CES National Benchmark Article (PDF)

BLS Establishment Survey National Estimates Revised to Incorporate March 2017 Benchmarks

Authored by Caila Pinkleton and Frances Tirado.

Caila Pinkleton is an economist and Frances Tirado is a statistician in the Division of Current Employment Statistics – National, Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Telephone: (202) 691‑6555; email: Contact CES

Introduction

With the release of January 2018 data on February 2, 2018, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) introduced its annual revision of national estimates of employment, hours, and earnings from the Current Employment Statistics (CES) monthly survey of nonfarm establishments. Each year, the CES survey realigns its sample-based estimates to incorporate universe counts of employment—a process known as benchmarking. Comprehensive counts of employment, or benchmarks, are derived primarily from unemployment insurance (UI) tax reports that nearly all employers are required to file with State Workforce Agencies.

Additionally, with the release of January 2018 data on February 2, 2018, the CES program updated the national nonfarm payroll series to the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) from the NAICS 2012 basis.

Back to Top

Summary of the benchmark revisions

The March 2017 benchmark level for total nonfarm employment is 145,078,000.

Compared with the sample-based, published estimate for March 2017, total nonfarm employment had an upward revision of 138,000, or 0.1 percent.

With the implementation of the March 2017 benchmark, historical data have been reconstructed back to October 2016 for CES series 60-561613, security guards and patrols and armored car services. As a result of this reconstruction, the March 2017 employment level for total nonfarm has also been revised upwards by 3,000. More information on this historical reconstruction is available in the Reconstructions section below.

After accounting for the effect of this reconstruction, total nonfarm employment for March 2017 had an upward revision of 135,000, or 0.1 percent. The tables in this article reflect this process.

Table 1 below shows the recent history of total nonfarm percent and level benchmark revisions. Over the prior ten years, the annual benchmark revision at the total nonfarm level has averaged 0.2 percent (in absolute terms), with a range of −0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Back to Top

Table 1. Percent and level differences between nonfarm employment benchmarks and estimates by industry supersector, March 2007 – 2017 (in thousands) (1)
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Type 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011(2) 2012 2013(3) 2014 2015(4) 2016 2017(5)

00-000000

Total nonfarm Percent -0.2 -0.1 -0.7 -0.3 0.1 0.3 -0.1 (6) -0.1 -0.1 0.1
Level -293 -89 -902 -378 162 424 -119 67 -172 -81 135

05-000000

Total private Percent -0.2 -0.1 -0.9 -0.4 0.1 0.4 -0.1 0.1 -0.2 -0.1 0.1
Level -241 -137 -933 -391 134 481 -126 105 -232 -151 133

10-000000

Mining and logging Percent 0.0 0.4 -3.5 -3.0 -0.4 1.6 -1.2 -1.8 -2.2 -3.2 -4.6
Level 0 3 -25 -20 -3 13 -10 -16 -19 -22 -30

20-000000

Construction Percent 0.1 0.7 -2.9 -1.3 -0.5 1.8 0.3 1.6 0.6 0.7 0.8
Level 6 49 -171 -67 -26 93 14 90 39 47 52

30-000000

Manufacturing Percent -1.0 -0.1 -0.7 -1.0 0.1 -0.2 0.2 0.4 -0.1 0.5 0.1
Level -137 -17 -84 -119 9 -25 23 43 -12 58 15

40-000000

Trade, transportation, and utilities Percent 0.5 0.2 -1.2 -0.6 0.4 0.6 -0.5 -0.1 (6) -0.4 0.3
Level 140 65 -300 -143 95 145 -131 -31 -5 -110 75

41-420000(7)

Wholesale trade Percent 0.4 -0.7 -1.2 -2.3 -0.2 0.8 -0.4 -0.8 -0.7 -1.1 -0.4
Level 21.5 -43.1 -68.0 -124.5 -13.1 45.3 -20.2 -45.4 -41.3 -66.6 -21.2

42-000000(7)

Retail trade Percent 0.7 0.6 -1.6 -0.1 0.6 0.5 -0.8 0.0 -0.2 -0.8 0.1
Level 107.5 92.8 -235.6 -18.4 83.8 78.9 -110.3 5.5 -23.5 -118.2 15.4

43-000000(7)

Transportation and warehousing Percent 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.1 0.2 1.4 1.7 1.6
Level 11.5 15.0 9.9 3.1 22.4 29.4 3.6 9.7 65.3 83.5 79.8

44-220000(7)

Utilities Percent (6) (6) -1.2 -0.6 0.5 -1.5 -0.8 -0.1 -0.8 -1.6 0.2
Level -0.2 -0.2 -6.8 -3.4 2.8 -8.5 -4.6 -0.6 -4.7 -8.7 1

50-000000

Information Percent -1.8 0.3 -1.5 -0.4 -0.4 1.8 -0.2 2.4 -1.6 -0.1 2.5
Level -54 8 -42 -11 -12 47 -5 66 -44 -2 70

55-000000

Financial activities Percent -1.3 -0.3 -0.1 0.4 0.9 0.6 -0.1 0.2 -0.1 (6) 0.1
Level -111 -23 -4 34 69 45 -10 19 -9 -4 7

60-000000

Professional and business services Percent 0.2 -0.4 -0.8 (6) 0.7 (6) (6) -0.8 -0.6 -0.6 -1.3
Level 44 -63 -137 -3 125 2 4 -147 -110 -125 -270

65-000000

Education and health services Percent -0.2 -0.1 -0.3 (6) -0.5 (6) -0.3 -0.1 (6) -0.4 0.3
Level -39 -17 -56 7 -108 -2 -61 -16 -7 -83 70

70-000000

Leisure and hospitality Percent -0.8 -1.1 -0.6 -0.6 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.3 -0.3 0.7 0.8
Level -108 -151 -72 -80 93 104 72 38 -45 102 126

80-000000

Other services Percent 0.3 0.2 -0.8 0.2 -2.0 1.1 -0.4 1.1 -0.4 -0.2 0.3
Level 18 9 -42 11 -108 59 -22 59 -20 -12 18

90-000000

Government Percent -0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 -0.3 (6) -0.2 0.3 0.3 (6)
Level -52 48 31 13 28 -57 7 -38 60 70 2
Footnotes

(1) The differences listed in this table reflect the error due to normal benchmarking procedures. Typically this error is equal to the March benchmarked level minus the published March estimated level. However in some years, other factors beyond normal benchmarking procedures influence the difference between the benchmarked and published March estimate levels. Those years are footnoted.

(2) A review of industries for the possible presence of noncovered employment yielded 13 additional industries. As a result of including these industries, employment in the amount of 95,000 was added to the benchmark nonfarm level. For more information, see the Changes to noncovered employment section of the 2011 CES Benchmark Article.

(3) The percent and level differences in this column reflect reconstructions to series within CES supersectors financial activities and education and healthcare services. Each first quarter, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program, whose data account for approximately 97 percent of the CES universe scope (see The Sample section of the CES Technical Notes), incorporates updated industry assignments. In 2013, these updates included two substantial groups of nonrandom, noneconomic code changes, one to funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles (NAICS 525), and the other, a reclassification of approximately 466,000 in employment from private households (NAICS 814), which is out of scope for CES, to services for the elderly and persons with disabilities (NAICS 62412), which is in scope. These changes also had an impact, beyond what would be considered typical for a given benchmark year, on corresponding CES series. For more information about the changes to these industries, see the QCEW First Quarter 2013 News Release or the special notice regarding reconstructed data section of the 2013 CES Benchmark Article.

(4) With the 2015 benchmark, CES reconstructed the national employment series 65-624120, services for the elderly and persons with disabilities back to January 2000. CES previously reconstructed this series with the 2013 benchmark; however, between the 2013 and 2015 benchmark, a better source of information for the employment within NAICS 62412 for the state of California was found. The inclusion of the reconstructed series resulted in total nonfarm and total private employment that was 27,000 less than the originally published March 2015 estimate level. The difference between the benchmarked and originally published March 2015 estimate level is −199,000 or −0.1 percent. This table displays March 2015 data after accounting for the decrease of 27,000 from the reconstructed series. Similarly, for the education and health services supersector, this table displays March 2015 data after incorporating the reconstructed series. For more information, see the Reconstructions section of the 2015 CES Benchmark Article.

(5) With the 2017 benchmark, CES reconstructed the national employment series 60-561613, security guards and patrols and armored car services back to October 2016 to correct a microdata error. The inclusion of the reconstructed series resulted in total nonfarm and total private employment that was 3,000 more than the originally published March 2017 estimate level. The difference between the benchmarked and originally published March 2017 estimate level is 138,000 or 0.1 percent. This table displays March 2017 data after accounting for the increase of 3,000 from the reconstructed series. Similarly, for the professional and business services supersector, this table displays March 2017 data after incorporating the reconstructed series. For more information, see the Reconstructions section of the 2017 CES Benchmark Article.

(6) Absolute revision is less than 0.05 percent.

(7) Indented series are part of trade, transportation, and utilities.

To Table of Figures

Back to Top



Note

Tables 2, 5, and 6 on this page contain clickable headers that sort the table by the clicked column.

Table 2 shows the nonfarm employment benchmarks for March 2017, not seasonally adjusted, by industry. The revision to the reconstructed total nonfarm employment is 135,000.

Nine supersectors saw upward revisions. The largest upward revision occurred in leisure and hospitality by an amount of 126,000, or 0.8 percent; within this supersector, the largest revision was in accommodation and food services (72,800, or 0.5 percent). The next largest upward revision occurred in trade, transportation, and utilities, by an amount of 75,000, or 0.3 percent; within this supersector, the largest revision was in transportation and warehousing (79,800, or 1.6 percent). The next largest upward revision occurred in education and health services by an amount of 70,000, or 0.3 percent; within this supersector, the largest revision was in social assistance (62,000, or 1.6 percent). The next largest upward revision occurred in information by an amount of 70,000, or 2.5 percent; within this supersector, the largest revision was in motion picture and sound recording industries (20,900, or 4.9 percent). The next largest upward revision occurred in construction by an amount of 52,000, or 0.8 percent; within this supersector, the largest revision occurred in nonresidential building (24,300, or 3.2 percent). The four supersectors with the smallest upward revisions occurred in: other services (18,000, or 0.3 percent), manufacturing (15,000, or 0.1 percent), financial activities (7,000, or 0.1 percent), and government (2,000, or less than 0.05 percent).

The remaining two supersectors had negative revisions. The largest downward revision occurred in professional and business services, −270,000, or −1.3 percent; within this supersector, the largest downward revision was in professional and technical services (−147,100, or −1.6 percent). Mining and logging was revised downward by an amount of −30,000, or −4.6 percent; within this supersector, the largest downward revision was in oil and gas extraction (−32,900, or −22.9 percent).

Back to Top

Table 2. Nonfarm employment benchmarks for industries released with first preliminary estimates, March 2017 (in thousands)(1)
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Benchmark Estimate(2) Differences Absolute Differences
Amount Percent(3) Amount Percent(3)
00-000000 Total nonfarm 145,078 144,943 135 0.1 135 0.1
05-000000 Total private 122,385 122,252 133 0.1 133 0.1
06-000000 Goods-producing 19,624 19,587 37 0.2 37 0.2
07-000000 Service-providing 125,454 125,356 98 0.1 98 0.1
08-000000 Private service-providing 102,761 102,665 96 0.1 96 0.1
10-000000 Mining and logging 650 680 -30 -4.6 30 4.6
10-113300 Logging 48.0 48.6 -0.6 -1.3 0.6 1.3
10-210000 Mining 601.7 631.4 -29.7 -4.9 29.7 4.9
10-211000 Oil and gas extraction 143.9 176.8 -32.9 -22.9 32.9 22.9
10-212000 Mining, except oil and gas 179.2 179.8 -0.6 -0.3 0.6 0.3
10-212100 Coal mining 51.0 50.1 0.9 1.8 0.9 1.8
10-212200 Metal ore mining 38.8 39.1 -0.3 -0.8 0.3 0.8
10-212300 Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying 89.4 90.6 -1.2 -1.3 1.2 1.3
10-213000 Support activities for mining 278.6 274.8 3.8 1.4 3.8 1.4
20-000000 Construction 6,634 6,582 52 0.8 52 0.8
20-236000 Construction of buildings 1,487.3 1,478.4 8.9 0.6 8.9 0.6
20-236100 Residential building 723.3 738.7 -15.4 -2.1 15.4 2.1
20-236200 Nonresidential building 764.0 739.7 24.3 3.2 24.3 3.2
20-237000 Heavy and civil engineering construction 912.2 888.6 23.6 2.6 23.6 2.6
20-238000 Specialty trade contractors 4,234.5 4,215.0 19.5 0.5 19.5 0.5
20-238001 Residential specialty trade contractors 1,850.3 1,842.4 7.9 0.4 7.9 0.4
20-238002 Nonresidential specialty trade contractors 2,384.2 2,372.6 11.6 0.5 11.6 0.5
30-000000 Manufacturing 12,340 12,325 15 0.1 15 0.1
31-000000 Durable goods 7,687 7,706 -19 -0.2 19 0.2
31-321000 Wood products 393.5 392.0 1.5 0.4 1.5 0.4
31-327000 Nonmetallic mineral products 403.0 407.5 -4.5 -1.1 4.5 1.1
31-331000 Primary metals 368.0 379.0 -11.0 -3.0 11.0 3.0
31-332000 Fabricated metal products 1,414.5 1,425.6 -11.1 -0.8 11.1 0.8
31-333000 Machinery 1,067.5 1,079.8 -12.3 -1.2 12.3 1.2
31-334000 Computer and electronic products 1,035.9 1,034.8 1.1 0.1 1.1 0.1
31-334100 Computer and peripheral equipment 156.2 160.5 -4.3 -2.8 4.3 2.8
31-334200 Communications equipment 86.5 84.5 2.0 2.3 2.0 2.3
31-334400 Semiconductors and electronic components 360.7 359.9 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.2
31-334500 Electronic instruments 398.5 396.3 2.2 0.6 2.2 0.6
31-334600 Miscellaneous computer and electronic products 34.0 33.6 0.4 1.2 0.4 1.2
31-335000 Electrical equipment and appliances 383.8 385.7 -1.9 -0.5 1.9 0.5
31-336000 Transportation equipment 1,637.2 1,620.2 17.0 1.0 17.0 1.0
31-336001 Motor vehicles and parts 959.8 946.5 13.3 1.4 13.3 1.4
31-337000 Furniture and related products 393.2 391.1 2.1 0.5 2.1 0.5
31-339000 Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing 590.4 590.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
32-000000 Nondurable goods 4,653 4,619 34 0.7 34 0.7
32-311000 Food manufacturing 1,567.8 1,560.3 7.5 0.5 7.5 0.5
32-313000 Textile mills 112.8 110.8 2.0 1.8 2.0 1.8
32-314000 Textile product mills 115.5 111.7 3.8 3.3 3.8 3.3
32-315000 Apparel 122.6 124.0 -1.4 -1.1 1.4 1.1
32-322000 Paper and paper products 368.6 368.7 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0
32-323000 Printing and related support activities 442.1 439.2 2.9 0.7 2.9 0.7
32-324000 Petroleum and coal products 111.1 108.3 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.5
32-325000 Chemicals 819.1 816.6 2.5 0.3 2.5 0.3
32-326000 Plastics and rubber products 713.1 701.7 11.4 1.6 11.4 1.6
32-329000 Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing 280.6 278.0 2.6 0.9 2.6 0.9
40-000000 Trade, transportation, and utilities 27,104 27,029 75 0.3 75 0.3
41-420000 Wholesale trade 5,854.8 5,876.0 -21.2 -0.4 21.2 0.4
41-423000 Durable goods 2,940.4 2,931.7 8.7 0.3 8.7 0.3
41-424000 Nondurable goods 2,030.6 2,044.7 -14.1 -0.7 14.1 0.7
41-425000 Electronic markets and agents and brokers 883.8 899.6 -15.8 -1.8 15.8 1.8
42-000000 Retail trade 15,628.7 15,613.3 15.4 0.1 15.4 0.1
42-441000 Motor vehicle and parts dealers 1,992.1 1,999.1 -7.0 -0.4 7.0 0.4
42-441100 Automobile dealers 1,289.0 1,297.4 -8.4 -0.7 8.4 0.7
42-441200 Other motor vehicle dealers 150.2 149.9 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2
42-441300 Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores 552.9 551.8 1.1 0.2 1.1 0.2
42-442000 Furniture and home furnishings stores 471.2 479.5 -8.3 -1.8 8.3 1.8
42-443000 Electronics and appliance stores 508.1 508.6 -0.5 -0.1 0.5 0.1
42-444000 Building material and garden supply stores 1,269.2 1,285.5 -16.3 -1.3 16.3 1.3
42-445000 Food and beverage stores 3,065.6 3,061.4 4.2 0.1 4.2 0.1
42-446000 Health and personal care stores 1,065.2 1,054.1 11.1 1.0 11.1 1.0
42-447000 Gasoline stations 920.1 928.2 -8.1 -0.9 8.1 0.9
42-448000 Clothing and clothing accessories stores 1,339.5 1,298.4 41.1 3.1 41.1 3.1
42-451000 Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores 582.1 583.2 -1.1 -0.2 1.1 0.2
42-452000 General merchandise stores 3,053.4 3,058.2 -4.8 -0.2 4.8 0.2
42-452200 Department stores 1,136.7 1,226.8 -90.1 -7.9 90.1 7.9
42-452300 General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters 1,916.7 1,831.4 85.3 4.5 85.3 4.5
42-453000 Miscellaneous store retailers 807.1 809.8 -2.7 -0.3 2.7 0.3
42-454000 Nonstore retailers 555.1 547.3 7.8 1.4 7.8 1.4
43-000000 Transportation and warehousing 5,065.6 4,985.8 79.8 1.6 79.8 1.6
43-481000 Air transportation 486.7 481.6 5.1 1.0 5.1 1.0
43-482000 Rail transportation 217.5 209.7 7.8 3.6 7.8 3.6
43-483000 Water transportation 62.7 62.6 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2
43-484000 Truck transportation 1,429.4 1,448.8 -19.4 -1.4 19.4 1.4
43-485000 Transit and ground passenger transportation 502.1 484.5 17.6 3.5 17.6 3.5
43-486000 Pipeline transportation 49.5 48.6 0.9 1.8 0.9 1.8
43-487000 Scenic and sightseeing transportation 27.0 27.5 -0.5 -1.9 0.5 1.9
43-488000 Support activities for transportation 682.2 659.2 23.0 3.4 23.0 3.4
43-492000 Couriers and messengers 636.3 627.0 9.3 1.5 9.3 1.5
43-493000 Warehousing and storage 972.2 936.3 35.9 3.7 35.9 3.7
44-220000 Utilities 554.5 553.5 1.0 0.2 1.0 0.2
50-000000 Information 2,803 2,733 70 2.5 70 2.5
50-511000 Publishing industries, except Internet 726.5 725.2 1.3 0.2 1.3 0.2
50-512000 Motion picture and sound recording industries 425.9 405.0 20.9 4.9 20.9 4.9
50-515000 Broadcasting, except Internet 270.8 266.5 4.3 1.6 4.3 1.6
50-517000 Telecommunications 789.8 769.3 20.5 2.6 20.5 2.6
50-518000 Data processing, hosting and related services 312.6 299.0 13.6 4.4 13.6 4.4
50-519000 Other information services 277.0 267.5 9.5 3.4 9.5 3.4
55-000000 Financial activities 8,363 8,356 7 0.1 7 0.1
55-520000 Finance and insurance 6,225.6 6,206.8 18.8 0.3 18.8 0.3
55-521000 Monetary authorities - central bank 19.1 18.8 0.3 1.6 0.3 1.6
55-522000 Credit intermediation and related activities 2,636.2 2,644.0 -7.8 -0.3 7.8 0.3
55-522100 Depository credit intermediation 1,711.3 1,714.2 -2.9 -0.2 2.9 0.2
55-522110 Commercial banking 1,323.2 1,315.2 8.0 0.6 8.0 0.6
55-522200 Nondepository credit intermediation 618.2 621.1 -2.9 -0.5 2.9 0.5
55-522300 Activities related to credit intermediation 306.7 308.7 -2.0 -0.7 2.0 0.7
55-523000 Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts 927.8 932.1 -4.3 -0.5 4.3 0.5
55-524000 Insurance carriers and related activities 2,642.5 2,611.9 30.6 1.2 30.6 1.2
55-530000 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,136.9 2,149.2 -12.3 -0.6 12.3 0.6
55-531000 Real estate 1,568.8 1,577.3 -8.5 -0.5 8.5 0.5
55-532000 Rental and leasing services 544.2 548.9 -4.7 -0.9 4.7 0.9
55-533000 Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets 23.9 23.0 0.9 3.8 0.9 3.8
60-000000 Professional and business services 20,070 20,340 -270 -1.3 270 1.3
60-540000 Professional and technical services 8,972.8 9,119.9 -147.1 -1.6 147.1 1.6
60-541100 Legal services 1,126.8 1,118.7 8.1 0.7 8.1 0.7
60-541200 Accounting and bookkeeping services 1,089.0 1,105.3 -16.3 -1.5 16.3 1.5
60-541300 Architectural and engineering services 1,406.3 1,429.0 -22.7 -1.6 22.7 1.6
60-541400 Specialized design services 138.1 141.3 -3.2 -2.3 3.2 2.3
60-541500 Computer systems design and related services 2,012.0 2,027.6 -15.6 -0.8 15.6 0.8
60-541600 Management and technical consulting services 1,367.0 1,410.9 -43.9 -3.2 43.9 3.2
60-541700 Scientific research and development services 651.5 696.9 -45.4 -7.0 45.4 7.0
60-541800 Advertising and related services 490.0 487.0 3.0 0.6 3.0 0.6
60-541900 Other professional and technical services 692.1 703.2 -11.1 -1.6 11.1 1.6
60-550000 Management of companies and enterprises 2,276.1 2,260.8 15.3 0.7 15.3 0.7
60-560000 Administrative and waste services 8,820.9 8,959.1 -138.2 -1.6 138.2 1.6
60-561000 Administrative and support services 8,415.7 8,551.4 -135.7 -1.6 135.7 1.6
60-561100 Office administrative services 501.3 515.7 -14.4 -2.9 14.4 2.9
60-561200 Facilities support services 147.7 139.5 8.2 5.6 8.2 5.6
60-561300 Employment services 3,452.4 3,547.7 -95.3 -2.8 95.3 2.8
60-561320 Temporary help services 2,811.0 2,900.3 -89.3 -3.2 89.3 3.2
60-561400 Business support services 904.3 912.4 -8.1 -0.9 8.1 0.9
60-561500 Travel arrangement and reservation services 217.8 215.2 2.6 1.2 2.6 1.2
60-561600 Investigation and security services 906.4 908.3 -1.9 -0.2 1.9 0.2
60-561700 Services to buildings and dwellings 1,969.0 1,992.7 -23.7 -1.2 23.7 1.2
60-561900 Other support services 316.8 319.9 -3.1 -1.0 3.1 1.0
60-562000 Waste management and remediation services 405.2 407.7 -2.5 -0.6 2.5 0.6
65-000000 Education and health services 23,185 23,115 70 0.3 70 0.3
65-610000 Educational services 3,819.2 3,788.2 31.0 0.8 31.0 0.8
65-620000 Health care and social assistance 19,365.9 19,326.6 39.3 0.2 39.3 0.2
65-620001 Health care 15,593.1 15,615.8 -22.7 -0.1 22.7 0.1
65-621000 Ambulatory health care services 7,206.6 7,212.9 -6.3 -0.1 6.3 0.1
65-621100 Offices of physicians 2,558.5 2,562.4 -3.9 -0.2 3.9 0.2
65-621200 Offices of dentists 927.0 937.5 -10.5 -1.1 10.5 1.1
65-621300 Offices of other health practitioners 875.4 888.1 -12.7 -1.5 12.7 1.5
65-621400 Outpatient care centers 886.4 897.0 -10.6 -1.2 10.6 1.2
65-621500 Medical and diagnostic laboratories 267.6 257.9 9.7 3.6 9.7 3.6
65-621600 Home health care services 1,393.0 1,382.6 10.4 0.7 10.4 0.7
65-621900 Other ambulatory health care services 298.7 287.4 11.3 3.8 11.3 3.8
65-622000 Hospitals 5,059.0 5,090.3 -31.3 -0.6 31.3 0.6
65-623000 Nursing and residential care facilities 3,327.5 3,312.6 14.9 0.4 14.9 0.4
65-623100 Nursing care facilities 1,625.8 1,633.8 -8.0 -0.5 8.0 0.5
65-623200 Residential mental health facilities 625.9 618.1 7.8 1.2 7.8 1.2
65-623300 Community care facilities for the elderly 911.0 897.6 13.4 1.5 13.4 1.5
65-623900 Other residential care facilities 164.8 163.1 1.7 1.0 1.7 1.0
65-624000 Social assistance 3,772.8 3,710.8 62.0 1.6 62.0 1.6
65-624100 Individual and family services 2,318.3 2,278.9 39.4 1.7 39.4 1.7
65-624200 Emergency and other relief services 168.7 169.0 -0.3 -0.2 0.3 0.2
65-624300 Vocational rehabilitation services 338.3 331.8 6.5 1.9 6.5 1.9
65-624400 Child day care services 947.5 931.1 16.4 1.7 16.4 1.7
70-000000 Leisure and hospitality 15,524 15,398 126 0.8 126 0.8
70-710000 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 2,120.3 2,067.0 53.3 2.5 53.3 2.5
70-711000 Performing arts and spectator sports 452.0 424.3 27.7 6.1 27.7 6.1
70-712000 Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions 152.6 153.2 -0.6 -0.4 0.6 0.4
70-713000 Amusements, gambling, and recreation 1,515.7 1,489.5 26.2 1.7 26.2 1.7
70-720000 Accommodation and food services 13,403.5 13,330.7 72.8 0.5 72.8 0.5
70-721000 Accommodation 1,926.1 1,883.1 43.0 2.2 43.0 2.2
70-722000 Food services and drinking places 11,477.4 11,447.6 29.8 0.3 29.8 0.3
80-000000 Other services 5,712 5,694 18 0.3 18 0.3
80-811000 Repair and maintenance 1,305.0 1,293.3 11.7 0.9 11.7 0.9
80-812000 Personal and laundry services 1,455.0 1,458.7 -3.7 -0.3 3.7 0.3
80-813000 Membership associations and organizations 2,952.2 2,942.3 9.9 0.3 9.9 0.3
90-000000 Government 22,693 22,691 2 0.0 2 0.0
90-910000 Federal 2,793.0 2,796.0 -3.0 -0.1 3.0 0.1
90-911000 Federal, except U.S. Postal Service 2,177.9 2,179.9 -2.0 -0.1 2.0 0.1
90-919120 U.S. Postal Service 615.4 615.6 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0
90-920000 State government 5,318.0 5,250.0 68.0 1.3 68.0 1.3
90-921611 State government education 2,633.7 2,578.2 55.5 2.1 55.5 2.1
90-922000 State government, excluding education 2,683.9 2,671.9 12.0 0.4 12.0 0.4
90-930000 Local government 14,582.0 14,645.0 -63.0 -0.4 63.0 0.4
90-931611 Local government education 8,252.7 8,300.7 -48.0 -0.6 48.0 0.6
90-932000 Local government, excluding education 6,328.8 6,344.1 -15.3 -0.2 15.3 0.2
Footnotes

(1) The CES industries in this table contain series that were affected by the NAICS 2017 conversion. For more information, see the Conversion to the 2017 North American Industry Classification System section in the 2017 Benchmark Article.

(2) With the 2017 benchmark, CES reconstructed the national employment series 60-561613, security guards and patrols and armored car services back to October 2016 to correct a microdata error. For more information about impacted series, see the Reconstructions section in the 2017 Benchmark Article.

(3) Percent revisions of 0.0 indicate the absolute revision is less than 0.05 percent.

To Table of Figures

Back to Top


Revisions in the post-benchmark period

From April 2017 to December 2017, also known as the post-benchmark period, estimates were recalculated for each month based primarily on new benchmark levels and new net birth/death factors. Net birth/death factors were revised to incorporate information from the most recent year of universe employment counts. Table 3 shows the net birth/death model values for the supersectors over the post-benchmark period. From April 2017 to December 2017, the net birth/death model cumulatively added 1,112,000, compared with 972,000 in the previously published April 2017 to December 2017 employment estimates.

Table 3. Net birth/death estimates by industry supersector, April to December 2017 (in thousands)
Supersector Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Cumulative
Total

Mining and logging

-1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 3

Construction

35 42 23 13 11 6 17 -8 -16 123

Manufacturing

1 7 4 0 3 2 5 3 1 26

Trade, transportation, and utilities

5 28 12 15 21 12 40 13 7 153

Wholesale trade

-5 5 -1 -1 2 -2 7 2 2 9

Retail trade

7 16 8 13 12 8 23 5 2 94

Transportation and warehousing

3 7 5 3 7 6 10 6 3 50

Utilities

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Information

2 5 -1 4 4 -3 8 4 -1 22

Financial activities

0 6 1 6 5 -3 20 2 9 46

Professional and business services

97 24 -1 48 22 -18 87 6 -22 243

Education and health services

28 17 -18 34 20 1 56 8 -5 141

Leisure and hospitality

86 93 82 80 24 -36 6 -20 6 321

Other services

11 9 7 0 4 -2 7 0 -2 34

Monthly amount contributed

264 232 110 200 115 -41 247 8 -23 1,112

To Table of Figures

Back to Top


Table 4 presents revised total nonfarm employment data on a seasonally adjusted basis for January 2017 through December 2017. The revised data for April 2017 forward incorporate the effect of applying the rate of change measured by the sample to the new benchmark level, as well as updated net birth/death model adjustments and new seasonal adjustment factors. Revisions to November and December also reflect incorporation of additional sample receipts.

Table 4. Differences in seasonally adjusted levels and over-the-month changes, total nonfarm employment, January to December 2017 (in thousands)
2017 Levels Over-the-month changes
As Previously Published As Revised Difference As Previously Published As Revised Difference

January

145,541 145,696 155 216 259 43

February

145,773 145,896 123 232 200 -32

March

145,823 145,969 146 50 73 23

April

146,030 146,144 114 207 175 -32

May

146,175 146,299 124 145 155 10

June

146,385 146,538 153 210 239 29

July

146,523 146,728 205 138 190 52

August

146,731 146,949 218 208 221 13

September

146,769 146,963 194 38 14 -24

October

146,980 147,234 254 211 271 60

November

147,232 147,450 218 252 216 -36

December(p)

147,380 147,610 230 148 160 12

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary.

To Table of Figures

Back to Top

Changes to the CES published series

With the release of the January 2018 first preliminary estimates on February 2, 2018, CES incorporated series changes related to annual sample adequacy and disclosure review.

Series changes due to annual sample review

All CES series are evaluated annually for sample size, coverage, and response rates. The following changes resulted from a re-evaluation of the sample and universe coverage for CES industries, which are based on North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) industries. Some small industries no longer have sufficient sample to be estimated and published separately and were combined with other similar industries for estimation and publication purposes. The following information is also available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesnewseries.htm.

A list of currently published CES series is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesseriespub.htm.

Some series have new CES industry codes or titles as a result of the series changes (exhibit 1). These CES industry code or title changes were applied to all data types published for the designated series. Historical data for these series with new CES industry codes or CES industry titles are impacted as noted on the remainder of this page; historical data are available under the new CES industry codes or CES industry titles.

Exhibit 1. Series with CES industry code or title changes
NAICS Code Previous New
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

337211,2,4

31-337212 Wood office furniture and custom architectural woodwork and millwork 31-337214 Office furniture and custom architectural woodwork and millwork

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 2 through exhibit 7 show the new CES industry codes and titles, not the previous CES industry codes and titles, as noted in exhibit 1.

Only directly estimated data types1 are included in the exhibits:

  • All Employees (AE)
  • AE Average Weekly Hours (AE AWH)
  • AE Average Hourly Earnings (AE AHE)
  • AE Average Weekly Overtime Hours (AE AWOH)
  • Women Employees (WE)
  • Production Employees (PE)
  • PE Average Weekly Hours (PE AWH)
  • PE Average Hourly Earnings (PE AHE)
  • PE Average Weekly Overtime Hours (PE AWOH)


The directly estimated data types listed except for AE are collectively called non-AE data types. In order to more easily identify affected series, since AE series are published at a more detailed industry level than non-AE series, series changes are shown for AE and non-AE data types. The non-AE tables cover all directly estimated non-AE data types.

The first three exhibits reference the AE data type and the second three exhibits reference all non-AE data types. The three exhibits in each group display the discontinued, collapsed, and new series. Discontinued series exhibits (exhibit 2 and exhibit 5) display series for which the data types noted are no longer published. Collapsed series exhibits (exhibit 3 and exhibit 6) display series for which the data types noted are no longer published because the industry no longer has sufficient sample to be estimated and published separately. Affected industries have been combined with other similar industries for estimation and publication purposes. Historical data for these series were reconstructed to provide consistent time series. New series exhibits (exhibit 4 and exhibit 7) display series for which the data types noted are now published.

AE exhibits

Exhibit 2. Discontinued AE series
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Next Highest Published Industry (CES Industry Code)

321211,2

31-321212 Hardwood and softwood veneer and plywood Plywood and engineered wood products (31-321200)

321213,4,9

31-321214 All other plywood and engineered wood products Plywood and engineered wood products (31-321200)

3131

32-313100 Fiber, yarn, and thread mills Textile mills (32-313000)

31321

32-313210 Broadwoven fabric mills Fabric mills (32-313200)

3133

32-313300 Textile and fabric finishing mills Textile mills (32-313000)

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 3. Collapsed AE series
Previous New

NAICS Code

CES Industry Code CES Industry Title NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

337211,2

31-337212 Wood office furniture and custom architectural woodwork and millwork 337211,2,4 31-337214 Office furniture and custom architectural woodwork and millwork

337214

31-337214 Office furniture, except wood

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 4. New AE series

There are no new AE series published as a result of annual sample review.

To Table of Figures

Non-AE exhibits

Exhibit 5. Discontinued Non-AE series
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Discontinued From Publication Next Highest Published Industry Title (CES Industry Code)

2372

20-237200 Land subdivision PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Heavy and civil engineering construction (20-237000)

2379

20-237900 Other heavy construction PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Heavy and civil engineering construction (20-237000)

3152

32-315200 Cut and sew apparel WE Apparel (32-315000)

3151,9

32-315900 All other apparel manufacturing WE Apparel (32-315000)

32612

32-326120 Plastics pipe, fittings, and profile shapes WE Plastics products (32-326100)

32613,6

32-326160 Plastics bottles and laminated plastics plate, sheet, and shapes WE Plastics products (32-326100)

42332

41-423320 Masonry materials PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Lumber and construction supplies (41-423300)

42333,9

41-423390 Roofing, siding, and other construction materials PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Lumber and construction supplies (41-423300)

42385

41-423850 Service establishment equipment WE Machinery and supplies (41-423800)

42386

41-423860 Other transportation goods WE Machinery and supplies (41-423800)

42511

41-425110 Business to business electronic markets PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Electronic markets and agents and brokers (41-425000)

42512

41-425120 Wholesale trade agents and brokers PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Electronic markets and agents and brokers (41-425000)

45112

42-451120 Hobby, toy, and game stores PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Sporting goods and musical instrument stores (42-451100)

486

43-486000 Pipeline transportation AE AWH, AE AHE Transportation and warehousing (43-000000)

517911

50-517911 Telecommunications resellers PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Other telecommunications (50-517900)

52221

55-522210 Credit card issuing AE AWH, AE AHE Nondepository credit intermediation (55-522200)

52222

55-522220 Sales financing AE AWH, AE AHE Nondepository credit intermediation (55-522200)

52232

55-522320 Financial transaction processing and clearing PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Activities related to credit intermediation (55-522300)

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 6. Collapsed Non-AE series

There are no collapsed non-AE series as a result of annual sample review.

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 7. New Non-AE series

There are no new non-AE series published as a result of annual sample review.

To Table of Figures


Back to Top

Conversion to the 2017 North American Industry Classification System

With the release of January 2018 data on February 2, 2018, the CES program updated the national nonfarm payroll series to the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) from the NAICS 2012 basis with the February 2, 2018 Employment Situation release. This change is in accordance with the final decision from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) on recommendations put forth by its Economic Classification Policy Committee (ECPC) in the Federal Register, Volume 81, Number 152. For more information about OMB’s decision and directive on the NAICS 2017 update, see the Federal Register, Volume 80, Number 149. For more information about NAICS 2012 and NAICS 2017 classifications, see the Census Bureau's NAICS page. For more information about other Federal Register notices involving NAICS, see the Census Bureau's Federal Register Notices page.

This conversion resulted in minor revisions reflecting content and coding changes within the retail trade, information, financial activities, and professional and business services major industry sectors, as well as a number of consolidations within the durable goods manufacturing, retail trade, and information major industry sectors. Several industry titles and descriptions were updated. Approximately 4 percent of CES employment was reclassified into different industries as a result of the revision. For more information about NAICS codes and CES industry codes, as well as previous NAICS conversions, see the CES NAICS page.

Some of the changes associated with the NAICS 2017 update impacted levels of detail not published by CES; therefore, only cases where CES industries were impacted are discussed in detail here.

Only the following directly estimated data types are noted in the exhibits:

  • All Employees (AE)
  • AE Average Weekly Hours (AE AWH)
  • AE Average Hourly Earnings (AE AHE)
  • Women Employees (WE)
  • Production Employees (PE)
  • PE Average Weekly Hours (PE AWH)
  • PE Average Hourly Earnings (PE AHE)


The directly estimated data types listed except for AE are collectively called non-AE data types. In order to more easily identify affected series and because AE series are published at a more detailed industry level than non-AE series, series changes are shown for AE and non-AE data types. The non-AE tables cover all directly estimated non-AE data types.

The conversion from NAICS 2012 to NAICS 2017 can affect CES industry codes in several ways. Some CES series were converted as a whole from their NAICS 2012 industry code to their new NAICS 2017 industry code. Some CES series were combined with other series because their underlying NAICS codes were combined. Other CES series were split into more detailed CES series because their NAICS codes were changed to accommodate new distinct industries. Finally, some CES series are no longer published at the same level of detail under NAICS 2017.

Where reconstructions were necessary, ratios of employment moving from old CES industries based on NAICS 2012 to new CES industries based on NAICS 2017 were calculated for March 2017 and were applied to historical CES data. These ratios were calculated by assigning both a NAICS 2012-based CES industry and a NAICS 2017-based CES industry to individual report-level data from the longitudinal database (LDB) from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) which is used as the CES sample frame. The March 2017 LDB employment was summed by old CES industry based on NAICS 2012 and by new CES industry based on NAICS 2017. Forward ratios were created by dividing the amount of each old NAICS 2012-based CES industry moving to a new NAICS 2017-based CES industry by its total for the old CES industry (see exhibit 11 for AE ratios and exhibit 16 for non-AE ratios). Reverse ratios were created by dividing the amount of each old NAICS 2012-based CES industry moving to a new NAICS 2017-based CES industry by its total for the new CES industry (see exhibit 12 for AE reverse ratios and exhibit 17 for non-AE reverse ratios).

Forward ratios were held constant and applied to each monthly CES employment estimate for the entire history of the series, usually back to 1990, to determine the amount of employment moving from a NAICS 2012 CES industry to a NAICS 2017 CES industry. Average weekly hours and average hourly earnings were recalculated by applying forward ratios to the amount of old total hours and old total payroll to move the correct amount of hours or earnings into the new CES industry. Total hours and total earnings were then averaged using the new employment levels. More information about the calculation of CES estimates for employment, hours, and earnings estimates is available in the CES Technical Notes under Estimation Methods.

AE exhibits

Exhibit 8 shows AE series that were partially or completely combined with other series.

For example, the CES industry department stores, except discount (42-452111) was combined with a portion of discount department stores (42-452112) to create the new CES industry department stores (42-452200). This is because the associated NAICS 2012 industry code 452111 became NAICS 2017 industry code 452210, and part of NAICS 2012 industry code 452112 became NAICS 2017 industry code 452210. The remainder of NAICS 2012 industry code 452112 became NAICS 2017 industry code 452311, along with all of NAICS 2012 industry code 452910.

Exhibit 8. New AE series as a result of reclassification of NAICS 2012 to NAICS 2017
NAICS 2012 Reclassification
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

452111

42-452111 Department stores, except discount Combined into new NAICS 2017 department stores (42-452200)

452112

42-452112 Discount department stores New NAICS 2017 department stores (42-452200) combined all of department stores, except discount (42-452111) and a portion of discount department stores (42-452112)

452112

42-452112 Discount department stores New NAICS 2017 warehouse clubs and supercenters (42-452311) combined a portion of discount department stores (42-452112) and all of warehouse clubs and supercenters (42-452910)

45291

42-452910 Warehouse clubs and supercenters Combined into new NAICS 2017 warehouse clubs and supercenters (42-452311)

45299

42-452990 All other general merchandise stores Moved into new NAICS 2017 all other general merchandise stores (42-452319)

454112

42-454112 Electronic shopping and electronic auctions Combined into new NAICS 2017 electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100)

454113

42-454113 Mail-order houses Combined into new NAICS 2017 electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100)

5171

50-517100 Wired telecommunications carriers Moved into new NAICS 2017 wired telecommunications carriers (50-517311)

5172

50-517200 Wireless telecommunications carriers (except satellite) Moved into new NAICS 2017 wireless telecommunications carriers, except satellite (50-517312)

53223

55-532230 Video tape and disc rental Combined into new NAICS 2017 consumer goods rental (55-532200)

53223

55-532230 Video tape and disc rental Moved into new NAICS 2017 video tape and disc rental (55-532282)

53229

55-532290 Miscellaneous consumer goods rental Combined into new NAICS 2017 consumer goods rental (55-532200)

532291

55-532291 Home health equipment rental Moved into new NAICS 2017 home health equipment rental (55-532283)

541711

60-541711 Biotechnology research New NAICS 2017 research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology (60-541714) is a portion of biotechnology research (60-541711)

541711

60-541711 Biotechnology research New NAICS 2017 research and development in nanotechnology (60-541713) combined a portion of biotechnology research (60-541711) and a portion of physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712)

541712

60-541712 Physical, engineering, and life sciences research New NAICS 2017 research and development in nanotechnology (60-541713) combined a portion of biotechnology research (60-541711) and a portion of physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712)

541712

60-541712 Physical, engineering, and life sciences research New NAICS 2017 research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology (60-541715) is a portion of physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712)

To Table of Figures

Exhibit 9 shows AE series that had changes in scope due to the conversion from NAICS 2012 to NAICS 2017. These new CES industries combined series that were previously published separately or as part of another series.

For example, the new CES industry research and development in nanotechnology (60-541713) combined a portion of the old CES industry biotechnology research (60-541711) and a portion of the old CES industry physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712). The remaining part of the old NAICS 2012-based CES industry biotechnology research (60-541711) became the new NAICS 2017-based CES industry research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology (60-541714). The remaining part of the old NAICS 2012-based CES industry physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712) became the new NAICS 2017-based CES industry research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology (60-541715).

Exhibit 9. Change in scope of AE series as a result of NAICS 2017
NAICS 2017 Reclassification
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

4522

42-452200 Department stores The new NAICS 2017 series department stores (42-452200) combined all of department stores, except discount (42-452111) and a portion of discount department stores (42-452112)

452311

42-452311 Warehouse clubs and supercenters The new NAICS 2017 series warehouse clubs and supercenters (42-452311) combined a portion of department stores, except discount (42-452111) and all of warehouse clubs and supercenters (42-452910)

4541

42-454100 Electronic shopping and mail-order houses The new NAICS 2017 series electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100) combined electronic shopping and electronic auctions (42-454112) and mail-order houses (42-454113)

5322

55-532200 Consumer goods rental The new NAICS 2017 series consumer goods rental (55-532200) combined video tape and disc rental (55-532230) and miscellaneous consumer goods rental (55-532290)

541713

60-541713 Research and development in nanotechnology A portion of biotechnology research (60-541711) moved to into new NAICS 2017 research and development in nanotechnology (60-541713). The rest was reclassified into biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology (60-541714).

541713

60-541713 Research and development in nanotechnology The new NAICS 2017 series research and development in nanotechnology (60-541713) is a portion of biotechnology research (60-541711) and a portion of physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712)

541714

60-541714 Research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology The new NAICS 2017 series research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology (60-541714) is a portion of biotechnology research (60-541711)

541715

60-541715 Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology The new NAICS 2017 series research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology (60-541715) is a portion of physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712)

To Table of Figures

Exhibit 10 shows AE series that are no longer published under NAICS 2017.

For example, NAICS 2017 combined electronic shopping and electronic auctions (NAICS 454112) and mail-order houses (NAICS 454113) into electronic shopping and mail-order houses (NAICS 454110). The two CES industries associated with the NAICS 2012 industries are 42-454112 and 42-454113. These were discontinued and the higher level CES series electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100) is the next highest published level.

Exhibit 10. Discontinued NAICS 2012 AE series
NAICS 2012 Next Highest Published Level (CES Industry Code)
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

452111

42-452111 Department stores, except discount Department stores (42-452200)

45291

42-452910 Warehouse clubs and supercenters Warehouse clubs and supercenters (42-452311)

454112

42-454112 Electronic shopping and electronic auctions Electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100)

454113

42-454113 Mail-order houses Electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100)

53223

55-532230 Video tape and disc rental Consumer goods rental (55-532200)

53229

55-532290 Miscellaneous consumer goods rental Consumer goods rental (55-532200)

To Table of Figures

Exhibit 11 shows the proportion of AE employment that moved from an old NAICS 2012-based CES industry code to a new NAICS 2017-based CES industry code.

Industries that moved completely from a NAICS 2012-based CES industry to a NAICS 2017-based CES industry have a ratio of 100. NAICS 2012-based CES industries that moved only a portion of their employment from the old NAICS 2012-based CES industry to a new NAICS 2017-based CES industry have ratios of less than 100. Old NAICS 2012-based CES industry codes with ratios of less than 100 are listed multiple times to account for the movement of all of their employment.

For example, 98.3 percent of discount department stores (42-452112) was moved into the new NAICS 2017-based CES industry department stores (42-452200). The remaining 1.7 percent was moved into the new CES industry warehouse clubs and supercenters (42-452311).

Exhibit 11. NAICS 2012 to NAICS 2017 AE employment ratios
NAICS 2012 NAICS 2017 Ratio
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

42-452111

Department stores, except discount 42-452200 Department stores 100

42-452112

Discount department stores 42-452200 Department stores 98.3

42-452112

Discount department stores 42-452311 Warehouse clubs and supercenters 1.7

42-452910

Warehouse clubs and supercenters 42-452311 Warehouse clubs and supercenters 100

42-452990

All other general merchandise stores 42-452319 All other general merchandise stores 100

42-454112

Electronic shopping and electronic auctions 42-454100 Electronic shopping and mail-order houses 100

42-454113

Mail-order houses 42-454100 Electronic shopping and mail-order houses 100

50-517100

Wired telecommunications carriers 50-517311 Wired telecommunications carriers 100

50-517200

Wireless telecommunications carriers (except satellite) 50-517312 Wireless telecommunications carriers, except satellite 100

55-532230

Video tape and disc rental 55-532200 Consumer goods rental 100

55-532290

Miscellaneous consumer goods rental 55-532200 Consumer goods rental 100

55-532230

Video tape and disc rental 55-532282 Video tape and disc rental 100

55-532291

Home health equipment rental 55-532283 Home health equipment rental 100

60-541711

Biotechnology research 60-541713 Research and development in nanotechnology 4.9

60-541712

Physical, engineering, and life sciences research 60-541713 Research and development in nanotechnology 3.5

60-541711

Biotechnology research 60-541714 Research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology 95.1

60-541712

Physical, engineering, and life sciences research 60-541715 Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology 96.5

To Table of Figures

Exhibit 12 shows the proportion of AE employment that moved to a new NAICS 2017-based CES industry that came from an old NAICS 2012-based CES industry.

For example, 37.8 percent of the new NAICS 2017-based CES industry department stores (42-452200) came from the old NAICS 2012-based CES industry department stores, except discount (42-452111). The remaining 62.2 percent of the new NAICS 2017-based CES industry department stores (42-452200) came from the old NAICS 2012-based CES industry discount department stores (42-452112).

Exhibit 12. NAICS 2017 to NAICS 2012 AE employment ratios
NAICS 2017 NAICS 2012 Ratio
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

42-452200

Department stores 42-452111 Department stores, except discount 37.8

42-452200

Department stores 42-452112 Discount department stores 62.2

42-452311

Warehouse clubs and supercenters 42-452112 Discount department stores 0.9

42-452311

Warehouse clubs and supercenters 42-452910 Warehouse clubs and supercenters 99.1

42-452319

All other general merchandise stores 42-452990 All other general merchandise stores 100

42-454100

Electronic shopping and mail-order houses 42-454112 Electronic shopping and electronic auctions 66.8

42-454100

Electronic shopping and mail-order houses 42-454113 Mail-order houses 33.2

50-517311

Wired telecommunications carriers 50-517100 Wired telecommunications carriers 100

50-517312

Wireless telecommunications carriers, except satellite 50-517200 Wireless telecommunications carriers (except satellite) 100

55-532200

Consumer goods rental 55-532230 Video tape and disc rental 7.3

55-532200

Consumer goods rental 55-532290 Miscellaneous consumer goods rental 92.7

55-532282

Video tape and disc rental 55-532230 Video tape and disc rental 100

55-532283

Home health equipment rental 55-532291 Home health equipment rental 100

60-541713

Research and development in nanotechnology 60-541711 Biotechnology research 34.9

60-541713

Research and development in nanotechnology 60-541712 Physical, engineering, and life sciences research 65.1

60-541714

Research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology 60-541711 Biotechnology research 100

60-541715

Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology 60-541712 Physical, engineering, and life sciences research 100

To Table of Figures

Back to Top

Non-AE exhibits

Exhibit 13 shows non-AE series that were partially or completely combined with other series, just like their AE counterparts. Some series affected for AE were not affected for non-AE because non-AE data types are not published at the same level.

Exhibit 13. New non-AE series as a result of reclassification of NAICS 2012 to NAICS 2017
NAICS 2012 Reclassification
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

454112

42-454112 Electronic shopping and electronic auctions Combined into new NAICS 2017 electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100)

454113

42-454113 Mail-order houses Combined into new NAICS 2017 electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100)

5171

50-517100 Wired telecommunications carriers Moved into new NAICS 2017 wired telecommunications carriers (50-517311)

5172

50-517200 Wireless telecommunications carriers (except satellite) Moved into new NAICS 2017 wireless telecommunications carriers, except satellite (50-517312)

532291

55-532291 Home health equipment rental Moved into new NAICS 2017 home health equipment rental (55-532283)

541711

60-541711 Biotechnology research New NAICS 2017 research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology (60-541714) is a portion of biotechnology research (60-541711)

541711

60-541711 Biotechnology research New NAICS 2017 research and development in nanotechnology (60-541713) combined a portion of biotechnology research (60-541711) and a portion of physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712)

541712

60-541712 Physical, engineering, and life sciences research New NAICS 2017 research and development in nanotechnology (60-541713) combined a portion of biotechnology research (60-541711) and a portion of physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712)

541712

60-541712 Physical, engineering, and life sciences research New NAICS 2017 research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology (60-541715) is a portion of physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712)

To Table of Figures

Exhibit 14 shows non-AE series that had changes in scope due to the conversion from NAICS 2012 to NAICS 2017. These series reflect the same changes as their AE counterparts, but at less detailed levels, and some series affected for AE are not affected for non-AE.

Exhibit 14. Change in scope of non-AE series as a result of NAICS 2017
NAICS 2017 Reclassification
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

4541

42-454100 Electronic shopping and mail-order houses The new NAICS 2017 series electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100) combined electronic shopping and electronic auctions (42-454112) and mail-order houses (42-454113)

541713

60-541713 Research and development in nanotechnology The new NAICS 2017 series research and development in nanotechnology (60-541713) is a portion of biotechnology research (60-541711) and a portion of physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712)

541714

60-541714 Research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology The new NAICS 2017 series research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology (60-541714) is a portion of biotechnology research (60-541711)

541715

60-541715 Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology The new NAICS 2017 series research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology (60-541715) is a portion of physical, engineering, and life sciences research (60-541712)

To Table of Figures

Exhibit 15 shows non-AE series that are no longer published under NAICS 2017. Some AE series that were discontinued were already not published for non-AE series, and therefore, are unaffected by NAICS 2017 discontinuations for non-AE.

Exhibit 15. Discontinued non-AE series as a result of NAICS 2017
NAICS 2012 Next Highest Published Level (CES Industry Code)
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

454112

42-454112 Electronic shopping and electronic auctions Electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100)

454113

42-454113 Mail-order houses Electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100)

To Table of Figures

Exhibit 16 shows the proportion of non-AE employment that was moved from an old CES industry code based on NAICS 2012 to a new CES industry code based on NAICS 2017.

Industries that moved directly and completely from an old NAICS 2012-based CES industry to a new NAICS 2017-based CES industry have a ratio of 100. Old NAICS 2012-based CES industries that moved only a portion of their employment from the old NAICS 2012-based CES industry to a new NAICS 2017-based CES industry have ratios of less than 100. Old NAICS 2012-based CES industry codes with ratios of less than 100 are listed multiple times to account for the movement of all of their employment.

For example, 4.9 percent of biotechnology research (60-541711) moved into the new NAICS 2017-based CES industry research and development in nanotechnology (60-541713). The remaining 95.1 percent moved into the new NAICS 2017-based CES industry research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology (60-541714).

Exhibit 16. NAICS 2012 to NAICS 2017 non-AE employment ratios
NAICS 2012 NAICS 2017 Ratio
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

42-454112

Electronic shopping and electronic auctions 42-454100 Electronic shopping and mail-order houses 100

42-454113

Mail-order houses 42-454100 Electronic shopping and mail-order houses 100

50-517100

Wired telecommunications carriers 50-517311 Wired telecommunications carriers 100

50-517200

Wireless telecommunications carriers (except satellite) 50-517312 Wireless telecommunications carriers, except satellite 100

55-532291

Home health equipment rental 55-532283 Home health equipment rental 100

60-541711

Biotechnology research 60-541713 Research and development in nanotechnology 4.9

60-541712

Physical, engineering, and life sciences research 60-541713 Research and development in nanotechnology 3.5

60-541711

Biotechnology research 60-541714 Research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology 95.1

60-541712

Physical, engineering, and life sciences research 60-541715 Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology 96.5

To Table of Figures

Exhibit 17 shows the proportion of non-AE employment that moved to a new NAICS 2017-based CES industry that came from an old NAICS 2012-based CES industry.

For example, 66.8 percent of the new NAICS 2017-based CES industry electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100) came from the old NAICS 2012-based CES industry electronic shopping and electronic auctions (42-454112). The remaining 33.2 percent of the new NAICS 2017-based CES industry electronic shopping and mail-order houses (42-454100) came from the old NAICS 2012-based CES industry mail-order houses (42-454113).

Exhibit 17. NAICS 2017 to NAICS 2012 non-AE employment ratios
NAICS 2017 NAICS 2012 Ratio
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

42-454100

Electronic shopping and mail-order houses 42-454112 Electronic shopping and electronic auctions 66.8

42-454100

Electronic shopping and mail-order houses 42-454113 Mail-order houses 33.2

50-517311

Wired telecommunications carriers 50-517100 Wired telecommunications carriers 100

50-517312

Wireless telecommunications carriers, except satellite 50-517200 Wireless telecommunications carriers (except satellite) 100

55-532283

Home health equipment rental 55-532291 Home health equipment rental 100

60-541713

Research and development in nanotechnology 60-541711 Biotechnology research 34.9

60-541713

Research and development in nanotechnology 60-541712 Physical, engineering, and life sciences research 65.1

60-541714

Research and development in biotechnology, except nanobiotechnology 60-541711 Biotechnology research 100

60-541715

Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, except nanotechnology and biotechnology 60-541712 Physical, engineering, and life sciences research 100

To Table of Figures

Back to Top

Reconstructions

Several series were reconstructed as part of the 2017 CES benchmark. Two summary-level series were reconstructed for pre-1990 data. In addition, errors were corrected for: security guards and patrols and armored car services; PE and WE series in 5 smaller series within financial activities, professional and business services, and leisure and hospitality; and a strike adjustment error was corrected for seasonally adjusted women employees series.

Pre-1990 reconstructed series

Two summary-level series were affected by reconstructions in prior years, but had not seen revisions to their pre-1990 histories. Exhibit 18 outlines the CES industries, data types, and time spans that were involved in the pre-1990 reconstructions.

Exhibit 18. CES summary series involved in pre-1990 data reconstructions
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Data Type(s) Involved(1) Time Span

55-524200

Insurance agencies, brokerages, and related services AE January 1985 – December 1989

65-621100

Offices of physicians AE January 1972 – December 1989
PE, PE AHE, PE AWH, WE January 1982 – December 1989
Footnotes

(1) For definitions of directly estimated data types, see the Changes to CES published series section.

To Table of Figures

Insurance agencies, brokerages, and related services reconstructed, January 1985 to December 1989

During processing for the 2013 benchmark, a recoding effort moved the majority of employment out of funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles and into other series within the financial activities major industry sector. Impacted basic-level series were reconstructed back to January 1990; summary-level series were affected indirectly through aggregation. For more information about this reconstruction, see the special notice regarding reconstructed data in the 2013 CES Benchmark Article.

The 4-digit level series insurance agencies, brokerages, and related services (55-524200) was affected by this 2013 reconstruction back to January 1990 through aggregation. This series goes back further than January 1990, creating a break in the time series from December 1989 to January 1990.

To correct for this break, monthly growth rates for the January 1985 to December 1989 period were applied to the revised January 1990 levels, including a revised over-the-month change for December 1989 to January 1990 based on historical data from the pre-revised series (55-524200 prior to the 2013 benchmark), in order to derive new monthly levels. The December 1989 to January 1990 growth rate from the pre-revised series was applied to the January 1990 level in order to derive the new level for December 1989. The growth rates as previously published for January 1985 to November 1989 were then applied backwards through time, yielding new levels and a continuous time series from January 1985 forward.

Back to Top

Offices of physicians, January 1972 to December 1989

During processing for the 2016 benchmark, a change to NAICS codes for reports in health care services affecting 2 industries was discovered. This change was determined to be non-economic and affected the entire series going back to 1990. Impacted basic-level series were reconstructed back to January 1990; summary-level series were affected indirectly through aggregation. For more information about this reconstruction, see the Reconstruction section of the 2016 CES Benchmark Article.

The 4-digit level series offices of physicians (65-621100) was affected by this 2016 reconstruction back to January 1990 through aggregation. This series goes back further than January 1990, creating a break in the time series from December 1989 to January 1990.

With 2017 benchmark processing, the pre-1990 history of 65-621100 was reconstructed back to January 1972 for AE. A ratio of the employment in the reclassified establishments to the employment originally in 65-621100 was calculated for March 2016. This March 2016 ratio was applied to each month’s employment level for 65-621100 from December 1989 back to January 1972. The resulting employment amounts were taken out of 65-621100 to create a reconstructed AE series. This change also affected PE, PE hours and earnings, and WE series back to January 1982. Derivatives of directly estimated data types may also be impacted by this reconstruction.

Back to Top

Reconstructions due to errors in CES Estimates

Security guards and patrols and armored car services, October 2016 to December 2017

An error was found in the CES microdata for security guards and patrols and armored car services (60-561613). AE series were affected for 60-561613 and AE, AE hours and earnings, PE, PE hours and earnings, and WE were affected for 60-561610. This error affected data from October 2016 to December 2017.

Exhibit 19 outlines the CES industries, data types, and time spans that were involved in the reconstruction of 60-561613.

Exhibit 19. CES industries involved in the reconstruction of 60-561613
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Data Type(s) Involved(1) Time Span

60-561610

Security and armored car services AE, AE AWH, AE AHE, PE, PE AWH, PE AHE, WE October 2016 – December 2017

60-561613

Security guards and patrols and armored car services AE
Footnotes

(1) For definitions of directly estimated data types, see the Changes to CES published series section.

To Table of Figures

Using corrected AE microdata, 60-561613 was reconstructed using amended sample links for each month to recalculate the AE series. The AE series was then summed with investigation services (60-561611) to create AE data at the 60-561610 level. Corrected microdata for non-AE data types in 60-561610 and the new summary-level AE series were used to calculate AE hours and earnings, PE, PE hours and earnings, and WE. More information about sample links and monthly estimation is available in the CES Technical Notes under Monthly Estimation.

The reconstruction resulted in security and armored car services AE that was 3,000 greater than the originally published March 2017 estimate level. All aggregate CES industries that were impacted by this reconstruction are included in exhibit 20 below.

Exhibit 20. CES aggregate series impacted by reconstruction of 60-561613
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Time Span

00-000000

Total nonfarm October 2016 – December 2017

05-000000

Total private

07-000000

Service providing

08-000000

Private service-providing

60-000000

Professional and business services

60-560000

Administrative and waste services

60-561000

Administrative and support services

60-561600

Investigation and security services

To Table of Figures

Reconstructed series were benchmarked according to the usual methodology. The reconstruction and subsequent benchmark resulted in revisions to seasonally and not seasonally adjusted data. More information about CES benchmarking methods is available in the CES Technical Notes under Benchmarks. More information about seasonal adjustment of CES series is available in the CES Technical Notes under Seasonal Adjustment.

Back to Top

Non-AE datatypes for 5 smaller series, November 2012 to May 2017

The CES program found processing errors in the estimates for PE and WE series in five smaller industries within financial activities, professional and business services, and leisure and hospitality. The timeframe of the errant data ranges from November 2012 (3rd closing) until May 2017; however, not all data during this timeframe are errant.

For some months, errors in detailed-level WE impacted aggregate WE estimates up through total nonfarm, and errors in detailed-level PE impacted aggregate PE estimates up through total private. The errors in detailed-level PE also resulted in minor errors in hours and earnings for aggregated PE (PE AWH and PE AHE), because hours and earnings are weighted by PE employment in the aggregation process. For more information about this processing error, see the BLS errata page at www.bls.gov/bls/errata/ces-women-production-correction.htm.

Exhibit 21 outlines the CES industries, data types, and time spans that were involved in the reconstruction of the five smaller industries for non-AE data types.

Exhibit 21. CES series involved in non-AE reconstruction for 5 smaller industries
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Data Type(s) Involved(1) Time Span

55-524110

Direct life and health insurance carriers PE, PE AWH, PE AHE, WE November 2012 – May 2017

60-541200

Accounting and bookkeeping services

60-541600

Management and technical consulting services

60-562900

Remediation and other waste services

70-721200

RV parks and recreational camps
Footnotes

(1) For definitions of directly estimated data types, see the Changes to CES published series section.

To Table of Figures

To correct for these errors, PE and WE were re-estimated at the detailed level using corrected PE-to-AE and WE-to-AE ratios. After correcting PE and WE at the detailed level, there were no changes to PE hours and earnings. Using corrected detailed-level PE and WE estimates, employment estimates were re-aggregated up to total private for PE and total nonfarm for WE. Derivatives of directly estimated data types may also be impacted by this reconstruction.

Reconstructed series were benchmarked according to the usual methodology. The reconstruction and subsequent benchmark resulted in revisions to seasonally and not seasonally adjusted data. More information about CES benchmarking methods is available in the CES Technical Notes under Benchmarks. More information about seasonal adjustment of CES series is available in the CES Technical Notes under Seasonal Adjustment.

Exhibit 22 outlines the aggregate CES industries that were impacted by the reconstruction of the five smaller industries for non-AE data types.

Exhibit 22. CES aggregate series impacted by non-AE reconstruction
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Time Span

00-000000

Total nonfarm November 2012 – May 2017

05-000000

Total private

07-000000

Service providing

08-000000

Private service-providing

55-000000

Financial activities

55-524000

Insurance carriers and related activities

55-524100

Insurance carriers

60-000000

Professional and business services

60-540000

Professional and technical services

60-560000

Administrative and waste services

60-562000

Waste management and remediation services

70-000000

Leisure and hospitality services

70-720000

Accommodation and food services

70-721000

Accommodation

To Table of Figures

Back to Top

Seasonally adjusted data for women employees due to strike adjustment processing error

When generating seasonally adjusted estimates, the CES program sometimes modifies the not seasonally adjusted estimates before running X-13ARIMA-SEATS to ensure that non-seasonal events, such as strikes, are not included in the calculation of the seasonal factors. Once the seasonal factors are calculated, they are applied to the not seasonally adjusted data used as inputs. Then, the prior adjustments that were removed before running X-13ARIMA-SEATS are incorporated to create the seasonally adjusted estimates. More information about seasonal adjustment of CES series is available in the CES Technical Notes under Seasonal Adjustment.

During processing for the 2017 benchmark, it was discovered that the effects of several strikes were not removed before running seasonal adjustment for several women employees series. The WE strike adjustment was incorporated during seasonal adjustment processing for the 2017 benchmark, and affected series were seasonally adjusted back to January 1990. This correction has also been made to the latest prior adjustment file which can be downloaded from the CES Seasonal Adjustment Files and Documentation page. The correction resulted in small changes to historical data for several seasonally adjusted WE series.

Exhibit 23 outlines the CES industries that were involved in the strike adjustment correction for seasonally adjusted WE series.

Exhibit 23. Seasonally adjusted series involved in WE strike adjustment correction
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

31-336400

Aerospace products and parts

42-445110

Supermarkets and other grocery stores

44-221120

Electric power transmission and distribution

44-221200

Natural gas distribution

50-517311

Wired telecommunications carriers

To Table of Figures

Exhibit 24 outlines the aggregate CES industries that were impacted by the strike adjustment correction for seasonally adjusted WE series.

Exhibit 24. Seasonally adjusted aggregate series impacted by WE strike adjustment correction
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

00-000000

Total nonfarm

05-000000

Total private

06-000000

Goods-producing

07-000000

Service-providing

08-000000

Private service-providing

30-000000

Manufacturing

31-000000

Durable goods

31-336000

Transportation equipment

42-000000

Retail trade

42-445000

Food and beverage stores

42-445100

Grocery stores

44-220000

Utilities

44-221100

Power generation and supply

50-000000

Information

50-517000

Telecommunications

50-517300

Wired and wireless telecommunications carriers

To Table of Figures

Back to Top

Why benchmarks differ from estimates

A benchmark revision is the difference between the benchmark employment level for a given March and its corresponding sample-based estimate. The overall accuracy of the establishment survey is usually gauged by the size of this difference. The benchmark revision often is regarded as a proxy for total survey error, but this does not take into account error in the universe data or infrequent events such as historical reconstructions. The employment counts obtained from quarterly Unemployment Insurance (UI) tax forms are administrative data that reflect employer record-keeping practices and differing state laws and procedures. The benchmark revision can be more precisely interpreted as the difference between two independently derived employment counts, each subject to its own error sources.

Like all sample surveys, the establishment survey is susceptible to two sources of error: sampling error and nonsampling error. Sampling error is present any time a sample is used to make inferences about a population. The magnitude of the sampling error, or variance, relates directly to sample size and the percentage of the universe covered by that sample. The CES monthly survey captures slightly under one-third of the universe, exceptionally high by usual sampling standards. This coverage ensures a small sampling error at the total nonfarm employment level. More information on the reliability of CES estimates is available in the Reliability section of the CES Technical Notes.

Both the universe counts and the establishment survey estimates are subject to nonsampling errors common to all surveys – measurement, response, and processing errors. The error structures for both the CES monthly survey and the UI universe are complex. Still, the two programs generally produce consistent total employment figures, each validating the other.

Back to Top

Benchmark revision effects for other data types

The routine benchmarking process results in revisions to the series for production and nonsupervisory employees (PE) and women employees (WE). There are no benchmark employment levels for these series; they are revised by preserving ratios of employment for the particular data type to all employees (AE) level prior to benchmarking, and then applying these ratios to the revised all employees level. These figures are calculated at the basic cell level and then aggregated to produce the summary estimates.

Average weekly hours, average hourly earnings, and in manufacturing industries, average weekly overtime hours are not benchmarked; they are estimated solely from reports supplied by survey respondents at the basic estimating cell level.

The aggregate industry levels of the hours and earnings series are derived as a weighted average. All employees estimates and production and nonsupervisory employees estimates for the basic cells act as weights for their respective hours and earnings estimates for broader industry groupings. Adjustments of all employees estimates to new benchmarks may alter the weights used for both AE and PE hours and earnings, which, in turn, may change the estimates for both AE and PE hours and earnings at higher levels of aggregation.

Generally, new employment benchmarks have little effect on hours and earnings estimates for major industry groupings. To influence the hours and earnings estimates of a broader industry group, employment revisions have to be relatively large and must affect industries that have hours or earnings averages that are substantially different from those of other industries in their broader group. Table 5 and table 6 provide information on the levels of specific hours and earnings series resulting from the March 2017 benchmark. At the total private level, there was no change in average weekly hours estimates for both AE and PE from the previously published level. Total private average hourly earnings did not change for both AE and PE from the previously published level.

Table 5. Effect of March 2017 benchmark revisions to AE AWH and AE AHE estimates, selected industries
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Average Weekly Hours Average Hourly Earnings ($)

Estimated(1)

Revised

Difference

Estimated(1)

Revised

Difference
05-000000 Total private 34.1 34.1 0.0 26.14 26.14 0.00
06-000000 Goods-producing 39.8 39.8 0.0 27.37 27.36 -0.01
08-000000 Private service-providing 33.0 33.0 0.0 25.86 25.86 0.00
10-000000 Mining and logging 44.2 44.3 0.1 32.82 32.26 -0.56
20-000000 Construction 38.2 38.3 0.1 28.64 28.67 0.03
30-000000 Manufacturing 40.5 40.5 0.0 26.41 26.41 0.00
31-000000 Durable goods 41.1 41.1 0.0 27.64 27.65 0.01
31-321000 Wood products 40.3 40.4 0.1 19.62 19.62 0.00
31-327000 Nonmetallic mineral products 40.7 40.7 0.0 23.85 23.86 0.01
31-331000 Primary metals 41.9 41.9 0.0 26.46 26.42 -0.04
31-332000 Fabricated metal products 41.0 41.0 0.0 24.30 24.27 -0.03
31-333000 Machinery 41.4 41.4 0.0 28.24 28.23 -0.01
31-334000 Computer and electronic products 40.3 40.3 0.0 35.63 35.63 0.00
31-335000 Electrical equipment and appliances 41.2 41.2 0.0 26.18 26.18 0.00
31-336000 Transportation equipment 42.7 42.8 0.1 30.78 30.81 0.03
31-336001 Motor vehicles and parts 43.3 43.4 0.1 25.40 25.48 0.08
31-337000 Furniture and related products 39.4 39.4 0.0 21.06 21.07 0.01
31-339000 Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing 38.6 38.6 0.0 25.42 25.43 0.01
32-000000 Nondurable goods 39.4 39.5 0.1 24.28 24.28 0.00
32-311000 Food manufacturing 39.6 39.6 0.0 20.43 20.44 0.01
32-313000 Textile mills 41.2 41.2 0.0 20.32 20.32 0.00
32-314000 Textile product mills 38.3 38.3 0.0 17.89 17.88 -0.01
32-315000 Apparel 36.5 36.5 0.0 18.66 18.66 0.00
32-322000 Paper and paper products 41.0 41.0 0.0 26.35 26.35 0.00
32-323000 Printing and related support activities 37.6 37.6 0.0 23.50 23.50 0.00
32-324000 Petroleum and coal products 39.9 39.9 0.0 43.91 44.00 0.09
32-325000 Chemicals 40.2 40.2 0.0 32.89 32.89 0.00
32-326000 Plastics and rubber products 40.8 40.8 0.0 21.43 21.44 0.01
32-329000 Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing 34.6 34.6 0.0 24.67 24.67 0.00
40-000000 Trade, transportation, and utilities 33.9 33.9 0.0 22.63 22.61 -0.02
41-420000 Wholesale trade 38.6 38.6 0.0 29.76 29.72 -0.04
42-000000 Retail trade 30.5 30.5 0.0 18.03 18.03 0.0
43-000000 Transportation and warehousing 38.1 38.1 0.0 23.65 23.61 -0.04
44-220000 Utilities 42.3 42.3 0.0 39.04 39.07 0.03
50-000000 Information 35.9 35.9 0.0 37.41 37.49 0.08
55-000000 Financial activities 37.0 37.0 0.0 32.67 32.68 0.01
60-000000 Professional and business services 35.7 35.7 0.0 31.57 31.57 0.00
65-000000 Education and health services 32.7 32.7 0.0 26.07 26.11 0.04
70-000000 Leisure and hospitality 25.9 25.9 0.0 15.37 15.41 0.04
80-000000 Other services 31.7 31.6 -0.1 23.62 23.78 0.16

Footnotes

(1) With the 2017 benchmark, CES reconstructed the national employment series 60-561613, security guards and patrols and armored car services back to October 2016 to correct a microdata error. The errors in employment resulted in errors in hours and earnings for aggregated series. For more information, see the Reconstructions section in the 2017 Benchmark Article.

To Table of Figures


Table 6. Effect of March 2017 benchmark revisions to PE AWH and PE AHE estimates, selected industries
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Average Weekly Hours Average Hourly Earnings ($)

Estimated(1)

Revised

Difference

Estimated(1)

Revised

Difference
05-000000 Total private 33.3 33.3 0.0 21.91 21.91 0.00
06-000000 Goods-producing 40.7 40.7 0.0 22.83 22.83 0.00
08-000000 Private service-providing 32.1 32.1 0.0 21.72 21.72 0.00
10-000000 Mining and logging 45.3 45.6 0.3 27.85 27.59 -0.26
20-000000 Construction 38.6 38.6 0.0 26.33 26.36 0.03
30-000000 Manufacturing 41.6 41.6 0.0 20.68 20.69 0.01
31-000000 Durable goods 42.2 42.2 0.0 21.64 21.65 0.01
31-321000 Wood products 41.7 41.7 0.0 17.17 17.18 0.01
31-327000 Nonmetallic mineral products 41.8 41.8 0.0 20.00 20.00 0.00
31-331000 Primary metals 42.4 42.4 0.0 23.07 23.03 -0.04
31-332000 Fabricated metal products 41.9 41.9 0.0 20.10 20.09 -0.01
31-333000 Machinery 42.8 42.8 0.0 22.09 22.09 0.00
31-334000 Computer and electronic products 41.0 41.0 0.0 24.54 24.54 0.00
31-335000 Electrical equipment and appliances 42.5 42.5 0.0 19.46 19.46 0.00
31-336000 Transportation equipment 44.0 44.0 0.0 24.86 24.90 0.04
31-336001 Motor vehicles and parts 44.5 44.5 0.0 21.29 21.36 0.07
31-337000 Furniture and related products 39.9 40.0 0.1 17.26 17.27 0.01
31-339000 Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing 40.4 40.4 0.0 18.77 18.78 0.01
32-000000 Nondurable goods 40.7 40.7 0.0 19.12 19.13 0.01
32-311000 Food manufacturing 40.6 40.6 0.0 16.84 16.85 0.01
32-313000 Textile mills 40.6 40.6 0.0 15.75 15.75 0.00
32-314000 Textile product mills 37.6 37.6 0.0 14.41 14.41 0.00
32-315000 Apparel 36.3 36.3 0.0 13.75 13.75 0.00
32-322000 Paper and paper products 42.4 42.4 0.0 21.54 21.55 0.01
32-323000 Printing and related support activities 39.5 39.5 0.0 18.65 18.65 0.00
32-324000 Petroleum and coal products 43.5 43.5 0.0 40.21 40.34 0.13
32-325000 Chemicals 41.5 41.5 0.0 23.61 23.61 0.00
32-326000 Plastics and rubber products 41.9 41.9 0.0 17.47 17.48 0.01
32-329000 Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing 36.9 36.9 0.0 20.10 20.10 0.00
40-000000 Trade, transportation, and utilities 33.3 33.2 -0.1 19.23 19.22 -0.01
41-420000 Wholesale trade 38.5 38.5 0.0 24.41 24.38 -0.03
42-000000 Retail trade 29.7 29.6 -0.1 15.22 15.22 0.00
43-000000 Transportation and warehousing 37.6 37.6 0.0 21.16 21.12 -0.04
44-220000 Utilities 42.4 42.4 0.0 36.42 36.46 0.04
50-000000 Information 35.3 35.3 0.0 30.24 30.28 0.04
55-000000 Financial activities 36.6 36.6 0.0 26.44 26.46 0.02
60-000000 Professional and business services 35.0 35.1 0.1 25.91 25.89 -0.02
65-000000 Education and health services 32.0 31.9 -0.1 22.87 22.90 0.03
70-000000 Leisure and hospitality 24.7 24.7 0.0 13.28 13.31 0.03
80-000000 Other services 30.6 30.6 0.0 19.86 20.00 0.14

Footnotes

(1) With the 2017 benchmark, CES reconstructed several series. The CES national employment series 60-561613, security guards and patrols and armored car services was reconstructed back to October 2016 to correct a microdata error. The errors in employment resulted in errors in hours and earnings for aggregated series. CES also reconstructed 5 smaller industries within financial activities, professional and business services, and leisure and hospitality, to correct processing errors in estimates for women employees (WE) and production and nonsupervisory employees (PE). The errors in PE also resulted in minor errors in hours and earnings for aggregated PE. For more information, see the Reconstructions section in the 2017 Benchmark Article.

To Table of Figures

Back to Top

Methods

Benchmark sources and procedures

Establishment survey benchmarking is done on an annual basis to a population derived primarily from the administrative file of employees covered by UI. All employers covered by UI laws are required to report employment and wage information to the appropriate Labor Market Information (LMI) agency four times per year. Approximately 97 percent of total nonfarm employment within the scope of the establishment survey is covered by UI. A benchmark for the remaining 3 percent is constructed from alternate sources, primarily records from the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB), County Business Patterns (CBP), and Annual Survey of Public Employment and Payroll (ASPEP). This 3 percent is collectively referred to as noncovered employment. Noncovered employment data from these sources are available only on a lagged basis. More information on calculating noncovered employment in the CES program is available in the Benchmarks section of the CES Technical Notes under Calculating noncovered employment.

The time required to complete the benchmark revision process—from the full collection of the UI population data to publication of the revised industry estimates—is about ten months. The benchmark adjustment procedure replaces the March sample-based employment estimates with UI-based population counts for March. The benchmark therefore determines the final employment levels, while sample movements capture month-to-month trends.

On a not seasonally adjusted basis, the sample-based estimates for the year preceding and the nine months following the benchmark month (March) are also subject to revision; seasonally adjusted data are subject to revision back five years. Employment estimates for the months between the most recent March benchmark and the previous year's benchmark are adjusted using a linear "wedge-back" procedure, which assumes that the total estimation error accumulated at a steady rate since the last benchmark. For the nine months following the March benchmark (also referred to as the post-benchmark period), CES applies previously derived over-the-month sample changes to the revised March level to get the revised estimates (see Revisions in the post-benchmark period). New net birth/death model estimates also are calculated and applied during post-benchmark estimation. More information on benchmarks in the CES program is available in CES Technical Notes under Benchmarks.

Back to Top

Birth/Death

The CES sample alone is not sufficient for estimating the total nonfarm employment level because each month new firms generate employment that cannot be captured through the sample. There is an unavoidable lag between a firm opening for business and its appearance on the CES sample frame. The sample frame is built from Unemployment Insurance (UI) quarterly tax records. These records cover virtually all U.S. employers and include business births, but they only become available for updating the CES sampling frame 7 to 9 months after the reference month. After the births appear on the frame, there is also time required for sampling, contacting, and soliciting cooperation from the firm, and verifying the initial data provided. In practice, BLS cannot sample and begin to collect data from new firms until they are at least a year old.

BLS has researched both sample-based and model-based approaches to measuring birth units that have not yet appeared on the UI universe frame. The research demonstrated that sampling for births was not feasible in the very short CES production timeframes, so the Bureau utilizes a model-based approach for this component. This model incorporates two components; the first component is an indirect imputation for business deaths and the second component is an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time series model designed to estimate the net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation from the first component. More information on the CES birth/death model is available in the Birth/Death Model section of the CES Technical Notes under.

Only error from the second component is directly measurable. Error from this component is measured by comparing the actual net of births and deaths with the model-based adjustment that was used in the CES sample-based estimates. Most recently, the data from April 2016 to March 2017 can be measured. As table 7 shows, the actual net birth/death for April 2016 to March 2017 was approximately 181,000 above the forecasted amount used in the CES monthly estimates for the same time period.

Table 7. Differences between forecasted and actual net birth/death, total private employment, April 2016 – March 2017 (in thousands)
Benchmark 2017 2016 2017 Total
Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar

Actual Net Birth/Death

404 180 15 244 105 -38 255 -14 -35 -179 98 76 1,111

Forecast Net Birth/Death

255 231 99 154 113 -58 237 7 -17 -247 124 32 930

Difference

149 -51 -84 90 -8 20 18 -21 -18 68 -26 44 181

Cumulative Difference

149 98 14 104 96 116 134 113 95 163 137 181

Back to Top

Seasonal adjustment

Typically, 5 years of seasonally adjusted data are revised with each CES annual benchmark. However, reconstructed series are seasonally adjusted over their revised time spans.

For technical information on how seasonal adjustment is performed in the CES program, refer to the Seasonal Adjustment section of the CES Technical Notes.

For more information on seasonal adjustment model specifications and special model adjustments, please see the CES Seasonal Adjustment Files and Documentation page.

To Table of Figures

Back to Top

Availability of revised data

LABSTAT, the BLS public database, contains all historical employment, hours, and earnings data revised as a result of this benchmark, including both not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted data. The data can be accessed at www.bls.gov/ces, the CES homepage.

Previously published data are available on both a not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted basis for all CES industries down to the 3-digit level from the CES Vintage Data.

Back to Top

End Notes

1 CES estimates data in two ways: directly and indirectly. Directly estimated data types refer to data types for which estimates are calculated directly from the responding sample. Indirectly estimated data types refer to data types for which estimates are calculated from other directly estimated data types. Average weekly earnings of all employees and indexes of aggregate weekly hours of all employees are examples of indirectly estimated data types. For more information on indirectly estimated data types, see the CES Technical Notes.

Back to Top

Table of figures

Tables

Exhibits

Back to Top

Last Modified Date: February 2, 2018