Data for the retail trade sector was first introduced into the Producer Price Index (PPI) in July 2000, with historical data back to June 1999. New indexes continued to be introduced until PPI coverage of the retail trade sector was complete in January 2004. The introduction of these industry indexes reflects the ongoing BLS effort to expand PPI coverage of the U.S. economy into areas other than the mining and manufacturing sectors. These indexes, published according to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) industry definitions, appear in the monthly PPI Detailed Report and are available online through the BLS website. Current coverage of retail trade NAICS industries include:
The NAICS identifies establishments in the retail trade sector as primarily engaged in purchasing goods for resale to the general public for personal or household consumption, but some establishments also serve business and institutional clients. Given that little, if any, transformation of these goods takes place, the PPI views a retailer as a supplier of services (rather than goods). This implies that the output of a retail trade establishment can be estimated by the difference between the retail selling price of a good and the acquisition price for that same item. (Any discounts from the vendor to the retailer and any discounts offered by the retailer to the consumer are captured.) The resulting gross margin prices reflect the value added by the establishment for services such as marketing, storing, displaying goods in convenient locations, and making the goods easily available for customers to purchase.
Margin weights provided to the PPI by the U.S. Census Bureau are used to weight retail trade at the industry level. Item weights in the PPI retail trade cells reflect margin weights for margin priced items (items bought and resold) and retail weights for retail priced items (items typically made by the retailer), in those rare cases when retail priced items are measured.
The PPI usually classifies establishments based on their major revenue-generating activity. However, the PPI groups retail trade establishments according to their usual trade designation. For example, many drug stores also carry other products—cosmetics, toiletries, tobacco, and novelty merchandise. A store that sells prescription drugs is treated as a drug store if the owner states that its usual trade designation is "drug store," even if the establishment generates a plurality of its revenue through sales of novelty merchandise.
Industries in the Motor Vehicle and Parts Dealers subsector retail motor vehicles and parts. Establishments in this subsector often operate from a showroom and/or an open lot where the vehicles are on display. The display of vehicles and the related parts require little by way of display equipment. The personnel generally include both the sales and sales support staff familiar with the requirements for registering and financing a vehicle as well as a staff of parts experts and mechanics trained to provide repair and maintenance services for the vehicles. Specific industries included in this subsector are identified by the type of vehicle being retailed.
Sales of capital or durable non-consumer goods, such as medium- and heavy-duty trucks, are always included in wholesale trade.
UPDATED In order to reflect changes in the 2022 NAICS classifications, NAICS 441310 was recoded to 441330 and NAICS 441320 was recoded to 441340.
NAICS 441110—New car dealers includes establishments that retail new automobiles and light trucks, such as sport utility vehicles, and passenger and cargo vans, or retailing these new vehicles in combination with activities, such as repair services, retailing used cars, and selling replacement parts and accessories.
NAICS 441210—Recreational vehicle dealers includes establishments that retail new and/or used recreational vehicles commonly referred to as RVs or retailing these new vehicles in combination with activities, such as repair services and selling replacement parts and accessories.
NAICS 441222—Boat dealers includes establishments primarily engaged in (1) retailing new and/or used boats or retailing new boats in combination with activities, such as repair services and selling replacement parts and accessories, and/or (2) retailing new and/or used outboard motors, boat trailers, marine supplies, parts, and accessories.
NAICS 441330—Automotive parts and accessories stores includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing new, used, and/or rebuilt automotive parts and accessories, with or without repairing automobiles; and/or establishments primarily engaged in retailing and installing automotive accessories.
NAICS 441340—Tire dealers includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing new and/or used tires and tubes or retailing new tires in combination with automotive repair services.
NAICS subsector 444 includes industries in the Building Material and Garden Equipment and Supplies Dealers subsector. Establishments classified in this subsector primarily retail new building materials, hardware, paint, and garden and outdoor power equipment and supplies with fixed point-of-sale locations, including home centers and retail lumber yards, may display merchandise either indoors or outdoors under covered areas. The staff are usually knowledgeable in the use of the specific products being retailed in the construction, repair, and maintenance of the home and associated grounds.
NAICS 444100—Building material and supplies dealers includes the following industries:
UPDATED In order to reflect changes in the 2022 NAICS classifications, NAICS 444220 was recoded to 444240:
NAICS 444240—Nursery, garden, and farm supply retailers includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing nursery and garden products, such as trees, shrubs, plants, seeds, bulbs, and sod, that are predominantly grown elsewhere. These establishments may sell a limited amount of a product they grow themselves. Also included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in retailing farm supplies, such as animal (except pet) feed, fertilizers, agricultural chemicals, and pesticides.
Industries in the Food and Beverage Stores subsector usually retail food and beverage merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector have special equipment (e.g., freezers, refrigerated display cases, refrigerators) for displaying food and beverage goods. They have staff trained in the processing of food products to guarantee the proper storage and sanitary conditions required by regulatory authority.
UPDATED In order to reflect changes in the 2022 NAICS classification, NAICS 445310 was recoded to 445320.
NAICS 445110—Supermarkets and other grocery stores includes establishments generally known as supermarkets and other grocery retailers (except convenience retailers) primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food, such as canned and frozen foods; fresh fruits and vegetables; and fresh and prepared meats, fish, and poultry. Included in this industry are delicatessen-type establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food.
NAICS 445200—Specialty food retailers includes establishments that retail specialized lines of food, not for immediate consumption.
NAICS 445320—Beer, wine, and liquor retailers includes establishments that retail packaged alcoholic beverages, such as ale, beer, wine, and liquor.
Industries in the Furniture, Home Furnishings, Electronics, and Appliance Retailers subsector retail new furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliances. Establishments in this subsector with fixed point-of-sale locations may operate from showrooms or other locations that have substantial areas for the presentation or demonstration of their products. Establishments in this subsector may provide incidental services, including interior decorating, product assembly, installation, or repair services.
UPDATED In order to reflect changes in the 2022 NAICS classification, NAICS 442110 was recoded to 449110, NAICS 442210 was recoded to 449121, and NAICS 443100 was recoded to 449210.
NAICS 449110—Furniture retailers comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new furniture, such as household furniture (e.g., baby furniture, box springs, and mattresses) and outdoor furniture; office furniture (except sold in combination with office supplies and equipment); and/or furniture sold in combination with major appliances, home electronics, home furnishings, or floor coverings.
NAICS 449121—Floor covering retailers comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new floor coverings, such as rugs and carpets, laminate and vinyl floor coverings, linoleum flooring, and floor tile (except ceramic tile or hardwood floor coverings only); or retailing new floor coverings in combination with installation and repair services.
NAICS 449210—Electronic and appliance retailers comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) retailing an array of new household-type appliances and consumer-type electronic products, such as televisions, computers, electronic tablets, and cameras; (2) specializing in retailing a single line of new consumer-type electronic products; (3) retailing these new products in combination with repair and support services; (4) retailing new prepackaged or downloadable computer software (without publishing); and/or (5) retailing prerecorded audio and video media, such as downloadable digital music and video files (without production or publishing), CDs, and DVDs.
Industries in the General Merchandise Retailers subsector retail new general merchandise. This subsector includes new and used general merchandise auction retailers and establishments generally known as department stores, warehouse clubs, superstores, or supercenters.
UPDATED In order to reflect changes in the 2022 NAICS classification, NAICS 452111 was recoded to 455110 and NAICS 452310 was recoded to 455210.
NAICS 455110—Department stores comprises establishments generally known as department stores that have separate departments for general lines of new merchandise, such as apparel, jewelry, home furnishings, and toys, with no one merchandise line predominating. Department stores may sell perishable groceries, such as fresh fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, but such sales are insignificant. Department stores with fixed point-of-sale locations may have separate customer checkout areas in each department, central customer checkout areas, or both.
NAICS 455210—Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing new general merchandise (except department stores). These establishments retail a general line of new merchandise, such as apparel, automotive parts, dry goods, hardware, groceries, housewares, and home furnishings, with no one merchandise line predominating. Establishments generally known as warehouse clubs, superstores, or supercenters, and retailing a general line of merchandise in combination with a significant amount and variety of perishable groceries, are included in this industry. This industry also includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new and used merchandise on an auction basis.
Industries in the Health and Personal Care Stores subsector retail health and personal care merchandise. Establishments in this subsector are characterized principally by the products they retail, and some health and personal care stores may have specialized staff trained in dealing with the products. Staff may include pharmacists, opticians, and other professionals engaged in retailing, advising customers, and/or fitting the product sold to the customer's needs.
UPDATED In order to reflect changes in the 2022 NAICS classifications, NAICS 446110 was recoded to 456110, NAICS 446130 was recoded to 456130, and NAICS 446191 was recoded to 456191.
NAICS 456110—Pharmacies and drug retailers includes establishments known as pharmacies and drug retailers engaged in retailing prescription or nonprescription drugs and medicines.
NAICS 456130—Optical goods retailers includes establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) retailing and fitting prescription eyeglasses and contact lenses; (2) retailing prescription eyeglasses in combination with the grinding of lenses to order on the premises; and (3) retailing nonprescription eyeglasses.
NAICS 456191—Food (health) supplement retailers includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing food supplement products, such as vitamins, nutrition supplements, and body enhancing supplements.
Industries in the Gasoline Stations and Fuel Dealers subsector retail automotive fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel fuel, gasohol, alternative fuels) and automotive oils, without or in combination with convenience store items; or retail heating oil, liquefied petroleum (LP) gas, and other fuels via direct selling (i.e., home delivery). Gasoline stations have specialized equipment for storing and dispensing automotive fuels.
UPDATED In order to reflect changes in the 2022 NAICS classifications, NAICS 454310 was recoded to 457210 and NAICS 447100 was recoded to 457100.
NAICS 457100—Gasoline stations includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing automotive fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel fuel, gasohol, alternative fuels) and automotive oils or retailing these products in combination with convenience store items. These establishments have specialized equipment for storing and dispensing automotive fuels.
NAICS 457210—Fuel dealers includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing heating oil, liquefied petroleum (LP) gas, and other fuels via direct selling (i.e., home delivery).
Industries in the Clothing, Clothing Accessories, Shoe, and Jewelry Retailers subsector retail new clothing, clothing accessories, shoes, jewelry, luggage, and leather goods.
UPDATED In order to reflect changes in the 2022 NAICS classification, NAICS 448110 was recoded to 458110, NAICS 448210 was recoded to 458210, and NAICS 448310 was recoded to 458310.
NAICS 458110—Clothing and clothing accessories retailers includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing general or specialized lines of new clothing and clothing accessories, such as hats and caps, costume jewelry, gloves, handbags, ties, wigs, toupees, and belts. These establishments may provide basic alterations, such as hemming, taking in or letting out seams, or lengthening or shortening sleeves.
NAICS 458210—Shoe retailers comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing all types of new footwear (except hosiery and specialty sports footwear, such as golf shoes, bowling shoes, and cleated shoes). Establishments primary engaged in retailing new tennis shoes or sneakers are included in this industry.
NAICS 458310—Jewelry retailers comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing one or more of the following items: (1) new jewelry (except costume jewelry); (2) new sterling and plated silverware; and (3) new watches and clocks. Also included are establishments retailing these new products in combination with lapidary work and/or repair services.
Industries in the Sporting Goods, Hobby, Musical Instrument, Book, and Miscellaneous Retailers subsector retail new sporting goods; new toys, games, and hobby supplies; new sewing supplies and needlework accessories; new musical instruments; new books, newspapers, magazines, and other periodicals; and other specialized lines of merchandise, such as cut flowers and floral arrangements, new office supplies and stationery, new gifts, novelty merchandise, and souvenirs, used merchandise, pets and pet supplies, art, new or used manufactured (mobile) homes, and tobacco, electronic cigarettes, and other smoking supplies.
UPDATED In order to reflect changes in the 2022 NAICS classification, NAICS 451110 was recoded to 459110, NAICS 451120 was recoded to 459120, NAICS 451211 was recoded to 459210, and 453200 was recoded to 459400.
NAICS 459110—Sporting goods retailers comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new sporting goods, such as bicycles and bicycle parts; camping equipment; exercise and fitness equipment; athletic uniforms; specialty sports footwear; and other sporting goods, equipment, and accessories.
NAICS 459120—Hobby, toy, and game retailers comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new toys, games, and hobby and craft supplies (except needlecraft).
NAICS 459210—Book and news retailers comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new books, newspapers, magazines, and other periodicals (without publishing).
NAICS 459400—Office supplies, stationary, and gift retailers comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new office supplies, stationery, gifts, novelty merchandise, and souvenirs.
Last Modified Date: March 20, 2023