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Employment Cost Trends
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Employer Costs for Employee Compensation Relative Standard Errors

Because the Employer Costs for Employee Compensation is a sample survey, it is subject to sampling errors. Sampling errors are differences that occur between the results computed from a sample of observations and those computed from all observations in the population. The estimates derived from different samples selected using the same sample design may differ from each other. A measure of the variation among these differing estimates is the standard error. The relative standard error is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost. It can be used to measure the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the expected result of all possible samples. The chances are about 68 out of 100 that an estimate from the survey differs from a complete population figure by less than the standard error. The chances are about 90 out of 100 that this difference would be less than 1.6 times the standard error. Footnotes have been added for estimates with relative standard errors greater than 30 percent.

For a more detailed explanation of relative standard errors, see Measuring Trends in the Structure and Levels of Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, Compensation and Working Conditions, Summer 1997. For a detailed explanation of how to use standard error data to analyze differences in year-to-year changes, see Analyzing Year-to-Year Changes in Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, Compensation and Working Conditions, Spring 1998. This article supplements an article from the Summer 1997 issue of Compensation and Working Conditions, Explaining the Differential Growth Rates of the ECI and ECEC, which examined how differences in the construction of these measures contribute to differing trends.

Standard errors relate to differences that occur from sampling errors, but not from nonsampling errors. Sampling errors are differences between the results computed from a sample of observations and those computed from all observations in the population. Nonsampling errors are not measured and include survey nonresponse and data collection and processing errors. Survey nonresponse is when sample members are unwilling or unable to participate in the survey. Data collection errors include provision of inaccurate data by respondents and definitional difficulties. Processing errors include errors in recording, coding, and entering data. Although nonsampling errors are not measured, BLS quality assurance programs contain procedures for reducing such errors. These procedures include data collection reinterviews, observed interviews, computer data edits, and systematic review of reports on which data are recorded. Extensive field economist training also is conducted to maintain high data collection standards.

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Table 1. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation by ownership [Sept. 2022]
Compensation component Civilian workers(1) Private industry
workers
State and local
government workers
Cost ($) Relative
standard error
Cost ($) Relative
standard error
Cost ($) Relative
standard error

Total compensation(2)

41.86 1.0 39.61 1.2 57.02 0.8

Wages and salaries

28.88 0.9 27.93 1.1 35.29 0.7

Total benefits

12.98 1.3 11.68 1.5 21.73 1.0

Paid leave

3.10 1.8 2.94 2.2 4.20 1.7

Vacation

1.52 2.1 1.51 2.3 1.59 2.6

Holiday

0.92 1.9 0.88 2.2 1.20 2.0

Sick

0.49 1.6 0.40 2.1 1.08 1.2

Personal

0.18 2.2 0.16 2.9 0.34 2.3

Supplemental pay

1.30 3.0 1.41 3.2 0.57 4.0

Overtime and premium(3)

0.36 1.9 0.37 2.0 0.25 4.8

Shift differentials

0.07 4.3 0.07 4.7 0.05 6.7

Nonproduction bonuses

0.87 4.4 0.96 4.6 0.26 5.3

Insurance

3.46 1.1 3.00 1.4 6.52 1.0

Life

0.05 1.8 0.04 2.1 0.08 3.1

Health

3.28 1.1 2.83 1.4 6.35 1.0

Short-term disability

0.08 2.7 0.08 2.8 0.03 4.0

Long-term disability

0.05 2.5 0.05 2.9 0.05 3.6

Retirement and savings

2.13 1.9 1.35 2.9 7.34 1.5

Defined benefit

1.27 2.4 0.44 5.0 6.85 1.6

Defined contribution

0.86 2.6 0.91 2.8 0.50 4.8

Legally Required benefits

2.99 0.7 2.98 0.8 3.10 1.2

Social Security and Medicare

2.36 0.9 2.35 1.0 2.43 1.1

Social Security(4)

1.88 0.9 1.88 1.0 1.85 1.4

Medicare

0.48 1.0 0.47 1.2 0.58 0.7

Federal unemployment insurance

0.02 1.1 0.03 1.0 (5)- (6)-

State unemployment insurance

0.14 1.9 0.14 1.8 0.07 8.4

Workers' compensation

0.48 1.2 0.46 1.3 0.60 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(3) Includes premium pay for work (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) in addition to the regular work schedule.
(4) Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.
(5) Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
(6) The relative standard error is not available as the cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.

Table 2. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for civilian workers by occupational and industry group [Sept. 2022]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

Civilian workers(3)

41.86 1.0 28.88 0.9 12.98 1.3 3.10 1.8 1.30 3.0 3.46 1.1 2.13 1.9 2.99 0.7

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

66.88 1.0 45.53 1.0 21.35 1.3 5.88 1.7 2.12 5.4 5.28 1.1 3.94 1.7 4.13 0.8

Management, business and financial

77.70 1.5 53.04 1.5 24.67 1.9 7.54 2.3 3.38 8.4 5.39 1.7 3.64 2.6 4.72 1.0

Professional and related

62.04 1.2 42.17 1.1 19.87 1.5 5.13 1.9 1.56 6.9 5.24 1.4 4.07 2.2 3.87 1.0

Teachers(4)

68.80 1.9 46.50 1.8 22.30 2.3 3.67 3.0 0.27 6.0 6.57 2.6 8.24 3.3 3.56 1.6

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

68.20 2.3 44.93 2.1 23.27 2.9 3.21 5.1 0.24 7.1 7.25 3.0 9.34 3.9 3.22 2.4

Registered nurses

64.71 2.1 42.76 2.5 21.95 1.9 6.57 3.8 2.39 5.5 5.54 2.2 3.05 4.4 4.40 2.5

Sales and office

30.98 1.1 22.04 1.1 8.94 1.4 2.08 2.0 0.81 3.9 2.73 1.8 1.07 2.8 2.26 0.9

Sales and related

30.49 2.5 23.36 2.5 7.13 2.9 1.71 4.8 0.87 7.5 1.59 3.2 0.66 4.9 2.30 2.0

Office and administrative support

31.29 0.9 21.20 0.8 10.09 1.4 2.31 1.4 0.77 3.3 3.45 1.9 1.33 3.1 2.23 0.8

Service

23.09 1.3 16.77 1.1 6.32 2.2 1.19 3.3 0.49 4.1 1.67 3.1 1.01 4.4 1.96 1.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

42.09 1.4 28.35 1.1 13.74 2.3 2.34 2.3 1.52 2.6 3.57 2.5 2.56 7.2 3.74 1.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

43.34 2.3 28.81 1.8 14.53 3.8 1.91 3.0 1.61 3.6 3.70 4.2 3.24 10.3 4.07 1.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

40.73 1.6 27.86 1.4 12.88 2.4 2.82 2.5 1.43 3.2 3.44 3.0 1.81 5.9 3.37 1.3

Production, transportation, and material moving

33.76 1.8 22.63 1.6 11.14 2.5 2.11 3.4 1.43 3.0 3.35 2.8 1.37 7.4 2.88 1.3

Production

31.93 1.3 21.38 1.0 10.55 2.3 1.98 2.4 1.62 3.9 3.35 3.4 0.98 5.2 2.62 1.0

Transportation and material moving

35.30 3.1 23.67 2.7 11.63 4.1 2.21 5.4 1.27 4.2 3.35 4.4 1.70 10.5 3.09 2.1

Industry group

Education and health services

47.64 1.8 32.36 1.8 15.27 1.9 3.69 3.1 0.74 4.1 4.44 1.7 3.38 2.8 3.02 1.5

Educational services

58.76 1.1 38.73 0.9 20.03 1.7 3.77 1.9 0.30 4.9 6.11 2.0 6.72 2.6 3.13 1.2

Elementary and secondary schools

57.62 1.1 37.47 0.8 20.15 1.9 3.03 3.7 0.25 5.0 6.44 2.0 7.54 2.5 2.89 1.3

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

66.08 1.5 43.68 1.5 22.40 2.0 5.82 3.7 0.42 7.4 6.31 2.5 6.14 3.2 3.72 1.4

Health care and social assistance

41.42 3.0 28.81 2.9 12.61 3.3 3.65 4.7 0.98 4.8 3.50 2.9 1.52 5.9 2.96 2.3

Hospitals

55.87 1.4 36.64 1.3 19.24 1.9 5.42 2.5 1.95 4.6 5.47 2.6 2.71 6.0 3.68 1.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(4) Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and instructors.

Table 3. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for state and local government workers by occupational and industry group [Sept. 2022]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

State and local government workers

57.02 0.8 35.29 0.7 21.73 1.0 4.20 1.7 0.57 4.0 6.52 1.0 7.34 1.5 3.10 1.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

67.96 1.0 43.48 1.0 24.49 1.2 4.66 2.2 0.44 4.7 7.09 1.2 8.83 1.7 3.46 1.5

Professional and related

65.97 1.0 42.49 1.0 23.49 1.2 4.13 2.2 0.42 4.9 7.07 1.3 8.53 1.7 3.34 1.5

Teachers(3)

74.35 1.2 49.11 1.2 25.24 1.4 3.56 3.1 0.29 5.6 7.60 1.5 10.28 1.7 3.50 1.8

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

74.11 1.2 48.23 1.2 25.88 1.5 3.25 3.2 0.28 6.1 8.10 1.9 10.94 2.1 3.31 2.0

Sales and office

39.74 1.5 22.79 1.5 16.95 1.9 3.44 2.2 0.35 8.3 6.20 2.2 4.61 3.4 2.36 1.9

Office and administrative support

39.90 1.6 22.82 1.6 17.08 2.0 3.46 2.1 0.35 8.4 6.27 2.2 4.65 3.5 2.35 1.9

Service

42.94 2.5 24.64 2.2 18.30 3.1 3.60 3.5 0.93 7.0 5.21 2.1 5.91 5.0 2.65 2.7

Industry group

Education and health services

59.32 0.9 37.97 0.7 21.35 1.2 3.79 2.5 0.40 4.6 6.65 1.2 7.51 1.6 3.01 1.5

Educational services

60.77 0.8 39.11 0.7 21.66 1.2 3.60 2.6 0.29 4.4 6.76 1.2 8.02 1.6 3.00 1.5

Elementary and secondary schools

59.13 1.0 38.06 0.9 21.07 1.5 2.99 3.1 0.26 4.5 6.79 1.6 8.17 1.9 2.86 1.4

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

65.89 1.9 42.39 2.1 23.50 2.1 5.52 3.8 0.36 12.0 6.63 3.0 7.55 3.9 3.44 2.8

Health care and social assistance

51.01 3.8 31.44 4.0 19.57 4.0 4.88 5.5 1.02 8.8 6.02 4.6 4.59 6.2 3.06 4.7

Hospitals

53.75 4.5 33.79 4.7 19.96 4.8 5.11 6.1 1.19 9.4 6.01 4.9 4.45 10.3 3.21 5.7

Public administration

55.44 1.6 32.02 1.6 23.42 1.7 5.13 2.1 0.85 6.3 6.48 1.5 7.62 2.9 3.33 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and instructors.

Table 4. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by occupational and industry group [Sept. 2022]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

Private industry workers

39.61 1.2 27.93 1.1 11.68 1.5 2.94 2.2 1.41 3.2 3.00 1.4 1.35 2.9 2.98 0.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related occupations

66.56 1.3 46.15 1.2 20.41 1.7 6.24 2.0 2.63 5.7 4.74 1.4 2.45 2.5 4.34 1.0

Management, business, and financial occupations

77.42 1.6 53.46 1.7 23.97 2.1 7.50 2.6 3.72 8.6 5.17 1.9 2.80 3.0 4.78 1.0

Professional and related occupations

60.45 1.6 42.04 1.4 18.41 2.2 5.54 2.3 2.02 7.4 4.50 2.0 2.26 3.5 4.09 1.3

Sales and office occupations

30.25 1.2 21.97 1.2 8.28 1.7 1.96 2.3 0.84 4.1 2.44 2.0 0.78 4.0 2.25 1.0

Sales and related occupations

30.47 2.5 23.38 2.5 7.09 2.9 1.71 4.8 0.87 7.5 1.58 3.2 0.64 5.0 2.30 2.0

Office and administrative support occupations

30.10 1.0 20.97 0.8 9.13 1.7 2.15 1.7 0.83 3.5 3.06 2.2 0.88 4.7 2.21 0.9

Service occupations

20.34 1.5 15.68 1.3 4.66 2.8 0.86 4.4 0.43 4.7 1.18 5.2 0.33 7.2 1.86 1.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

41.55 1.5 28.31 1.2 13.24 2.5 2.19 2.6 1.57 2.6 3.36 2.7 2.34 8.3 3.79 1.3

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

42.93 2.4 28.84 1.9 14.09 4.0 1.72 3.4 1.67 3.7 3.46 4.3 3.08 11.4 4.15 2.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

40.08 1.7 27.74 1.4 12.34 2.7 2.70 2.7 1.46 3.3 3.24 3.5 1.55 7.6 3.39 1.4

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

33.34 1.9 22.50 1.6 10.84 2.6 2.06 3.4 1.45 3.1 3.24 2.8 1.22 8.2 2.87 1.3

Production occupations

31.63 1.3 21.25 1.0 10.38 2.4 1.94 2.5 1.63 3.9 3.30 3.5 0.90 5.4 2.61 1.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

34.84 3.2 23.59 2.8 11.24 4.3 2.17 5.7 1.30 4.3 3.18 4.6 1.50 12.3 3.09 2.2

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(3)

43.37 1.5 29.37 1.5 14.00 1.8 2.79 2.2 1.98 2.5 3.77 1.9 1.94 6.3 3.53 1.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

72.91 1.6 50.02 1.5 22.90 2.1 6.55 2.6 3.12 7.0 5.20 1.8 3.20 4.2 4.82 1.2

Management, business, and financial occupations

76.54 1.6 53.55 1.4 22.99 2.2 6.82 2.8 3.14 6.3 5.03 2.4 2.96 4.0 5.04 1.5

Professional and related occupations

68.82 2.7 46.03 2.7 22.79 3.3 6.25 3.7 3.10 10.4 5.39 2.9 3.46 6.4 4.59 2.3

Sales and office occupations

36.80 4.0 26.54 4.6 10.26 3.2 2.34 4.9 1.21 7.3 3.04 4.3 0.93 7.1 2.74 2.1

Office and administrative support occupations

32.05 1.5 22.78 1.3 9.28 2.5 1.99 3.0 1.04 4.2 2.98 4.8 0.78 6.1 2.49 1.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

42.93 2.2 28.93 1.7 14.01 3.7 1.89 3.3 1.80 3.6 3.47 4.0 2.75 11.4 4.09 1.9

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing and forestry occupations

43.33 2.6 29.10 2.0 14.23 4.2 1.68 3.5 1.74 3.7 3.45 4.5 3.12 12.3 4.24 2.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

41.59 2.2 28.34 1.7 13.25 4.0 2.59 4.1 2.00 5.8 3.53 6.2 1.50 10.1 3.61 2.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

33.45 1.2 22.06 1.0 11.39 1.9 2.08 2.1 1.85 3.3 3.65 3.1 1.04 5.9 2.77 1.1

Production occupations

33.53 1.2 22.06 0.9 11.47 2.2 2.14 2.1 1.87 3.9 3.76 3.3 0.98 5.9 2.71 1.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

33.08 2.8 22.06 2.4 11.02 3.7 1.79 3.9 1.78 3.5 3.14 5.2 1.28 11.7 3.03 2.5

Construction industry

43.92 2.7 30.67 2.7 13.25 3.2 1.99 4.1 1.61 4.6 3.23 3.4 2.37 8.7 4.07 2.0

Manufacturing industry

42.97 1.5 28.59 1.4 14.38 1.9 3.27 2.3 2.15 3.6 4.09 2.3 1.68 6.2 3.20 1.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

75.02 1.8 50.62 1.8 24.40 2.0 7.09 2.7 3.31 7.6 5.58 1.7 3.59 4.5 4.82 1.4

Management, business, and financial occupations

80.49 2.0 55.28 2.0 25.21 2.3 7.70 2.9 3.42 7.2 5.52 2.3 3.49 5.1 5.07 1.9

Professional and related occupations

70.38 2.9 46.67 2.9 23.71 3.3 6.57 3.8 3.21 10.7 5.64 2.8 3.68 6.7 4.60 2.5

Sales and office occupations

36.79 4.5 25.74 4.5 11.05 4.7 2.65 7.3 1.39 10.1 3.28 4.4 1.09 8.5 2.63 3.8

Office and administrative support occupations

32.82 2.2 22.75 1.8 10.07 3.4 2.24 4.2 1.15 5.4 3.37 5.2 0.95 8.4 2.37 1.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

46.83 3.1 29.28 1.8 17.55 6.7 3.19 4.0 2.76 8.1 4.74 8.5 3.16 25.9 3.71 1.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

45.63 2.7 29.66 1.7 15.97 5.1 3.34 3.8 2.58 7.2 4.59 8.1 1.85 10.5 3.62 1.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

33.05 1.1 21.73 0.9 11.33 2.0 2.13 2.0 1.83 3.6 3.70 3.1 0.97 5.2 2.70 1.1

Production occupations

33.35 1.1 21.89 0.8 11.46 2.2 2.16 2.1 1.86 4.1 3.78 3.4 0.96 5.7 2.69 1.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

31.27 2.4 20.76 2.0 10.51 3.4 1.90 3.5 1.66 4.1 3.17 5.0 1.04 9.1 2.74 2.1

Aircraft manufacturing industry

82.15 3.0 50.49 3.2 31.66 2.9 7.77 4.5 5.41 3.8 7.95 1.7 5.38 5.0 5.16 2.3

Service-providing industries(4)

38.86 1.4 27.64 1.3 11.22 1.9 2.97 2.6 1.29 4.1 2.85 1.7 1.24 3.3 2.87 1.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

65.84 1.4 45.72 1.3 20.13 1.9 6.21 2.2 2.58 6.4 4.69 1.6 2.37 2.8 4.28 1.1

Management, business, and financial occupations

77.58 1.9 53.44 1.9 24.14 2.5 7.62 2.9 3.82 9.7 5.19 2.2 2.78 3.6 4.73 1.2

Professional and related occupations

59.78 1.7 41.73 1.6 18.06 2.4 5.48 2.6 1.94 8.2 4.43 2.2 2.16 3.9 4.05 1.4

Sales and office occupations

29.78 1.3 21.65 1.3 8.13 1.7 1.94 2.5 0.82 4.5 2.40 2.1 0.77 4.2 2.21 1.0

Sales and related occupations

29.64 2.5 22.77 2.5 6.87 3.0 1.64 4.9 0.84 8.0 1.53 3.3 0.62 5.2 2.25 2.1

Office and administrative support occupations

29.89 1.1 20.78 0.9 9.11 1.8 2.17 1.8 0.80 3.9 3.07 2.4 0.89 5.0 2.19 1.0

Service occupations

20.31 1.6 15.66 1.3 4.65 2.9 0.86 4.5 0.42 4.8 1.17 5.2 0.33 7.3 1.86 1.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

39.51 2.2 27.39 1.9 12.12 3.3 2.64 3.9 1.23 3.7 3.19 4.6 1.73 8.4 3.33 1.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

39.48 2.4 27.50 1.9 11.98 3.8 2.74 3.5 1.24 3.9 3.13 5.2 1.57 10.1 3.30 1.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

33.26 3.1 22.83 2.7 10.44 4.3 2.05 5.8 1.15 3.8 2.94 4.5 1.35 12.5 2.94 2.2

Production occupations

26.08 3.1 18.88 2.3 7.20 5.9 1.36 7.8 0.91 7.8 1.96 11.4 0.64 12.1 2.32 2.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

35.13 3.8 23.85 3.2 11.28 5.1 2.23 6.5 1.22 5.1 3.19 5.4 1.54 14.0 3.10 2.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

33.77 1.8 24.09 1.6 9.68 2.6 2.24 3.4 1.00 3.8 2.55 2.8 1.23 6.4 2.67 1.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

66.41 3.5 47.56 3.5 18.85 3.5 6.02 4.6 2.07 9.0 4.05 3.7 2.39 5.7 4.32 2.9

Management, business, and financial occupations

76.83 4.3 55.04 4.5 21.79 3.9 7.19 5.8 2.58 10.2 4.53 3.3 2.68 5.9 4.81 3.4

Professional and related occupations

52.01 3.8 37.22 3.7 14.79 4.6 4.39 5.8 1.36 11.5 3.39 5.4 1.99 9.2 3.65 3.0

Sales and office occupations

25.76 1.9 19.38 1.8 6.38 2.3 1.41 3.6 0.62 5.1 1.70 2.9 0.61 4.7 2.04 1.4

Sales and related occupations

24.76 2.9 19.31 2.7 5.45 3.5 1.19 6.0 0.60 7.7 1.19 3.3 0.47 5.9 1.99 2.1

Office and administrative support occupations

27.65 1.1 19.50 0.9 8.15 2.1 1.81 2.3 0.66 4.3 2.66 3.5 0.88 6.1 2.14 1.1

Service occupations

22.56 3.2 16.53 2.7 6.03 4.7 1.17 8.2 0.62 7.1 1.53 6.4 0.76 9.4 1.94 2.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

43.88 2.4 29.58 2.2 14.30 3.2 3.10 3.8 1.54 5.3 3.69 3.9 2.38 6.7 3.58 2.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

44.01 2.6 29.82 2.3 14.18 3.4 3.13 3.9 1.57 5.6 3.61 4.6 2.30 7.3 3.58 2.8

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

37.85 3.5 25.35 3.1 12.50 4.5 2.56 6.2 1.31 5.0 3.57 4.7 1.83 12.1 3.24 2.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

38.44 3.9 25.72 3.5 12.72 5.1 2.60 6.8 1.31 5.6 3.61 5.3 1.90 13.2 3.30 2.6

Wholesale trade industry

44.80 2.8 31.99 2.7 12.82 3.6 3.38 4.3 1.60 4.5 3.15 4.5 1.39 7.3 3.31 2.2

Sales and office occupations

43.30 4.6 31.69 4.9 11.61 4.5 3.07 7.4 1.18 7.2 3.01 4.5 1.29 8.0 3.06 4.0

Office and administrative support occupations

30.32 2.3 21.33 1.7 8.99 4.1 2.09 5.1 1.03 9.4 2.82 5.6 0.76 9.8 2.28 1.5

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

31.20 3.5 21.34 2.8 9.87 5.4 1.93 6.1 1.38 6.8 2.78 6.9 0.94 13.5 2.83 2.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

31.09 4.1 21.32 3.2 9.77 6.5 1.89 6.9 1.33 8.0 2.68 8.1 1.00 16.3 2.87 2.3

Retail trade industry

23.79 1.3 18.22 1.2 5.57 1.9 1.19 3.2 0.60 5.6 1.36 2.4 0.44 3.8 1.99 0.8

Sales and office occupations

21.10 1.1 16.42 0.9 4.68 2.0 0.93 2.6 0.49 7.5 1.15 2.8 0.35 4.4 1.76 0.9

Sales and related occupations

20.46 1.3 16.20 1.1 4.26 2.3 0.81 2.7 0.50 9.2 0.93 3.7 0.28 4.0 1.73 1.2

Office and administrative support occupations

23.19 1.3 17.13 1.0 6.05 2.6 1.31 3.3 0.47 6.1 1.87 4.1 0.58 5.6 1.83 1.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

23.79 1.9 17.05 1.8 6.74 2.9 1.18 4.4 0.70 7.1 1.98 3.8 0.57 6.8 2.32 2.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

23.44 2.2 16.83 2.1 6.61 3.3 1.13 4.8 0.70 8.2 1.91 4.5 0.52 7.6 2.34 2.9

Transportation and warehousing industry

42.89 4.0 28.40 3.7 14.49 4.9 3.14 6.1 1.31 7.0 4.29 4.7 2.32 11.9 3.43 3.1

Utilities industry

76.26 3.6 48.06 5.5 28.20 2.0 7.33 9.4 2.22 16.0 6.83 3.0 6.68 7.7 5.14 2.6

Information industry

65.14 4.0 43.24 4.0 21.90 4.9 6.34 5.9 3.05 7.4 5.66 4.5 2.72 10.3 4.13 3.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

83.45 3.0 55.72 3.1 27.72 4.5 8.68 6.1 4.25 7.7 6.61 4.6 3.09 9.2 5.09 2.5

Professional and related occupations

76.97 4.7 51.16 4.4 25.82 6.2 7.81 9.6 3.69 10.1 6.49 5.3 3.03 12.3 4.81 3.7

Sales and office occupations

41.99 7.3 27.85 7.0 14.13 11.5 3.41 10.7 1.57 11.2 4.41 10.7 (5)1.95 33.3 2.79 5.8

Financial activities industry

54.84 1.8 36.53 1.8 18.31 2.6 4.85 2.0 3.38 10.0 4.75 2.2 1.92 3.2 3.42 1.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

81.03 1.8 52.90 1.7 28.13 3.8 7.87 1.9 6.12 15.5 6.19 1.4 3.17 3.0 4.78 1.1

Management, business, and financial occupations

81.62 2.1 53.20 1.9 28.41 4.8 7.84 2.0 6.64 18.9 6.09 1.8 3.10 3.5 4.73 1.1

Professional and related occupations

79.14 2.5 51.91 2.6 27.23 2.4 7.96 3.3 4.43 4.6 6.50 1.8 3.40 3.9 4.94 2.4

Sales and office occupations

39.80 2.5 27.15 2.6 12.65 2.7 3.12 3.4 1.78 10.2 4.01 2.6 1.23 4.5 2.52 1.8

Sales and related occupations

54.62 7.4 39.47 7.7 15.15 7.8 4.07 8.4 2.79 24.8 3.43 7.5 1.66 9.3 3.20 5.1

Office and administrative support occupations

34.34 1.1 22.61 0.8 11.73 1.6 2.76 1.8 1.40 4.4 4.22 2.0 1.07 3.7 2.27 1.1

Finance and insurance industry

62.19 1.8 40.84 1.9 21.35 2.8 5.68 1.9 4.21 10.9 5.40 1.3 2.38 2.6 3.69 1.4

Credit intermediation and related activities industry

54.52 2.7 36.09 2.8 18.43 3.0 5.17 2.8 2.94 10.8 5.02 1.2 1.98 2.8 3.32 2.2

Insurance carriers and related activities industry

56.62 2.1 37.23 2.0 19.39 2.5 5.06 2.5 3.14 5.6 5.30 2.7 2.34 4.5 3.55 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing industry

34.33 4.6 24.50 3.9 9.82 7.1 2.54 8.1 1.04 11.9 2.94 10.0 0.62 14.5 2.67 3.7

Professional and business services industry

48.43 2.9 34.49 2.6 13.94 4.0 3.93 4.7 1.99 10.2 3.23 3.7 1.36 6.6 3.43 2.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

72.83 2.7 50.84 2.4 21.99 3.8 6.80 4.4 3.36 11.4 4.73 3.2 2.41 5.8 4.69 2.0

Management, business, and financial occupations

81.06 3.5 56.43 3.5 24.63 4.7 8.00 5.8 3.98 15.5 5.00 4.5 2.71 6.3 4.94 2.3

Professional and related occupations

67.22 3.6 47.03 2.8 20.19 5.7 5.97 5.3 2.94 18.1 4.55 3.9 2.20 8.5 4.53 2.9

Sales and office occupations

32.79 3.2 23.93 3.2 8.86 4.6 2.20 6.0 0.90 12.4 2.64 5.1 0.68 10.9 2.44 2.9

Office and administrative support occupations

29.89 3.2 21.37 2.6 8.52 5.1 2.12 6.5 0.86 11.9 2.73 5.5 0.61 12.4 2.20 2.9

Service occupations

22.92 2.5 17.57 2.1 5.35 4.6 1.04 8.6 0.67 15.0 1.35 8.0 0.21 13.7 2.10 2.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

24.56 4.4 18.48 3.5 6.09 8.5 0.92 16.3 1.00 13.4 1.47 18.0 0.30 21.4 2.40 3.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

27.07 7.1 19.88 6.3 7.19 10.9 1.06 20.1 1.32 19.0 1.78 16.1 0.38 25.9 2.66 6.4

Professional, scientific, and technical services industry

64.98 3.9 45.86 3.4 19.12 5.5 5.81 6.0 2.77 15.7 4.31 4.0 1.95 7.5 4.28 3.1

Administrative and waste services industry

27.47 3.0 20.67 2.6 6.80 5.2 1.46 7.2 0.78 9.8 1.75 7.1 0.42 16.5 2.39 2.1

Education and health services industry

42.07 2.7 29.69 2.7 12.38 3.1 3.65 4.4 0.90 5.1 3.39 2.8 1.42 6.1 3.03 2.2

Management, professional, and related occupations

56.40 2.1 39.60 2.1 16.80 2.6 5.32 3.5 1.22 4.6 4.30 3.2 2.10 5.0 3.85 1.8

Management, business, and financial occupations

67.97 5.9 47.85 5.9 20.12 6.3 7.53 8.1 0.85 20.2 4.79 6.2 2.59 8.4 4.36 4.3

Professional and related occupations

55.23 2.0 38.76 2.1 16.47 2.6 5.10 3.4 1.26 4.7 4.25 3.5 2.05 5.4 3.80 1.8

Sales and office occupations

31.35 3.9 22.12 4.2 9.23 5.1 2.55 6.8 0.43 10.6 3.08 8.1 0.85 9.7 2.34 4.1

Office and administrative support occupations

29.94 2.3 20.89 2.0 9.05 5.0 2.41 4.4 0.45 10.0 3.10 8.4 0.88 9.1 2.22 1.8

Service occupations

24.20 2.8 17.44 2.2 6.76 4.6 1.50 5.5 0.58 6.4 2.09 6.8 0.58 12.2 2.02 2.6

Educational services industry

52.18 4.1 37.47 3.5 14.71 6.3 4.34 9.3 0.35 16.0 4.02 6.7 2.47 7.7 3.54 3.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

57.26 4.2 41.46 3.5 15.80 6.5 4.77 9.8 0.36 18.6 4.16 7.0 2.68 7.8 3.83 3.5

Management, business, and financial occupations

72.28 8.3 50.89 7.7 21.38 10.2 7.92 12.1 (5)0.77 33.2 4.95 11.6 3.29 11.5 4.45 6.8

Professional and related occupations

54.22 3.7 39.55 3.4 14.67 5.8 4.13 9.2 0.28 12.9 4.00 6.3 2.56 8.3 3.71 3.3

Sales and office occupations

34.04 6.2 22.87 4.3 11.17 10.8 2.88 12.7 0.21 10.1 4.18 13.3 1.61 14.2 2.30 4.9

Office and administrative support occupations

33.72 6.3 22.52 4.1 11.20 11.1 2.83 12.9 0.20 10.3 4.26 13.4 1.64 14.4 2.26 4.8

Service occupations

27.05 4.0 18.70 2.6 8.35 9.7 2.08 11.9 0.34 13.3 2.40 14.1 1.35 15.2 2.18 3.7

Junior colleges, colleges, universities and professional schools industry

66.40 2.6 45.96 2.3 20.44 4.2 6.36 8.5 0.53 10.6 5.72 3.5 3.62 3.6 4.21 2.6

Health care and social assistance industry

40.64 3.2 28.59 3.1 12.05 3.6 3.55 4.9 0.98 5.3 3.30 3.1 1.27 7.7 2.95 2.5

Registered nurse occupations

64.92 2.5 43.18 2.8 21.74 2.5 6.74 4.5 2.47 5.7 5.39 3.0 2.63 4.6 4.51 2.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

56.20 2.4 39.16 2.5 17.04 2.8 5.45 3.7 1.43 4.9 4.34 3.5 1.97 6.4 3.85 2.1

Professional and related occupations

55.44 2.3 38.60 2.4 16.85 2.7 5.31 3.4 1.47 4.9 4.31 3.9 1.95 6.8 3.82 2.1

Sales and office occupations

31.06 4.4 22.04 4.6 9.03 5.6 2.51 7.5 0.45 11.4 2.96 9.0 0.77 10.6 2.34 4.5

Office and administrative support occupations

29.53 2.5 20.71 2.2 8.82 5.4 2.36 4.6 0.47 10.6 2.97 9.4 0.79 10.2 2.22 1.9

Service occupations

24.11 2.9 17.40 2.2 6.71 4.7 1.48 5.6 0.59 6.6 2.07 7.0 0.56 13.1 2.01 2.7

Hospitals industry

56.32 1.6 37.23 1.6 19.09 2.1 5.49 2.6 2.11 4.9 5.36 3.3 2.35 6.2 3.78 1.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

66.33 2.2 44.33 2.2 22.00 2.5 6.67 3.1 2.43 5.6 5.73 3.6 2.77 6.6 4.40 1.6

Registered nurse occupations

67.07 1.5 43.70 1.4 23.36 2.0 6.89 3.5 2.89 5.5 6.06 3.1 2.98 5.3 4.55 1.7

Service occupations

31.63 1.8 19.73 1.6 11.90 2.6 2.48 3.2 1.54 5.2 4.16 4.0 1.43 10.8 2.29 2.1

Nursing and residential care facilities industry

27.48 2.1 20.05 1.7 7.43 3.4 1.90 4.4 0.71 4.8 2.15 4.4 0.41 7.8 2.26 1.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

41.56 2.1 30.28 2.0 11.28 3.2 3.34 3.4 1.06 6.4 2.95 3.2 0.79 14.6 3.13 1.9

Service occupations

22.05 2.3 16.11 1.7 5.94 4.2 1.33 5.7 0.60 4.7 1.82 6.2 0.27 10.3 1.93 2.0

Nursing care facilities industry

29.86 5.3 21.66 4.2 8.20 8.2 2.06 9.7 0.84 9.8 2.42 9.7 0.47 16.1 2.40 4.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

45.13 4.3 33.25 3.7 11.88 6.7 3.47 7.6 1.22 11.1 3.05 7.4 0.74 13.3 3.40 4.6

Service occupations

22.70 5.4 16.23 4.0 6.47 9.3 1.39 11.8 0.69 9.2 2.10 12.1 0.34 21.5 1.94 4.4

Leisure and hospitality industry

18.37 2.1 14.82 1.9 3.55 3.2 0.57 7.2 0.26 9.6 0.74 6.9 0.22 8.6 1.77 2.1

Sales and office occupations

21.21 5.2 16.32 3.7 4.89 12.5 0.98 12.4 0.25 20.3 1.55 27.4 0.31 18.9 1.80 4.3

Service occupations

16.71 1.9 13.69 1.7 3.02 3.5 0.39 8.5 0.24 9.6 0.55 9.4 0.18 10.5 1.67 2.1

Accommodation and food services industry

17.36 2.7 14.08 2.4 3.29 4.7 0.46 9.2 0.26 11.7 0.67 8.5 0.19 14.8 1.71 2.6

Other services industry

34.51 5.0 25.72 4.4 8.80 7.7 2.30 9.2 0.45 13.4 2.15 10.3 1.20 18.4 2.69 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(4) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific, and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(5) The relative standard error for this estimate is equal to or greater than 30 percent.

Table 5. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by bargaining and work status [Sept. 2022]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

Union workers

53.20 2.0 31.95 2.0 21.24 2.2 3.79 3.6 1.95 4.4 7.06 1.7 4.52 5.4 3.92 1.8

Goods-producing industries(3)

56.70 2.6 32.52 2.5 24.18 3.2 3.05 3.7 2.74 6.5 8.00 3.2 5.93 9.5 4.46 3.2

Manufacturing industry

47.52 3.1 26.97 2.8 20.55 4.0 3.41 4.9 3.10 8.5 7.41 4.2 3.15 13.3 3.47 2.6

Service-providing industries(4)

51.64 2.7 31.70 2.7 19.94 2.8 4.12 4.4 1.60 5.3 6.64 1.9 3.89 6.4 3.69 2.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

52.07 3.8 31.92 4.1 20.15 3.6 4.09 5.7 1.67 8.3 6.56 2.9 4.14 9.0 3.69 3.4

Retail trade industry

26.94 2.4 16.92 2.5 10.02 2.7 1.59 5.6 0.63 8.2 3.90 3.1 1.75 7.7 2.15 2.3

Transportation and warehousing industry

63.17 4.5 38.87 4.9 24.30 4.3 5.22 6.3 2.09 11.0 7.74 3.5 4.93 13.4 4.32 3.3

Education and health services industry

59.58 6.0 36.10 5.8 23.48 6.4 5.30 9.0 1.95 9.4 7.97 3.6 4.16 12.7 4.12 4.6

Health care and social assistance industry

59.06 6.6 35.59 6.5 23.48 7.1 5.28 10.0 2.10 9.8 7.91 3.9 4.09 14.2 4.10 5.1

Nonunion workers

38.37 1.3 27.56 1.2 10.81 1.7 2.86 2.4 1.36 3.6 2.63 1.7 1.06 2.9 2.89 0.9

Goods-producing industries(3)

40.93 1.6 28.80 1.7 12.14 1.7 2.74 2.5 1.84 2.9 2.99 2.0 1.20 4.5 3.36 1.0

Manufacturing industries

42.15 1.6 28.88 1.6 13.26 2.0 3.24 2.6 1.97 4.2 3.48 2.1 1.42 5.0 3.15 1.2

Service-providing industries(4)

37.90 1.5 27.34 1.3 10.57 2.0 2.89 2.7 1.27 4.4 2.56 2.1 1.04 3.5 2.81 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities industries

30.95 1.8 22.88 1.6 8.07 2.4 1.95 3.5 0.90 4.1 1.93 2.4 0.78 5.2 2.51 1.1

Retail trade industries

23.55 1.4 18.32 1.3 5.23 2.1 1.16 3.6 0.59 5.7 1.17 3.2 0.34 3.2 1.97 0.9

Transportation and warehousing industries

33.34 4.0 23.47 3.5 9.87 5.7 2.17 6.9 0.94 10.7 2.66 6.6 1.09 12.1 3.02 2.8

Education and health services industries

40.92 2.8 29.27 2.7 11.65 3.3 3.54 4.6 0.83 5.6 3.09 3.3 1.24 6.1 2.95 2.2

Health care and social assistance industries

39.39 3.3 28.12 3.1 11.27 3.8 3.43 5.2 0.90 5.8 2.98 3.8 1.08 8.1 2.87 2.6

Full-time workers

45.78 1.0 31.62 0.9 14.17 1.3 3.66 1.7 1.76 3.2 3.76 1.1 1.69 2.6 3.30 0.8

Occupational group

Management, professional and related occupations

68.85 1.3 47.37 1.2 21.48 1.6 6.56 1.8 2.82 5.9 5.08 1.2 2.61 2.6 4.41 1.0

Management, business, and financial occupations

78.03 1.6 53.79 1.7 24.24 2.1 7.60 2.5 3.77 8.7 5.23 1.8 2.84 3.0 4.80 1.0

Professional and related occupations

62.90 1.6 43.22 1.5 19.68 2.2 5.88 2.2 2.20 7.9 4.98 1.5 2.46 3.7 4.16 1.4

Sales and office occupations

35.24 1.3 24.88 1.3 10.36 1.4 2.58 2.0 1.10 4.0 3.19 1.7 1.01 3.6 2.49 1.1

Sales and related occupations

41.64 3.0 30.94 3.2 10.70 3.0 2.83 4.4 1.39 8.3 2.56 2.7 1.04 5.3 2.88 2.8

Office and administrative support occupations

32.12 1.0 21.93 0.8 10.19 1.6 2.46 1.6 0.95 3.7 3.49 1.9 0.99 4.6 2.29 0.9

Service occupations

24.76 1.6 18.03 1.4 6.73 2.4 1.42 4.0 0.67 5.2 2.03 3.5 0.54 5.6 2.06 1.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

42.27 1.6 28.69 1.3 13.58 2.4 2.26 2.6 1.61 2.8 3.48 2.6 2.40 8.1 3.83 1.3

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

43.30 2.4 29.06 1.9 14.24 3.7 1.75 3.4 1.69 4.0 3.54 4.1 3.08 11.0 4.17 1.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

41.14 1.7 28.28 1.4 12.85 2.6 2.82 2.7 1.52 3.2 3.43 3.4 1.64 7.6 3.45 1.4

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

35.61 2.1 23.72 1.8 11.89 2.6 2.34 3.6 1.62 2.9 3.62 2.5 1.36 8.7 2.94 1.5

Production occupations

32.74 1.2 21.77 0.9 10.97 2.2 2.07 2.2 1.73 3.9 3.55 3.1 0.96 5.2 2.66 1.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

38.70 3.7 25.83 3.3 12.87 4.5 2.63 6.1 1.51 3.9 3.70 3.9 1.79 13.5 3.25 2.5

Industry group

Goods-producing industries(3)

43.89 1.5 29.66 1.5 14.23 1.7 2.85 2.2 2.01 2.5 3.86 1.8 1.96 5.9 3.56 1.2

Construction industry

44.37 2.7 30.92 2.7 13.45 3.1 2.02 4.1 1.63 4.6 3.29 3.2 2.41 8.6 4.09 2.0

Manufacturing industry

43.53 1.4 28.89 1.4 14.63 1.8 3.34 2.2 2.19 3.4 4.18 2.3 1.70 5.4 3.22 1.0

Service-providing industries(4)

46.30 1.2 32.15 1.1 14.15 1.6 3.88 2.0 1.69 4.1 3.73 1.4 1.62 2.9 3.23 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

41.14 1.8 28.61 1.6 12.53 2.2 3.10 3.0 1.34 3.6 3.37 2.1 1.64 6.2 3.08 1.3

Information industry

70.37 3.1 46.43 3.2 23.93 3.8 6.86 4.6 3.40 7.0 6.25 3.2 3.02 9.3 4.41 2.4

Financial activities industry

57.01 1.9 37.78 1.8 19.22 2.7 5.11 2.0 3.58 10.3 4.99 1.9 2.02 3.1 3.51 1.5

Professional and business services industry

52.68 2.8 37.10 2.5 15.59 3.8 4.48 4.5 2.25 10.2 3.69 2.9 1.56 6.4 3.60 2.1

Education and health services industry

44.63 2.7 30.91 2.5 13.72 3.2 4.07 4.1 0.96 5.5 3.98 2.7 1.61 6.2 3.09 2.1

Leisure and hospitality industry

25.10 2.4 19.05 2.3 6.06 3.8 1.26 7.9 0.49 11.3 1.68 7.1 0.48 7.5 2.15 2.3

Other services industry

40.05 6.0 28.95 5.4 11.11 8.3 3.04 9.5 0.57 14.1 2.91 10.3 1.63 18.6 2.95 3.6

Part-time workers

21.28 2.1 16.98 2.0 4.30 3.4 0.81 7.3 0.36 6.2 0.76 6.0 0.35 7.1 2.02 1.7

Occupational group

Management, professional and related occupations

46.66 5.6 35.53 5.2 11.13 7.7 3.51 11.4 1.02 12.6 1.81 12.0 1.11 8.7 3.67 5.2

Professional and related occupations

46.62 6.1 35.42 5.6 11.20 8.3 3.59 12.1 1.03 13.0 1.78 12.9 1.12 9.3 3.68 5.6

Sales and office occupations

18.75 1.1 15.27 0.9 3.49 3.1 0.54 4.7 0.26 5.8 0.72 9.2 0.26 8.4 1.70 1.3

Sales and related occupations

16.98 1.1 14.24 1.0 2.74 2.4 0.35 5.4 0.24 5.9 0.39 10.2 0.17 7.8 1.60 1.6

Office and administrative support occupations

21.71 2.3 16.98 1.8 4.73 5.5 0.86 5.7 0.30 10.7 1.27 13.2 0.41 9.7 1.88 2.6

Service occupations

16.17 2.0 13.46 1.6 2.71 5.0 0.33 8.1 0.20 9.5 0.37 17.7 0.14 19.7 1.68 1.8

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

22.64 2.5 16.73 2.1 5.91 5.2 0.76 6.8 0.63 9.2 1.43 11.2 0.56 11.1 2.52 2.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

23.66 3.2 17.13 2.5 6.53 6.4 0.82 8.0 0.70 10.9 1.68 12.8 0.68 12.5 2.65 2.7

Industry group

Service-providing industries(4)

21.20 2.2 16.93 2.0 4.27 3.4 0.81 7.4 0.36 6.4 0.76 6.1 0.34 6.1 2.01 1.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

19.90 2.1 15.57 1.2 4.33 5.1 0.62 6.4 0.37 6.8 1.00 8.9 0.44 10.4 1.90 1.7

Professional and business services industry

24.07 5.3 19.56 4.7 4.52 9.3 0.80 11.9 0.52 28.0 0.61 21.7 0.17 24.8 2.42 4.6

Education and health services industry

33.75 7.0 25.74 7.0 8.02 7.7 2.28 13.2 0.69 10.0 1.46 10.9 0.78 10.3 2.80 5.9

Leisure and hospitality industry

14.76 2.0 12.55 1.7 2.21 4.7 0.20 10.6 0.13 18.4 0.23 24.7 0.08 21.3 1.57 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(4) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

Table 6. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by establishment size and industry group [Sept. 2022]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

All workers

39.61 1.2 27.93 1.1 11.68 1.5 2.94 2.2 1.41 3.2 3.00 1.4 1.35 2.9 2.98 0.8

1-99 workers

32.87 1.5 24.47 1.4 8.40 2.1 2.04 2.7 0.86 5.2 2.06 2.8 0.78 5.2 2.66 1.1

1-49 workers

31.99 2.0 24.04 1.7 7.94 2.9 1.92 3.5 0.80 7.4 1.90 3.9 0.70 6.6 2.61 1.4

50-99 workers

36.04 3.0 25.99 2.8 10.05 3.6 2.45 5.0 1.05 6.1 2.63 4.3 1.08 7.2 2.84 2.0

100 workers or more

48.09 1.4 32.28 1.4 15.81 1.7 4.08 2.3 2.10 4.0 4.18 1.4 2.07 3.1 3.38 1.0

100-499 workers

40.97 2.0 28.43 1.9 12.54 2.3 3.16 3.4 1.44 3.9 3.39 2.1 1.50 5.2 3.05 1.4

500 workers or more

57.25 1.9 37.24 1.8 20.02 2.2 5.26 2.8 2.95 5.4 5.21 2.0 2.80 3.8 3.80 1.5

Goods-producing industries(3)

43.37 1.5 29.37 1.5 14.00 1.8 2.79 2.2 1.98 2.5 3.77 1.9 1.94 6.3 3.53 1.3

1-99 workers

36.81 2.1 26.36 1.6 10.45 3.8 1.89 3.2 1.32 3.3 2.56 5.5 1.33 13.5 3.35 1.7

1-49 workers

34.98 2.5 25.54 1.9 9.44 4.8 1.68 3.7 1.14 5.8 2.16 8.0 1.14 16.6 3.32 2.3

50-99 workers

41.56 2.4 28.51 2.2 13.05 3.4 2.43 5.8 1.78 6.3 3.63 5.1 1.81 13.3 3.41 2.3

100 workers or more

49.42 2.0 32.15 2.2 17.27 2.0 3.62 2.6 2.58 3.2 4.88 2.2 2.50 5.9 3.70 1.8

100-499 workers

46.11 2.2 30.64 2.4 15.47 2.4 3.07 4.0 2.12 3.7 4.34 3.0 2.30 9.2 3.65 1.9

500 workers or more

54.40 3.1 34.41 3.3 19.98 3.0 4.45 4.6 3.27 5.4 5.69 2.8 2.79 4.6 3.79 2.5

Manufacturing industry

42.97 1.5 28.59 1.4 14.38 1.9 3.27 2.3 2.15 3.6 4.09 2.3 1.68 6.2 3.20 1.1

1-99 workers

34.29 2.8 24.46 2.4 9.83 4.5 2.17 4.0 1.26 5.8 2.64 5.7 0.96 23.3 2.79 2.4

1-49 workers

31.26 3.5 22.93 3.0 8.33 6.4 1.83 6.0 1.00 7.7 2.07 8.6 (4)0.77 37.4 2.65 2.9

50-99 workers

39.24 3.8 26.96 3.3 12.28 5.9 2.74 6.4 1.68 7.3 3.58 7.0 1.26 24.3 3.02 3.3

100 workers or more

47.86 1.9 30.91 2.1 16.95 1.9 3.88 2.7 2.65 3.8 4.90 2.2 2.09 4.3 3.43 1.6

100-499 workers

41.92 2.3 27.96 2.4 13.96 2.3 3.25 3.7 1.97 4.7 4.08 2.6 1.49 5.6 3.16 1.4

500 workers or more

54.77 3.3 34.35 3.5 20.42 3.2 4.61 4.4 3.43 5.5 5.85 3.1 2.79 5.3 3.73 2.9

Service-providing industries(5)

38.86 1.4 27.64 1.3 11.22 1.9 2.97 2.6 1.29 4.1 2.85 1.7 1.24 3.3 2.87 1.0

1-99 workers

32.22 1.7 24.15 1.6 8.06 2.4 2.07 3.1 0.78 6.5 1.98 3.2 0.69 5.3 2.55 1.2

1-49 workers

31.53 2.3 23.82 2.0 7.72 3.3 1.96 3.9 0.75 9.0 1.87 4.5 0.63 7.1 2.50 1.5

50-99 workers

34.81 3.6 25.43 3.4 9.38 4.4 2.46 5.9 0.88 7.9 2.41 5.3 0.92 8.2 2.71 2.4

100 workers or more

47.77 1.7 32.32 1.6 15.45 2.1 4.19 2.7 1.98 5.1 4.01 1.8 1.97 3.7 3.30 1.1

100-499 workers

39.62 2.4 27.85 2.3 11.76 2.9 3.18 4.1 1.26 5.2 3.14 2.7 1.29 6.3 2.89 1.8

500 workers or more

57.88 2.1 37.85 2.1 20.02 2.5 5.44 3.1 2.89 6.6 5.10 2.3 2.80 4.5 3.80 1.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

33.77 1.8 24.09 1.6 9.68 2.6 2.24 3.4 1.00 3.8 2.55 2.8 1.23 6.4 2.67 1.3

1-99 workers

29.82 2.0 22.47 1.7 7.36 3.1 1.70 4.1 0.74 5.8 1.76 3.6 0.67 6.9 2.49 1.4

1-49 workers

29.40 2.0 22.40 1.8 7.00 3.1 1.63 4.2 0.70 6.3 1.61 3.9 0.60 7.2 2.47 1.4

50-99 workers

31.28 3.2 22.70 2.6 8.59 5.2 1.94 6.2 0.85 10.7 2.30 6.5 0.93 10.2 2.56 2.7

100 workers or more

38.62 2.9 26.08 2.7 12.54 3.4 2.90 4.6 1.33 3.7 3.51 3.1 1.91 8.4 2.89 2.2

100-499 workers

31.87 2.4 22.29 2.2 9.58 3.3 2.12 3.6 1.05 3.9 2.67 3.3 1.21 8.8 2.53 1.9

500 workers or more

52.55 5.3 33.90 5.3 18.65 5.5 4.50 7.7 1.91 7.2 5.23 5.8 3.36 11.4 3.65 4.2

Wholesale trade industry

44.80 2.8 31.99 2.7 12.82 3.6 3.38 4.3 1.60 4.5 3.15 4.5 1.39 7.3 3.31 2.2

1-99 workers

44.75 3.9 32.54 3.8 12.21 4.7 3.26 5.8 1.45 7.8 2.93 5.1 1.23 8.3 3.34 3.0

1-49 workers

45.28 4.4 33.16 4.3 12.13 5.5 3.23 6.3 1.39 9.3 2.86 5.9 1.26 9.8 3.39 3.2

100 workers or more

44.91 4.7 30.94 4.6 13.97 5.3 3.59 6.6 1.87 9.6 3.56 5.0 1.70 13.3 3.25 3.2

100-499 workers

44.36 5.5 30.93 5.4 13.43 6.2 3.46 8.3 1.66 12.0 3.47 4.4 1.62 17.2 3.22 3.8

Retail trade industry

23.79 1.3 18.22 1.2 5.57 1.9 1.19 3.2 0.60 5.6 1.36 2.4 0.44 3.8 1.99 0.8

1-99 workers

22.65 1.8 17.96 1.7 4.69 2.7 0.98 5.6 0.44 9.5 1.03 4.0 0.29 5.3 1.95 1.4

1-49 workers

22.11 2.2 17.73 2.0 4.38 3.6 0.92 7.1 0.43 12.3 0.88 4.7 0.23 7.3 1.92 1.8

50-99 workers

24.62 3.9 18.78 3.8 5.84 5.1 1.21 7.5 0.48 12.8 1.58 7.4 0.54 11.7 2.04 3.4

100 workers or more

25.55 2.0 18.62 1.8 6.93 3.0 1.52 3.9 0.84 5.1 1.87 3.8 0.66 5.3 2.05 1.3

100-499 workers

25.11 1.8 18.32 1.7 6.79 2.4 1.46 3.0 0.82 4.1 1.85 3.0 0.63 4.9 2.03 1.2

Transportation and warehousing industry

42.89 4.0 28.40 3.7 14.49 4.9 3.14 6.1 1.31 7.0 4.29 4.7 2.32 11.9 3.43 3.1

1-99 workers

31.10 4.1 22.65 3.3 8.45 7.2 1.70 7.9 0.61 11.6 2.34 11.6 0.75 18.6 3.05 3.2

1-49 workers

30.17 3.6 22.36 3.1 7.80 6.8 1.58 7.6 0.52 15.8 2.14 12.7 0.57 17.7 2.99 3.5

100 workers or more

49.54 4.2 31.64 4.1 17.90 4.8 3.96 6.0 1.70 7.1 5.38 5.2 3.20 12.1 3.65 3.4

100-499 workers

39.98 5.6 25.99 5.0 13.99 7.5 2.76 8.3 1.20 13.1 4.44 6.5 2.18 22.2 3.40 3.7

Information industry

65.14 4.0 43.24 4.0 21.90 4.9 6.34 5.9 3.05 7.4 5.66 4.5 2.72 10.3 4.13 3.3

1-99 workers

45.68 7.1 31.91 6.9 13.77 9.1 3.82 9.8 1.60 24.0 3.64 8.6 1.50 24.0 3.21 6.0

100 workers or more

79.38 3.3 51.53 3.4 27.84 3.9 8.18 6.1 4.11 6.7 7.14 2.3 3.62 12.1 4.80 2.6

100-499 workers

69.62 8.4 46.75 9.2 22.87 8.0 6.61 11.0 2.68 13.4 6.47 5.4 2.74 17.8 4.37 5.6

500 workers or more

89.05 5.4 56.28 5.5 32.77 5.8 9.73 10.4 5.53 6.5 7.80 3.9 4.49 16.2 5.22 4.7

Financial activities industry

54.84 1.8 36.53 1.8 18.31 2.6 4.85 2.0 3.38 10.0 4.75 2.2 1.92 3.2 3.42 1.4

1-99 workers

44.55 4.0 30.90 3.6 13.64 5.5 3.62 4.3 2.09 19.2 3.75 5.1 1.24 6.5 2.94 2.6

1-49 workers

43.42 4.4 30.15 3.8 13.27 6.3 3.47 4.5 2.12 22.3 3.63 5.7 1.16 6.9 2.89 2.8

100 workers or more

67.10 3.1 43.23 2.3 23.87 5.0 6.31 3.1 4.91 16.3 5.93 2.4 2.72 3.8 3.99 2.1

100-499 workers

62.43 4.4 41.49 4.1 20.93 5.4 5.75 5.1 3.44 18.6 5.59 3.3 2.33 6.9 3.81 3.4

500 workers or more

71.08 3.5 44.72 2.5 26.36 6.3 6.79 3.1 6.16 21.7 6.22 3.3 3.06 3.7 4.13 2.2

Professional and business services industry

48.43 2.9 34.49 2.6 13.94 4.0 3.93 4.7 1.99 10.2 3.23 3.7 1.36 6.6 3.43 2.1

1-99 workers

45.52 3.3 33.67 3.0 11.84 4.6 3.28 4.9 1.45 17.1 2.85 6.2 0.91 9.3 3.35 2.4

1-49 workers

42.79 5.3 31.88 4.8 10.91 7.2 2.93 8.0 1.34 23.8 2.65 9.5 0.76 14.1 3.23 3.7

50-99 workers

55.49 9.1 40.23 9.2 15.27 9.3 4.53 12.7 1.85 17.8 3.61 8.8 1.46 17.8 3.81 6.5

100 workers or more

51.32 3.9 35.30 3.4 16.02 5.3 4.58 6.1 2.53 11.0 3.60 4.1 1.80 9.5 3.50 2.9

100-499 workers

46.36 5.6 33.02 5.3 13.34 6.9 4.03 9.1 1.50 9.5 3.30 6.0 1.25 15.4 3.26 4.1

500 workers or more

56.97 4.7 37.90 4.3 19.07 6.1 5.22 7.3 3.71 11.8 3.95 5.9 2.43 9.7 3.77 3.5

Education and health services industry

42.07 2.7 29.69 2.7 12.38 3.1 3.65 4.4 0.90 5.1 3.39 2.8 1.42 6.1 3.03 2.2

1-99 workers

33.91 3.3 25.41 3.1 8.50 5.0 2.53 5.3 0.35 8.7 2.26 8.1 0.77 15.6 2.59 2.4

1-49 workers

33.99 3.9 25.73 3.5 8.26 6.3 2.51 6.5 0.32 13.4 2.09 10.9 0.76 19.1 2.58 2.7

50-99 workers

33.65 4.2 24.31 4.2 9.33 5.6 2.62 8.3 0.45 12.9 2.84 8.5 0.79 12.5 2.64 3.9

100 workers or more

49.52 3.2 33.60 3.3 15.92 3.4 4.67 4.6 1.40 4.5 4.42 3.1 2.01 6.4 3.42 2.4

100-499 workers

38.70 8.1 27.50 7.6 11.20 10.0 3.36 11.6 0.79 17.1 3.03 8.7 1.16 23.2 2.86 6.3

500 workers or more

57.79 2.5 38.26 2.6 19.53 2.6 5.66 3.5 1.87 3.4 5.48 2.4 2.67 5.6 3.85 2.6

Educational services industry

52.18 4.1 37.47 3.5 14.71 6.3 4.34 9.3 0.35 16.0 4.02 6.7 2.47 7.7 3.54 3.4

1-99 workers

37.24 6.7 28.92 6.0 8.31 11.2 2.21 15.7 0.11 17.6 2.04 16.5 1.08 19.0 2.88 7.8

100 workers or more

63.78 2.5 44.10 2.3 19.68 3.3 6.00 7.0 0.54 15.0 5.55 2.7 3.54 5.2 4.05 3.0

100-499 workers

52.54 7.5 37.48 7.8 15.06 7.6 4.61 11.2 (4)0.29 55.2 4.38 6.9 2.19 15.8 3.59 8.3

500 workers or more

71.52 2.1 48.66 2.2 22.85 3.1 6.95 8.4 0.71 10.1 6.36 1.9 4.47 1.8 4.36 2.6

Health care and social assistance industry

40.64 3.2 28.59 3.1 12.05 3.6 3.55 4.9 0.98 5.3 3.30 3.1 1.27 7.7 2.95 2.5

1-99 workers

33.49 3.7 24.97 3.4 8.52 5.4 2.57 5.5 0.38 8.9 2.29 8.7 0.73 18.4 2.56 2.6

1-49 workers

34.12 4.2 25.67 3.9 8.45 6.5 2.60 6.6 0.34 13.6 2.17 11.1 0.77 20.6 2.57 2.9

50-99 workers

31.10 4.9 22.31 4.6 8.78 7.0 2.47 10.2 0.52 13.4 2.74 10.5 0.56 17.8 2.49 3.9

100 workers or more

47.32 3.9 31.98 4.0 15.34 4.0 4.46 5.4 1.54 4.6 4.24 3.5 1.78 8.1 3.32 2.8

100-499 workers

36.71 9.9 26.07 9.3 10.64 12.3 3.18 14.2 0.86 17.1 2.83 10.8 (4)1.01 31.0 2.76 7.5

500 workers or more

55.56 3.0 36.57 3.2 18.99 3.1 5.46 3.9 2.06 3.4 5.34 2.7 2.37 7.1 3.76 3.1

Leisure and hospitality industry

18.37 2.1 14.82 1.9 3.55 3.2 0.57 7.2 0.26 9.6 0.74 6.9 0.22 8.6 1.77 2.1

1-99 workers

17.26 2.7 14.23 2.4 3.03 4.6 0.43 10.6 0.22 11.9 0.55 9.8 0.12 12.1 1.72 2.7

1-49 workers

16.88 3.2 13.96 2.7 2.92 6.2 0.39 12.7 0.22 16.3 0.55 13.8 0.09 20.0 1.67 3.0

50-99 workers

18.64 5.1 15.19 4.6 3.45 8.8 0.56 21.4 0.24 18.8 0.52 22.5 0.22 29.7 1.90 3.7

100 workers or more

23.85 4.4 17.74 3.9 6.11 7.6 1.25 10.8 0.43 13.4 1.67 14.1 0.70 13.9 2.05 3.1

100-499 workers

23.22 6.8 17.70 6.4 5.51 9.4 1.10 16.0 0.44 16.8 1.36 15.9 0.52 19.7 2.08 4.0

500 workers or more

25.41 10.9 17.82 8.6 7.59 17.2 1.63 17.6 0.41 19.8 2.43 21.5 1.15 27.5 1.98 9.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(4) The relative standard error for this estimate is equal to or greater than 30 percent.
(5) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

Table 7. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by census region and division [Sept. 2022]
Area(1) Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3)

Northeast

43.84 1.6 30.28 1.6 13.55 2.1 3.42 3.6 1.64 8.4 3.49 1.9 1.65 5.1 3.34 1.1

New England

44.18 4.2 30.60 4.5 13.57 3.8 3.46 9.7 1.89 17.9 3.40 3.5 1.55 7.3 3.28 2.6

Middle Atlantic

43.71 1.8 30.16 1.6 13.55 2.5 3.41 3.5 1.55 8.6 3.53 2.2 1.69 6.3 3.37 1.3

South

35.65 2.4 25.82 2.1 9.82 3.3 2.58 4.3 1.19 5.4 2.37 3.2 1.06 5.5 2.61 1.7

South Atlantic

36.83 2.5 26.63 2.3 10.20 3.3 2.75 4.5 1.11 5.4 2.46 3.7 1.14 5.6 2.73 1.9

East South Central

32.39 0.8 23.36 0.8 9.03 1.1 2.27 1.5 1.09 4.3 2.38 4.2 0.92 9.1 2.37 0.8

West South Central

35.15 6.3 25.61 5.4 9.54 8.9 2.45 11.3 1.37 12.7 2.22 7.7 0.99 14.9 2.52 4.5

Midwest

38.34 2.7 26.45 2.6 11.89 3.1 2.75 5.0 1.58 4.9 3.28 2.6 1.47 6.8 2.82 1.8

East North Central

39.46 3.5 27.25 3.3 12.21 4.0 2.83 6.5 1.63 5.4 3.28 3.3 1.61 8.7 2.87 2.2

West North Central

35.85 3.5 24.67 3.1 11.17 4.5 2.58 5.8 1.46 10.4 3.28 4.3 1.16 6.7 2.70 2.7

West

43.16 2.3 30.53 2.1 12.62 3.1 3.26 4.4 1.36 7.1 3.22 2.5 1.41 4.6 3.37 1.5

Mountain

36.20 3.1 25.68 2.8 10.52 3.8 2.50 7.5 1.23 6.8 2.87 3.1 1.18 7.2 2.75 2.8

Pacific

46.27 2.9 32.71 2.6 13.56 4.0 3.60 5.4 1.41 9.6 3.38 3.3 1.52 5.6 3.65 1.9

Footnotes
(1) The census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
(2) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(3) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.

 

Last Modified Date: December 15, 2022