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Thursday, May 25, 2017
Workers in the Roanoke Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $20.98 in May 2016, 12 percent below the nationwide average of $23.86, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Sheila Watkins, the Bureau’s regional commissioner, noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were significantly lower than their respective national averages in 17 of the 22 major occupational groups, including arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media; legal; and construction and extraction.
When compared to the nationwide distribution, local employment shares were significantly higher in 6 of the 22 occupational groups including health care practitioners and technical and transportation and material moving. Conversely, 10 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation including management; computer and mathematical; and food preparation and serving related. (See Table A and box note at end of release.)
|Major occupational group||Percent of total employment||Mean hourly wage|
|United States||Roanoke||United States||Roanoke||Percent difference (1)|
Total, all occupations
Business and financial operations
Computer and mathematical
Architecture and engineering
Life, physical, and social science
Community and social service
Education, training, and library
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media
Healthcare practitioners and technical
Food preparation and serving related
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance
Personal care and service
Sales and related
Office and administrative support
Farming, fishing, and forestry
Construction and extraction
Installation, maintenance, and repair
Transportation and material moving
(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in the Roanoke Metropolitan Statistical Area is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
* The percent share of employment or mean hourly wage for this area is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.
One occupational group—office and administrative support—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Roanoke had 25,220 jobs in the office and administrative group, accounting for 16.5 percent of local area employment, significantly larger than the 15.7-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $16.26, significantly lower than the national average of $17.91.
With employment of 3,860, general office clerks was the largest occupation within the office and administrative support group, followed by customer service representatives (3,010). Among the higher-paying jobs were first-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers with a mean hourly wage of $26.08 and postal service mail carriers with a wage of $24.33. At the lower end of the wage scale were hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks ($9.56) and stock clerks and order fillers ($11.96). (Detailed occupational data for office and administrative support are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupaions available go to www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_40220.htm.)
Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area as it does nationally. In the Roanoke area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in several of the occupations within the office and administrative support group. For instance, insurance claims and policy processing clerks were employed at 2.6 times the national rate in Roanoke, and loan interviewers and clerks at 3.0 times the U.S. average. On the other hand, tellers had a location quotient of 1.0 in Roanoke, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.
These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Virginia Employment Commission.
A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.
The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. The OES program produces employment and wage estimates for over 800 occupations for all industries combined in the nation; the 50 states and the District of Columbia; 432 metropolitan areas and divisions; 167 nonmetropolitan areas; and Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. National estimates are also available by industry for NAICS sectors, 3-, 4-, and selected 5- and 6-digit industries, and by ownership across all industries and for schools and hospitals. OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/tables.htm.
OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Forms are mailed to approximately 200,000 sampled establishments in May and November each year. The May 2016 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2016, November 2015, May 2015, November 2014, May 2014, and November 2013. The overall national response rate for the six panels, based on the 50 states and the District of Columbia, is 73 percent based on establishments and 69 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The unweighted employment of sampled establishments across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 58 percent of total national employment. The sample in the Roanoke, Pa. Metropolitan Statistical Area included 1,833 establishments with a response rate of 74 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.tn.htm.
The May 2016 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/soc and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.
Metropolitan area definitions
The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.
The Roanoke, Va. Metropolitan Statistical Area includes Botetourt, Craig, Franklin, and Roanoke Counties and Roanoke and Salem Cities in Virginia.
OES data are available on our regional web page at www.bls.gov/regions/mid-atlantic. Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm. Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/oes/current/methods_statement.pdf.
Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request – Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.
|Occupation (1)||Employment (2)||Mean wage|
|Level||Location quotient (3)||Hourly||Annual (4)|
Office and administrative support occupations
First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers
Switchboard operators, including answering service
Bill and account collectors
Billing and posting clerks
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks
Payroll and timekeeping clerks
Court, municipal, and license clerks
Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks
Customer service representatives
Eligibility interviewers, government programs
Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks
Interviewers, except eligibility and loan
Library assistants, clerical
Loan interviewers and clerks
New accounts clerks
Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping
Receptionists and information clerks
Information and record clerks, all other
Police, fire, and ambulance dispatchers
Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance
Meter readers, utilities
Postal service clerks
Postal service mail carriers
Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators
Production, planning, and expediting clerks
Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks
Stock clerks and order fillers
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping
Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants
Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive
Data entry keyers
Insurance claims and policy processing clerks
Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service
Office clerks, general
Office and administrative support workers, all other
Last Modified Date: Thursday, May 25, 2017