Multifactor Productivity Trends for Detailed Industries News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, September 28, 2010	USDL-10-1351

Technical Information:	(202) 691-5618  •  dipsweb@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/mfp 
Media Contact:	        (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS FOR DETAILED INDUSTRIES, 2008

Multifactor productivity – defined as output per unit of combined inputs – increased in about 40 
percent of the 86 four-digit NAICS manufacturing industries in 2008, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. (See table 1.) This was down from 2007, when multifactor productivity 
increased in about 60 percent of those industries. Fewer manufacturing industries recorded multifactor 
productivity increases in 2008 than in any year since 2001.   

Within the transportation sector in 2008, multifactor productivity rose 0.6 percent in air transportation 
and declined 1.9 percent in line-haul railroads.  

Multifactor productivity indexes relate the change in output to the change in the combined inputs of 
labor, capital, and intermediate purchases consumed in producing that output. Multifactor productivity 
measures the joint influences on economic growth of a variety of factors, including technological change, 
returns to scale, enhancements in managerial and staff skills, changes in the organization of production, 
and other efficiency improvements.

Manufacturing industries

Output rose in fewer manufacturing industries in 2008 than in 2007. Output rose in only 17 of 86 
manufacturing industries in 2008, compared to 39 in 2007. Combined inputs fell in more industries, 65 in 
2008 compared to 54 in 2007. Labor hours fell in 67 manufacturing industries in 2008, while 
intermediate inputs fell in 65 industries and capital services fell in 43 industries.

Among the largest manufacturing industries (those with employment over 300,000), multifactor 
productivity rose most in the semiconductors and electronics components industry (7.2 percent) 
followed by the medical equipment and supplies industry (4.5 percent). Multifactor productivity rose 
modestly in the largest manufacturing industry, printing and related support activities (0.4 percent). 
Aerospace products and parts posted the largest multifactor productivity decline (11.5 percent) in 2008 
among the largest industries.  

Multifactor productivity increased in fewer manufacturing industries in 2008 than over the longer-term 
period from 1987 to 2008. Between 1987 and 2008, multifactor productivity increased in 45 of 86 
manufacturing industries (52 percent). (See table 2.) Output increased in 60 industries while combined 
inputs increased in 59 industries over the period.

Table 3 presents average annual multifactor productivity growth by industry for 1987 to 2008 and 
various subperiods. From 2000 to 2008, multifactor productivity grew in 53 of the 86 manufacturing 
industries, more than in any of the other periods shown except 1990-1995.

Transportation industries

In 2008 multifactor productivity rose in air transportation, as output declined 3.1 percent and combined 
inputs, led by reductions in intermediate inputs, dropped 3.7 percent. Multifactor productivity in line-
haul railroads fell, as output declined 1.0 percent and combined inputs increased 0.9 percent. 

Productivity performance was worse in 2008 than over the 1987-2008 period for both industries. 
Multifactor productivity in air transportation rose at an average annual rate of 1.0 percent over the 
period, as output rose 3.1 percent annually and combined inputs rose 2.1 percent per year. Multifactor 
productivity in line-haul railroads grew 2.2 percent per year on average from 1987 to 2008, as output 
rose 2.2 percent per year and combined inputs showed no change. 

                                         Technical Note

Multifactor Productivity:  Multifactor productivity measures for detailed industries are derived by 
dividing an index of industry output by an index of the combined inputs of labor, capital, and 
intermediate purchases. Multifactor productivity growth measures the extent to which output has grown 
faster than measured inputs, and reflects the joint influences on economic growth of a number of factors, 
including technological change, returns to scale, improved skills of the workforce, better management 
techniques, or other efficiency improvements.

Year-to-year movements in industry multifactor productivity measures may be erratic, particularly in 
smaller industries. The annual measure based on sample data may differ from measures generated by a 
census of establishments in the industry. Annual changes in an industry’s output, labor, capital, and 
intermediate purchases may reflect cyclical changes in the economy as well as long-term trends. As a 
result, long-term multifactor productivity changes tend to be more reliable indicators of industry 
performance than year-to-year changes.

Output:  Manufacturing industry output is measured as annual sectoral output, the total value, in real 
terms, of goods and services produced for sale outside the industry. Industry value of production is 
derived by adjusting industry shipments for changes in inventories and subtracting intra-industry 
transfers and resales. For most manufacturing industries, real output is measured by deflating nominal 
value of production, but for a few industries physical quantities of output are measured. Output 
measures for manufacturing industries are constructed using data primarily from the economic censuses 
and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with 
information on price changes chiefly from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 

For air transportation and line-haul railroads, annual real output is measured by aggregating freight ton-
miles and passenger-miles. For air transportation, data on passenger-miles and freight ton-miles from the 
Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), are combined 
using revenue weights from that source. For line-haul railroads, data on freight ton-miles and passenger-
miles from the Surface Transportation Board (STB) of DOT, the Association of American Railroads 
(AAR), and AMTRAK are aggregated using operating expenses from those sources as weights.  

Wherever possible, the indexes of industry output are calculated with a Törnqvist formula. This formula 
aggregates the growth rates of the various industry outputs between two periods, using their relative 
shares in industry value of production, averaged over the two periods, as weights.

Combined Inputs:  The index of combined inputs is a Törnqvist index of separate quantity indexes of 
capital, labor, and intermediate purchases. The annual growth rates of the various inputs are aggregated 
using their relative cost shares in total industry value of production as weights. The labor weight is based 
on labor compensation including fringe benefits. The weight for intermediate purchases is based on the 
total cost of materials, fuels, electricity, and purchased services. The capital weight is based on the value 
of sectoral production minus the values of labor compensation and intermediate purchases.

Capital Input:  Capital input reflects the flow of services derived from the stock of physical assets. 
Capital services are estimated by calculating capital stocks; changes in the stocks are assumed to be 
proportional to changes in capital services for each asset. For the manufacturing industries, physical 
capital is composed of 26 categories of equipment, 2 categories of structures, 3 categories of inventories, 
and land. 

Capital stocks are calculated using the perpetual inventory method, which takes into account the 
continual additions to and subtractions from the stock of capital as new investment and retirement of old 
capital occur. The perpetual inventory method measures stocks at the end of a year equal to a weighted 
sum of all past investments, where the weights are each asset’s efficiency relative to a new asset. A 
hyperbolic age-efficiency function is assumed for calculating the relative efficiency of an asset at 
different ages. 

For manufacturing industries, estimates of investment by asset type for each industry are derived using 
annual capital expenditures for detailed industries from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the 
Bureau of the Census in combination with benchmark capital flow tables and annual detailed asset 
investment by industry from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Price changes are removed from 
the annual investment data before calculating stocks. Price deflators for each asset category are 
constructed by combining detailed price indexes (mostly PPIs) with weights from the BEA capital flow 
tables that reflect each industry’s use of individual asset commodities.
 
For air transportation, a weighted index of 44 types of airframes and 34 types of engines is derived from 
quantities and purchase prices from BTS. For assets other than airframes and engines, current dollar 
capital stocks are calculated with the perpetual inventory method. Inventories of parts and supplies are 
also included; the current dollar series is deflated with a weighted cost index based on data from the Air 
Transport Association (ATA) and BTS. Indexes for aircraft and engines, non-aircraft assets, and parts 
and supplies inventories are aggregated using cost share weights to derive an overall measure of capital 
input.

For line-haul railroads, current dollar investment for 10 categories of equipment and 13 categories of 
structures, obtained from STB and AMTRAK, were deflated with BLS producer price indexes and 
deflators based on BEA data. The perpetual inventory method was used to calculate capital stocks for 
each of the items. Inventories of materials and supplies are also included. Estimates of investments in 
land from STB and AMTRAK were deflated with price indexes from BEA.
  
The index of aggregate capital input for each manufacturing and transportation industry is calculated as 
an annually-chained Törnqvist quantity index. To construct the index, the growth rates of the stocks of 
each type of asset are aggregated using weights that are the average of each asset type’s cost share in 
successive years. The asset costs are estimated by multiplying the asset stocks by implicit rental prices.

Labor Input:  For manufacturing industries, the primary source of industry employment and hours data 
is the BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. The CES provides monthly data on the number 
of total and production worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments, as well 
as data on the average weekly hours of production workers in those establishments. Data from the 
Current Population Survey (CPS) are also used to supplement the CES data. CPS data are used to 
estimate employment and hours of self-employed and unpaid family workers in each industry. Data from 
the CPS, together with the CES data, are also used to estimate the historical average weekly hours of 
nonproduction workers for each industry. Hours of all persons in an industry are treated as homogeneous 
and are directly aggregated.

For air transportation and line-haul railroads, labor input measures are derived primarily from DOT data. 
For air transportation, annual estimates are based on monthly data from BTS. For line-haul railroads, 
total labor hours for supervisory and nonsupervisory workers are derived from STB data and 
supplemented with data from AAR. For the railroad industry, the labor input measures include an 
adjustment to remove capitalized labor hours in order to avoid double-counting, because some 
capitalized labor costs are embedded in the railroad investment data.

Intermediate Purchases Input:  The index of intermediate purchases is constructed as a Törnqvist index of 
separate quantities of materials, services, fuels, and electricity consumed by each industry. Except for 
electricity consumed by manufacturing industries, for which direct quantity data are available, quantities 
are derived by deflating current-dollar values with appropriate price deflators.
 
For manufacturing industries, nominal values of materials, fuels and electricity, and quantities of 
electricity consumed by each industry are obtained from economic censuses and annual surveys of the 
Bureau of the Census. To avoid double counting, an adjustment is made to the materials estimates to 
exclude the value of intra-industry commodity transfers. Purchased business services are estimated using 
annual industry data and benchmark input-output tables from BEA.  

Constant-dollar materials consumed are derived by dividing annual current-dollar industry purchases by 
a weighted price deflator for each industry. Materials deflators are constructed for each industry by 
combining detailed producer price indexes and import price indexes from BLS using weights based on 
detailed commodity data from the BEA benchmark input-output tables. Aggregate price indexes to 
deflate purchased business services are constructed in a similar manner. Annual total fuels consumed by 
each industry are also deflated with weighted price deflators. Producer price indexes for individual fuel 
categories are weighted together with weights reflecting detailed fuels expenditures by industry from 
the Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy.

For air transportation, detailed cost of materials, services, fuels, and electricity from the BTS were 
deflated using cost indexes from ATA. For line-haul railroads, intermediate purchases data from STB 
were supplemented with data from other sources including AAR, AMTRAK, EIA, and the Edison 
Electric Institute. The nominal values were deflated with producer price indexes from BLS and implicit 
price deflators calculated from BEA investment data.

Revisions: This news release incorporates annual Census Bureau data from the 2007 Economic Census 
and the 2008 Annual Survey of Manufactures, and annual data and benchmark revisions from the BLS 
Current Employment Statistics survey published in February, 2010. The multifactor productivity 
measures included in this release also reflect several other changes since the last release of data for 
multifactor productivity on August 29, 2008. The measures now reflect data classified according to the 
2007 NAICS definitions. In addition, the multifactor productivity measures for manufacturing 
industries have been revised to include the output and combined capital, labor and intermediate inputs of 
nonemployer firms, including the hours and labor compensation of self-employed and unpaid family 
workers. In addition, the index series have been rebased from 1997=100 to 2002=100.  

Additional Information:  Industry multifactor productivity and related measures are available online on 
the BLS Multifactor Productivity and Costs website at http://www.bls.gov/mfp. Additional data are 
available upon request by sending an e-mail to dipsweb@bls.gov or by calling the Division of Industry 
Productivity Studies at 202-691-5618. Information in this report will be made available to sensory-
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: 202-691-5618; TDD message referral phone number: 1-
800-877-8339.  

To subscribe to the industry productivity program’s electronic notification service, send an e-mail to 
dipsnews@bls.gov with the word “subscribe” in the subject line.


Table 1.   Multifactor productivity and related data for 88 industries, percent change, 2007-2008

                                                                                       Percent change, 2007-2008
                                                               2008     --------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                      Employment  Multifactor         Combined  Labor         Intermediate
  code                                                      (thousands) productivity Output  inputs   Hours Capital  purchases

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                        53           -3.0     -0.6     2.5     5.8     0.9       2.8
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                          62           -2.7      1.4     4.2     5.3    -2.2       6.7
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                   74           -7.4     -8.2    -0.9    -0.6    -1.4      -0.6
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty      173           -3.4     -2.5     1.0    -0.1     0.0       1.6
3115         Dairy products                                    132           -2.4      2.3     4.8    -5.2     1.5       7.0
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                514           -3.1      1.6     4.9    -0.9     3.7       6.1
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging          39          -11.6    -13.6    -2.3    -1.0     5.9      -3.9
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing               300           -5.9     -5.1     0.8     2.6    -0.2       0.4
3119         Other food products                               164            0.3     -0.1    -0.4    -1.5     0.5      -0.8

3121         Beverages                                         179           -2.6     -5.3    -2.7    -5.4     0.8      -4.4
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                       22           -7.8    -10.6    -3.0     2.7    -5.2      11.5

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                      37           -4.4    -13.4    -9.5   -14.5    -4.5      -8.9
3132         Fabric mills                                       72           -4.4    -13.5    -9.5   -17.8    -3.9      -7.9
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                 52          -13.1    -22.2   -10.5    -8.8    -4.4     -11.5

3141         Textile furnishings mills                          82           -6.2    -12.6    -6.9   -10.2    -2.4      -7.7
3149         Other textile product mills                        81           -4.4     -1.1     3.4    -0.6     2.5       6.0

3151         Apparel knitting mills                             32           -0.6    -15.0   -14.5   -12.0    -6.1     -16.0
3152         Cut and sew apparel                               172            2.0    -13.2   -14.9   -11.9    -4.9     -18.6
3159         Accessories and other apparel                      17            0.3    -14.6   -14.9   -14.6    -3.7     -15.4

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing              5            5.0    -12.3   -16.5    -9.9    -3.5     -18.4
3162         Footwear                                           17           12.0     11.6    -0.3    -5.5    -3.2       2.6
3169         Other leather products                             15          -10.1    -16.5    -7.1   -12.2     1.0      -6.1

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                    106            2.6     -9.4   -11.7   -12.5    -3.1     -12.1
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products               90           -5.5    -18.3   -13.5   -14.9    -0.9     -13.6
3219         Other wood products                               290           -3.0    -14.6   -12.0   -11.6     0.4     -13.8

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                 127           -2.1     -4.1    -2.0    -4.6    -3.1      -0.8
3222         Converted paper products                          319           -1.9     -4.5    -2.7    -3.4    -0.1      -3.1

3231         Printing and related support activities           623            0.4     -6.0    -6.4    -7.3     0.4      -7.3

3241         Petroleum and coal products                       118           -0.4      0.6     1.1     3.7     4.6       0.5

3251         Basic chemicals                                   153          -10.9    -12.3    -1.5     3.4     0.9      -2.8
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers              104           -7.5    -13.2    -6.2    -5.2    -1.0      -7.1
3253         Agricultural chemicals                             37          -12.1     -8.6     4.1    -7.6     0.3       8.6
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                     292           -5.0     -4.2     0.8    -2.9     0.7       2.9
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                    62           -3.3     -9.1    -6.0    -5.3    -0.8      -7.2
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries         112          -10.4     -9.6     0.8    -4.3     1.2       1.5
3259         Other chemical products and preparations           96           -2.8     -6.0    -3.2    -6.7    -1.9      -2.6

3261         Plastics products                                 589           -4.4     -8.8    -4.5    -4.2     0.3      -5.9
3262         Rubber products                                   145           -5.1    -11.4    -6.6    -4.2     0.3      -8.3

3271         Clay products and refractories                     57           -4.5     -9.4    -5.1    -8.1    -0.3      -4.5
3272         Glass and glass products                          104            2.1     -3.5    -5.5     0.5    -1.8      -9.3
3273         Cement and concrete products                      223           -9.6    -17.6    -8.8   -11.3     3.9     -13.0
3274         Lime and gypsum products                           18            4.1     -7.2   -10.8    -5.6     4.3     -16.8
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                 79            1.1     -6.1    -7.1    -7.2     1.4     -11.3

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production    100           -3.5      6.7    10.6    -1.7     0.1      15.5
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                62           -8.7     -7.9     0.8    -3.5    -3.8       3.3
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                    66           -0.7     -9.4    -8.8    -8.0     0.0     -10.2
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                  67            5.9      2.1    -3.6    -2.4     2.3      -5.9
3315         Foundries                                         148           -4.2    -13.4    -9.6    -6.8     2.1     -11.9

3321         Forging and stamping                              107            1.0     -3.6    -4.5    -3.7     0.8      -6.0
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                             49           -1.7    -11.8   -10.3    -8.8    -0.8     -13.1
3323         Architectural and structural metals               412           -2.1     -4.5    -2.5    -3.7     1.1      -2.8
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers            98            0.5     -2.4    -2.9    -0.3     1.4      -4.9
3325         Hardware                                           30           -0.2    -13.8   -13.6   -19.9    -1.8     -12.8
3326         Spring and wire products                           53            1.0     -6.6    -7.5   -10.4     0.5      -7.4
3327         Machine shops and threaded products               370            0.8     -0.9    -1.7    -4.4     3.1      -1.4
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals      145            3.6     -0.1    -3.5    -1.3     1.4      -6.4
3329         Other fabricated metal products                   286            1.3     -2.0    -3.2    -5.8     1.4      -4.1

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery   244            2.4      4.0     1.5     1.7     4.2       0.7
3332         Industrial machinery                              124           -5.4    -13.6    -8.7    -4.4    -1.4     -11.2
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery         105            3.2     -0.4    -3.5    -6.2    -1.6      -2.6
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment       151            1.2     -2.9    -4.0    -2.4    -1.0      -5.4
3335         Metalworking machinery                            195            2.2      0.5    -1.6     0.4    -0.9      -3.2
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment          106            0.5     -0.1    -0.7     2.7     1.6      -1.9
3339         Other general purpose machinery                   277           -1.0     -3.9    -3.0     0.4    -0.1      -5.0

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                 185           41.9     35.8    -4.3     2.2     0.4      -7.4
3342         Communications equipment                          130            5.8     -2.4    -7.8     2.4    -1.0     -13.6
3343         Audio and video equipment                          28           -9.0    -20.2   -12.2    -5.3    -6.2     -14.4
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components          434            7.2      3.1    -3.9    -1.3     6.8     -13.0
3345         Electronic instruments                            444            2.9      4.3     1.3     2.0     0.6       1.1
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction      35           12.0      3.7    -7.4   -13.1    -2.3      -5.4

3351         Electric lighting equipment                        59            0.5     -3.1    -3.5    -5.0    -0.2      -3.9
3352         Household appliances                               71           -1.5    -10.9    -9.5    -7.3    -1.7     -12.0
3353         Electrical equipment                              161           -0.1     -0.1     0.0     4.2    -0.8      -1.4
3359         Other electrical equipment and components         138            0.3     -2.6    -2.9    -0.3     0.0      -4.5

3361         Motor vehicles                                    192           -5.3    -19.9   -15.5   -11.7    -3.8     -17.8
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                 142           -2.3    -21.9   -20.0   -17.1    -2.8     -21.7
3363         Motor vehicle parts                               550            2.7    -17.1   -19.4   -13.0    -3.3     -21.7
3364         Aerospace products and parts                      508          -11.5     -6.9     5.2     2.4     0.9       8.4
3365         Railroad rolling stock                             29            6.1     18.0    11.2     1.1     2.0      15.0
3366         Ship and boat building                            157            1.1      2.9     1.8    -8.9     3.1       7.0
3369         Other transportation equipment                     44            2.7      9.0     6.1     5.0     6.7       6.1

3371         Household and institutional furniture             335            1.9    -10.1   -11.7   -14.2    -2.6     -11.7
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                     133            0.0     -5.1    -5.1    -5.9    -1.7      -6.0
3379         Other furniture-related products                   45           -2.4    -13.6   -11.5   -15.7    -1.5     -12.9

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                    324            4.5      6.2     1.6     3.4     3.1      -1.1
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                 375           -0.3     -4.3    -4.1    -3.7    -0.6      -5.3

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                427            0.6     -3.1    -3.7    -1.8     0.0      -4.8
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                               184           -1.9     -1.0     0.9     0.1     1.3       1.2




Table 2.   Multifactor productivity and related data for 88 industries, average annual percent change, 1987-2008

                                                                       Average annual percent change, 1987-2008
                                                             ------------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                        Multifactor          Combined   Labor          Intermediate
  code                                                       productivity  Output   inputs    Hours  Capital  purchases

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                           0.4       2.0       1.7     -0.7     2.2       1.8
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                             0.0       1.3       1.2     -0.8     1.1       1.5
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                      0.1      -0.1      -0.2     -0.9     1.3      -0.9
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty          0.3       1.3       1.0     -0.3     1.7       1.1
3115         Dairy products                                       -0.4       1.0       1.4     -0.6     1.9       1.6
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                    0.6       2.3       1.7      1.4     2.8       1.6
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging            -0.4       0.1       0.5     -0.8     1.6       0.6
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                  -1.1       0.3       1.4     -0.2     1.9       2.1
3119         Other food products                                   0.5       2.0       1.5      1.6     1.5       1.5

3121         Beverages                                             0.7       1.5       0.8     -0.4     0.9       0.9
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                         -1.0      -3.1      -2.1     -3.6    -2.1      -3.4

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                         0.6      -1.5      -2.0     -5.4    -0.9      -1.2
3132         Fabric mills                                          0.9      -2.6      -3.4     -7.1    -1.4      -2.4
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                   -0.3      -3.6      -3.3     -4.2    -1.3      -3.4

3141         Textile furnishings mills                            -0.2      -1.5      -1.3     -2.2    -0.2      -1.5
3149         Other textile product mills                           0.1      -0.2      -0.3     -1.5     1.7      -0.2

3151         Apparel knitting mills                               -1.3      -6.8      -5.6     -6.2    -2.0      -5.9
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                  -1.0      -8.5      -7.5     -7.2    -1.9      -8.9
3159         Accessories and other apparel                        -1.8      -6.9      -5.3     -4.4    -1.3      -6.0

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing               -1.1      -4.8      -3.8     -5.4    -1.7      -3.9
3162         Footwear                                              0.2      -5.6      -5.7     -7.9    -3.0      -5.1
3169         Other leather products                               -0.2      -3.5      -3.3     -4.9    -0.7      -3.3

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                       -0.1       0.1       0.2     -2.3     0.1       1.5
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                 -0.5      -0.1       0.4     -0.8     2.0       0.8
3219         Other wood products                                  -0.5       0.1       0.6     -1.0     2.0       1.2

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                    -0.3      -0.2       0.1     -3.1    -0.1       1.4
3222         Converted paper products                             -0.1       0.5       0.5     -1.0     1.6       0.7

3231         Printing and related support activities              -0.2       0.1       0.3     -1.3     2.4       0.8

3241         Petroleum and coal products                           0.3       1.2       0.9     -1.3     1.5       1.0

3251         Basic chemicals                                      -0.9       0.5       1.5     -2.1     0.9       2.4
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                  0.0       0.5       0.5     -1.6     1.1       0.7
3253         Agricultural chemicals                                0.6       0.5      -0.2     -2.1    -1.0       0.7
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                        -1.2       3.0       4.3      2.4     5.2       4.0
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                      -1.0      -0.3       0.7     -1.4     0.7       1.3
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries             0.2       2.3       2.1     -0.7     2.3       2.5
3259         Other chemical products and preparations             -0.8       0.0       0.9     -2.3     0.5       2.1

3261         Plastics products                                     0.0       2.0       2.0      0.1     3.6       2.3
3262         Rubber products                                       0.4       0.4       0.0     -1.7     0.8       0.8

3271         Clay products and refractories                       -0.2      -1.1      -1.0     -2.4    -0.2      -0.3
3272         Glass and glass products                              0.8       0.5      -0.3     -1.5     0.8      -0.1
3273         Cement and concrete products                         -0.4       1.1       1.4      0.6     1.6       1.6
3274         Lime and gypsum products                             -0.4       0.0       0.4     -1.0     1.6       0.2
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                    1.0       1.5       0.5     -0.2     0.6       0.8

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production        0.7       2.5       1.7     -2.6    -1.7       4.1
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                  -0.6      -1.6      -1.0     -0.7    -1.6      -0.8
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                      -0.4      -0.1       0.4     -2.5    -0.1       1.3
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                    -1.2      -0.9       0.3     -2.3    -0.3       1.1
3315         Foundries                                            -0.1       0.1       0.2     -1.9     0.3       1.8

3321         Forging and stamping                                  1.0       1.8       0.8     -1.0     2.0       1.5
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                               -0.4      -0.9      -0.5     -2.3     0.3       0.4
3323         Architectural and structural metals                  -0.2       1.8       2.0      0.7     1.5       2.8
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers               0.5       0.3      -0.2     -0.5     0.0      -0.1
3325         Hardware                                             -0.9      -2.6      -1.7     -3.8    -0.1      -1.0
3326         Spring and wire products                              0.9       0.7      -0.1     -2.0     1.3       0.5
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                   1.2       3.3       2.1      0.8     2.9       3.1
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals          1.4       3.4       1.9      0.3     2.4       2.7
3329         Other fabricated metal products                       0.0       0.9       0.9     -0.8     0.9       2.0

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery       0.9       3.6       2.8      0.6     0.4       4.0
3332         Industrial machinery                                  0.3       1.6       1.3     -0.9     2.2       2.4
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery            -0.6      -0.2       0.4     -1.7     0.4       1.6
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment           0.7       1.7       1.0     -0.4     1.4       1.5
3335         Metalworking machinery                                0.9       0.6      -0.3     -1.5     0.9       0.6
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment             -0.1       1.8       1.9     -0.2     1.1       3.0
3339         Other general purpose machinery                       0.5       1.9       1.4     -0.7     0.8       2.8

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                    17.5      20.1       2.2     -3.8     1.3       3.8
3342         Communications equipment                              2.8       4.5       1.6     -2.7     3.0       3.7
3343         Audio and video equipment                             1.7       0.3      -1.4     -3.5     0.6      -1.2
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components             14.0      15.2       1.0     -1.4     6.5      -0.8
3345         Electronic instruments                                0.4       2.5       2.0     -1.8     1.0       5.0
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction         3.7       2.0      -1.7     -1.5     1.5      -2.1

3351         Electric lighting equipment                           0.5       0.3      -0.2     -1.8     0.5       0.3
3352         Household appliances                                  1.7       0.9      -0.8     -3.0     0.0      -0.2
3353         Electrical equipment                                  0.3       0.6       0.4     -2.1    -0.4       2.2
3359         Other electrical equipment and components             0.0       0.2       0.2     -1.8     0.6       0.9

3361         Motor vehicles                                        0.4       1.2       0.8     -2.2     1.0       1.0
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                    -0.3       1.2       1.6      0.0     1.9       2.0
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                   1.0       2.0       1.0     -0.8     1.3       1.8
3364         Aerospace products and parts                         -0.9      -0.5       0.4     -2.1     0.1       2.1
3365         Railroad rolling stock                                1.1       5.9       4.8      0.7    -0.2       6.7
3366         Ship and boat building                               -0.4       1.3       1.7     -0.9     0.0       3.4
3369         Other transportation equipment                        2.3       7.2       4.8      0.4     3.7       6.2

3371         Household and institutional furniture                 0.1       0.3       0.2     -1.5     1.4       1.0
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                         0.3       0.9       0.6     -0.9     1.6       1.0
3379         Other furniture-related products                      0.7       1.8       1.1     -0.5     0.6       1.7

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                        1.7       5.0       3.2      1.3     5.1       3.3
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                     0.5       1.3       0.7     -0.9     1.7       1.4

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                    1.0       3.1       2.1      0.2     4.9       3.0
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                   2.2       2.2       0.0     -1.9    -0.3       2.2




Table 3.   Multifactor productivity trends, 1987-2008 and selected subperiods

                                                                               Average annual percent change
                                                             ----------------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                       1987-2008  1987-1990  1990-1995  1995-2000  2000-2008  2007-2008
  code

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                         0.4        0.6        0.3       -0.8        1.1       -3.0
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                           0.0        0.0        0.5        0.3       -0.4       -2.7
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                    0.1       -0.3        0.4        1.9       -1.0       -7.4
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty        0.3       -2.6        1.3        0.9        0.4       -3.4
3115         Dairy products                                     -0.4       -0.3       -0.6       -0.7        0.0       -2.4
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                  0.6       -0.8        1.0        1.3        0.5       -3.1
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging          -0.4       -1.2        0.0       -0.4       -0.3      -11.6
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                -1.1       -4.4        0.4       -0.8       -1.0       -5.9
3119         Other food products                                 0.5       -0.1        0.6       -0.2        1.2        0.3

3121         Beverages                                           0.7        0.3        1.0       -1.1        1.7       -2.6
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                       -1.0       -1.2       -0.7        0.6       -2.1       -7.8

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                       0.6        0.1        0.3       -0.1        1.3       -4.4
3132         Fabric mills                                        0.9       -0.1        1.3       -0.2        1.7       -4.4
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                 -0.3       -0.2       -0.1        1.0       -1.3      -13.1

3141         Textile furnishings mills                          -0.2       -0.6        1.2       -1.0       -0.5       -6.2
3149         Other textile product mills                         0.1       -0.9       -0.2        0.4        0.6       -4.4

3151         Apparel knitting mills                             -1.3        0.8        1.9       -2.7       -3.1       -0.6
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                -1.0       -1.2        0.4       -1.2       -1.7        2.0
3159         Accessories and other apparel                      -1.8        0.9        0.4       -4.8       -2.2        0.3

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing             -1.1       -3.2       -2.2        3.5       -2.3        5.0
3162         Footwear                                            0.2       -1.9        0.2       -0.9        1.6       12.0
3169         Other leather products                             -0.2        0.0       -2.3        1.6        0.0      -10.1

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                     -0.1        1.5       -1.4       -2.1        1.3        2.6
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products               -0.5       -0.7       -0.4       -0.9       -0.1       -5.5
3219         Other wood products                                -0.5       -0.8       -1.0       -0.8        0.1       -3.0

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                  -0.3       -1.8       -1.1       -0.4        0.9       -2.1
3222         Converted paper products                           -0.1       -0.6       -0.2       -0.3        0.4       -1.9

3231         Printing and related support activities            -0.2       -0.4       -0.4       -1.4        0.8        0.4

3241         Petroleum and coal products                         0.3       -1.9        2.1        1.9       -1.0       -0.4

3251         Basic chemicals                                    -0.9       -1.0       -3.2       -1.2        0.7      -10.9
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                0.0       -0.8        1.1       -0.8        0.2       -7.5
3253         Agricultural chemicals                              0.6        2.1        1.0       -1.1        1.0      -12.1
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                      -1.2       -1.8       -2.4       -2.1        0.3       -5.0
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                    -1.0       -2.0       -0.8       -2.1       -0.2       -3.3
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries           0.2       -1.4        0.2       -1.9        2.2      -10.4
3259         Other chemical products and preparations           -0.8       -1.6        0.1       -1.0       -0.9       -2.8

3261         Plastics products                                   0.0       -0.8        1.0        0.4       -0.4       -4.4
3262         Rubber products                                     0.4        1.2        1.1        0.9       -0.8       -5.1

3271         Clay products and refractories                     -0.2        0.7        1.1        0.8       -1.8       -4.5
3272         Glass and glass products                            0.8       -0.3        1.7        1.7        0.1        2.1
3273         Cement and concrete products                       -0.4        0.6        0.3        0.0       -1.4       -9.6
3274         Lime and gypsum products                           -0.4       -1.4       -2.5        0.6        0.7        4.1
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                  1.0       -1.4        2.0       -0.5        2.3        1.1

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production      0.7        1.3        1.9        1.9       -1.0       -3.5
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                -0.6        1.1        2.3       -0.2       -3.2       -8.7
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                    -0.4       -0.2       -0.7       -0.3       -0.4       -0.7
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                  -1.2       -1.6        1.5        0.0       -3.5        5.9
3315         Foundries                                          -0.1       -0.2        1.5        0.0       -1.3       -4.2

3321         Forging and stamping                                1.0       -0.6        0.9        0.8        1.7        1.0
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                             -0.4       -1.5        0.9       -0.5       -0.8       -1.7
3323         Architectural and structural metals                -0.2       -1.2        0.8       -0.7        0.0       -2.1
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers             0.5        0.6        1.2        0.1        0.2        0.5
3325         Hardware                                           -0.9       -2.2        0.6       -0.2       -1.8       -0.2
3326         Spring and wire products                            0.9        0.4        1.5        0.4        1.0        1.0
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                 1.2        1.0        3.2        0.0        0.7        0.8
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals        1.4        0.8        2.0       -0.7        2.7        3.6
3329         Other fabricated metal products                     0.0       -1.8        0.2       -0.9        1.2        1.3

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery     0.9        2.5       -0.2       -1.0        2.1        2.4
3332         Industrial machinery                                0.3        0.2        1.5       -0.5        0.0       -5.4
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery          -0.6        0.8       -0.8       -1.6       -0.3        3.2
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment         0.7       -0.2        0.7        0.6        1.0        1.2
3335         Metalworking machinery                              0.9        0.1        1.2       -0.7        2.0        2.2
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment           -0.1       -0.6       -0.1        0.8       -0.4        0.5
3339         Other general purpose machinery                     0.5        0.4        0.0       -0.1        1.1       -1.0

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                  17.5        5.4       11.7       21.8       23.5       41.9
3342         Communications equipment                            2.8        3.6        3.7        1.3        2.8        5.8
3343         Audio and video equipment                           1.7        3.7        1.8        0.2        1.7       -9.0
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components           14.0        7.2       18.2       22.8        8.9        7.2
3345         Electronic instruments                              0.4        1.6       -0.3       -4.3        3.6        2.9
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction       3.7        1.1        5.8        0.1        5.8       12.0

3351         Electric lighting equipment                         0.5       -1.8        0.1        0.2        1.7        0.5
3352         Household appliances                                1.7       -0.1        2.4        0.9        2.5       -1.5
3353         Electrical equipment                                0.3        0.4        1.7       -2.4        1.0       -0.1
3359         Other electrical equipment and components           0.0       -1.8        0.9        0.3       -0.1        0.3

3361         Motor vehicles                                      0.4        0.2       -1.4        0.3        1.8       -5.3
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                  -0.3       -3.0        2.0       -2.0        0.2       -2.3
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                 1.0       -0.8        1.9       -0.3        1.9        2.7
3364         Aerospace products and parts                       -0.9       -2.8       -1.7       -1.8        0.9      -11.5
3365         Railroad rolling stock                              1.1        2.2       -1.3        4.0        0.5        6.1
3366         Ship and boat building                             -0.4       -0.1       -2.0       -0.3        0.4        1.1
3369         Other transportation equipment                      2.3       -1.8        4.1       -0.9        4.9        2.7

3371         Household and institutional furniture               0.1       -0.6        0.6       -0.6        0.5        1.9
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                       0.3       -2.6        0.2        1.7        0.6        0.0
3379         Other furniture-related products                    0.7        0.0        0.6       -0.3        1.6       -2.4

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                      1.7        2.6        0.3        2.1        2.1        4.5
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                   0.5        1.2        0.6       -0.2        0.6       -0.3

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                  1.0       -1.2        0.5        0.1        2.9        0.6
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                 2.2        4.4        4.1        1.2        0.9       -1.9



Last Modified Date: September 28, 2010