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Wednesday, June 28, 2017


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Occupational Employment and Wages in Fresno — May 2016

Workers in the Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $21.76 in May 2016, about 9 percent below the nationwide average of $23.86, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Assistant Commissioner for Regional Operations Richard Holden noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were lower than their respective national averages in 12 of the 22 major occupational groups, including management; computer and mathematical; and legal. Six groups had significantly higher wages than their respective national averages, including healthcare practitioners and technical; education, training, and library; and community and social service.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, local employment was more highly concentrated in 3 of the 22 occupational groups, including education, training, and library; and community and social service. Conversely, 10 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including computer and mathematical; business and financial operations; and sales and related. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2016
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Fresno United States Fresno Percent difference (1)

Total, all occupations

100.0 100.0 $23.86 $21.76* -9


5.1 4.2* 56.74 48.67* -14

Business and financial operations

5.2 3.9* 36.09 30.96* -14

Computer and mathematical

3.0 1.0* 42.25 35.07* -17

Architecture and engineering

1.8 0.9* 40.53 42.63 5

Life, physical, and social science

0.8 0.8 35.06 30.70* -12

Community and social service

1.4 1.9* 22.69 24.34* 7


0.8 0.7 50.95 44.69* -12

Education, training, and library

6.2 8.0* 26.21 29.67* 13

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.4 1.0* 28.07 22.54* -20

Healthcare practitioners and technical

5.9 5.8 38.06 43.35* 14

Healthcare support

2.9 2.7 14.65 15.07 3

Protective service

2.4 2.2 22.03 23.62 7

Food preparation and serving related

9.2 8.3* 11.47 12.47* 9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.2 2.6* 13.47 13.94* 3

Personal care and service

3.2 2.6* 12.74 13.59* 7

Sales and related

10.4 9.2* 19.50 17.89* -8

Office and administrative support

15.7 15.9 17.91 17.49 -2

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 8.1* 13.37 11.15* -17

Construction and extraction

4.0 3.4* 23.51 22.67* -4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 3.7 22.45 21.48* -4


6.5 5.9 17.88 15.19* -15

Transportation and material moving

6.9 7.2 17.34 16.03* -8

(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in the Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
* The percent share of employment or mean hourly wage for this area is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

One occupational group—education, training, and library—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Fresno had 28,180 jobs in education, training, and library, accounting for 8.0 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 6.2-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $29.67, significantly above the national wage of $26.21.

Some of the largest detailed occupations within the education, training, and library group included teacher assistants (5,070), secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education (4,630), and elementary school teachers, except special education (3,620). Among the higher paying jobs were instructional coordinators and librarians, with mean hourly wages of $39.42 and $34.36, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were preschool teachers, except special education ($13.75) and library technicians ($17.05). (Detailed occupational data for education, training, and library are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to .)

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in some of the occupations within the education, training, and library group. For instance, adult basic and secondary education and literacy teachers and instructors were employed at 4.6 times the national rate in Fresno, and postsecondary vocational education teachers, at 2.0 times the U.S. average. On the other hand, elementary school teachers, except special education, had a location quotient of 1.0 in Fresno, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the California Employment Development Department.

Notes on Occupational Employment Statistics Data

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. The OES data available from BLS include cross-industry occupational employment and wage estimates for the nation; over 650 areas, including states and the District of Columbia, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), metropolitan divisions, nonmetropolitan areas, and territories; national industry-specific estimates at the NAICS sector, 3-, 4-, and selected 5- and 6-digit industry levels, and national estimates by ownership across all industries and for schools and hospitals. OES data are available at

OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Each year, two semiannual panels of approximately 200,000 sampled establishments are contacted, one panel in May and the other in November. Responses are obtained by mail, Internet or other electronic means, email, telephone, or personal visit. The May 2016 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2016, November 2015, May 2015, November 2014, May 2014, and November 2013. The overall national response rate for the six panels, based on the 50 states and the District of Columbia, is 73 percent based on establishments and 69 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The unweighted employment of sampled establishments across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 58 percent of total national employment. The sample in the Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area included 2,701 establishments with a response rate of 67 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to

The May 2016 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at

Metropolitan area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Fresno, Calif. Metropolitan Statistical Area  includes Fresno County.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request . Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2016
Occupation (1) Employment Mean wages
Level (2) Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual (4)

Education, training, and library occupations

28,180 1.3 $29.67 $61,710

Business teachers, postsecondary

100 0.5 (5) (5)

Mathematical science teachers, postsecondary

150 1.2 (5) 134,500

Biological science teachers, postsecondary

70 0.6 (5) 102,690

Psychology teachers, postsecondary

(5) (5) (5) 119,900

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary

160 0.3 (5) (5)

Nursing instructors and teachers, postsecondary

70 0.5 (5) 91,060

Art, drama, and music teachers, postsecondary

(5) (5) (5) 97,270

Communications teachers, postsecondary

70 1.0 (5) 105,340

English language and literature teachers, postsecondary

210 1.2 (5) 120,270

History teachers, postsecondary

60 1.0 (5) 115,730

Graduate teaching assistants

(5) (5) (5) 29,870

Vocational education teachers, postsecondary

570 2.0 30.83 64,130

Postsecondary teachers, all other

1,410 2.9 (5) 68,870

Preschool teachers, except special education

920 1.0 13.75 28,610

Kindergarten teachers, except special education

410 1.1 (5) 59,040

Elementary school teachers, except special education

3,620 1.0 (5) 74,590

Middle school teachers, except special and career/technical education

1,510 1.0 (5) 64,300

Secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education

4,630 1.9 (5) 81,560

Career/technical education teachers, secondary school

150 0.7 (5) 79,160

Special education teachers, preschool

(5) (5) (5) 76,450

Special education teachers, kindergarten and elementary school

580 1.2 (5) 77,620

Special education teachers, middle school

270 1.2 (5) 64,790

Special education teachers, secondary school

360 1.1 (5) 84,170

Special education teachers, all other

90 0.9 (5) 77,230

Adult basic and secondary education and literacy teachers and instructors

680 4.6 28.77 59,830

Self-enrichment education teachers

240 0.4 18.08 37,600

Teachers and instructors, all other, except substitute teachers

900 1.2 (5) 43,160

Substitute teachers

2,420 1.6 17.48 36,350


170 0.5 34.36 71,470

Library technicians

330 1.4 17.05 35,470

Instructional coordinators

620 1.7 39.42 82,000

Teacher assistants

5,070 1.6 (5) 30,790

Education, training, and library workers, all other

290 1.1 24.77 51,530

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area, see
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimate not released.


Last Modified Date: Wednesday, June 28, 2017