PPI Coverage of the Retail Trade Sector
Data for the retail trade sector was first introduced into the Producer Price Index (PPI) in July 2000, with historical
data back to June 1999. New indexes continued to be introduced until PPI coverage of the retail trade sector was complete
in January 2004. The introduction of these industry indexes reflects the ongoing BLS effort to expand PPI coverage of the U.S.
economy into areas other than the mining and manufacturing sectors. These indexes, published according to the North American
Industry Classification System (NAICS) industry definitions, appear in the monthly PPI Detailed Report
and are available online through the BLS website. Current coverage of retail trade NAICS industries include:
The NAICS identifies establishments in the retail trade sector as primarily engaged in purchasing goods for resale to the general public for personal or household consumption, but some establishments also serve business and institutional clients. Given that little, if any, transformation of these goods takes place, the PPI views a retailer as a supplier of services (rather than goods). This implies that the output of a retail trade establishment can be estimated by the difference between the retail selling price of a good and the acquisition price for that same item. (Any discounts from the vendor to the retailer and any discounts offered by the retailer to the consumer are captured.) The resulting gross margin prices reflect the value added by the establishment for services such as marketing, storing, displaying goods in convenient locations, and making the goods easily available for customers to purchase.
Margin weights provided to the PPI by the U.S. Census Bureau are used to weight retail trade at the industry level. Item weights in the PPI retail trade cells reflect margin weights for margin priced items (items bought and resold) and retail weights for retail priced items (items typically made by the retailer), in those rare cases when retail priced items are measured.
The PPI usually classifies establishments based on their major revenue-generating activity. However, the PPI groups retail trade establishments according to their usual trade designation. For example, many drug stores also carry other products—cosmetics, toiletries, tobacco, and novelty merchandise. A store that sells prescription drugs is treated as a drug store if the owner states that its usual trade designation is "drug store," even if the establishment generates a plurality of its revenue through sales of novelty merchandise.
NAICS 441, Automobile dealers
Industries in the Motor Vehicle and Parts Dealers subsector retail motor vehicles and parts from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector typically operate from a showroom and/or an open lot where the vehicles are on display. The display of vehicles and the related parts require little by way of display equipment. The personnel generally include both the sales and sales support staff familiar with the requirements for registering and financing a vehicle as well as a staff of parts experts and mechanics trained to provide repair and maintenance services for the vehicles. Specific industries included in this subsector are identified by the type of vehicle being retailed.
NAICS 441110—New car dealers includes establishments that retail new automobiles and light trucks, such as sport utility vehicles, and passenger and cargo vans, or retailing these new vehicles in combination with activities, such as repair services, retailing used cars, and selling replacement parts and accessories.
NAICS 441210—Recreational vehicle dealers includes establishments that retail new and/or used recreational vehicles commonly referred to as RVs or retailing these new vehicles in combination with activities, such as repair services and selling replacement parts and accessories.
NAICS 441222—Boat dealers includes establishments that (1) retail new and/or used boats or retailing new boats in combination with activities, such as repair services and selling replacement parts and accessories, and/or (2) retail new and/or used outboard motors, boat trailers, marine supplies, parts, and accessories.
NAICS 441310—Automotive parts and accessories stores includes establishments that comprise one or more of the following: (1) establishments known as automotive supply stores primarily engaged in retailing new, used, and/or rebuilt automotive parts and accessories; (2) automotive supply stores that are primarily engaged in both retailing automotive parts and accessories and repairing automobiles; and (3) establishments primarily engaged in retailing and installing automotive accessories.
NAICS 441320—Tire dealers includes establishments that retail new and/or used tires and tubes or retailing new tires in combination with automotive repair services.
NAICS 442, Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores
Furniture and home furnishings stores retail new furniture and home furnishings from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector usually operate from showrooms and have substantial areas for the presentation of their products. PPI coverage of this subsector began in January 2004, with historical data back to June 2003.
NAICS 442110—Furniture stores includes establishments that retail new furniture, such as household furniture, outdoor furniture, office furniture (except those sold in combination with office supplies and equipment), or furniture sold in combination with major appliances, home electronics, home furnishings, or floor coverings.
NAICS 442210—Floor covering stores comprises establishments that retail new floor coverings, such as rugs and carpets, vinyl floor coverings, and floor tile (except ceramic or wood only). This industry also includes establishments that retail new floor coverings in combination with installation and repair services.
NAICS 443, Electronics and Appliance Stores
UPDATED NAICS subsector 443 As of the release of June 2019 data, NAICS 443141 and NAICS 443142 were combined to form the PPI for 443100 Electronics and appliance stores. This new index includes:
NAICS subsector 443 includes establishments that retail new electronics and appliances from point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector often operate from locations that have special provisions for floor displays requiring special electrical capacity to accommodate the proper demonstration of the products. The staff includes sales personnel knowledgeable in the characteristics and warranties of the line of goods retailed and may also include trained repair persons to handle the maintenance and repair of the electronic equipment and appliances. The classifications within this subsector are made principally on the type of product and knowledge required to operate each type of store.
The PPI first introduced industries from this subsector in January 2004, with historical data back to June 2003. In January 2012, the PPI introduced a new price index for NAICS 443142—Electronic stores and a recoded price index for NAICS 443141—Household appliance stores to accommodate changes in the 2012 NAICS classification.
NAICS 443100—Electronics and appliance stores includes the following industries:
- NAICS 443141—Household appliance stores are establishments that retail an array of new household appliances, such as refrigerators, dishwashers, ovens, irons, coffeemakers, room air conditioners, microwave ovens, sewing machines, and vacuum cleaners. The index for NAICS 443141 was introduced in January 2012 as continuous with the previously published index for 2007 NAICS 443111.
- NAICS 443142—Electronics stores are establishments that retail a general line of new consumer-type electronic products; including radios, televisions, computers, computer peripherals, prepackaged computer software, cameras, photographic equipment, photographic supplies, prerecorded audio and video tapes, compact discs (CDs), digital video discs (DVDs), cellular phones and cellular phone plans.
NAICS 443142 was an aggregate of the following 2007 NAICS industries:
- 443112—Radio, Television, and Other Electronics Stores
- 443120—Computer and Software Stores
- 443130—Camera and Photographic Supplies Stores
- 451220—Prerecorded Tape, Compact Disc, and Record Stores
NAICS 444, Building Material and Garden Equipment and Supplies Dealers
UPDATED As of the release of June 2019 data, NAICS 444110, 444120, 444130, and 444190 were combined to form the PPI for 444100 Building material and supplies dealers. This new index includes:
- Primary Services
NAICS subsector 444 includes retail establishments that sell new building materials and supplies and garden equipment and supplies from fixed point-of-sale locations. These products typically are used in the construction, repair, and maintenance of homes and associated grounds. Establishments in this subsector may display their stock either indoors or outdoors under covered areas, and staff is usually knowledgeable in the use of the specific products being retailed.
NAICS 444100—Building material and supplies dealers includes the following industries:
- NAICS 444110—Home centers includes establishments that retail a general line of new home repair and improvement materials and supplies, such as lumber, plumbing goods, electrical goods, tools, housewares, hardware, and lawn and garden supplies, with no one merchandise line predominating. The merchandise lines are normally arranged in separate departments. A NAICS 444 establishment also is considered a home center when usual trade designation is not clear, and no single product line predominates.
- NAICS 444120—Paint and wallpaper stores comprises establishments that retail paint, wallpaper, or related supplies to the general public. While these establishments may sell primarily to construction contractors, they are considered retail establishments within the trade. Establishments that do not sell to the general public, or those that are considered wholesalers within the trade, are classified in NAICS 42—Wholesale trade.
- NAICS 444130—Hardware stores includes establishments known as hardware stores that retail a general line of new hardware items, such as tools and builders' hardware.
- NAICS 444190—Other building material dealers comprises establishments (except those known as home centers, paint and wallpaper stores, and hardware stores) that retail specialized lines of new building materials, such as lumber, fencing, glass, doors, plumbing fixtures and supplies, electrical supplies, prefabricated buildings and kits, kitchen and bath cabinets, and countertops to be installed. All margin-priced products are considered primary, including sales to business customers. Examples of establishments in this industry include: electrical supply stores, fencing dealers, floor covering stores (wood or ceramic tile only), glass stores, kitchen cabinet (except custom) stores, lumber retailing yards, plumbing supply stores, and prefabricated building dealers.
NAICS 444220—Nursery, garden center, and farm supply stores comprises establishments that retail new floor coverings, such as rugs and carpets, vinyl floor coverings, and floor tile (except ceramic or wood only). This industry also includes establishments that retail new floor coverings in combination with installation and repair services.
NAICS 445, Food and Beverage Stores
Industries in the Food and Beverage Stores subsector usually retail food and beverage merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector have special equipment (e.g., freezers, refrigerated display cases, refrigerators) for displaying food and beverage goods. They have staff trained in the processing of food products to guarantee the proper storage and sanitary conditions required by regulatory authority.
NAICS 445110—Supermarkets and other grocery stores includes establishments that retail a general line of food, such as canned and frozen foods; fresh fruits and vegetables; and fresh and prepared meats, fish, and poultry. Included in this industry are delicatessen-type establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food.
NAICS 445200—Specialty food stores includes establishments that retail specialized lines of food, such as meats, fish and seafood, fruits and vegetables, baked goods, and confectionery foods.
NAICS 445310—Beer, wine, and liquor stores includes establishments that retail packaged alcoholic beverages, such as ale, beer, wine, and liquor.
NAICS 446, Health and Personal Care Stores
Industries in the Health and Personal Care Stores subsector retail health and personal care merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector are characterized principally by the products they retail, and some health and personal care stores may have specialized staff trained in dealing with the products. Staff may include pharmacists, opticians, and other professionals engaged in retailing, advising customers, and/or fitting the product sold to the customer's needs.
NAICS 446110—Pharmacies and drug stores includes establishments known as pharmacies and drug stores engaged in retailing prescription or nonprescription drugs and medicines.
NAICS 446130—Optical goods stores includes establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) retailing and fitting prescription eyeglasses and contact lenses; (2) retailing prescription eyeglasses in combination with the grinding of lenses to order on the premises; and (3) selling nonprescription eyeglasses.
NAICS 446191—Food (health) supplement stores includes establishments that retail food supplement products, such as vitamins, nutrition supplements, and body enhancing supplements.
NAICS 447, Gasoline Stations
UPDATED As of the release of June 2019 data, NAICS 447110 and NAICS 447190 were combined to form the PPI for 447100 Gasoline stations. This new index includes:
Industries in the Gasoline Stations subsector retail automotive fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel fuel, gasohol, alternative fuels) and automotive oils or retail these products in combination with convenience store items. These establishments have specialized equipment for storing and dispensing automotive fuels.
NAICS 447100—Gasoline stations includes the following industries:
- NAICS 447110—Gasoline stations with convenience stores comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing automotive fuels (e.g. diesel fuel, gasohol, gasoline) in combination with convenience store or food mart items. These establishments can either be in a convenience store (i.e., food mart) setting or a gasoline station setting. These establishments may also provide automotive repair services. The primary services designation for this industry tracks the retail sale of any item sold by a gasoline station with a convenience store. For the most part, primary services are measured by tracking gross margin prices. There are, however, a minority of items primary to NAICS 447110 that require the capture of only a retail price. Fountain beverages and prepared foods are examples of items primary to NAICS 447110 that require only the capture of a retail price. Margin prices are not captured for these items because they are further processed by the station before sale. The other receipts category includes transactions such as warranties, car washes, and towing services.
- NAICS 447190—Other gasoline stations comprises establishments known as gasoline stations (except those with convenience stores) primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) retailing automotive fuels (e.g., diesel fuel, gasohol, gasoline) or (2) retailing those fuels in combination with activities, such as providing repair services; selling automotive oils, replacements parts, and accessories; and/or providing food services. Establishments commonly known as truck stops are included in this industry.
NAICS 448, Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores
UPDATED As of the release of June 2018 data, NAICS 448110, 448420, and 448140 were combined to form the PPI for 448100 Clothing stores. This new index includes:
NAICS 448—Clothing and clothing accessories stores includes establishments that retail new clothing and clothing accessories merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector have similar display equipment and maintain staff that is generally knowledgeable regarding fashion trends and the proper match of styles, colors, and combinations of clothing and accessories to the characteristics and tastes of the customer.
Seasonal and fashion merchandise make up a substantial part of all merchandise sold in industry subsector 448. Apparel and footwear are very seasonal. Apparel can go through a 3- to 6-month cycle in which different items can come in and out of season at different times. Each season offers a different selection of clothing for the consumer. Like seasonality, fashion can play an important role in these industries, because the majority of the products that are being sold in this industry are clothing. Clothes that are in fashion this month may go out of style in 3 or 4 months, or, it may take several years before certain clothes go out of fashion. Despite seasonal and fashion shifts, the services associated with NAICS 448 generally do not change.
Establishments in this subsector may provide basic alterations, such as hemming, taking in or letting out seams, or lengthening or shortening sleeves. The incidental fees for these services, separable from the sale of the good, are considered primary activity for industries in this subsector.
PPI coverage for the men's clothing stores industry and the shoe stores industry dates back to June 2002, while the industries for women's clothing stores and for family clothing stores date back to June 2003.
NAICS 448110—Men's clothing stores includes establishments that retail a general line of new men's and boys' clothing.
NAICS 448120—Women's clothing stores comprises establishments that retail a general line of new women's, misses', and juniors'; clothing, including maternity wear.
NAICS 448140—Family clothing stores includes establishments that retail a general line of new clothing for men, women, and children, without specializing in sales for an individual gender or age group.
NAICS 448210—Shoe stores comprises establishments that retail all types of new footwear (except hosiery and specialty sports footwear, such as golf shoes, bowling shoes, and spiked shoes). Establishments that retail new tennis shoes or sneakers are included in NAICS 448210.
NAICS 448310—Jewelry stores comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing one or more of the following items: (1) new jewelry (except costume jewelry); (2) new sterling and plated silverware; and (3) new watches and clocks. Also included are establishments retailing these new products in combination with lapidary work and/or repair services.
NAICS 451, Sporting Goods, Hobby, and Book Stores
Industries in the Sporting goods, hobby, and book stores subsector are engaged in retailing and providing expertise on the use of sporting equipment or other products used for specific leisure activities. Three industries within this subsector were previously introduced into the PPI in June 2000:
- NAICS 451110—Sporting goods stores comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new sporting goods, such as bicycles and bicycle parts; camping equipment; exercise and fitness equipment; athletic uniforms; specialty sports footwear; and other sporting goods, equipment, and accessories.
- NAICS 451120—Hobby, toy, and game stores comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new toys, games, and hobby and craft supplies (except needlecraft).
- NAICS 451211—Book stores comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new books.
NAICS 452, General Merchandise Stores
A large part of the retail trade sector is accounted for by General merchandise stores, industry subsector 452. These stores retail new general merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in subsector 452 are unique in that they maintain a wide variety of display equipment and trained staff capable of retailing a large assortment of goods from a single location. Seasonal and fashion merchandise make up a major part of merchandise sold in the NAICS 452 subsector, but despite seasonal and fashion shifts, the services associated with NAICS 452 generally do not change.
UPDATED In order to reflect changes in the 2017 NAICS classifications, 452111 and 452112 were combined as of January 2018 to form NAICS 452210—Department stores, which includes establishments known as department stores that have separate departments for general lines of new merchandise, such as apparel, jewelry, home furnishings, and toys, with no one merchandise line predominating. Department stores may sell perishable groceries, such as fresh fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, but such sales are insignificant. Department stores may have separate customer checkout areas in each department, central customer checkout areas, or both.
NAICS 452210—Department stores include the following industries:
- NAICS 452111—Department stores (except discount department stores) includes establishments, known as department stores, which have separate departments for various merchandise lines, such as apparel, jewelry, home furnishings, and linens, each with separate cash registers and sales associates. Department stores in this industry generally do not have central customer checkout and cash register facilities.
- NAICS 452112—Discount department stores also are referred to commonly as department stores. However, these establishments usually have central customer checkout areas, generally in the front of the store, though they may have additional cash registers located in one or more individual departments. Department stores in this industry sell a wide range of general merchandise (except fresh, perishable foods).
NAICS 452310—Other general merchandise stores includes establishments such as warehouse clubs and supercenters that typically are engaged in retailing a general line of groceries in combination with general lines of new merchandise, such as apparel, furniture, and appliances. This industry also includes variety-type stores that retail a general line of new merchandise in limited amounts, with none of the lines predominating.
NAICS 453, Miscellaneous Store Retailers
UPDATED As of the release of June 2019 data, NAICS 453210 and NAICS 453220 were combined to form the PPI for 453200 Office supplies, stationery and gift stores, comprising establishments primarily engaged in retailing new office supplies, stationery, gifts, novelty merchandise, and souvenirs.
Industries in the Miscellaneous Store Retailers subsector retail merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations (except new or used motor vehicles and parts; new furniture and home furnishings; new appliances and electronic products; new building materials and garden equipment and supplies; food and beverages; health and personal care goods; gasoline; new clothing and accessories; and new sporting goods, hobby goods, books, and music). Establishments in this subsector include stores with unique characteristics, such as florists, used merchandise stores, and pet and pet supply stores.
NAICS 453200—Office supplies, stationary and gift stores includes the following industries:
- NAICS 453210—Office supplies and stationary stores comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) retailing new stationery, school supplies, and office supplies; (2) retailing a combination of new office equipment, furniture, and supplies; and (3) retailing new office equipment, furniture, and supplies in combination with selling new computers.
- NAICS 453220—Gift, novelty, and souvenir stores comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new gifts, novelty merchandise, souvenirs, greeting cards, seasonal and holiday decorations, and curios.
NAICS 454, Non-store Retailers
Industries in the Non-store Retailers subsector retail merchandise using methods, such as the broadcasting of infomercials, the broadcasting and publishing of direct-response advertising, the publishing of paper and electronic catalogs, door-to-door solicitation, in-home demonstration, selling from portable stalls, and distribution through vending machines. Establishments in this subsector include mail-order houses, vending machine operators, home delivery sales, door-to-door sales, party plan sales, electronic shopping, and sales through portable stalls (e.g., street vendors, except food). Establishments engaged in the direct sale (i.e., non-store) of products, such as home heating oil dealers and newspaper delivery service providers, are included in this subsector.
NAICS 454110—Electronic and mail order shopping comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing all types of merchandise using non-store means, such as catalogs, toll free telephone numbers, or electronic media, such as interactive television or the Internet. Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in retailing from catalog showrooms of mail-order houses.
NAICS 454310—Fuel dealers comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing heating oil, liquefied petroleum (LP) gas, and other fuels via direct selling.
Last Modified Date: September 13, 2019