Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

News Release Information

21-1578-PHI
Thursday, August 26, 2021

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:

Business Employment Dynamics in Virginia — Fourth Quarter 2020

From September 2020 to December 2020, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector establishments in Virginia were 213,310, while gross job losses from closing and contracting private-sector establishments were 163,525, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Alexandra Hall Bovee noted that the difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 49,785 jobs in the private sector during the fourth quarter of 2020. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 146,514. (See chart 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all private businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private-sector establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See Technical Note.)

Gross job gains

In the fourth quarter of 2020, gross job gains represented 7.0 percent of private-sector employment in Virginia; nationally, gross job gains accounted for 7.4 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 2.) Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment due to expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. In Virginia, gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 172,870 in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of 76,960 jobs compared to the previous quarter. Opening establishments accounted for 40,440 jobs gained in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of 13,446 jobs from the previous quarter. (See table 1.)

Gross job losses

In the fourth quarter of 2020, gross job losses represented 5.3 percent of private-sector employment in Virginia; nationally, gross job losses accounted for 5.7 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 3.) Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. In Virginia, contracting establishments lost 122,982 jobs in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of 2,802 jobs from the prior quarter. Closing establishments lost 40,543 jobs, an increase of 9,125 jobs from the previous quarter.

Industries

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in all 11 industry sectors in Virginia in the fourth quarter of 2020. Leisure and hospitality had the largest over-the-quarter net job increase, with a gain of 13,295 jobs. This was the result of 38,908 gross job gains and 25,613 gross job losses. The professional and business services sector had a net gain of 10,460 jobs. Net job gains in the remaining sectors ranged from 5,186 in education and health services to 152 in information.

For more information

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses by industry subsector, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size class. BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. Additional information is available online at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2021 are scheduled to be released on Wednesday, October 27, 2021 at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Effect on Fourth Quarter 2020 Business Employment Dynamics

Data collection and processing methods have been impacted because of the COVID-19 pandemic. More detail can be found at www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-on-business-employment-dynamics.htm.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either units with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either units with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

The full Technical Note for the Business Employment Dynamics program, which includes information on coverage, concepts, and methodology, can be found in the current quarterly news release online at www.bls.gov/news.release/cewbd.htm.

Information in this release will be made available to individuals with sensory impairments upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Virginia, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept
2020
Dec.
2020

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

211,840181,461144,619303,716213,3106.55.64.710.27.0

At expanding establishments

159,053145,815111,068249,830172,8704.94.53.68.45.7

At opening establishments

52,78735,64633,55153,88640,4401.61.11.11.81.3

Gross job losses

177,757196,921559,570157,202163,5255.56.118.25.35.3

At contracting establishments

143,244159,414484,153125,784122,9824.44.915.74.24.0

At closing establishments

34,51337,50775,41731,41840,5431.11.22.51.11.3

Net employment change (2)

34,083-15,460-414,951146,51449,7851.0-0.5-13.54.91.7

Construction

Gross job gains

15,78816,09811,63315,76516,3147.87.95.88.08.1

At expanding establishments

12,07013,5109,43912,47813,4466.06.64.76.36.7

At opening establishments

3,7182,5882,1943,2872,8681.81.31.11.71.4

Gross job losses

13,90513,57120,33714,56712,7516.86.610.17.36.3

At contracting establishments

11,40611,17716,90012,1369,4315.65.48.46.14.7

At closing establishments

2,4992,3943,4372,4313,3201.21.21.71.21.6

Net employment change (2)

1,8832,527-8,7041,1983,5631.01.3-4.30.71.8

Manufacturing

Gross job gains

7,9236,6664,55312,17810,9183.22.71.95.34.7

At expanding establishments

6,3626,0644,06610,7099,9472.62.51.74.74.3

At opening establishments

1,5616024871,4699710.60.20.20.60.4

Gross job losses

6,9156,63920,6126,9146,2112.92.88.93.02.7

At contracting establishments

6,2305,98819,0816,2224,7992.62.58.22.72.1

At closing establishments

6856511,5316921,4120.30.30.70.30.6

Net employment change (2)

1,00827-16,0595,2644,7070.3-0.1-7.02.32.0

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

4,7234,6623,3344,8894,9884.34.33.14.74.8

At expanding establishments

3,7193,8282,6564,2354,2773.43.52.54.14.1

At opening establishments

1,0048346786547110.90.80.60.60.7

Gross job losses

4,3844,3889,8354,3753,7744.04.09.24.23.6

At contracting establishments

3,5513,3798,6593,5242,8093.23.18.13.42.7

At closing establishments

8331,0091,1768519650.80.91.10.80.9

Net employment change (2)

339274-6,5015141,2140.30.3-6.10.51.2

Retail trade

Gross job gains

23,01025,40123,54039,53523,4735.86.36.010.46.0

At expanding establishments

19,90522,74121,44635,89520,4065.05.65.59.45.2

At opening establishments

3,1052,6602,0943,6403,0670.80.70.51.00.8

Gross job losses

24,65522,73366,54919,22721,3126.15.617.15.05.5

At contracting establishments

21,72719,77360,49616,89517,4685.44.915.54.44.5

At closing establishments

2,9282,9606,0532,3323,8440.70.71.60.61.0

Net employment change (2)

-1,6452,668-43,00920,3082,161-0.30.7-11.15.40.5

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

10,2815,64410,40211,81310,7678.14.38.29.38.2

At expanding establishments

7,8654,9359,45910,8109,7626.23.87.58.57.4

At opening establishments

2,4167099431,0031,0051.90.50.70.80.8

Gross job losses

5,8797,86217,8416,3707,1824.66.114.25.15.5

At contracting establishments

5,0666,96316,4895,6466,1134.05.413.14.54.7

At closing establishments

8138991,3527241,0690.60.71.10.60.8

Net employment change (2)

4,402-2,218-7,4395,4433,5853.5-1.8-6.04.22.7

Information

Gross job gains

3,7053,1932,3744,4893,2535.54.73.67.15.0

At expanding establishments

2,9182,6581,8473,3622,0274.33.92.85.33.1

At opening establishments

7875355271,1271,2261.20.80.81.81.9

Gross job losses

3,0233,1567,4802,7903,1014.54.611.54.34.8

At contracting establishments

2,5542,6535,9352,1222,2423.83.99.13.33.5

At closing establishments

4695031,5456688590.70.72.41.01.3

Net employment change (2)

68237-5,1061,6991521.00.1-7.92.80.2

Financial activities

Gross job gains

10,5338,2146,4489,3919,7465.34.13.34.85.0

At expanding establishments

7,6906,3764,6787,3937,4753.93.22.43.83.8

At opening establishments

2,8431,8381,7701,9982,2711.40.90.91.01.2

Gross job losses

8,3909,06314,6637,9479,0254.34.57.44.14.7

At contracting establishments

6,4957,28411,4785,8496,2013.33.65.83.03.2

At closing establishments

1,8951,7793,1852,0982,8241.00.91.61.11.5

Net employment change (2)

2,143-849-8,2151,4447211.0-0.4-4.10.70.3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

50,83343,10439,56256,00449,5246.75.75.37.66.5

At expanding establishments

40,18935,73130,73945,00240,1595.34.74.16.15.3

At opening establishments

10,6447,3738,82311,0029,3651.41.01.21.51.2

Gross job losses

44,90043,69175,83742,70739,0645.95.710.15.85.2

At contracting establishments

35,71735,25865,42034,70328,8814.74.68.74.73.8

At closing establishments

9,1838,43310,4178,00410,1831.21.11.41.11.4

Net employment change (2)

5,933-587-36,27513,29710,4600.80.0-4.81.81.3

Education and health services

Gross job gains

26,36925,20416,93734,81727,9205.04.83.47.25.7

At expanding establishments

18,40419,94811,34628,13522,0273.53.82.35.84.5

At opening establishments

7,9655,2565,5916,6825,8931.51.01.11.41.2

Gross job losses

25,37827,34261,90821,72522,7344.85.212.44.54.6

At contracting establishments

18,43020,41352,97516,33015,8923.53.910.63.43.2

At closing establishments

6,9486,9298,9335,3956,8421.31.31.81.11.4

Net employment change (2)

991-2,138-44,97113,0925,1860.2-0.4-9.02.71.1

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

40,36527,46112,98492,58838,9089.96.73.831.511.9

At expanding establishments

30,14020,4528,60178,55832,0977.45.02.526.79.8

At opening establishments

10,2257,0094,38314,0306,8112.51.71.34.82.1

Gross job losses

27,83644,048230,46418,80725,6136.810.768.06.47.9

At contracting establishments

23,33936,582202,18213,89320,7725.78.959.74.76.4

At closing establishments

4,4977,46628,2824,9144,8411.11.88.31.71.5

Net employment change (2)

12,529-16,587-217,48073,78113,2953.1-4.0-64.225.14.0

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

8,8557,7385,36314,0218,7046.96.04.713.07.8

At expanding establishments

6,2815,8083,4549,5986,4974.94.53.08.95.8

At opening establishments

2,5741,9301,9094,4232,2072.01.51.74.12.0

Gross job losses

8,0378,74926,5016,6427,4846.26.823.36.26.6

At contracting establishments

6,2636,44719,6954,8555,4264.85.017.34.54.8

At closing establishments

1,7742,3026,8061,7872,0581.41.86.01.71.8

Net employment change (2)

818-1,011-21,1387,3791,2200.7-0.8-18.66.81.2

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept.
2020
Dec.
2020

United States(1)

6.25.54.89.47.45.56.117.06.05.7

Alabama

6.25.54.87.87.85.55.912.65.95.0

Alaska

10.39.26.912.213.410.29.524.59.97.7

Arizona

6.45.65.77.97.45.25.911.76.24.9

Arkansas

6.55.14.87.57.14.95.512.05.65.1

California

6.86.15.28.78.46.06.718.67.36.2

Colorado

6.76.35.810.07.56.27.014.96.37.2

Connecticut

5.55.24.311.26.55.65.919.75.15.8

Delaware

6.76.24.910.36.76.26.617.76.35.7

District of Columbia

5.45.23.38.35.24.75.322.45.85.5

Florida

6.65.46.19.57.65.96.213.96.85.6

Georgia

6.55.65.49.27.85.55.915.06.45.2

Hawaii

5.75.23.67.414.75.25.829.812.74.6

Idaho

7.77.66.48.48.76.36.111.26.56.1

Illinois

5.65.04.69.76.55.26.018.45.66.1

Indiana

6.04.94.78.36.95.16.013.75.45.0

Iowa

5.85.24.47.46.85.55.913.05.65.1

Kansas

6.35.45.07.97.05.76.013.36.06.0

Kentucky

6.25.34.68.86.85.66.115.35.05.4

Louisiana

5.95.34.58.88.75.76.316.97.25.5

Maine

7.36.45.412.08.56.97.021.76.06.3

Maryland

6.45.74.711.07.15.96.721.95.95.9

Massachusetts

5.85.23.712.57.05.66.024.25.65.6

Michigan

5.85.04.010.96.85.35.720.74.87.0

Minnesota

5.85.04.39.07.05.65.617.65.46.9

Mississippi

6.25.65.18.77.95.66.212.95.54.9

Missouri

6.25.24.78.57.25.35.714.35.75.3

Montana

8.67.76.89.99.37.27.713.87.26.8

Nebraska

6.25.84.98.16.85.86.112.15.95.6

Nevada

6.85.45.312.88.95.06.329.26.45.7

New Hampshire

6.66.04.511.97.46.06.418.85.16.5

New Jersey

6.55.74.615.78.15.86.328.15.85.9

New Mexico

7.06.14.58.37.16.36.517.66.07.6

New York

6.05.53.913.37.45.76.426.95.96.4

North Carolina

6.35.84.88.57.85.45.714.55.65.1

North Dakota

6.76.85.28.87.26.67.017.26.97.1

Ohio

5.75.14.57.76.65.35.614.45.35.2

Oklahoma

6.55.45.66.87.86.26.712.36.45.6

Oregon

6.76.25.09.07.45.86.518.46.26.5

Pennsylvania

5.44.93.610.36.24.95.618.25.05.3

Rhode Island

6.56.14.512.97.55.96.525.25.37.1

South Carolina

6.55.55.18.88.15.96.614.96.15.3

South Dakota

6.46.05.18.67.25.86.611.65.56.2

Tennessee

5.74.94.48.17.55.05.313.75.44.6

Texas

6.05.04.77.27.55.15.513.66.04.8

Utah

6.86.66.59.18.16.36.410.96.25.5

Vermont

6.95.84.612.37.66.47.618.55.77.9

Virginia

6.55.64.710.27.05.56.118.25.35.3

Washington

6.67.44.98.97.15.87.416.96.26.0

West Virginia

6.26.05.18.87.47.16.813.87.06.2

Wisconsin

5.45.04.47.66.35.05.314.45.25.1

Wyoming

9.48.66.410.710.08.79.318.17.77.6

Puerto Rico

5.45.04.011.06.64.95.216.95.14.9

Virgin Islands

10.37.25.38.48.97.38.319.812.35.4

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Thursday, August 26, 2021