3,231 3,219 3,317 3,230

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.5 4.2 4.9 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.5

Not in labor force

50,737 50,733 51,196 50,793 51,002 51,092 51,032 50,823 51,223

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,619 16,682 16,699 16,619 16,624 16,651 16,666 16,682 16,699

Civilian labor force

5,375 5,496 5,504 5,743 5,837 5,832 5,909 5,860 5,875

Participation rate

32.3 32.9 33.0 34.6 35.1 35.0 35.5 35.1 35.2

Employed

4,536 4,648 4,701 4,763 4,899 4,901 4,990 4,931 4,934

Employment-population ratio

27.3 27.9 28.2 28.7 29.5 29.4 29.9 29.6 29.5

Unemployed

840 848 802 980 938 931 920 929 941

Unemployment rate

15.6 15.4 14.6 17.1 16.1 16.0 15.6 15.9 16.0

Not in labor force

11,244 11,186 11,195 10,876 10,787 10,819 10,757 10,822 10,824

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2015
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

196,574 197,809 197,906 196,574 197,471 197,639 197,718 197,809 197,906

Civilian labor force

123,089 124,663 124,416 123,485 123,815 124,362 124,748 125,018 124,749

Participation rate

62.6 63.0 62.9 62.8 62.7 62.9 63.1 63.2 63.0

Employed

117,642 119,137 119,337 117,704 118,295 119,029 119,442 119,674 119,369

Employment-population ratio

59.8 60.2 60.3 59.9 59.9 60.2 60.4 60.5 60.3

Unemployed

5,448 5,526 5,079 5,780 5,520 5,333 5,306 5,345 5,380

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.4 4.1 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3

Not in labor force

73,484 73,146 73,490 73,089 73,656 73,277 72,970 72,791 73,157

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,613 65,175 65,093 64,741 64,691 65,002 65,304 65,296 65,178

Participation rate

72.0 72.1 72.0 72.2 71.7 72.0 72.3 72.3 72.1

Employed

61,870 62,355 62,583 61,912 61,988 62,482 62,787 62,739 62,600

Employment-population ratio

69.0 69.0 69.2 69.0 68.7 69.2 69.5 69.4 69.2

Unemployed

2,744 2,820 2,510 2,829 2,702 2,520 2,517 2,557 2,578

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.3 3.9 4.4 4.2 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,238 55,192 55,023 54,208 54,521 54,753 54,803 55,142 54,984

Participation rate

57.4 58.0 57.8 57.3 57.4 57.6 57.6 58.0 57.8

Employed

52,115 53,087 52,991 51,916 52,391 52,603 52,659 52,992 52,798

Employment-population ratio

55.1 55.8 55.7 54.9 55.2 55.4 55.4 55.7 55.5

Unemployed

2,123 2,105 2,032 2,292 2,130 2,150 2,144 2,149 2,185

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.8 3.7 4.2 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,239 4,296 4,300 4,535 4,603 4,607 4,641 4,580 4,587

Participation rate

34.4 34.8 34.8 36.8 37.4 37.4 37.7 37.1 37.2

Employed

3,657 3,695 3,763 3,876 3,916 3,944 3,995 3,942 3,970

Employment-population ratio

29.7 30.0 30.5 31.4 31.8 32.0 32.4 32.0 32.2

Unemployed

582 601 537 659 687 663 645 638 617

Unemployment rate

13.7 14.0 12.5 14.5 14.9 14.4 13.9 13.9 13.4

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

31,293 31,753 31,792 31,293 31,594 31,679 31,716 31,753 31,792

Civilian labor force

19,380 19,421 19,368 19,405 19,442 19,536 19,569 19,513 19,413

Participation rate

61.9 61.2 60.9 62.0 61.5 61.7 61.7 61.5 61.1

Employed

17,648 17,670 17,779 17,540 17,819 17,821 17,851 17,759 17,700

Employment-population ratio

56.4 55.6 55.9 56.1 56.4 56.3 56.3 55.9 55.7

Unemployed

1,731 1,751 1,590 1,864 1,623 1,716 1,718 1,754 1,713

Unemployment rate

8.9 9.0 8.2 9.6 8.3 8.8 8.8 9.0 8.8

Not in labor force

11,913 12,332 12,423 11,888 12,152 12,143 12,147 12,240 12,379

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,868 8,871 8,964 8,925 8,780 8,844 8,910 8,881 9,013

Participation rate

68.3 67.1 67.7 68.7 66.8 67.1 67.5 67.2 68.1

Employed

8,095 8,063 8,157 8,106 8,017 8,101 8,146 8,112 8,155

Employment-population ratio

62.3 61.0 61.6 62.4 61.0 61.5 61.7 61.4 61.6

Unemployed

773 809 807 819 763 743 764 768 858

Unemployment rate

8.7 9.1 9.0 9.2 8.7 8.4 8.6 8.7 9.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,868 9,842 9,712 9,800 9,928 9,970 9,938 9,868 9,667

Participation rate

62.4 61.4 60.5 62.0 62.2 62.3 62.0 61.5 60.2

Employed

9,067 9,062 9,090 8,941 9,241 9,179 9,152 9,076 9,003

Employment-population ratio

57.3 56.5 56.6 56.5 57.9 57.4 57.1 56.6 56.1

Unemployed

801 781 622 858 686 791 786 792 665

Unemployment rate

8.1 7.9 6.4 8.8 6.9 7.9 7.9 8.0 6.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

643 708 693 680 734 722 720 764 732

Participation rate

25.8 28.3 27.6 27.3 29.5 28.9 28.8 30.5 29.2

Employed

486 546 533 493 560 540 552 571 542

Employment-population ratio

19.5 21.8 21.3 19.8 22.5 21.7 22.1 22.8 21.6

Unemployed

157 162 160 187 174 182 168 193 190

Unemployment rate

24.4 22.9 23.1 27.5 23.7 25.2 23.3 25.3 26.0

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,290 14,911 14,853 14,290 14,553 14,816 14,974 14,911 14,853

Civilian labor force

9,023 9,478 9,444 9,038 9,168 9,192 9,426 9,411 9,448

Participation rate

63.1 63.6 63.6 63.3 63.0 62.0 62.9 63.1 63.6

Employed

8,644 9,112 9,101 8,645 8,805 8,856 9,070 9,038 9,090

Employment-population ratio

60.5 61.1 61.3 60.5 60.5 59.8 60.6 60.6 61.2

Unemployed

379 366 343 394 363 337 355 373 357

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.9 3.6 4.4 4.0 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.8

Not in labor force

5,267 5,433 5,409 5,251 5,385 5,623 5,548 5,500 5,406

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2015
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

39,405 40,386 40,474 39,405 40,090 40,215 40,302 40,386 40,474

Civilian labor force

26,092 26,709 26,530 26,156 26,270 26,451 26,642 26,782 26,595

Participation rate

66.2 66.1 65.5 66.4 65.5 65.8 66.1 66.3 65.7

Employed

24,443 25,183 25,036 24,348 24,614 24,893 25,193 25,289 24,960

Employment-population ratio

62.0 62.4 61.9 61.8 61.4 61.9 62.5 62.6 61.7

Unemployed

1,650 1,526 1,493 1,808 1,655 1,558 1,449 1,493 1,636

Unemployment rate

6.3 5.7 5.6 6.9 6.3 5.9 5.4 5.6 6.1

Not in labor force

13,312 13,677 13,944 13,248 13,821 13,764 13,660 13,604 13,878

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,442 14,759 14,656 14,476 14,454 14,590 14,705 14,799 14,685

Participation rate

81.3 81.1 80.3 81.5 79.9 80.5 80.9 81.3 80.5

Employed

13,646 13,995 13,985 13,611 13,659 13,878 14,018 14,085 13,949

Employment-population ratio

76.8 76.9 76.7 76.6 75.6 76.5 77.2 77.4 76.5

Unemployed

796 764 671 865 795 712 688 714 736

Unemployment rate

5.5 5.2 4.6 6.0 5.5 4.9 4.7 4.8 5.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,556 10,836 10,768 10,527 10,646 10,649 10,742 10,814 10,744

Participation rate

58.8 58.8 58.3 58.6 58.2 58.0 58.4 58.7 58.2

Employed

9,876 10,226 10,099 9,801 9,978 10,022 10,167 10,218 10,041

Employment-population ratio

55.0 55.5 54.7 54.6 54.6 54.6 55.3 55.5 54.4

Unemployed

680 610 670 727 668 627 576 596 703

Unemployment rate

6.4 5.6 6.2 6.9 6.3 5.9 5.4 5.5 6.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,094 1,115 1,105 1,154 1,170 1,212 1,194 1,168 1,166

Participation rate

29.6 29.7 29.4 31.2 31.3 32.5 31.9 31.1 31.0

Employed

920 962 952 937 977 994 1,008 986 969

Employment-population ratio

24.9 25.6 25.3 25.3 26.2 26.6 26.9 26.3 25.8

Unemployed

174 153 153 217 193 218 186 182 196

Unemployment rate

15.9 13.7 13.8 18.8 16.5 18.0 15.6 15.6 16.8

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2015
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

11,544 10,817 11,036 11,299 10,847 11,037 10,648 10,777 10,777

Participation rate

46.6 46.4 47.2 45.6 45.4 46.0 46.2 46.2 46.1

Employed

10,577 9,926 10,206 10,340 10,125 10,221 9,871 9,978 9,966

Employment-population ratio

42.7 42.6 43.7 41.7 42.4 42.6 42.8 42.8 42.7

Unemployed

967 891 830 959 722 816 777 799 812

Unemployment rate

8.4 8.2 7.5 8.5 6.7 7.4 7.3 7.4 7.5

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,565 35,654 35,635 35,554 34,744 35,347 35,626 35,615 35,501

Participation rate

57.2 57.5 57.4 57.2 57.0 57.8 57.5 57.4 57.2

Employed

33,712 33,599 33,785 33,618 32,812 33,475 33,747 33,688 33,567

Employment-population ratio

54.2 54.2 54.4 54.1 53.8 54.7 54.5 54.3 54.1

Unemployed

1,853 2,055 1,850 1,936 1,933 1,872 1,878 1,927 1,934

Unemployment rate

5.2 5.8 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.4

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,715 37,929 37,841 37,607 37,869 38,098 38,106 37,958 37,757

Participation rate

67.3 66.3 66.1 67.1 66.5 66.5 66.7 66.3 65.9

Employed

36,044 36,309 36,350 35,865 36,304 36,493 36,496 36,396 36,204

Employment-population ratio

64.3 63.4 63.5 64.0 63.8 63.7 63.9 63.6 63.2

Unemployed

1,671 1,620 1,491 1,742 1,565 1,605 1,610 1,562 1,553

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.3 3.9 4.6 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

51,314 53,715 53,428 51,160 53,054 52,674 53,112 53,447 53,316

Participation rate

74.8 74.9 74.4 74.6 74.0 73.8 73.8 74.5 74.3

Employed

50,013 52,323 52,223 49,767 51,746 51,358 51,805 52,051 52,025

Employment-population ratio

72.9 73.0 72.8 72.5 72.2 71.9 72.0 72.6 72.5

Unemployed

1,301 1,391 1,205 1,393 1,307 1,316 1,307 1,396 1,291

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.6 2.3 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,274 20,959 19,281 18,948 1,993 2,011

Civilian labor force

10,783 10,574 9,539 9,345 1,244 1,229

Participation rate

50.7 50.4 49.5 49.3 62.4 61.1

Employed

10,277 10,157 9,089 8,971 1,188 1,187

Employment-population ratio

48.3 48.5 47.1 47.3 59.6 59.0

Unemployed

507 416 450 374 57 42

Unemployment rate

4.7 3.9 4.7 4.0 4.6 3.4

Not in labor force

10,491 10,385 9,742 9,603 749 782

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,609 3,958 3,005 3,230 604 727

Civilian labor force

2,927 3,129 2,500 2,607 427 522

Participation rate

81.1 79.1 83.2 80.7 70.7 71.8

Employed

2,726 3,002 2,329 2,507 397 495

Employment-population ratio

75.5 75.9 77.5 77.6 65.8 68.1

Unemployed

201 127 171 100 30 27

Unemployment rate

6.9 4.1 6.9 3.8 7.0 5.1

Not in labor force

682 828 505 623 177 205

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,380 3,248 2,827 2,785 553 464

Civilian labor force

2,695 2,619 2,309 2,263 386 356

Participation rate

79.7 80.6 81.7 81.3 69.8 76.8

Employed

2,620 2,514 2,251 2,165 369 348

Employment-population ratio

77.5 77.4 79.6 77.8 66.6 75.1

Unemployed

76 105 58 98 18 8

Unemployment rate

2.8 4.0 2.5 4.3 4.6 2.2

Not in labor force

685 629 518 521 167 108

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,988 8,573 8,669 8,266 319 307

Civilian labor force

2,415 2,191 2,308 2,116 107 75

Participation rate

26.9 25.6 26.6 25.6 33.6 24.6

Employed

2,309 2,111 2,202 2,036 107 75

Employment-population ratio

25.7 24.6 25.4 24.6 33.6 24.6

Unemployed

106 80 106 80 0 0

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.6 4.6 3.8 0.0 0.0

Not in labor force

6,573 6,382 6,361 6,150 212 232

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,297 5,180 4,780 4,667 517 513

Civilian labor force

2,746 2,634 2,422 2,358 324 275

Participation rate

51.8 50.8 50.7 50.5 62.6 53.6

Employed

2,622 2,530 2,307 2,263 315 267

Employment-population ratio

49.5 48.8 48.3 48.5 60.8 52.1

Unemployed

124 104 115 96 9 8

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.9 4.7 4.1 2.8 2.8

Not in labor force

2,551 2,546 2,358 2,309 193 238

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

220,131 222,987 97,005 98,726 123,127 124,261

Civilian labor force

143,938 146,005 72,880 74,087 71,058 71,918

Participation rate

65.4 65.5 75.1 75.0 57.7 57.9

Employed

136,829 139,378 69,160 70,623 67,668 68,755

Employment-population ratio

62.2 62.5 71.3 71.5 55.0 55.3

Unemployed

7,109 6,627 3,720 3,464 3,390 3,163

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.5 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.4

Not in labor force

76,193 76,982 24,124 24,639 52,069 52,343

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,608 29,974 220,658 222,995

Civilian labor force

5,704 6,108 150,850 152,380

Participation rate

19.3 20.4 68.4 68.3

Employed

5,136 5,453 143,451 145,622

Employment-population ratio

17.3 18.2 65.0 65.3

Unemployed

568 655 7,399 6,758

Unemployment rate

10.0 10.7 4.9 4.4

Not in labor force

23,904 23,866 69,807 70,615

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,504 2,633 75,994 76,461

Participation rate

32.5 34.3 82.1 82.0

Employed

2,221 2,329 72,124 72,923

Employment-population ratio

28.8 30.3 77.9 78.2

Unemployed

282 305 3,870 3,538

Unemployment rate

11.3 11.6 5.1 4.6

Not in labor force

5,199 5,054 16,576 16,777

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,240 2,377 67,015 67,675

Participation rate

27.9 29.1 70.0 70.4

Employed

2,026 2,097 63,745 64,694

Employment-population ratio

25.2 25.6 66.6 67.3

Unemployed

214 280 3,270 2,981

Unemployment rate

9.6 11.8 4.9 4.4

Not in labor force

5,801 5,803 28,721 28,520

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

960 1,097 7,841 8,244

Participation rate

6.9 7.8 24.2 24.6

Employed

889 1,027 7,582 8,006

Employment-population ratio

6.4 7.3 23.4 23.9

Unemployed

71 71 259 238

Unemployment rate

7.4 6.4 3.3 2.9

Not in labor force

12,905 13,010 24,510 25,318

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

39,997 40,797 19,286 19,830 20,711 20,967

Civilian labor force

26,103 26,596 15,094 15,399 11,008 11,197

Participation rate

65.3 65.2 78.3 77.7 53.2 53.4

Employed

24,819 25,460 14,406 14,831 10,413 10,629

Employment-population ratio

62.1 62.4 74.7 74.8 50.3 50.7

Unemployed

1,284 1,137 689 568 595 568

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.3 4.6 3.7 5.4 5.1

Not in labor force

13,895 14,200 4,192 4,430 9,703 9,770

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

210,268 212,172 101,545 102,384 108,723 109,789

Civilian labor force

130,451 131,891 68,263 68,924 62,188 62,967

Participation rate

62.0 62.2 67.2 67.3 57.2 57.4

Employed

123,769 125,615 64,590 65,471 59,179 60,144

Employment-population ratio

58.9 59.2 63.6 63.9 54.4 54.8

Unemployed

6,683 6,276 3,673 3,453 3,009 2,823

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.8 5.4 5.0 4.8 4.5

Not in labor force

79,817 80,281 33,281 33,459 46,535 46,822

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2015
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,294 2,491 2,478 2,419 2,411 2,385 2,456 2,623 2,592

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,463 1,535 1,592 1,593 1,562 1,538 1,571 1,643 1,706

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

799 933 869 792 814 827 878 938 856

Unpaid family workers

32 23 17 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

146,293 148,247 148,597 146,065 147,587 148,115 148,620 148,704 148,377

Wage and salary workers(1)

137,371 139,398 139,607 137,145 139,054 139,371 139,815 139,703 139,411

Government

20,840 20,911 20,615 20,484 20,824 20,715 20,775 20,548 20,323

Private industries

116,531 118,487 118,992 116,670 118,193 118,690 119,024 119,223 119,136

Private households

793 629 747 - - - - - -

Other industries

115,738 117,858 118,245 115,871 117,432 118,025 118,332 118,584 118,390

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,837 8,791 8,941 8,822 8,551 8,699 8,735 8,869 8,872

Unpaid family workers

84 58 50 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,356 6,138 5,771 6,549 6,022 5,988 5,988 6,123 5,962

Slack work or business conditions

3,728 3,656 3,603 3,870 3,548 3,544 3,579 3,631 3,709

Could only find part-time work

2,370 2,199 1,994 2,349 2,172 2,134 2,104 2,154 2,009

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,992 20,824 21,460 20,034 20,243 20,311 20,615 20,428 20,469

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,277 6,032 5,690 6,464 5,910 5,851 5,897 6,032 5,874

Slack work or business conditions

3,674 3,588 3,546 3,817 3,482 3,467 3,519 3,575 3,651

Could only find part-time work

2,354 2,182 1,984 2,335 2,161 2,116 2,099 2,138 1,995

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,622 20,463 21,089 19,654 19,932 19,973 20,238 20,084 20,114

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2015
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

148,587 150,738 151,075 148,509 149,929 150,544 151,074 151,320 151,004

16 to 19 years

4,536 4,648 4,701 4,763 4,899 4,901 4,990 4,931 4,934

16 to 17 years

1,482 1,515 1,540 1,624 1,648 1,669 1,731 1,688 1,692

18 to 19 years

3,053 3,133 3,161 3,134 3,232 3,222 3,279 3,252 3,239

20 years and over

144,052 146,090 146,374 143,745 145,030 145,644 146,085 146,389 146,070

20 to 24 years

13,706 13,932 13,810 13,850 14,061 14,056 14,109 14,171 14,016

25 years and over

130,346 132,158 132,564 129,852 130,995 131,597 131,922 132,116 131,998

25 to 54 years

96,742 97,866 97,932 96,495 96,976 97,583 97,736 97,932 97,648

25 to 34 years

32,767 33,421 33,458 32,725 32,891 33,320 33,370 33,493 33,390

35 to 44 years

31,200 31,560 31,533 31,103 31,466 31,511 31,548 31,555 31,445

45 to 54 years

32,775 32,884 32,941 32,667 32,620 32,752 32,818 32,883 32,813

55 years and over

33,605 34,292 34,632 33,357 34,019 34,014 34,186 34,184 34,350

Men, 16 years and over

78,996 79,884 80,302 79,159 79,546 80,104 80,491 80,543 80,419

16 to 19 years

2,247 2,245 2,275 2,386 2,427 2,400 2,501 2,447 2,420

16 to 17 years

746 654 709 828 780 813 830 770 789

18 to 19 years

1,501 1,592 1,566 1,554 1,631 1,587 1,681 1,674 1,621

20 years and over

76,749 77,639 78,028 76,773 77,119 77,704 77,991 78,096 77,999

20 to 24 years

7,050 7,145 7,168 7,159 7,173 7,191 7,293 7,284 7,274

25 years and over

69,698 70,494 70,860 69,625 69,945 70,500 70,637 70,750 70,710

25 to 54 years

51,861 52,343 52,414 51,868 51,935 52,436 52,513 52,580 52,388

25 to 34 years

17,763 18,102 18,056 17,790 17,785 18,069 18,056 18,199 18,060

35 to 44 years

16,832 16,937 17,024 16,832 16,933 17,010 17,075 17,018 17,017

45 to 54 years

17,266 17,303 17,334 17,246 17,217 17,357 17,382 17,363 17,312

55 years and over

17,837 18,151 18,446 17,758 18,010 18,064 18,125 18,170 18,321

Women, 16 years and over

69,591 70,854 70,773 69,350 70,383 70,440 70,583 70,777 70,586

16 to 19 years

2,288 2,402 2,427 2,378 2,472 2,501 2,489 2,485 2,514

16 to 17 years

736 861 831 796 868 856 901 918 903

18 to 19 years

1,553 1,541 1,596 1,581 1,601 1,635 1,598 1,578 1,618

20 years and over

67,303 68,451 68,346 66,972 67,911 67,940 68,094 68,293 68,072

20 to 24 years

6,655 6,787 6,642 6,690 6,888 6,865 6,817 6,887 6,742

25 years and over

60,648 61,664 61,704 60,227 61,051 61,096 61,285 61,366 61,288

25 to 54 years

44,881 45,523 45,518 44,627 45,042 45,147 45,224 45,351 45,259

25 to 34 years

15,004 15,319 15,402 14,935 15,106 15,250 15,315 15,294 15,330

35 to 44 years

14,369 14,623 14,509 14,271 14,533 14,501 14,474 14,537 14,427

45 to 54 years

15,508 15,582 15,607 15,421 15,403 15,395 15,435 15,520 15,502

55 years and over

15,768 16,141 16,186 15,599 16,009 15,950 16,061 16,015 16,028

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

45,042 45,153 45,277 44,992 45,187 45,231 45,175 45,266 45,207

Married women, spouse present

35,045 35,626 35,333 34,970 35,080 34,997 35,100 35,387 35,227

Women who maintain families

9,706 9,744 9,678 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

120,402 122,522 122,742 120,799 122,603 123,141 123,206 123,447 123,194

Part-time workers(2)

28,185 28,216 28,333 27,707 27,359 27,364 27,853 27,818 27,797

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,000 7,592 7,383 6,994 7,738 7,504 7,339 7,466 7,411

Percent of total employed

4.7 5.0 4.9 4.7 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,378 5,567 5,518 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,636 9,724 9,809 9,614 9,364 9,526 9,613 9,807 9,728

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2015
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

8,523 7,966 7,920 5.4 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0

16 to 19 years

980 929 941 17.1 16.1 16.0 15.6 15.9 16.0

16 to 17 years

401 402 415 19.8 17.4 17.9 18.8 19.2 19.7

18 to 19 years

557 529 504 15.1 15.2 14.9 13.8 14.0 13.5

20 years and over

7,544 7,036 6,979 5.0 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6

20 to 24 years

1,470 1,299 1,357 9.6 9.4 8.2 8.6 8.4 8.8

25 years and over

6,036 5,717 5,618 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.1

25 to 54 years

4,675 4,311 4,319 4.6 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.2

25 to 34 years

1,991 1,819 1,822 5.7 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2

35 to 44 years

1,388 1,266 1,298 4.3 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.9 4.0

45 to 54 years

1,297 1,227 1,199 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5

55 years and over

1,370 1,387 1,298 3.9 3.2 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.6

Men, 16 years and over

4,580 4,222 4,222 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0

16 to 19 years

517 503 473 17.8 17.7 17.4 16.8 17.0 16.4

16 to 17 years

217 227 204 20.8 20.6 19.8 21.4 22.8 20.6

18 to 19 years

279 280 247 15.2 15.8 16.1 14.5 14.3 13.2

20 years and over

4,063 3,719 3,749 5.0 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.6

20 to 24 years

850 729 762 10.6 10.3 9.0 9.3 9.1 9.5

25 years and over

3,195 2,970 2,985 4.4 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1

25 to 54 years

2,423 2,221 2,269 4.5 4.3 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2

25 to 34 years

1,010 947 1,023 5.4 5.6 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.4

35 to 44 years

702 632 636 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6

45 to 54 years

711 642 610 4.0 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.6 3.4

55 years and over

772 749 716 4.2 3.5 3.7 4.0 4.0 3.8

Women, 16 years and over

3,943 3,743 3,698 5.4 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0

16 to 19 years

462 426 468 16.3 14.4 14.5 14.3 14.6 15.7

16 to 17 years

184 175 211 18.8 14.2 16.1 16.3 16.0 18.9

18 to 19 years

278 248 257 15.0 14.7 13.8 13.1 13.6 13.7

20 years and over

3,481 3,317 3,230 4.9 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.5

20 to 24 years

620 570 595 8.5 8.5 7.3 7.9 7.6 8.1

25 years and over

2,841 2,747 2,633 4.5 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.1

25 to 54 years

2,252 2,089 2,050 4.8 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.3

25 to 34 years

980 872 799 6.2 5.0 5.2 5.1 5.4 5.0

35 to 44 years

686 633 663 4.6 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.4

45 to 54 years

586 584 588 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.7

55 years and over

604 629 590 3.7 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.8 3.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

1,399 1,357 1,258 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.7

Married women, spouse present

1,216 1,135 1,135 3.4 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1

Women who maintain families(1)

730 713 695 7.0 5.8 7.1 7.0 6.8 6.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

7,044 6,586 6,585 5.5 5.1 4.9 4.9 5.1 5.1

Part-time workers(3)

1,444 1,389 1,313 5.0 4.6 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2015
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,977 4,149 3,716 4,130 3,796 3,664 3,749 3,835 3,855

On temporary layoff

871 1,106 748 959 937 923 960 921 841

Not on temporary layoff

3,106 3,044 2,968 3,171 2,859 2,741 2,790 2,914 3,014

Permanent job losers

2,224 2,153 2,065 2,230 2,044 1,876 1,969 2,068 2,058

Persons who completed temporary jobs

882 891 903 941 815 865 821 845 957

Job leavers

780 829 810 824 821 766 760 833 851

Reentrants

2,465 2,450 2,163 2,649 2,476 2,468 2,467 2,495 2,357

New entrants

745 688 724 867 858 827 833 778 839

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

49.9 51.1 50.1 48.8 47.7 47.4 48.0 48.3 48.8

On temporary layoff

10.9 13.6 10.1 11.3 11.8 11.9 12.3 11.6 10.6

Not on temporary layoff

39.0 37.5 40.0 37.4 36.0 35.5 35.7 36.7 38.2

Job leavers

9.8 10.2 10.9 9.7 10.3 9.9 9.7 10.5 10.8

Reentrants

30.9 30.2 29.2 31.3 31.1 31.9 31.6 31.4 29.8

New entrants

9.4 8.5 9.8 10.2 10.8 10.7 10.7 9.8 10.6

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.5 2.6 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.6 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5

New entrants

0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2015
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,235 2,083 2,164 2,707 2,405 2,249 2,297 2,412 2,545

5 to 14 weeks

1,930 2,382 1,749 2,339 2,192 2,282 2,236 2,205 2,131

15 weeks and over

3,802 3,651 3,499 3,665 3,320 3,224 3,297 3,391 3,367

15 to 26 weeks

1,238 1,346 1,390 1,162 1,235 1,135 1,132 1,178 1,304

27 weeks and over

2,564 2,305 2,109 2,503 2,085 2,089 2,165 2,213 2,063

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

32.8 29.1 29.8 30.5 27.6 28.9 29.0 28.4 27.7

Median duration, in weeks

13.5 12.7 13.2 11.6 10.5 10.9 11.2 11.4 11.4

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

28.1 25.7 29.2 31.1 30.4 29.0 29.3 30.1 31.6

5 to 14 weeks

24.2 29.3 23.6 26.8 27.7 29.4 28.6 27.5 26.5

15 weeks and over

47.7 45.0 47.2 42.1 41.9 41.6 42.1 42.4 41.9

15 to 26 weeks

15.5 16.6 18.8 13.3 15.6 14.6 14.5 14.7 16.2

27 weeks and over

32.2 28.4 28.5 28.7 26.3 26.9 27.7 27.6 25.7

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016

Total, 16 years and over(1)

148,587 151,075 7,966 7,413 5.1 4.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

57,953 59,690 1,435 1,251 2.4 2.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

23,960 24,868 633 604 2.6 2.4

Professional and related occupations

33,993 34,822 802 647 2.3 1.8

Service occupations

25,419 26,357 1,733 1,517 6.4 5.4

Sales and office occupations

34,129 33,347 1,852 1,753 5.1 5.0

Sales and related occupations

15,875 15,788 920 871 5.5 5.2

Office and administrative support occupations

18,253 17,559 932 882 4.9 4.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,584 13,751 1,097 942 7.5 6.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,036 1,114 127 123 10.9 9.9

Construction and extraction occupations

7,734 7,934 718 586 8.5 6.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,814 4,703 253 233 5.0 4.7

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,503 17,930 1,077 1,207 5.8 6.3

Production occupations

8,505 8,927 494 554 5.5 5.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,998 9,003 584 653 6.1 6.8

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,966 7,413 5.1 4.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

6,078 5,735 5.0 4.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

83 86 8.7 9.5

Construction

652 530 7.5 6.0

Manufacturing

609 702 4.0 4.5

Durable goods

381 403 3.9 4.1

Nondurable goods

228 299 4.1 5.2

Wholesale and retail trade

1,148 1,054 5.6 5.3

Transportation and utilities

272 305 4.4 4.6

Information

84 131 3.2 4.8

Financial activities

251 264 2.7 2.7

Professional and business services

838 846 5.3 5.2

Education and health services

723 632 3.1 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

1,069 893 7.8 6.5

Other services

350 292 5.4 4.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

197 148 12.2 8.9

Government workers

521 490 2.4 2.3

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

425 315 4.2 3.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2015
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Dec.
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.4 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.5 2.6 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

5.1 5.1 4.7 5.4 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

5.5 5.5 5.0 5.9 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.4 6.1 5.7 6.7 6.1 6.2 6.0 6.0 6.0

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

10.4 9.9 9.3 10.8 9.9 9.9 9.7 9.8 9.7

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2015
Apr.
2016

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

93,712 94,481 37,473 37,890 56,238 56,592

Persons who currently want a job

6,096 5,671 2,796 2,658 3,300 3,014

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,115 1,715 1,096 870 1,019 845

Discouraged workers(2)

756 568 450 369 306 199

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,360 1,146 646 500 713 646

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,000 7,383 3,293 3,598 3,707 3,785

Percent of total employed

4.7 4.9 4.2 4.5 5.3 5.3

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,759 3,904 1,936 2,162 1,823 1,742

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,939 2,164 618 751 1,320 1,413

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

214 242 144 171 70 70

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,050 1,013 570 467 480 546

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)
Change from:
Mar.2016 - Apr.2016(p)

Total nonfarm

141,286 141,992 142,887 143,944 141,223 143,547 143,755 143,915 160

Total private

118,883 119,644 120,398 121,449 119,252 121,483 121,667 121,838 171

Goods-producing

19,391 19,169 19,282 19,494 19,569 19,682 19,682 19,679 -3

Mining and logging

834 718 704 695 844 732 720 712 -8

Logging

49.2 49.9 49.1 46.4 52.6 51.5 51.2 49.9 -1.3

Mining

784.5 668.0 654.7 648.1 791.8 680.9 668.7 661.6 -7.1

Oil and gas extraction

191.4 178.8 176.5 173.9 193.9 179.7 178.5 176.9 -1.6

Mining, except oil and gas

199.6 181.1 181.1 185.3 201.2 188.8 187.4 187.1 -0.3

Coal mining

67.3 57.2 56.3 55.9 67.5 57.8 57.0 56.6 -0.4

Metal ore mining

42.4 39.0 38.2 38.6 42.5 39.2 38.5 38.6 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

89.9 84.9 86.6 90.8 91.3 91.8 91.9 91.9 0.0

Support activities for mining

393.5 308.1 297.1 288.9 396.7 312.4 302.8 297.6 -5.2

Construction

6,296 6,213 6,349 6,558 6,409 6,628 6,669 6,670 1

Construction of buildings

1,378.2 1,392.6 1,414.4 1,441.9 1,411.6 1,457.9 1,466.4 1,474.6 8.2

Residential building

671.3 680.4 688.8 709.3 690.1 716.8 720.5 727.6 7.1

Nonresidential building

706.9 712.2 725.6 732.6 721.5 741.1 745.9 747.0 1.1

Heavy and civil engineering construction

917.3 835.5 870.8 935.9 930.8 940.7 950.9 948.7 -2.2

Specialty trade contractors

4,000.0 3,985.0 4,064.1 4,180.6 4,066.4 4,229.5 4,251.8 4,246.4 -5.4

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,730.3 1,749.5 1,783.0 1,839.9 1,759.0 1,861.7 1,873.2 1,862.3 -10.9

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,269.7 2,235.5 2,281.1 2,340.7 2,307.4 2,367.8 2,378.6 2,384.1 5.5

Manufacturing

12,261 12,238 12,229 12,241 12,316 12,322 12,293 12,297 4

Durable goods

7,745 7,686 7,679 7,688 7,765 7,728 7,704 7,710 6

Wood products

375.4 377.7 376.3 380.2 376.5 382.8 381.7 381.7 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral products

393.6 385.0 391.9 400.0 393.8 400.9 401.3 400.5 -0.8

Primary metals

396.2 379.6 377.3 374.5 397.5 380.0 376.9 375.8 -1.1

Fabricated metal products

1,467.1 1,431.2 1,428.2 1,430.6 1,471.1 1,438.6 1,433.7 1,435.0 1.3

Machinery

1,126.7 1,095.5 1,090.3 1,087.4 1,129.2 1,096.3 1,091.0 1,089.8 -1.2

Computer and electronic products

1,049.7 1,042.1 1,040.8 1,040.2 1,053.4 1,045.5 1,042.5 1,043.0 0.5

Computer and peripheral equipment

158.7 161.9 162.8 162.3 160.2 162.5 163.3 163.3 0.0

Communications equipment

89.0 84.8 85.0 85.0 89.0 85.2 85.2 85.0 -0.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

367.9 364.5 362.4 362.5 369.2 365.1 363.1 363.6 0.5

Electronic instruments

397.6 395.9 395.6 395.4 398.3 397.4 395.8 396.1 0.3

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

36.5 35.0 35.0 35.0 36.7 35.3 35.1 35.0 -0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

381.2 385.0 384.8 384.8 383.3 385.4 386.1 386.9 0.8

Transportation equipment(1)

1,590.4 1,606.9 1,606.8 1,606.4 1,593.5 1,608.2 1,603.3 1,610.0 6.7

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

900.2 922.5 924.3 924.0 903.9 924.2 922.7 928.8 6.1

Furniture and related products

377.2 386.7 388.0 388.3 378.2 391.2 389.7 389.3 -0.4

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

587.4 596.2 594.5 595.9 588.6 599.5 597.8 597.5 -0.3

Nondurable goods

4,516 4,552 4,550 4,553 4,551 4,594 4,589 4,587 -2

Food manufacturing

1,477.6 1,497.0 1,495.1 1,496.9 1,501.8 1,518.9 1,518.6 1,520.3 1.7

Textile mills

117.2 114.4 114.0 113.8 116.9 114.7 114.0 113.6 -0.4

Textile product mills

115.3 116.8 116.5 115.5 116.5 117.9 117.3 116.7 -0.6

Apparel

135.4 134.5 133.4 132.8 136.3 134.3 133.6 133.7 0.1

Paper and paper products

371.8 371.5 370.2 371.0 372.4 373.0 372.2 371.6 -0.6

Printing and related support activities

450.2 443.9 444.6 444.2 450.8 446.0 445.6 445.4 -0.2

Petroleum and coal products

111.4 111.2 112.6 114.3 112.2 115.5 115.6 115.3 -0.3

Chemicals

806.2 816.1 817.9 815.8 808.2 817.0 818.1 817.5 -0.6

Plastics and rubber products

685.3 688.0 690.3 690.3 684.3 690.2 690.7 689.1 -1.6

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

246.0 258.3 255.4 258.0 251.7 266.3 262.8 264.2 1.4

Private service-providing

99,492 100,475 101,116 101,955 99,683 101,801 101,985 102,159 174

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26,570 26,827 26,962 27,047 26,815 27,229 27,282 27,290 8

Wholesale trade

5,847.1 5,872.5 5,898.2 5,913.4 5,861.2 5,916.1 5,925.8 5,928.5 2.7

Durable goods

2,923.3 2,934.5 2,941.3 2,945.8 2,931.7 2,948.7 2,951.4 2,954.2 2.8

Nondurable goods

2,024.2 2,034.1 2,045.6 2,055.0 2,027.9 2,056.8 2,059.8 2,059.4 -0.4

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

899.6 903.9 911.3 912.6 901.6 910.6 914.6 914.9 0.3

Retail trade

15,405.5 15,588.4 15,684.5 15,748.1 15,577.8 15,879.3 15,918.3 15,915.2 -3.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,912.0 1,963.8 1,980.3 1,989.2 1,915.0 1,985.3 1,991.7 1,992.5 0.8

Automobile dealers

1,223.7 1,269.8 1,278.2 1,280.0 1,227.4 1,277.2 1,282.9 1,283.6 0.7

Other motor vehicle dealers

145.3 142.8 146.3 151.5 143.9 151.3 150.5 150.6 0.1

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

543.0 551.2 555.8 557.7 543.7 556.8 558.3 558.3 0.0

Furniture and home furnishings stores

460.9 471.9 472.2 469.9 468.7 476.6 478.1 477.0 -1.1

Electronics and appliance stores

508.3 529.0 523.0 519.3 521.5 531.7 531.4 532.7 1.3

Building material and garden supply stores

1,280.0 1,221.9 1,278.2 1,330.7 1,235.5 1,270.3 1,282.9 1,280.5 -2.4

Food and beverage stores

3,035.6 3,061.4 3,061.0 3,070.3 3,063.8 3,091.8 3,094.7 3,096.5 1.8

Health and personal care stores

1,024.9 1,031.3 1,035.4 1,035.7 1,033.0 1,036.4 1,041.4 1,042.9 1.5

Gasoline stations

896.1 904.0 908.2 916.5 902.0 919.9 921.3 922.3 1.0

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,297.1 1,341.0 1,333.5 1,328.4 1,350.2 1,392.4 1,387.4 1,383.4 -4.0

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

609.1 616.2 616.2 609.9 627.7 630.8 632.4 628.4 -4.0

General merchandise stores

3,073.4 3,112.2 3,146.6 3,135.4 3,125.2 3,181.0 3,189.4 3,188.6 -0.8

Department stores

1,298.4 1,288.5 1,289.2 1,285.5 1,335.8 1,320.7 1,322.9 1,322.4 -0.5

Other general merchandise stores

1,775.0 1,823.7 1,857.4 1,849.9 1,789.4 1,860.3 1,866.6 1,866.2 -0.4

Miscellaneous store retailers

811.3 817.0 810.2 823.8 825.2 833.9 836.0 837.8 1.8

Nonstore retailers

496.8 518.7 519.7 519.0 510.0 529.2 531.6 532.6 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

4,763.9 4,803.1 4,816.3 4,823.3 4,819.9 4,868.3 4,873.2 4,881.8 8.6

Air transportation

452.8 459.9 462.3 466.2 454.3 463.7 464.7 467.1 2.4

Rail transportation

248.6 219.5 218.8 216.4 247.3 220.8 219.3 215.6 -3.7

Water transportation

65.6 59.1 60.2 61.3 66.5 61.0 61.8 62.1 0.3

Truck transportation

1,429.2 1,432.8 1,433.8 1,443.5 1,449.3 1,465.0 1,462.5 1,463.2 0.7

Transit and ground passenger transportation

488.2 484.1 490.3 491.5 475.2 473.8 477.0 478.1 1.1

Pipeline transportation

48.8 49.1 48.6 48.8 48.7 49.2 48.9 48.9 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

28.4 21.1 22.4 25.8 31.9 28.7 28.9 29.3 0.4

Support activities for transportation

648.0 649.5 649.2 649.9 648.8 653.3 652.7 651.1 -1.6

Couriers and messengers

564.5 592.7 594.0 579.7 598.1 608.0 610.9 613.4 2.5

Warehousing and storage

789.8 835.3 836.7 840.2 799.8 844.8 846.5 853.0 6.5

Utilities

553.6 562.8 562.9 562.4 556.0 565.3 564.7 564.8 0.1

Information

2,743 2,764 2,777 2,782 2,745 2,774 2,780 2,780 0

Publishing industries, except Internet

723.0 723.7 723.0 723.2 725.3 726.6 725.2 725.1 -0.1

Motion picture and sound recording industries

398.7 408.3 419.4 430.1 394.6 412.2 418.2 422.4 4.2

Broadcasting, except Internet

280.0 279.9 281.2 280.2 280.3 280.6 281.1 280.4 -0.7

Telecommunications

810.6 800.0 800.4 794.2 814.0 801.0 800.3 797.8 -2.5

Data processing, hosting and related services

294.7 296.3 297.8 299.7 292.7 297.8 298.5 297.9 -0.6

Other information services

236.3 255.6 255.6 254.4 237.9 255.8 256.5 256.1 -0.4

Financial activities

8,049 8,158 8,182 8,209 8,089 8,215 8,229 8,249 20

Finance and insurance

5,990.2 6,088.9 6,104.3 6,109.2 6,014.0 6,103.3 6,118.4 6,132.8 14.4

Monetary authorities - central bank

17.6 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.9 18.0 18.0 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,553.1 2,574.8 2,582.2 2,586.2 2,566.3 2,582.8 2,590.5 2,598.4 7.9

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,677.7 1,675.6 1,681.4 1,680.9 1,681.6 1,678.2 1,684.1 1,684.4 0.3

Commercial banking

1,273.6 1,261.8 1,266.2 1,265.2 1,276.3 1,263.1 1,267.0 1,267.5 0.5

Nondepository credit intermediation

583.8 600.4 601.0 602.1 591.3 604.3 604.9 609.6 4.7

Activities related to credit intermediation

291.6 298.8 299.8 303.2 293.5 300.4 301.5 304.3 2.8

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

896.6 916.4 918.8 918.3 899.9 918.7 921.2 922.2 1.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,522.9 2,579.9 2,585.5 2,586.9 2,530.0 2,583.9 2,588.7 2,594.2 5.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,058.8 2,068.9 2,077.4 2,099.4 2,075.0 2,111.2 2,110.5 2,115.7 5.2

Real estate

1,501.8 1,518.9 1,526.5 1,537.0 1,509.8 1,543.0 1,545.1 1,545.7 0.6

Rental and leasing services

533.7 526.8 527.7 539.3 541.6 544.6 541.9 546.5 4.6

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.3 23.2 23.2 23.1 23.6 23.6 23.5 23.5 0.0

Professional and business services

19,491 19,724 19,829 20,090 19,505 20,014 20,051 20,116 65

Professional and technical services

8,629.5 8,867.1 8,864.4 8,919.7 8,554.0 8,806.2 8,814.0 8,845.1 31.1

Legal services

1,114.7 1,116.6 1,120.5 1,117.8 1,119.2 1,123.1 1,124.0 1,122.5 -1.5

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,068.5 1,135.6 1,126.0 1,108.2 969.2 1,008.7 1,010.2 1,011.1 0.9

Architectural and engineering services

1,393.3 1,413.8 1,413.1 1,419.7 1,401.3 1,433.4 1,431.5 1,428.5 -3.0

Specialized design services

132.1 137.2 137.2 140.0 132.2 139.1 138.7 140.2 1.5

Computer systems design and related services

1,888.2 1,958.0 1,951.5 1,975.0 1,887.8 1,963.7 1,968.0 1,975.3 7.3

Management and technical consulting services

1,255.4 1,298.9 1,299.4 1,329.3 1,262.3 1,311.2 1,313.5 1,334.1 20.6

Scientific research and development services

652.4 656.5 661.1 662.9 652.9 661.8 663.0 663.5 0.5

Advertising and related services

477.0 489.9 488.7 493.7 478.9 492.9 491.7 495.3 3.6

Other professional and technical services

647.9 660.6 666.9 673.1 650.2 672.3 673.4 674.5 1.1

Management of companies and enterprises

2,188.2 2,246.1 2,251.9 2,249.8 2,200.1 2,257.2 2,259.2 2,262.0 2.8

Administrative and waste services

8,673.1 8,611.0 8,713.0 8,920.7 8,751.1 8,950.2 8,978.0 9,008.8 30.8

Administrative and support services

8,282.2 8,217.8 8,315.8 8,517.1 8,355.6 8,547.4 8,572.3 8,601.3 29.0

Office administrative services

467.6 482.1 483.5 484.6 468.0 484.3 485.1 484.9 -0.2

Facilities support services

139.5 143.7 146.7 144.9 138.8 143.7 146.0 144.3 -1.7

Employment services(1)

3,438.7 3,425.2 3,461.6 3,523.2 3,500.4 3,576.2 3,581.8 3,597.3 15.5

Temporary help services

2,798.3 2,766.7 2,803.5 2,852.8 2,851.5 2,898.1 2,907.4 2,916.7 9.3

Business support services

891.2 903.9 904.9 905.2 895.4 902.0 905.7 908.4 2.7

Travel arrangement and reservation services

200.3 198.8 202.2 203.6 200.2 202.7 203.3 203.7 0.4

Investigation and security services

858.2 880.0 881.5 887.0 866.7 888.1 888.2 894.5 6.3

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,984.8 1,869.0 1,917.8 2,050.8 1,984.1 2,032.8 2,044.4 2,050.0 5.6

Other support services

301.9 315.1 317.6 317.8 302.0 317.5 317.8 318.1 0.3

Waste management and remediation services

390.9 393.2 397.2 403.6 395.5 402.8 405.7 407.5 1.8

Education and health services

22,091 22,581 22,671 22,767 21,905 22,481 22,524 22,578 54

Educational services

3,630.0 3,646.0 3,676.2 3,712.5 3,454.3 3,505.3 3,513.7 3,529.6 15.9

Health care and social assistance

18,461.0 18,935.3 18,994.4 19,054.7 18,450.5 18,976.1 19,010.1 19,048.3 38.2

Health care(3)

14,940.0 15,337.6 15,383.0 15,441.8 14,962.4 15,387.3 15,420.2 15,464.4 44.2

Ambulatory health care services

6,800.2 7,011.4 7,039.4 7,073.9 6,807.6 7,036.1 7,059.1 7,078.4 19.3

Offices of physicians

2,511.5 2,577.0 2,585.2 2,585.9 2,515.9 2,581.9 2,588.0 2,590.0 2.0

Offices of dentists

901.3 925.8 923.6 929.1 904.4 928.5 929.4 931.2 1.8

Offices of other health practitioners

805.1 835.8 840.0 848.7 804.1 838.4 842.2 846.2 4.0

Outpatient care centers

738.2 762.0 765.2 773.8 738.2 764.8 767.1 773.5 6.4

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

255.8 256.5 258.9 260.6 255.6 257.2 259.1 260.3 1.2

Home health care services

1,302.6 1,363.8 1,374.1 1,382.8 1,303.4 1,372.4 1,379.8 1,383.3 3.5

Other ambulatory health care services

285.7 290.5 292.4 293.0 286.2 293.1 293.5 293.9 0.4

Hospitals

4,863.9 5,025.4 5,036.6 5,057.0 4,871.0 5,033.3 5,042.5 5,065.4 22.9

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,275.9 3,300.8 3,307.0 3,310.9 3,283.8 3,317.9 3,318.6 3,320.6 2.0

Nursing care facilities

1,644.3 1,644.4 1,645.6 1,649.6 1,647.9 1,654.1 1,652.0 1,653.8 1.8

Residential mental health facilities

604.2 610.0 612.5 609.5 606.3 612.8 613.9 612.3 -1.6

Community care facilities for the elderly

864.7 885.3 886.7 889.0 866.3 888.0 889.4 891.4 2.0

Other residential care facilities

162.7 161.1 162.2 162.8 163.3 163.1 163.3 163.2 -0.1

Social assistance

3,521.0 3,597.7 3,611.4 3,612.9 3,488.1 3,588.8 3,589.9 3,583.9 -6.0

Individual and family services

2,136.7 2,198.0 2,202.3 2,201.2 2,122.8 2,198.2 2,197.6 2,192.1 -5.5

Emergency and other relief services

154.6 156.5 158.2 156.6 154.7 157.5 158.3 156.7 -1.6

Vocational rehabilitation services

334.6 332.7 333.0 336.3 338.2 337.5 337.4 339.1 1.7

Child day care services

895.1 910.5 917.9 918.8 872.4 895.5 896.7 896.0 -0.7

Leisure and hospitality

14,938 14,795 15,040 15,376 15,010 15,413 15,437 15,459 22

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,089.8 1,987.3 2,063.4 2,170.1 2,143.7 2,208.4 2,222.2 2,226.0 3.8

Performing arts and spectator sports

456.7 433.2 453.0 486.4 447.3 469.6 472.2 475.7 3.5

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

149.0 138.9 145.6 153.0 150.8 151.0 153.3 154.5 1.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,484.1 1,415.2 1,464.8 1,530.7 1,545.6 1,587.8 1,596.7 1,595.8 -0.9

Accommodation and food services

12,848.4 12,807.3 12,976.3 13,205.6 12,866.0 13,204.3 13,214.5 13,232.8 18.3

Accommodation

1,866.1 1,846.1 1,860.5 1,878.2 1,909.2 1,929.1 1,924.4 1,924.5 0.1

Food services and drinking places

10,982.3 10,961.2 11,115.8 11,327.4 10,956.8 11,275.2 11,290.1 11,308.3 18.2

Other services

5,610 5,626 5,655 5,684 5,614 5,675 5,682 5,687 5

Repair and maintenance

1,273.7 1,286.8 1,289.5 1,294.0 1,269.3 1,293.6 1,291.4 1,290.6 -0.8

Personal and laundry services

1,399.3 1,402.1 1,415.8 1,431.2 1,397.3 1,420.6 1,425.1 1,428.8 3.7

Membership associations and organizations

2,937.3 2,936.7 2,949.7 2,959.0 2,947.6 2,960.4 2,965.7 2,967.2 1.5

Government

22,403 22,348 22,489 22,495 21,971 22,064 22,088 22,077 -11

Federal

2,757.0 2,752.0 2,757.0 2,760.0 2,750.0 2,765.0 2,766.0 2,757.0 -9.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,151.1 2,150.4 2,152.2 2,158.2 2,153.8 2,163.3 2,162.1 2,161.2 -0.9

U.S. Postal Service

606.2 602.0 604.5 602.0 595.9 601.3 603.8 595.9 -7.9

State government

5,260.0 5,234.0 5,268.0 5,272.0 5,096.0 5,108.0 5,112.0 5,110.0 -2.0

State government education

2,588.0 2,576.0 2,599.2 2,603.1 2,421.6 2,436.6 2,437.4 2,438.0 0.6

State government, excluding education

2,671.8 2,657.8 2,668.4 2,668.7 2,674.1 2,671.0 2,674.6 2,671.7 -2.9

Local government

14,386.0 14,362.0 14,464.0 14,463.0 14,125.0 14,191.0 14,210.0 14,210.0 0.0

Local government education

8,159.0 8,110.1 8,174.7 8,143.9 7,816.7 7,812.0 7,819.0 7,810.5 -8.5

Local government, excluding education

6,226.9 6,251.7 6,289.1 6,319.0 6,308.4 6,378.8 6,391.2 6,399.3 8.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.4 34.4 34.5

Goods-producing

40.3 40.2 40.1 40.3

Mining and logging

44.1 43.2 42.6 43.2

Construction

38.9 38.9 38.7 39.1

Manufacturing

40.7 40.7 40.7 40.7

Durable goods

41.1 41.2 41.1 41.2

Nondurable goods

40.1 39.9 39.8 39.9

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.5 34.4 34.4

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.9 38.8 38.9

Retail trade

31.3 31.2 31.1 31.1

Transportation and warehousing

38.9 38.9 38.8 38.8

Utilities

42.7 41.5 42.0 42.4

Information

36.3 35.9 35.9 35.8

Financial activities

37.6 37.6 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.0 36.1 36.0 36.2

Education and health services

32.8 32.8 32.9 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.2 26.2 26.1 26.2

Other services

31.7 31.9 31.8 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Durable goods

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.4 3.3 3.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)

Total private

$24.91 $25.39 $25.45 $25.53 $859.40 $873.42 $875.48 $880.79

Goods-producing

26.09 26.55 26.64 26.79 1,051.43 1,067.31 1,068.26 1,079.64

Mining and logging

30.90 31.51 31.73 32.02 1,362.69 1,361.23 1,351.70 1,383.26

Construction

27.28 27.72 27.83 27.90 1,061.19 1,078.31 1,077.02 1,090.89

Manufacturing

25.14 25.63 25.72 25.90 1,023.20 1,043.14 1,046.80 1,054.13

Durable goods

26.45 26.96 27.03 27.20 1,087.10 1,110.75 1,110.93 1,120.64

Nondurable goods

22.85 23.32 23.44 23.63 916.29 930.47 932.91 942.84

Private service-providing

24.63 25.11 25.18 25.24 820.18 836.16 838.49 840.49

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21.71 22.10 22.22 22.24 749.00 762.45 764.37 765.06

Wholesale trade

28.49 29.09 29.29 29.36 1,105.41 1,131.60 1,136.45 1,142.10

Retail trade

17.35 17.73 17.79 17.75 543.06 553.18 553.27 552.03

Transportation and warehousing

22.89 23.09 23.08 23.10 890.42 898.20 895.50 896.28

Utilities

36.96 37.90 39.41 39.79 1,578.19 1,572.85 1,655.22 1,687.10

Information

34.74 36.17 36.07 36.26 1,261.06 1,298.50 1,294.91 1,298.11

Financial activities

31.37 32.02 32.15 32.21 1,179.51 1,203.95 1,208.84 1,211.10

Professional and business services

29.97 30.50 30.55 30.61 1,078.92 1,101.05 1,099.80 1,108.08

Education and health services

25.14 25.60 25.59 25.67 824.59 839.68 841.91 844.54

Leisure and hospitality

14.28 14.63 14.69 14.75 374.14 383.31 383.41 386.45

Other services

22.34 22.79 22.76 22.80 708.18 727.00 723.77 727.32

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2016 - Apr.
2016(p)
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2016 - Apr.
2016(p)

Total private

103.3 104.9 105.1 105.5 0.4 123.0 127.3 127.8 128.8 0.8

Goods-producing

89.8 90.1 89.9 90.4 0.6 105.9 108.2 108.3 109.4 1.0

Mining and logging

117.0 99.4 96.4 96.7 0.3 145.1 125.7 122.8 124.3 1.2

Construction

85.9 88.9 89.0 89.9 1.0 101.9 107.0 107.6 109.0 1.3

Manufacturing

90.2 90.2 90.0 90.0 0.0 105.4 107.5 107.7 108.5 0.7

Durable goods

89.9 89.6 89.1 89.4 0.3 105.5 107.3 107.0 108.0 0.9

Nondurable goods

91.1 91.5 91.1 91.3 0.2 105.6 108.2 108.4 109.5 1.0

Private service-providing

106.8 109.1 109.3 109.4 0.1 127.8 133.1 133.7 134.2 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

100.6 102.2 102.1 102.1 0.0 117.6 121.5 122.1 122.2 0.1

Wholesale trade

99.2 100.4 100.3 100.6 0.3 118.0 121.9 122.6 123.3 0.6

Retail trade

99.0 100.6 100.6 100.5 -0.1 113.6 118.0 118.3 118.0 -0.3

Transportation and warehousing

107.3 108.4 108.2 108.4 0.2 124.7 127.0 126.7 127.1 0.3

Utilities

102.7 101.5 102.6 103.6 1.0 125.4 127.1 133.6 136.2 1.9

Information

91.0 90.9 91.1 90.9 -0.2 112.6 117.1 117.1 117.3 0.2

Financial activities

99.6 101.2 101.3 101.6 0.3 121.9 126.3 127.1 127.6 0.4

Professional and business services

110.4 113.6 113.5 114.5 0.9 134.1 140.4 140.5 142.0 1.1

Education and health services

117.3 120.4 121.0 121.3 0.2 141.8 148.2 148.9 149.7 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

112.2 115.2 115.0 115.6 0.5 129.3 136.0 136.2 137.5 1.0

Other services

102.6 104.4 104.2 104.6 0.4 125.6 130.4 130.0 130.7 0.5

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)

Total nonfarm

69,649 71,009 71,144 71,283 49.3 49.5 49.5 49.5

Total private

57,084 58,381 58,501 58,644 47.9 48.1 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,278 4,296 4,297 4,304 21.9 21.8 21.8 21.9

Mining and logging

116 105 104 103 13.7 14.3 14.4 14.5

Construction

809 826 832 836 12.6 12.5 12.5 12.5

Manufacturing

3,353 3,365 3,361 3,365 27.2 27.3 27.3 27.4

Durable goods

1,801 1,802 1,800 1,804 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.4

Nondurable goods

1,552 1,563 1,561 1,561 34.1 34.0 34.0 34.0

Private service-providing

52,806 54,085 54,204 54,340 53.0 53.1 53.1 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,854 11,053 11,082 11,109 40.5 40.6 40.6 40.7

Wholesale trade

1,729.9 1,744.4 1,748.1 1,753.6 29.5 29.5 29.5 29.6

Retail trade

7,844.0 8,016.8 8,043.5 8,061.6 50.4 50.5 50.5 50.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,146.5 1,157.0 1,156.4 1,160.0 23.8 23.8 23.7 23.8

Utilities

133.6 134.7 134.3 133.5 24.0 23.8 23.8 23.6

Information

1,099 1,109 1,110 1,109 40.0 40.0 39.9 39.9

Financial activities

4,621 4,691 4,701 4,704 57.1 57.1 57.1 57.0

Professional and business services

8,670 8,970 8,997 9,058 44.5 44.8 44.9 45.0

Education and health services

16,850 17,309 17,344 17,367 76.9 77.0 77.0 76.9

Leisure and hospitality

7,784 7,988 7,999 8,018 51.9 51.8 51.8 51.9

Other services

2,928 2,965 2,971 2,975 52.2 52.2 52.3 52.3

Government

12,565 12,628 12,643 12,639 57.2 57.2 57.2 57.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)

Total private

98,313 100,075 100,212 100,356

Goods-producing

14,100 14,191 14,183 14,186

Mining and logging

618 526 511 503

Construction

4,823 5,000 5,027 5,046

Manufacturing

8,659 8,665 8,645 8,637

Durable goods

5,342 5,320 5,308 5,304

Nondurable goods

3,317 3,345 3,337 3,333

Private service-providing

84,213 85,884 86,029 86,170

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,581 22,892 22,944 22,935

Wholesale trade

4,713.0 4,739.9 4,741.1 4,740.9

Retail trade

13,253.1 13,487.8 13,534.7 13,520.6

Transportation and warehousing

4,167.8 4,211.4 4,216.3 4,220.5

Utilities

447.4 452.5 452.1 452.6

Information

2,220 2,242 2,247 2,246

Financial activities

6,247 6,360 6,376 6,392

Professional and business services

16,032 16,405 16,414 16,472

Education and health services

19,223 19,723 19,754 19,805

Leisure and hospitality

13,240 13,547 13,581 13,604

Other services

4,670 4,715 4,713 4,716

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.7 33.6 33.7

Goods-producing

41.2 41.2 40.9 41.2

Mining and logging

45.8 44.7 44.3 44.7

Construction

39.6 39.9 39.2 39.7

Manufacturing

41.8 41.8 41.7 41.9

Durable goods

42.0 42.2 42.1 42.3

Nondurable goods

41.4 41.1 41.1 41.2

Private service-providing

32.4 32.4 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.6 33.6 33.5 33.5

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.6 38.5 38.6

Retail trade

30.0 29.9 29.7 29.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.6 38.9 38.9 38.8

Utilities

42.4 41.7 42.1 42.2

Information

35.8 35.5 35.4 35.4

Financial activities

37.0 37.1 37.1 37.0

Professional and business services

35.2 35.4 35.5 35.5

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.2 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

25.0 24.9 24.9 25.0

Other services

30.6 30.7 30.7 30.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.3 4.3 4.4

Durable goods

4.3 4.4 4.4 4.6

Nondurable goods

4.3 4.1 4.2 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)

Total private

$20.93 $21.35 $21.40 $21.45 $705.34 $719.50 $719.04 $722.87

Goods-producing

21.88 22.25 22.35 22.46 901.46 916.70 914.12 925.35

Mining and logging

26.35 26.83 26.76 27.13 1,206.83 1,199.30 1,185.47 1,212.71

Construction

25.14 25.41 25.65 25.65 995.54 1,013.86 1,005.48 1,018.31

Manufacturing

19.81 20.21 20.28 20.40 828.06 844.78 845.68 854.76

Durable goods

20.88 21.28 21.33 21.46 876.96 898.02 897.99 907.76

Nondurable goods

18.06 18.47 18.55 18.65 747.68 759.12 762.41 768.38

Private service-providing

20.73 21.16 21.20 21.24 671.65 685.58 686.88 688.18

Trade, transportation, and utilities

18.57 18.86 18.93 18.92 623.95 633.70 634.16 633.82

Wholesale trade

23.54 23.96 24.05 24.07 908.64 924.86 925.93 929.10

Retail trade

14.69 14.96 15.03 15.00 440.70 447.30 446.39 447.00

Transportation and warehousing

20.75 20.95 20.96 20.93 800.95 814.96 815.34 812.08

Utilities

33.86 34.63 34.62 35.08 1,435.66 1,444.07 1,457.50 1,480.38

Information

28.90 29.76 29.69 29.84 1,034.62 1,056.48 1,051.03 1,056.34

Financial activities

25.19 25.92 26.05 26.23 932.03 961.63 966.46 970.51

Professional and business services

24.64 25.13 25.17 25.22 867.33 889.60 893.54 895.31

Education and health services

22.00 22.42 22.39 22.45 708.40 721.92 720.96 722.89

Leisure and hospitality

12.37 12.68 12.73 12.78 309.25 315.73 316.98 319.50

Other services

18.90 19.20 19.15 19.19 578.34 589.44 587.91 592.97

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2016 - Apr.
2016(p)
Apr.
2015
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016(p)
Apr.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2016 - Apr.
2016(p)

Total private

110.4 112.4 112.2 112.7 0.4 154.4 160.3 160.4 161.5 0.7

Goods-producing

88.8 89.3 88.6 89.3 0.8 118.9 121.7 121.3 122.8 1.2

Mining and logging

150.4 124.9 120.3 119.5 -0.7 230.5 195.0 187.2 188.5 0.7

Construction

95.6 99.9 98.7 100.3 1.6 129.8 137.1 136.7 138.9 1.6

Manufacturing

83.1 83.1 82.8 83.1 0.4 107.6 109.9 109.8 110.8 0.9

Durable goods

84.3 84.4 84.0 84.3 0.4 109.9 112.1 111.8 112.9 1.0

Nondurable goods

80.9 81.0 80.8 80.9 0.1 103.3 105.7 105.9 106.6 0.7

Private service-providing

116.2 118.5 118.7 118.9 0.2 165.2 172.0 172.6 173.2 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

105.8 107.2 107.2 107.1 -0.1 140.1 144.3 144.7 144.6 -0.1

Wholesale trade

107.1 107.7 107.5 107.8 0.3 148.6 152.1 152.3 152.8 0.3

Retail trade

100.6 102.1 101.8 102.0 0.2 126.7 130.9 131.1 131.1 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

121.1 123.3 123.5 123.3 -0.2 159.4 163.9 164.2 163.7 -0.3

Utilities

97.0 96.5 97.3 97.7 0.4 137.1 139.5 140.7 143.0 1.6

Information

90.7 90.8 90.8 90.7 -0.1 129.8 133.8 133.4 134.1 0.5

Financial activities

108.8 111.1 111.4 111.3 -0.1 168.6 177.1 178.5 179.7 0.7

Professional and business services

126.5 130.2 130.6 131.1 0.4 185.4 194.6 195.6 196.7 0.6

Education and health services

131.9 135.4 135.6 135.9 0.2 191.6 200.3 200.4 201.4 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

121.2 123.6 123.9 124.6 0.6 170.3 177.9 179.1 180.8 0.9

Other services

100.2 101.5 101.5 102.2 0.7 138.0 142.0 141.6 142.9 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: May 06, 2016