Employment Characteristics of Families News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, May 27, 2010                    USDL-10-0721

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                 EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES -- 2009


The share of families with an unemployed member rose from 7.8 percent in 2008 
to 12.0 percent in 2009, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The 
proportion of families with an unemployed member in 2009 was at its highest le-
vel since the data series began in 1994. Of the nation's 78.4 million families, 
80.4 percent had at least one employed member in 2009, down by 1.8 percentage 
points from 2008. 

These data on employment, unemployment, and family relationships are collected 
as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of ap-
proximately 60,000 households. Families include married-couple families, as well 
as families maintained by a man or woman with no spouse present. For further 
information about the CPS, see the Technical Note.

Families and Unemployment

There were 9.4 million families with at least one unemployed member in 2009, up 
from 6.1 million in 2008. The proportion of families with an unemployed member 
was 6.3 percent in 2007; it rose to 7.8 percent in 2008 and to 12.0 percent in 
2009. (See table 1.)

Black and Hispanic families were more likely to have an unemployed member (17.4 
and 16.9 percent, respectively) than were white (11.1 percent) and Asian (11.4 
percent) families in 2009. Most families with an unemployed member also have at 
least one family member who is employed. Among families with an unemployed mem-
ber in 2009, 68.6 percent also had an employed member, compared with 70.8 per-
cent in 2008. (See table 1.)

Among married-couple families with an unemployed member in 2009, 79.9 percent 
had an employed member, down from 82.5 percent in 2008. For families maintained 
by women (no spouse present) with an unemployed member, the proportion that also 
contained an employed member was lower in 2009 (46.1 percent) than in 2008 (49.1 
percent). For families maintained by men (no spouse present), the proportion 
fell to 52.6 percent in 2009 from 57.3 percent in 2008. (See table 3.)

Families and Employment

The share of families with an employed member was lower in 2009 (80.4 percent) 
than in 2008 (82.2 percent). The likelihood of having an employed family member 
declined over the year for families of all major race and ethnicity groups. 
(See table 1.)

In 2009, families maintained by women with no spouse present were less likely 
to have an employed member (72.8 percent) than were married-couple families 
(82.4 percent) or families maintained by men with no spouse present (79.8 per-
cent). The share of families with an employed member declined over the year 
for all family types. (See table 2.)

Both the husband and wife were employed in 48.5 percent of married-couple fami-
lies in 2009, compared with 51.4 percent in 2008. Married-couple families in 
which only the wife worked accounted for 8.4 percent of all married-couple fami-
lies in 2009, compared with 6.9 percent in 2008. The husband was the only em-
ployed member in 19.6 percent of married-couple families in 2009, essentially 
unchanged from a year earlier. (See table 2.)

Families with Children

Forty-four percent of all families included children (sons, daughters, step-
children, and adopted children) under age 18. Among the 34.8 million families 
with children, 87.8 percent had an employed parent in 2009, down from 90.0 per-
cent in 2008. The mother was employed in 67.8 percent of families maintained 
by women with no spouse present in 2009, and the father was employed in 76.6 
percent of those maintained by men with no spouse present. Among married-couple 
families with children, 95.7 percent had an employed parent in 2009, down from 
97.0 percent in 2008. Both the mother and father were employed in 58.9 percent 
of married-couple families with children in 2009, also lower than a year earlier. 
(See table 4.)

Mothers

The labor force participation rate--the percent of the population working or look-
ing for work--for all mothers with children under 18 was 71.4 percent in 2009, un-
changed from 2008. In 2009, the participation rate for married mothers with spouse 
present (69.6 percent) was lower than the rate for mothers in other marital statuses 
(75.8 percent). Married mothers were equally as likely to be employed as mothers in 
other marital statuses, but their unemployment rate was substantially lower--5.8 per-
cent in 2009, compared with 13.6 percent for mothers in other marital statuses. Unem-
ployment rates increased in 2009 for mothers of all marital statuses. (See table 5.)

Mothers with younger children are less likely to be in the labor force than mothers 
with older children. In 2009, the labor force participation rate of mothers with 
children under 6 years old (64.2 percent) was lower than the rate of those whose 
youngest child was 6 to 17 years old (77.3 percent). The participation rate of 
mothers with infants under a year old was 56.6 percent. The participation rate of 
married mothers of infants (56.1 percent) was slightly lower than for those with 
other marital statuses (57.8 percent). However, the unemployment rate for married 
mothers of infants, at 7.0 percent, was significantly lower than the rate for mothers 
with other marital statuses (22.3 percent). (See tables 5 and 6.)




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from the
Current Population Survey (CPS), a national sample survey of about 60,000
households conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S.
Census Bureau.  The information relates to the labor force status of persons
16 years old and over in the civilian noninstitutional population during an
"average" week of the year.

   The data for 2009 presented in this release are not strictly comparable with
data for 2008 and earlier years because of the introduction in January 2009 of
revised population controls used in the CPS.  The effect of the revised popula-
tion controls on the family estimates is unknown.  However, the effect of the
new controls on the monthly CPS estimates was to decrease the December 2008 em-
ployment level by 483,000 and the unemployment level by 42,000.  The updated
controls had little or no effect on unemployment rates and other ratios.  Addi-
tional information is available on the BLS Web site at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request:  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there
is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population
values they represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies de-
pending on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured
by the standard error of the estimate.  There is about a 90-percent chance,
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because
of sampling error.  BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling error
can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of
the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the
sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct 
information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   A full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information
on estimating standard errors is available on the BLS Web site at 
wwww.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.
Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are presented below.

   Family.  A family is a group of two or more persons residing together who
are related by birth, marriage, or adoption.  The count of families is for 
"primary" families only, that is, the householder and all other persons re-
lated to and residing with the householder.  Families are classified either
as married-couple families or as families maintained by women or men without
spouses.

   Householder.  The householder is the family reference person.  This is
the person (or one of the persons) in whose name the housing unit is owned
or rented.  The relationship of other individuals in the household is defined
in terms of relationship to the householder.  The race or ethnicity of the
family is determined by that of the householder.

   Married, spouse present; other marital status.  These terms denote the
marital status of individuals at the time of interview.  Married, spouse
present, refers to husbands and wives living together in the same house-
hold, even though one may be temporarily absent on business, on vacation,
on a visit, in a hospital, or for other reasons.  Other marital status
includes persons who are never-married; married, spouse absent; separated;
widowed; or divorced.  Separated includes persons with legal separations, 
those living apart with intentions of obtaining a divorce, and other people 
living apart because either the husband or wife was employed and living at 
a considerable distance from home, was serving away from home in the Armed
Forces, had moved to another area, or had a different place of residence
for any other reason except separation as defined above.

   Children.  Data on children refer to own children and include sons,
daughters, step-children, and adopted children, of the husband, wife, or
person maintaining the family.  Not included are nieces, nephews, grand-
children, other related children, and all unrelated children living in
the household.

   Employed.  Employed persons are (a) all those who, during the survey
reference week, did any work at all as paid employees, worked in their own
business, profession, or on their own farm, or who worked 15 hours or more
as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; and (b) all those who
did not work but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily
absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, child-care problems, labor
disputes, or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time
off and whether or not they were seeking other jobs.

   Unemployed.  The unemployed are persons who had no employment during the
reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific
efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with
the reference week.  Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from
which they had been laid off need not be looking for work to be classified
as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force.  The civilian labor force comprises all persons
classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate.  The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a
percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate.  The labor force participation rate is
the labor force as a percent of the population.




Table 1.  Employment and unemployment in families by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008-09
annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
                            Characteristic                                    2008             2009     
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
                                TOTAL                                                                   
                                                                                                        
  Total families .....................................................       77,943           78,361    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s) ..........................................       64,058           63,010    
          As percent of total families ...............................         82.2             80.4    
             Some usually work full time (1) .........................       59,116           57,037    
    With no employed member ..........................................       13,884           15,351    
          As percent of total families ...............................         17.8             19.6    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................        6,104            9,381    
          As percent of total families ...............................          7.8             12.0    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................        4,319            6,438    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ........         70.8             68.6    
        Some usually work full time (1) ..............................        3,830            5,460    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s) .....         62.7             58.2    
                                                                                                        
                                White                                                                   
                                                                                                        
  Total families .....................................................       63,490           63,774    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s) ..........................................       52,273           51,494    
          As percent of total families ...............................         82.3             80.7    
             Some usually work full time (1) .........................       48,271           46,629    
    With no employed member ..........................................       11,217           12,280    
          As percent of total families ...............................         17.7             19.3    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................        4,506            7,089    
          As percent of total families ...............................          7.1             11.1    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................        3,332            5,072    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ........         74.0             71.5    
        Some usually work full time (1) ..............................        2,955            4,294    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s) .....         65.6             60.6    
                                                                                                        
                      Black or African American                                                         
                                                                                                        
  Total families .....................................................        9,297            9,318    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s) ..........................................        7,290            7,022    
          As percent of total families ...............................         78.4             75.4    
             Some usually work full time (1) .........................        6,622            6,265    
    With no employed member ..........................................        2,006            2,296    
          As percent of total families ...............................         21.6             24.6    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................        1,188            1,624    
          As percent of total families ...............................         12.8             17.4    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................          686              886    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ........         57.8             54.5    
        Some usually work full time (1) ..............................          605              748    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s) .....         50.9             46.0    
                                                                                                        
                                Asian                                                                   
                                                                                                        
  Total families .....................................................        3,403            3,471    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s) ..........................................        3,052            3,057    
          As percent of total families ...............................         89.7             88.1    
             Some usually work full time (1) .........................        2,900            2,857    
    With no employed member ..........................................          351              414    
          As percent of total families ...............................         10.3             11.9    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................          215              394    
          As percent of total families ...............................          6.3             11.4    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................          172              306    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ........         79.9             77.8    
        Some usually work full time (1) ...............................         158              272    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s) .....         73.4             69.0    
                                                                                                        
                    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                        
                                                                                                        
  Total families .....................................................       10,500           10,489    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s) ..........................................        9,135            8,852    
          As percent of total families ...............................         87.0             84.4    
             Some usually work full time (1) .........................        8,466            7,923    
    With no employed member ..........................................        1,365            1,637    
          As percent of total families ...............................         13.0             15.6    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................        1,159            1,770    
          As percent of total families ...............................         11.0             16.9    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................          846            1,228    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ........         73.0             69.3    
        Some usually work full time (1) ..............................          743            1,021    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ......         64.1             57.7    

   1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
   NOTE:  The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder.  Estimates for
the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data
are not presented for all races.  Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of
any race.  Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Table 2.  Families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2008-09 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                                    Number                 Percent distribution    
                        Characteristic                                                                                 
                                                                                                                   
                                                              2008           2009          2008           2009     
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                    MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES                                                                             
                                                                                                                   
            Total ......................................     58,125         58,124        100.0          100.0     
                                                                                                                  
      Member(s) employed, total ........................     48,541         47,876         83.5           82.4     
          Husband only .................................     11,351         11,371         19.5           19.6     
          Wife only ....................................      4,036          4,909          6.9            8.4     
          Husband and wife .............................     29,854         28,211         51.4           48.5     
          Other employment combinations ................      3,300          3,384          5.7            5.8     
      No member(s) employed ............................      9,585         10,248         16.5           17.6     
                                                                                                                  
           FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN (1)                                                                       
                                                                                                                  
            Total ......................................     14,383         14,610        100.0          100.0     
                                                                                                                  
      Member(s) employed, total ........................     10,929         10,642         76.0           72.8     
          Householder only .............................      6,250          6,135         43.5           42.0     
          Householder and other member(s) ..............      2,870          2,642         20.0           18.1     
          Other member(s), not householder .............      1,809          1,866         12.6           12.8     
      No member(s) employed ............................      3,454          3,968         24.0           27.2     
                                                                                                                  
            FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN (1)                                                                        
                                                                                                                  
            Total ......................................      5,435          5,627        100.0          100.0     
                                                                                                                  
      Member(s) employed, total ........................      4,589          4,492         84.4           79.8     
          Householder only .............................      2,178          2,104         40.1           37.4     
          Householder and other member(s) ..............      1,659          1,557         30.5           27.7     
          Other member(s), not householder .............        752            831         13.8           14.8     
      No member(s) employed ............................        845          1,135         15.6           20.2     

   1 No spouse present.
   NOTE:  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population controls are introduced annually with
the release of January data.




Table 3.  Unemployment in families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2008-09
annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                                               Number                 Percent distribution    
                  Characteristic                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                                         2008           2009          2008           2009     
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
             MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES                                                                          
                                                                                                              
  With unemployed member(s), total ................     3,796          6,056         100.0          100.0     
    No member employed ............................       663          1,218          17.5           20.1     
    Some member(s) employed .......................     3,133          4,838          82.5           79.9     
                                                                                                             
    Husband unemployed ............................     1,439          2,808          37.9           46.4     
     Wife employed ................................       927          1,799          24.4           29.7     
    Wife unemployed ...............................     1,114          1,630          29.3           26.9     
     Husband employed .............................       975          1,397          25.7           23.1     
    Other family member unemployed ................     1,243          1,618          32.7           26.7     
                                                                                                             
         FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN (1)                                                                    
                                                                                                             
  With unemployed member(s), total ................     1,666          2,309         100.0          100.0     
    No member employed ............................       849          1,244          50.9           53.9     
    Some member(s) employed .......................       817          1,065          49.1           46.1     
                                                                                                             
    Householder unemployed ........................       796          1,141          47.8           49.4     
     Other member(s) employed .....................       181            225          10.9            9.7     
    Other member(s) unemployed ....................       870          1,168          52.2           50.6     
                                                                                                             
          FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN (1)                                                                     
                                                                                                             
  With unemployed member(s), total ................       642          1,016         100.0          100.0     
    No member employed ............................       274            482          42.7           47.4     
    Some member(s) employed .......................       368            535          57.3           52.6     
                                                                                                             
    Householder unemployed ........................       385            626          60.0           61.6     
     Other member(s) employed .....................       164            239          25.6           23.5     
    Other member(s) unemployed ....................       257            391          40.0           38.4     

   1 No spouse present.
   NOTE:  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population controls are introduced annually
with the release of January data.




Table 4.  Families with own children: Employment status of parents by age of youngest child and family type, 2008-09 annual
averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                           
                                                                     Number                      Percent distribution      
                    Characteristic                                                                                         
                                                                                                                           
                                                               2008             2009            2008             2009      
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                           
           WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                                
                                                                                                                           
     Total.............................................       35,154           34,762          100.0            100.0      
  Parent(s) employed...................................       31,651           30,521           90.0             87.8      
  No parent employed...................................        3,504            4,241           10.0             12.2      
                                                                                                                           
  Married-couple families..............................       24,634           24,223          100.0            100.0      
     Parent(s) employed................................       23,890           23,179           97.0             95.7      
      Mother employed..................................       16,615           16,055           67.4             66.3      
       Both parents employed...........................       15,295           14,269           62.1             58.9      
       Mother employed, not father.....................        1,319            1,786            5.4              7.4      
      Father employed, not mother......................        7,275            7,124           29.5             29.4      
     Neither parent employed...........................          744            1,044            3.0              4.3      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by women (1) ....................        8,338            8,308          100.0            100.0      
     Mother employed...................................        5,954            5,632           71.4             67.8      
     Mother not employed...............................        2,384            2,677           28.6             32.2      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by men (1) ......................        2,182            2,231          100.0            100.0      
     Father employed...................................        1,806            1,710           82.8             76.6      
     Father not employed...............................          376              521           17.2             23.4      
                                                                                                                           
     WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER                                                                         
                                                                                                                           
     Total.............................................       20,062           19,699          100.0            100.0      
  Parent(s) employed...................................       18,212           17,465           90.8             88.7      
  No parent employed...................................        1,851            2,234            9.2             11.3      
                                                                                                                           
  Married-couple families..............................       13,771           13,449          100.0            100.0      
     Parent(s) employed................................       13,351           12,867           96.9             95.7      
      Mother employed..................................       10,139            9,691           73.6             72.1      
       Both parents employed...........................        9,298            8,582           67.5             63.8      
       Mother employed, not father.....................          841            1,109            6.1              8.2      
      Father employed, not mother......................        3,212            3,176           23.3             23.6      
     Neither parent employed...........................          420              582            3.1              4.3      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by women (1) ....................        5,031            4,928          100.0            100.0      
     Mother employed...................................        3,823            3,578           76.0             72.6      
     Mother not employed...............................        1,207            1,350           24.0             27.4      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by men (1) ......................        1,260            1,321          100.0            100.0      
     Father employed...................................        1,037            1,019           82.3             77.1      
     Father not employed...............................          223              302           17.7             22.9      
                                                                                                                           
            WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS                                                                                
                                                                                                                           
     Total.............................................       15,092           15,063          100.0            100.0      
  Parent(s) employed...................................       13,439           13,056           89.0             86.7      
  No parent employed...................................        1,653            2,007           11.0             13.3      
                                                                                                                           
  Married-couple families..............................       10,863           10,774          100.0            100.0      
     Parent(s) employed................................       10,539           10,312           97.0             95.7      
      Mother employed..................................        6,476            6,364           59.6             59.1      
       Both parents employed...........................        5,998            5,688           55.2             52.8      
       Mother employed, not father.....................          478              676            4.4              6.3      
      Father employed, not mother......................        4,063            3,948           37.4             36.6      
     Neither parent employed...........................          324              462            3.0              4.3      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by women (1) ....................        3,307            3,380          100.0            100.0      
     Mother employed...................................        2,131            2,053           64.4             60.8      
     Mother not employed...............................        1,176            1,327           35.6             39.2      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by men (1) ......................          922              910          100.0            100.0      
     Father employed...................................          769              691           83.4             75.9      
     Father not employed...............................          153              219           16.6             24.1      

   1 No spouse present.
   NOTE:  Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children.  Not included are nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population
controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Table 5.  Employment status of the population by sex, marital status, and presence and age of own children under 18,
2008-09 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                         
                                                                      2008                             2009              
                    Characteristic                                                                                       
                                                                                                                         
                                                           Total      Men       Women      Total       Men       Women  
                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                         
           WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                              
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population ................   65,655     29,142     36,513     64,854     28,778     36,076  
   Civilian labor force ...............................   53,506     27,422     26,085     52,748     26,985     25,763  
     Participation rate ...............................     81.5       94.1       71.4       81.3       93.8       71.4  
    Employed ..........................................   51,017     26,380     24,637     48,621     24,989     23,632  
     Employment-population ratio ......................     77.7       90.5       67.5       75.0       86.8       65.5  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................   43,967     25,338     18,629     41,003     23,583     17,419  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................    7,050      1,042      6,008      7,618      1,406      6,212  
    Unemployed ........................................    2,490      1,041      1,448      4,128      1,996      2,132  
     Unemployment rate ................................      4.7        3.8        5.6        7.8        7.4        8.3  
                                                                                                                        
                Married, spouse present                                                                                 
                                                                                                                        
  Civilian noninstitutional population ................   52,433     26,647     25,786     51,634     26,249     25,385  
   Civilian labor force ...............................   43,137     25,205     17,933     42,424     24,763     17,661  
     Participation rate ...............................     82.3       94.6       69.5       82.2       94.3       69.6  
    Employed ..........................................   41,611     24,353     17,258     39,732     23,100     16,632  
     Employment-population ratio ......................     79.4       91.4       66.9       76.9       88.0       65.5  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................   36,128     23,444     12,685     33,846     21,871     11,975  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................    5,482        909      4,573      5,886      1,229      4,657  
    Unemployed ........................................    1,527        852        675      2,692      1,663      1,029  
     Unemployment rate ................................      3.5        3.4        3.8        6.3        6.7        5.8  
                                                                                                                        
               Other marital status (3)                                                                                 
                                                                                                                        
  Civilian noninstitutional population ................   13,222      2,495     10,727     13,221      2,529     10,691  
   Civilian labor force ...............................   10,369      2,217      8,152     10,325      2,223      8,102  
     Participation rate ...............................     78.4       88.9       76.0       78.1       87.9       75.8  
    Employed ..........................................    9,406      2,027      7,379      8,889      1,889      7,000  
     Employment-population ratio ......................     71.1       81.3       68.8       67.2       74.7       65.5  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................    7,838      1,894      5,944      7,157      1,712      5,445  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................    1,568        133      1,435      1,732        177      1,555  
    Unemployed ........................................      963        190        773      1,436        334      1,103  
     Unemployment rate ................................      9.3        8.6        9.5       13.9       15.0       13.6  
                                                                                                                        
     WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER                                                                      
                                                                                                                        
  Civilian noninstitutional population ................   36,581     16,256     20,325     35,885     15,982     19,903  
   Civilian labor force ...............................   30,846     15,128     15,718     30,200     14,821     15,379  
     Participation rate ...............................     84.3       93.1       77.3       84.2       92.7       77.3  
    Employed ..........................................   29,590     14,588     15,003     28,059     13,775     14,284  
     Employment-population ratio ......................     80.9       89.7       73.8       78.2       86.2       71.8  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................   25,733     14,054     11,679     23,864     13,067     10,798  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................    3,858        534      3,324      4,194        708      3,486  
    Unemployed ........................................    1,255        541        715      2,141      1,046      1,095  
     Unemployment rate ................................      4.1        3.6        4.5        7.1        7.1        7.1  
                                                                                                                        
            WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS                                                                             
                                                                                                                        
  Civilian noninstitutional population ................   29,074     12,886     16,188     28,969     12,796     16,173  
   Civilian labor force ...............................   22,661     12,293     10,367     22,549     12,164     10,384  
     Participation rate ...............................     77.9       95.4       64.0       77.8       95.1       64.2  
    Employed ..........................................   21,426     11,792      9,634     20,562     11,214      9,348  
     Employment-population ratio ......................     73.7       91.5       59.5       71.0       87.6       57.8  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................   18,234     11,284      6,950     17,138     10,517      6,622  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................    3,193        508      2,684      3,424        697      2,726  
    Unemployed ........................................    1,234        501        733      1,987        950      1,036  
     Unemployment rate ................................      5.4        4.1        7.1        8.8        7.8       10.0  
                                                                                                                        
          WITH NO OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                           
                                                                                                                        
  Civilian noninstitutional population ................  168,133     83,971     84,162    170,947     85,358     85,589  
   Civilian labor force ...............................  100,780     55,098     45,682    101,394     55,138     46,256  
     Participation rate ...............................     59.9       65.6       54.3       59.3       64.6       54.0  
    Employed ..........................................   94,346     51,106     43,239     91,257     48,681     42,576  
     Employment-population ratio ......................     56.1       60.9       51.4       53.4       57.0       49.7  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................   76,064     43,515     32,549     71,631     40,368     31,263  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................   18,282      7,592     10,690     19,626      8,313     11,313  
    Unemployed ........................................    6,435      3,992      2,443     10,137      6,457      3,680  
     Unemployment rate ................................      6.4        7.2        5.3       10.0       11.7        8.0  

     1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
     2 Usually work less than 35 hours a week at all jobs.
     3 Includes never married; married, spouse absent; divorced; separated; and widowed persons.
  NOTE:  Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children.  Not included are nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated
population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Table 6.  Employment status of mothers with own children under 3 years old by single year of age of youngest child and marital
status, 2008-09 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                Civilian labor force                          
                                                                                                                              
                                            Civilian                                                                          
                                           noninsti-                                   Employed                  Unemployed   
              Characteristic                tutional           Percent                                                        
                                           population            of                                                          
                                                       Total   popula-            Percent    Full-    Part-            Percent
                                                                tion       Total    of       time     time     Number  of labor
                                                                                  popula-  workers  workers             force 
                                                                                   tion      (1)      (2)                    
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
                   2008                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                              
              TOTAL MOTHERS                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old ..    9,595    5,792     60.4     5,354     55.8     3,782    1,573      438     7.6  
        2 years ..........................    2,934    1,852     63.1     1,734     59.1     1,264      470      118     6.4  
        1 year ...........................    3,342    2,069     61.9     1,905     57.0     1,337      568      164     7.9  
        Under 1 year......................    3,319    1,871     56.4     1,715     51.7     1,180      535      156     8.4  
                                                                                                                              
         Married, spouse present                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old ..    6,868    4,035     58.7     3,848     56.0     2,717    1,132      186     4.6  
        2 years ..........................    2,088    1,255     60.1     1,206     57.8       871      335       49     3.9  
        1 year ...........................    2,414    1,450     60.1     1,380     57.2       970      410       70     4.8  
        Under 1 year .....................    2,366    1,330     56.2     1,263     53.4       875      388       67     5.0  
                                                                                                                              
         Other marital status (3)                                                                                             
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old ..    2,727    1,758     64.4     1,506     55.2     1,065      441      252    14.3  
        2 years ..........................      847      597     70.5       528     62.4       393      135       69    11.5  
        1 year ...........................      928      619     66.7       525     56.6       367      159       94    15.1  
        Under 1 year .....................      953      542     56.8       452     47.5       305      147       89    16.5  
                                                                                                                              
                   2009                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                              
              TOTAL MOTHERS                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old ..    9,476    5,787     61.1     5,191     54.8     3,626    1,565      595    10.3  
        2 years ..........................    2,848    1,855     65.1     1,693     59.4     1,195      498      162     8.7  
        1 year ...........................    3,398    2,104     61.9     1,880     55.3     1,314      566      224    10.6  
        Under 1 year .....................    3,231    1,828     56.6     1,619     50.1     1,117      502      209    11.4  
                                                                                                                              
         Married, spouse present                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old ..    6,784    4,047     59.7     3,780     55.7     2,657    1,123      267     6.6  
        2 years ..........................    2,053    1,288     62.7     1,208     58.8       858      350       80     6.2  
        1 year ...........................    2,425    1,465     60.4     1,369     56.4       963      406       96     6.6  
        Under 1 year .....................    2,306    1,293     56.1     1,204     52.2       836      368       90     7.0  
                                                                                                                              
         Other marital status (3)                                                                                             
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old ..    2,693    1,740     64.6     1,411     52.4       969      442      328    18.9  
        2 years ..........................      795      567     71.3       485     61.0       337      148       82    14.4  
        1 year ...........................      973      639     65.6       511     52.5       351      160      127    20.0  
        Under 1 year .....................      925      534     57.8       415     44.9       281      134      119    22.3  

   1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
   2 Usually work less than 35 hours a week at all jobs.
   3 Includes never married; married, spouse absent; divorced; separated; and widowed persons.
   NOTE:  Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children.  Not included are nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population
controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Last Modified Date: May 27, 2010