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News Release Information

Monday, August 08, 2022

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  • (312) 353-1138

Occupational Employment and Wages in Toledo — May 2021

Workers in the Toledo, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $24.38 in May 2021, 13 percent below the nationwide average of $28.01, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Jason Palmer noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were lower than their respective national averages in 18 of the 22 major occupational groups, including computer and mathematical, legal, and management. Two groups had significantly higher wages than their respective national averages: construction and extraction and production.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, Toledo area employment was more highly concentrated in 6 of the 22 occupational groups, including production, healthcare practitioners and technical, and transportation and material moving. Fourteen groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including business and financial operations, computer and mathematical, and management. (See table A.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Toledo metropolitan area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2021
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Toledo United States Toledo Percent difference (1)

Total, all occupations

100.0 100.0 $28.01 $24.38* -13


6.3 4.7* 59.31 50.58* -15

Business and financial operations

6.4 4.6* 39.72 33.77* -15

Computer and mathematical

3.3 1.6* 48.01 34.56* -28

Architecture and engineering

1.7 1.7 44.10 38.44* -13

Life, physical, and social science

0.9 0.5* 38.81 36.12* -7

Community and social service

1.6 1.5 25.94 24.18* -7


0.8 0.5* 54.38 41.83* -23

Educational instruction and library

5.8 6.3* 29.88 29.25 -2

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3 0.9* 31.78 25.16* -21

Healthcare practitioners and technical

6.2 7.9* 43.80 38.39* -12

Healthcare support

4.7 4.2* 16.02 15.54* -3

Protective service

2.4 2.1* 25.68 23.48* -9

Food preparation and serving related

8.0 8.8* 14.16 12.43* -12

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

2.9 2.8* 16.23 14.78* -9

Personal care and service

1.8 1.6* 16.17 14.32* -11

Sales and related

9.4 8.4* 22.15 19.67* -11

Office and administrative support

13.0 11.8* 20.88 19.56* -6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 0.1* 16.70 17.53 5

Construction and extraction

4.2 3.5* 26.87 27.86* 4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

4.0 4.3* 25.66 25.17* -2


6.0 12.1* 20.71 21.25* 3

Transportation and material moving

9.0 10.1* 19.88 18.81* -5

(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in the Toledo, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
* The mean hourly wage or percent share of employment is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

One occupational group—production—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Toledo had 33,710 jobs in production, accounting for 12.1 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 6.0-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $21.25, significantly above the national wage of $20.71.

Some of the larger detailed occupations within the production group included miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators (11,400), first-line supervisors of production and operating workers (1,830), and machinists (1,770). Among the higher-paying jobs in this group were first-line supervisors of production and operating workers and tool and die makers, with mean hourly wages of $33.30 and $27.99, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were laundry and dry-cleaning workers ($11.93) and meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers ($13.61). (Detailed data for the production occupations are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Toledo area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the production group. For instance, engine and other machine assemblers were employed at 14.1 times the national rate in Toledo, and multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic, at 5.8 times the U.S. average. Food batchmakers had a location quotient of 1.0 in Toledo, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Ohio Department of Job and Family Services.

Changes to the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) Data

With the May 2021 estimates release, the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program has implemented a new model-based (MB3) estimation method. For more information, see the May 2021 Survey Methods and Reliability Statement at and the Monthly Labor Review article at OEWS estimates for the years 2015-19 were recalculated using the new estimation method and are available as research estimates at

The May 2021 OEWS estimates are also the first estimates based entirely on survey data collected using the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. To improve data quality, the OEWS program aggregates some occupations to the SOC broad occupation level or as OEWS-specific combinations of 2018 SOC detailed occupations.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey is a semiannual survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. The OEWS data available from BLS include cross-industry occupational employment and wage estimates for the nation; over 580 areas, including states and the District of Columbia, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan areas, and territories; national industry-specific estimates at the NAICS sector, 3-digit, most 4-digit, and selected 5- and 6-digit industry levels, and national estimates by ownership across all industries and for schools and hospitals. OEWS data are available at

The OEWS survey is a cooperative effort between BLS and the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). BLS funds the survey and provides the procedures and technical support, while the State Workforce Agencies collect most of the data. OEWS estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.1 million establishments. Each year, two semiannual panels of approximately 179,000 to 187,000 sampled establishments are contacted, one panel in May and the other in November. Responses are obtained by Internet or other electronic means, mail, email, telephone, or personal visit. The May 2021 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2021, November 2020, May 2020, November 2019, May 2019, and November 2018. The unweighted sampled employment of 82 million across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 62 percent of total national employment. The overall national response rate for the six panels, based on the 50 states and the District of Columbia, is 67.2 percent based on establishments and 64.5 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The sample in the Toledo, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area included 2,446 establishments with a response rate of 66 percent. For more information about OEWS concepts and methodology, go to

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Metropolitan area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Toledo, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area includes Fulton, Lucas, and Wood Counties.

For more information

Answers to frequently asked questions about the OEWS data are available at Detailed information about the OEWS program is available at

Information in this release will be made available to individuals with sensory impairments upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Telecommunications Relay Service: 7-1-1.

Table 1. Employment and wage data for production occupations, Toledo metropolitan area, May 2021
Occupation (1) Employment Mean wages
Level (2) Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual (4)

Production occupations

33,710 2.0 $21.25 $44,190

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

1,830 1.5 33.30 69,260

Electrical, electronic, and electromechanical assemblers, except coil winders, tapers, and finishers

1,000 1.9 18.01 37,450

Engine and other machine assemblers

1,280 14.1 27.05 56,260

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

60 0.5 20.84 43,340

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

11,400 4.3 20.17 41,950


270 0.7 14.25 29,640

Butchers and meat cutters

310 1.1 15.46 32,160

Meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers

70 0.3 13.61 28,300

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

40 0.9 17.57 36,540

Food batchmakers

310 1.0 16.48 34,280

Food processing workers, all other

(5) (5) 14.05 29,230

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

150 1.3 17.27 35,920

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1,280 3.6 19.37 40,290

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

320 2.4 17.49 36,390

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

50 1.2 22.33 46,450


1,770 2.7 22.71 47,230

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

860 2.7 17.58 36,570

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1,540 5.8 23.42 48,710

Tool and die makers

570 4.5 27.99 58,210

Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers

1,010 1.3 19.59 40,750

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

90 1.5 18.26 37,980

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

110 3.7 19.28 40,110

Plating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

120 1.9 17.66 36,730

Prepress technicians and workers

50 1.0 19.33 40,210

Printing press operators

370 1.3 18.28 38,020

Print binding and finishing workers

70 0.8 16.56 34,450

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

350 1.1 11.93 24,810

Sewing machine operators

130 0.6 15.01 31,220

Sewers, hand

(5) (5) 15.38 31,990


80 1.4 19.81 41,200

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

170 0.9 16.92 35,190

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

40 0.5 16.77 34,890

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

220 0.9 25.04 52,070

Chemical equipment operators and tenders

190 0.9 23.04 47,920

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders

40 0.4 16.59 34,500

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

90 1.4 19.20 39,940

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

300 1.4 18.02 37,480

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders

80 0.8 18.22 37,890

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

150 1.3 15.50 32,240

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

110 3.9 22.08 45,920

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

1,460 1.3 21.11 43,900

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

40 0.8 20.72 43,090

Dental laboratory technicians

80 1.2 21.32 44,340

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

970 1.4 19.98 41,560

Coating, painting, and spraying machine setters, operators, and tenders

240 0.8 19.07 39,670

Computer numerically controlled tool operators

560 1.8 20.46 42,560

Computer numerically controlled tool programmers

90 1.7 27.33 56,840

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

30 1.4 18.43 38,330

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

70 2.4 17.75 36,920

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

70 0.9 17.32 36,020

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

240 1.4 20.28 42,180

Helpers--production workers

250 0.6 16.69 34,720

Production workers, all other

870 2.2 16.28 33,870

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Toledo, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, see
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations may not sum to the totals due to rounding, and because the totals may include occupations that are not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a 'year-round, full-time' hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimate not released.


Last Modified Date: Monday, August 08, 2022