August 2018 Report 1076

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2017

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2017 image

In 2017, the overall unemployment rate for the United States was 4.4 percent; however, the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. Among the race groups, the unemployment rates were higher than the national rate for American Indians and Alaska Natives (7.8 percent), Blacks or African Americans (7.5 percent), people categorized as being of Two or More Races (6.7 percent), and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (6.1 percent). Jobless rates were lower than the national rate for Asians (3.4 percent) and Whites (3.8 percent). The rate for people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, at 5.1 percent, was higher than the 4.2-percent rate for non-Hispanics.

Labor market differences among the race and ethnicity groups are associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations in educational attainment across the groups; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the largest race and ethnicity groups living in the United States—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables. The report also contains a limited amount of data on American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, people who are of Two or More Races, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Hispanic groups. Because of their relatively small sample sizes, estimates for these additional groups are not included in all tables.

The data were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 60,000 households that is a rich source of information on the labor force. For definitions of terms and concepts used in this report, see the technical notes. Additional information about the CPS can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

The sections that follow highlight some of the major findings on the labor force characteristics of race and ethnicity groups in 2017.

Composition of the labor force

By race, Whites made up the majority of the labor force (78 percent). Blacks and Asians constituted an additional 13 percent and 6 percent, respectively. American Indians and Alaska Natives made up 1 percent of the labor force, while Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders consisted of less than 1 percent. People of Two or More Races made up 2 percent of the labor force (as computed from table 1).

Among Asians participating in the labor force, the largest group was Asian Indian, making up 23 percent of all Asians. Chinese made up 22 percent, followed by Filipinos (16 percent), Vietnamese (11 percent), Koreans (8 percent), and Japanese (5 percent). The remainder—16 percent—were classified as Other Asian, a category that includes individuals in an Asian group not listed above—such as Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, and Cambodian—and those who reported two or more Asian groups (as computed from table 2).

Seventeen percent of the labor force were people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, who may be of any race. The majority of Hispanics in the labor force were White (89 percent), 5 percent were Black, and 1 percent were Asian. (See table 2.) By detailed ethnicity, the majority of Hispanics in the labor force were Mexican (61 percent). Central Americans—including Salvadorans and Other Central Americans (excluding Salvadorans)—made up another 10 percent. Nine percent of Hispanics were Puerto Rican, 7 percent were South American, and 4 percent were Cuban. An additional 8 percent were classified as Other Hispanics or Latinos, a category that includes two subcategories: Dominicans and Other Hispanics or Latinos (excluding Dominicans).

Labor force participation

Among the race and ethnicity groups, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (67.0 percent), people of Two or More Races (66.9 percent), and Hispanics (66.1 percent) had the highest labor force participation rates, and American Indians and Alaska Natives (60.3 percent) and Blacks (62.3 percent) had the lowest rates. The participation rates for Whites and Asians were 62.8 percent and 63.6 percent, respectively. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 4a, and chart 1.)

Among adult men (age 20 and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (80.5 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were the other groups, while Blacks (68.1 percent) were the least likely. The labor force participation rate for Asian men (75.0 percent) was higher than the rate for White men (71.8 percent). Among adult women (age 20 and older), Blacks (62.5 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than Hispanics (58.9 percent), Asians (58.3 percent), and Whites (57.6 percent). (See table 3.)

Employment

The employment–population ratio (that is, the proportion of the population that is employed) ranged from 55.6 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives to 62.9 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. The employment–population ratio was 57.6 percent for Blacks, 60.4 percent for Whites, 61.5 percent for Asians, 62.4 percent for individuals of Two or More Races, and 62.7 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 5a.)

Among adult men (ages 20 and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (77.1 percent) continued to have the highest employment–population ratio. Blacks (63.1 percent) had the lowest, continuing a longstanding pattern. The employment–population ratios for Asian men and White men were 72.6 percent and 69.3 percent, respectively. Among adult women, the ratios showed less variation across the major race and ethnicity groups: 58.5 percent for Blacks, 56.4 percent for Asians, 55.8 percent for Hispanics, and 55.6 percent for Whites. (See table 3.)

The employment–population ratio among teenagers (age 16 to 19) continued to be higher for Whites than for Hispanics, Asians, or Blacks. The ratio for White teens (32.3 percent) was about 12 percentage points higher than the ratio for Asian teens (20.8 percent) and about 10 percentage points higher than the ratio for Black teens (22.8 percent). The ratio for Hispanic teens was 27.1 percent.

Educational attainment

Among people age 25 and older, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was more than 90 percent for each of Whites, Blacks, and Asians. By contrast, 75 percent of Hispanics in the labor force had attained at least a high school diploma. Asians were the most likely of the groups to have graduated from college: 61 percent of Asians in the labor force had a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 40 percent of Whites, 30 percent of Blacks, and 20 percent of Hispanics (as computed from table 6 and chart 2).

Higher levels of education are generally associated with a greater likelihood of employment, and a lower likelihood of unemployment. For all major race and ethnicity groups, jobless rates for people with a bachelor’s degree and higher were generally lower than for other levels of educational attainment. (See table 6.)

Individuals with higher levels of education typically are more likely to be employed in higher paying jobs—such as those in management, professional, and related occupations—than are individuals with less education. Median earnings of those ages 25 and older increased with educational attainment for all major race and ethnicity groups. Blacks and Hispanics with a bachelor’s degree and higher had lower earnings than their Asian and White counterparts. (See table 17.)

Occupation

Fifty-two percent of employed Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations—the highest paying major occupational category—compared with 41 percent of employed Whites, 31 percent of employed Blacks, and 23 percent of employed Hispanics. (See table 7 and chart 3.)

Among employed men, 54 percent of Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations, compared with 37 percent of Whites, 25 percent of Blacks, and 19 percent of Hispanics. About 2 in 10 employed Black and Hispanic men were employed in service occupations, whereas 13 percent of employed Asian and White men, respectively, worked in these occupations. Employed Black and Hispanic men also were more likely than White and Asian men to work in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Twenty-eight percent of employed Hispanic men worked in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, compared with 18 percent of White men, 11 percent of Black men, and 6 percent of Asian men. 

Employed Asian women were more likely than other employed women to work in management, professional, and related occupations: 50 percent of Asian women, compared with 45 percent of White women, 36 percent of Black women, and 28 percent of Hispanic women. Among employed women, 61 percent of Hispanics worked in two occupational groups—service occupations and sales and office occupations—compared with 56 percent of Blacks, 49 percent of Whites, and 43 percent of Asians.

Hispanics accounted for 17 percent of total employment but were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including painters, construction and maintenance (53 percent); miscellaneous agricultural workers (51 percent); and maids and housekeeping cleaners (49 percent). Blacks made up 12 percent of all employed workers, but accounted for one-quarter or more of those in several specific occupations, including nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (34 percent); security guards and gaming surveillance officers (32 percent); and taxi drivers and chauffeurs (28 percent). Asians accounted for 6 percent of all employed workers but made up a much larger share of workers in several occupation categories, including miscellaneous personal appearance workers (62 percent), software developers (32 percent), and physicians and surgeons (18 percent). Whites made up 78 percent of all employed people, but accounted for 95 percent of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers; 90 percent of construction managers; and 90 percent of chief executives. (See table 8.)

Industry

Among employed men, Hispanics were more likely to work in the construction industry (20 percent) than were Whites (13 percent), Blacks (7 percent), or Asians (3 percent). Employed Black men were more likely than employed men of other race and ethnicity groups to work in transportation and utilities (12 percent). Twenty percent of employed Asian men worked in professional and business services, higher than the shares of White (13 percent), Hispanic (12 percent), and Black men (12 percent). A large share of employed women in all race and ethnicity groups worked in education and health services: Blacks (40 percent), Whites (36 percent), Asians (32 percent), and Hispanics (30 percent). (See table 9.)

Families and parents

Eighty-nine percent of Asian families and 87 percent of Hispanic families had an employed person. By contrast, White and Black families were less likely to have an employed person: 80 percent and 79 percent, respectively. (See table 10.)

Families maintained by women (without a spouse present) accounted for 43 percent of Black families, 24 percent of Hispanic families, 15 percent of White families, and 12 percent of Asian families. Among families maintained by women without a spouse present, Asian families were the most likely to have an employed family member (85 percent). In comparison, 76 percent of Black families, 77 percent of White families, and 79 percent of Hispanic families that were maintained by women had at least one employed family member. In general, families maintained by women without a spouse present were less likely than married-couple families or families maintained by men to have an employed family member.

Among mothers with children under 18, Black mothers (78.4 percent) were more likely to be in the labor force than White (70.5 percent), Asian (65.0 percent), or Hispanic (61.9 percent) mothers. (See table 11.)

Across all race and ethnicity groups, fathers with children under 18 were more likely to be in the labor force than were mothers with children under 18. Labor force participation rates for these fathers were 93.7 percent for Whites, 93.1 percent for Hispanics, 93.1 percent for Asians, and 87.3 percent for Blacks.

Unemployment

Jobless rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity. American Indians and Alaska Natives (7.8 percent) and Blacks (7.5 percent) had the highest unemployment rates, and the rate was lowest for Asians (3.4 percent). The jobless rates were 3.8 percent for Whites, 6.1 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, 6.7 percent for individuals of Two or More Races, and 5.1 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 12, and 12a, and charts 4 and 5.)

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, the jobless rates for adult Black men and adult Black women (age 20 and older) were 7.2 percent and 6.5 percent, respectively. The unemployment rate for adult Hispanic men was 4.2 percent, and the rate for adult Hispanic women was 5.3 percent. In comparison, the jobless rates for both adult White men and adult White women were 3.5 percent. For both adult Asian men and adult Asian women, the unemployment rate was 3.2 percent, respectively. (See table 3.)

Among teenagers, Blacks had the highest unemployment rate, at 24.0 percent. The unemployment rates for Hispanic, White, and Asian teenagers were 15.0 percent, 12.2 percent, and 11.5 percent, respectively.

Unemployed Blacks and Asians experienced longer periods of unemployment than did Whites and Hispanics. The median duration of unemployment for Blacks and Asians was 13.1 weeks and 11.5 weeks, respectively, whereas the figure for Whites was 9.3 weeks and Hispanics, 8.9 weeks. (See table 13.)

Of the 7.0 million unemployed, 49 percent (3.4 million) were job losers (that is, workers who lost their jobs or who completed temporary jobs). Reentrants to the labor force (30 percent), job leavers (11 percent), and new entrants (10 percent) accounted for the rest of the unemployed people. Of the total unemployed for each major race and ethnicity group, 51 percent of Whites and 50 percent of Hispanics were job losers, compared with 47 percent of Blacks and 42 percent of Asians. Fifteen percent of unemployed Asians, 11 percent of unemployed Blacks, 11 percent of unemployed Hispanics, and 9 percent of unemployed Whites were new entrants to the labor force. (See table 14.)

Not in the labor force

 As computed from table 15, Blacks made up 13 percent of the civilian labor force, but 22 percent of people marginally attached to the labor force. Those marginally attached to the labor force are individuals who were not in the labor force, wanted to work and were available to work, and had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months, but not in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Hispanics and Asians were represented among the marginally attached nearly proportionately to their share of the labor force. Whites were underrepresented among the marginally attached relative to their share of the labor force: 78 percent of the labor force versus 67 percent of the marginally attached. Blacks also made up a high proportion of discouraged workers (27 percent) relative to their share of the labor force. Discouraged workers, who represent a subset of the marginally attached, are people not currently looking for work because they believe that no jobs are available for them. (See table 15.)

Earnings

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics and Blacks continued to have considerably lower earnings than Whites and Asians. The median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in 2017 were $655 for Hispanics, $682 for Blacks, $890 for Whites, and $1,043 for Asians. Among men, the earnings for Whites ($971), Blacks ($710), and Hispanics ($690) were 80 percent, 59 percent, and 57 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asians ($1,207). The median earnings of White women ($795), Black women ($657), and Hispanic women ($603) were 88 percent, 73 percent, and 67 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian women ($903). (These earnings comparisons are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be significant in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization.) (See table 16.)

The earnings disparity across the major race and ethnicity groups for men holds for nearly all major occupational groups. For example, median usual weekly earnings of Asian men ($1,662) and White men ($1,458) working full time in management, professional, and related occupations (the highest paying major occupational group) were considerably higher than the earnings of Hispanic men ($1,166) and Black men ($1,099) in the same occupational group. (See table 18.)

Median weekly earnings for women by race and ethnicity groups were relatively close across a number of occupations. For example, among women in service occupations, the earnings were $515 for Asians, $505 for Whites, $484 for Blacks, and $475 for Hispanics. By contrast, in management, professional, and related occupations, the earnings of Asian women were higher than those for women in other race and ethnicity groups.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by gender and race, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Gender and race Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 60.1 6,982 4.4 94,759

Men

123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 66.0 3,743 4.4 38,130

Women

131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 54.6 3,239 4.3 56,629

White

198,942 124,941 62.8 120,176 60.4 4,765 3.8 74,001

Men

97,225 67,592 69.5 65,000 66.9 2,592 3.8 29,633

Women

101,717 57,349 56.4 55,176 54.2 2,173 3.8 44,368

Black

32,247 20,088 62.3 18,587 57.6 1,501 7.5 12,159

Men

14,712 9,508 64.6 8,742 59.4 766 8.1 5,204

Women

17,535 10,580 60.3 9,845 56.1 735 6.9 6,955

Asian

15,368 9,781 63.6 9,448 61.5 333 3.4 5,587

Men

7,181 5,166 71.9 4,989 69.5 177 3.4 2,015

Women

8,187 4,615 56.4 4,458 54.5 156 3.4 3,572

American Indian and Alaska Native

2,882 1,737 60.3 1,601 55.6 136 7.8 1,145

Men

1,423 937 65.8 858 60.3 79 8.5 486

Women

1,460 800 54.8 744 50.9 57 7.1 660

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

931 624 67.0 586 62.9 38 6.1 307

Men

456 331 72.6 313 68.7 18 5.4 125

Women

475 293 61.7 273 57.4 20 7.0 182

Two or More Races

4,708 3,148 66.9 2,939 62.4 210 6.7 1,560

Men

2,278 1,611 70.7 1,500 65.8 111 6.9 668

Women

2,430 1,538 63.3 1,439 59.2 99 6.4 892

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by detailed Asian group, and Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, gender, and race, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 60.1 6,982 4.4 94,759

Men

123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 66.0 3,743 4.4 38,130

Women

131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 54.6 3,239 4.3 56,629

Asian

15,368 9,781 63.6 9,448 61.5 333 3.4 5,587

Men

7,181 5,166 71.9 4,989 69.5 177 3.4 2,015

Women

8,187 4,615 56.4 4,458 54.5 156 3.4 3,572

Asian Indian

3,297 2,255 68.4 2,182 66.2 73 3.3 1,041

Chinese

3,497 2,103 60.1 2,036 58.2 66 3.1 1,394

Filipino

2,323 1,541 66.3 1,496 64.4 45 2.9 782

Japanese

896 497 55.4 484 54.0 13 2.5 400

Korean

1,248 770 61.7 750 60.1 21 2.7 477

Vietnamese

1,595 1,030 64.6 992 62.2 38 3.7 565

Other Asian

2,513 1,585 63.1 1,508 60.0 77 4.9 928

Hispanic or Latino

41,371 27,339 66.1 25,938 62.7 1,401 5.1 14,032

Men

20,578 15,604 75.8 14,874 72.3 730 4.7 4,974

Women

20,794 11,735 56.4 11,064 53.2 671 5.7 9,058

Mexican

25,455 16,808 66.0 15,958 62.7 849 5.1 8,647

Men

12,918 9,908 76.7 9,453 73.2 455 4.6 3,010

Women

12,537 6,899 55.0 6,505 51.9 394 5.7 5,638

Puerto Rican

3,902 2,409 61.7 2,265 58.1 144 6.0 1,493

Men

1,866 1,245 66.7 1,162 62.3 82 6.6 621

Women

2,036 1,164 57.2 1,103 54.2 62 5.3 872

Cuban

1,723 1,063 61.7 1,019 59.2 43 4.1 660

Men

834 600 71.9 579 69.4 21 3.4 234

Women

888 463 52.1 440 49.5 23 4.9 426

Central American

3,875 2,765 71.4 2,645 68.3 120 4.3 1,109

Men

1,956 1,617 82.7 1,563 79.9 54 3.4 339

Women

1,918 1,148 59.8 1,082 56.4 66 5.7 771

Salvadoran

1,530 1,105 72.2 1,058 69.2 46 4.2 425

Men

763 633 82.9 607 79.5 26 4.1 131

Women

766 472 61.6 451 58.9 21 4.4 294

Other Central American(1)

2,345 1,661 70.8 1,587 67.7 74 4.5 684

Men

1,193 985 82.6 956 80.2 28 2.9 208

Women

1,152 676 58.6 630 54.7 45 6.7 476

South American

2,889 2,022 70.0 1,923 66.6 99 4.9 867

Men

1,362 1,070 78.5 1,023 75.1 47 4.4 292

Women

1,527 952 62.4 900 59.0 52 5.4 575

Other Hispanic or Latino

3,528 2,273 64.4 2,128 60.3 145 6.4 1,255

Men

1,642 1,164 70.9 1,093 66.6 70 6.0 478

Women

1,887 1,109 58.8 1,034 54.8 75 6.8 778

Dominican

1,452 951 65.5 877 60.4 74 7.8 501

Men

627 444 70.9 412 65.7 32 7.3 183

Women

825 507 61.4 465 56.4 42 8.2 318

Other Hispanic or Latino(2)

2,076 1,322 63.7 1,250 60.2 71 5.4 754

Men

1,015 719 70.9 681 67.2 38 5.3 295

Women

1,061 602 56.7 569 53.6 33 5.5 459

Hispanic or Latino

41,371 27,339 66.1 25,938 62.7 1,401 5.1 14,032

Men

20,578 15,604 75.8 14,874 72.3 730 4.7 4,974

Women

20,794 11,735 56.4 11,064 53.2 671 5.7 9,058

White Hispanic or Latino

36,820 24,290 66.0 23,073 62.7 1,217 5.0 12,530

Men

18,345 13,985 76.2 13,343 72.7 642 4.6 4,360

Women

18,475 10,305 55.8 9,730 52.7 575 5.6 8,170

Black Hispanic or Latino

1,884 1,274 67.6 1,193 63.3 82 6.4 610

Men

867 608 70.1 573 66.1 35 5.7 259

Women

1,017 667 65.5 620 60.9 47 7.0 351

Asian Hispanic or Latino

411 264 64.2 249 60.6 15 5.6 147

Men

201 146 72.6 138 69.0 7 5.0 55

Women

210 118 56.3 111 52.7 8 6.4 92

Non-Hispanic or Latino

213,708 132,980 62.2 127,399 59.6 5,581 4.2 80,727

Men

102,698 69,541 67.7 66,528 64.8 3,013 4.3 33,156

Women

111,010 63,439 57.1 60,871 54.8 2,568 4.0 47,571

White non-Hispanic or Latino

162,122 100,652 62.1 97,104 59.9 3,548 3.5 61,471

Men

78,880 53,607 68.0 51,657 65.5 1,950 3.6 25,273

Women

83,242 47,044 56.5 45,446 54.6 1,598 3.4 36,198

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

30,363 18,814 62.0 17,394 57.3 1,419 7.5 11,549

Men

13,845 8,900 64.3 8,169 59.0 731 8.2 4,945

Women

16,518 9,913 60.0 9,226 55.9 688 6.9 6,604

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

14,957 9,517 63.6 9,199 61.5 318 3.3 5,440

Men

6,980 5,021 71.9 4,851 69.5 170 3.4 1,960

Women

7,977 4,496 56.4 4,348 54.5 149 3.3 3,481

Footnotes
(1) Excludes Salvadoran.
(2) Excludes Dominican.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, and Asian non-Hispanic) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by gender, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age, gender, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

Total, 16 years and older

255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 60.1 6,982 4.4 94,759

16 to 19 years

16,754 5,901 35.2 5,074 30.3 827 14.0 10,853

20 years and older

238,325 154,418 64.8 148,263 62.2 6,155 4.0 83,907

20 to 24 years

21,396 15,259 71.3 14,132 66.0 1,127 7.4 6,137

25 to 54 years

125,697 102,683 81.7 98,833 78.6 3,850 3.7 23,014

55 to 64 years

41,691 26,899 64.5 26,064 62.5 835 3.1 14,792

65 years and older

49,542 9,577 19.3 9,234 18.6 343 3.6 39,964

Men, 16 years and older

123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 66.0 3,743 4.4 38,130

16 to 19 years

8,493 2,939 34.6 2,483 29.2 457 15.5 5,553

20 years and older

114,783 82,206 71.6 78,919 68.8 3,287 4.0 32,577

20 to 24 years

10,726 7,948 74.1 7,281 67.9 667 8.4 2,778

25 to 54 years

61,851 54,813 88.6 52,817 85.4 1,996 3.6 7,038

55 to 64 years

20,054 14,156 70.6 13,710 68.4 445 3.1 5,898

65 years and older

22,151 5,289 23.9 5,111 23.1 179 3.4 16,862

Women, 16 years and older

131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 54.6 3,239 4.3 56,629

16 to 19 years

8,261 2,962 35.9 2,591 31.4 371 12.5 5,299

20 years and older

123,542 72,213 58.5 69,344 56.1 2,868 4.0 51,330

20 to 24 years

10,669 7,311 68.5 6,851 64.2 460 6.3 3,358

25 to 54 years

63,846 47,870 75.0 46,016 72.1 1,854 3.9 15,975

55 to 64 years

21,637 12,743 58.9 12,354 57.1 389 3.1 8,894

65 years and older

27,390 4,288 15.7 4,124 15.1 164 3.8 23,102

White

Total, 16 years and older

198,942 124,941 62.8 120,176 60.4 4,765 3.8 74,001

16 to 19 years

12,339 4,542 36.8 3,989 32.3 554 12.2 7,797

20 years and older

186,603 120,399 64.5 116,188 62.3 4,211 3.5 66,204

20 to 24 years

15,701 11,481 73.1 10,738 68.4 743 6.5 4,220

25 to 54 years

95,391 78,569 82.4 76,006 79.7 2,564 3.3 16,821

55 to 64 years

33,709 22,209 65.9 21,581 64.0 628 2.8 11,500

65 years and older

41,803 8,139 19.5 7,863 18.8 277 3.4 33,663

Men, 16 years and older

97,225 67,592 69.5 65,000 66.9 2,592 3.8 29,633

16 to 19 years

6,284 2,296 36.5 1,991 31.7 304 13.3 3,988

20 years and older

90,941 65,296 71.8 63,009 69.3 2,288 3.5 25,645

20 to 24 years

7,925 6,062 76.5 5,613 70.8 449 7.4 1,863

25 to 54 years

47,681 42,793 89.7 41,430 86.9 1,363 3.2 4,889

55 to 64 years

16,413 11,863 72.3 11,531 70.3 331 2.8 4,550

65 years and older

18,922 4,579 24.2 4,434 23.4 144 3.2 14,343

Women, 16 years and older

101,717 57,349 56.4 55,176 54.2 2,173 3.8 44,368

16 to 19 years

6,055 2,247 37.1 1,997 33.0 249 11.1 3,809

20 years and older

95,661 55,103 57.6 53,179 55.6 1,923 3.5 40,559

20 to 24 years

7,776 5,419 69.7 5,126 65.9 293 5.4 2,356

25 to 54 years

47,709 35,777 75.0 34,576 72.5 1,201 3.4 11,933

55 to 64 years

17,296 10,346 59.8 10,050 58.1 297 2.9 6,949

65 years and older

22,881 3,560 15.6 3,428 15.0 132 3.7 19,321

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

32,247 20,088 62.3 18,587 57.6 1,501 7.5 12,159

16 to 19 years

2,511 754 30.0 573 22.8 181 24.0 1,758

20 years and older

29,736 19,334 65.0 18,015 60.6 1,320 6.8 10,401

20 to 24 years

3,239 2,241 69.2 1,984 61.3 258 11.5 997

25 to 54 years

16,953 13,530 79.8 12,639 74.6 891 6.6 3,423

55 to 64 years

4,934 2,741 55.6 2,606 52.8 135 4.9 2,193

65 years and older

4,610 822 17.8 786 17.0 36 4.4 3,789

Men, 16 years and older

14,712 9,508 64.6 8,742 59.4 766 8.1 5,204

16 to 19 years

1,249 345 27.6 241 19.3 104 30.0 903

20 years and older

13,464 9,163 68.1 8,500 63.1 663 7.2 4,301

20 to 24 years

1,571 1,091 69.4 946 60.2 144 13.2 481

25 to 54 years

7,795 6,388 81.9 5,958 76.4 430 6.7 1,407

55 to 64 years

2,234 1,304 58.4 1,231 55.1 73 5.6 930

65 years and older

1,864 380 20.4 365 19.6 15 4.0 1,483

Women, 16 years and older

17,535 10,580 60.3 9,845 56.1 735 6.9 6,955

16 to 19 years

1,263 409 32.4 331 26.2 77 18.9 854

20 years and older

16,272 10,171 62.5 9,514 58.5 657 6.5 6,101

20 to 24 years

1,667 1,151 69.0 1,038 62.2 113 9.8 516

25 to 54 years

9,159 7,143 78.0 6,682 73.0 461 6.5 2,016

55 to 64 years

2,700 1,437 53.2 1,375 50.9 62 4.3 1,263

65 years and older

2,747 441 16.1 421 15.3 21 4.7 2,305

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

15,368 9,781 63.6 9,448 61.5 333 3.4 5,587

16 to 19 years

878 207 23.5 183 20.8 24 11.5 672

20 years and older

14,490 9,574 66.1 9,265 63.9 309 3.2 4,916

20 to 24 years

1,359 727 53.5 675 49.6 52 7.2 632

25 to 54 years

8,816 7,005 79.5 6,819 77.3 187 2.7 1,811

55 to 64 years

2,050 1,401 68.3 1,350 65.9 51 3.6 649

65 years and older

2,265 441 19.5 422 18.6 20 4.4 1,824

Men, 16 years and older

7,181 5,166 71.9 4,989 69.5 177 3.4 2,015

16 to 19 years

434 105 24.2 93 21.3 13 12.1 329

20 years and older

6,747 5,061 75.0 4,897 72.6 164 3.2 1,686

20 to 24 years

678 364 53.7 333 49.1 31 8.6 314

25 to 54 years

4,166 3,748 90.0 3,654 87.7 93 2.5 419

55 to 64 years

931 710 76.3 683 73.4 27 3.8 221

65 years and older

971 239 24.6 226 23.3 13 5.3 733

Women, 16 years and older

8,187 4,615 56.4 4,458 54.5 156 3.4 3,572

16 to 19 years

444 101 22.9 90 20.3 11 11.0 342

20 years and older

7,743 4,513 58.3 4,368 56.4 145 3.2 3,230

20 to 24 years

681 363 53.3 341 50.2 21 5.8 318

25 to 54 years

4,650 3,258 70.1 3,164 68.1 93 2.9 1,392

55 to 64 years

1,119 690 61.7 667 59.6 24 3.4 428

65 years and older

1,293 202 15.6 195 15.1 7 3.4 1,091

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

41,371 27,339 66.1 25,938 62.7 1,401 5.1 14,032

16 to 19 years

3,844 1,225 31.9 1,041 27.1 184 15.0 2,619

20 years and older

37,528 26,115 69.6 24,898 66.3 1,217 4.7 11,413

20 to 24 years

4,686 3,326 71.0 3,073 65.6 253 7.6 1,361

25 to 54 years

24,051 19,072 79.3 18,259 75.9 813 4.3 4,978

55 to 64 years

4,662 2,939 63.0 2,825 60.6 113 3.9 1,723

65 years and older

4,129 778 18.8 740 17.9 38 4.9 3,351

Men, 16 years and older

20,578 15,604 75.8 14,874 72.3 730 4.7 4,974

16 to 19 years

1,951 617 31.6 519 26.6 98 15.9 1,333

20 years and older

18,627 14,987 80.5 14,355 77.1 632 4.2 3,640

20 to 24 years

2,374 1,829 77.0 1,692 71.3 137 7.5 545

25 to 54 years

12,204 11,054 90.6 10,639 87.2 415 3.8 1,150

55 to 64 years

2,256 1,658 73.5 1,601 71.0 57 3.4 598

65 years and older

1,794 446 24.9 423 23.6 23 5.1 1,348

Women, 16 years and older

20,794 11,735 56.4 11,064 53.2 671 5.7 9,058

16 to 19 years

1,893 608 32.1 522 27.6 86 14.1 1,285

20 years and older

18,900 11,128 58.9 10,543 55.8 585 5.3 7,773

20 to 24 years

2,312 1,497 64.7 1,381 59.7 116 7.7 815

25 to 54 years

11,847 8,018 67.7 7,620 64.3 398 5.0 3,829

55 to 64 years

2,406 1,281 53.2 1,224 50.9 56 4.4 1,125

65 years and older

2,335 332 14.2 317 13.6 15 4.6 2,003

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2017 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

60.4 78.9 43.9 60.4 79.6 43.2 59.9 73.6 48.7 - - - - - -

1973

60.8 78.8 44.7 60.8 79.4 44.1 60.2 73.4 49.3 - - - 60.2 81.5 41.0

1974

61.3 78.7 45.7 61.4 79.4 45.2 59.8 72.9 49.0 - - - 61.1 81.7 42.4

1975

61.2 77.9 46.3 61.5 78.7 45.9 58.8 70.9 48.8 - - - 60.8 80.7 43.2

1976

61.6 77.5 47.3 61.8 78.4 46.9 59.0 70.0 49.8 - - - 60.8 79.6 44.3

1977

62.3 77.7 48.4 62.5 78.5 48.0 59.8 70.6 50.8 - - - 61.6 80.9 44.3

1978

63.2 77.9 50.0 63.3 78.6 49.4 61.5 71.5 53.1 - - - 62.9 81.1 46.6

1979

63.7 77.8 50.9 63.9 78.6 50.5 61.4 71.3 53.1 - - - 63.6 81.3 47.4

1980

63.8 77.4 51.5 64.1 78.2 51.2 61.0 70.3 53.1 - - - 64.0 81.4 47.4

1981

63.9 77.0 52.1 64.3 77.9 51.9 60.8 70.0 53.5 - - - 64.1 80.6 48.3

1982

64.0 76.6 52.6 64.3 77.4 52.4 61.0 70.1 53.7 - - - 63.6 79.7 48.1

1983

64.0 76.4 52.9 64.3 77.1 52.7 61.5 70.6 54.2 - - - 63.8 80.3 47.7

1984

64.4 76.4 53.6 64.6 77.1 53.3 62.2 70.8 55.2 - - - 64.9 80.6 49.6

1985

64.8 76.3 54.5 65.0 77.0 54.1 62.9 70.8 56.5 - - - 64.6 80.3 49.3

1986

65.3 76.3 55.3 65.5 76.9 55.0 63.3 71.2 56.9 - - - 65.4 81.0 50.1

1987

65.6 76.2 56.0 65.8 76.8 55.7 63.8 71.1 58.0 - - - 66.4 81.0 52.0

1988

65.9 76.2 56.6 66.2 76.9 56.4 63.8 71.0 58.0 - - - 67.4 81.9 53.2

1989

66.5 76.4 57.4 66.7 77.1 57.2 64.2 71.0 58.7 - - - 67.6 82.0 53.5

1990

66.5 76.4 57.5 66.9 77.1 57.4 64.0 71.0 58.3 - - - 67.4 81.4 53.1

1991

66.2 75.8 57.4 66.6 76.5 57.4 63.3 70.4 57.5 - - - 66.5 80.3 52.4

1992

66.4 75.8 57.8 66.8 76.5 57.7 63.9 70.7 58.5 - - - 66.8 80.7 52.8

1993

66.3 75.4 57.9 66.8 76.2 58.0 63.2 69.6 57.9 - - - 66.2 80.2 52.1

1994

66.6 75.1 58.8 67.1 75.9 58.9 63.4 69.1 58.7 - - - 66.1 79.2 52.9

1995

66.6 75.0 58.9 67.1 75.7 59.0 63.7 69.0 59.5 - - - 65.8 79.1 52.6

1996

66.8 74.9 59.3 67.2 75.8 59.1 64.1 68.7 60.4 - - - 66.5 79.6 53.4

1997

67.1 75.0 59.8 67.5 75.9 59.5 64.7 68.3 61.7 - - - 67.9 80.1 55.1

1998

67.1 74.9 59.8 67.3 75.6 59.4 65.6 69.0 62.8 - - - 67.9 79.8 55.6

1999

67.1 74.7 60.0 67.3 75.6 59.6 65.8 68.7 63.5 - - - 67.7 79.8 55.9

2000

67.1 74.8 59.9 67.3 75.5 59.5 65.8 69.2 63.1 67.2 76.1 59.2 69.7 81.5 57.5

2001

66.8 74.4 59.8 67.0 75.1 59.4 65.3 68.4 62.8 67.2 76.2 59.0 69.5 81.0 57.6

2002

66.6 74.1 59.6 66.8 74.8 59.3 64.8 68.4 61.8 67.2 75.9 59.1 69.1 80.2 57.6

2003

66.2 73.5 59.5 66.5 74.2 59.2 64.3 67.3 61.9 66.4 75.6 58.3 68.3 80.1 55.9

2004

66.0 73.3 59.2 66.3 74.1 58.9 63.8 66.7 61.5 65.9 75.0 57.6 68.6 80.4 56.1

2005

66.0 73.3 59.3 66.3 74.1 58.9 64.2 67.3 61.6 66.1 74.8 58.2 68.0 80.1 55.3

2006

66.2 73.5 59.4 66.5 74.3 59.0 64.1 67.0 61.7 66.2 75.0 58.3 68.7 80.7 56.1

2007

66.0 73.2 59.3 66.4 74.0 59.0 63.7 66.8 61.1 66.5 75.1 58.6 68.8 80.5 56.5

2008

66.0 73.0 59.5 66.3 73.7 59.2 63.7 66.7 61.3 67.0 75.3 59.4 68.5 80.2 56.2

2009

65.4 72.0 59.2 65.8 72.8 59.1 62.4 65.0 60.3 66.0 74.6 58.2 68.0 78.8 56.5

2010

64.7 71.2 58.6 65.1 72.0 58.5 62.2 65.0 59.9 64.7 73.2 57.0 67.5 77.8 56.5

2011

64.1 70.5 58.1 64.5 71.3 58.0 61.4 64.2 59.1 64.6 73.2 56.8 66.5 76.5 55.9

2012

63.7 70.2 57.7 64.0 71.0 57.4 61.5 63.6 59.8 63.9 72.2 56.5 66.4 76.1 56.6

2013

63.2 69.7 57.2 63.5 70.5 56.9 61.2 63.5 59.2 64.6 73.0 57.1 66.0 76.3 55.7

2014

62.9 69.2 57.0 63.1 69.8 56.7 61.2 63.6 59.2 63.6 72.4 55.8 66.1 76.1 56.0

2015

62.7 69.1 56.7 62.8 69.7 56.2 61.5 63.8 59.7 62.8 71.4 55.2 65.9 76.2 55.7

2016

62.8 69.2 56.8 62.9 69.8 56.3 61.6 64.1 59.4 63.2 72.1 55.5 65.8 76.0 55.8

2017

62.9 69.1 57.0 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.6 60.3 63.6 71.9 56.4 66.1 75.8 56.4
Table 4a. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2017 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

64.4 71.0 58.0 68.9 75.0 63.9 67.6 73.2 62.4

2004

63.8 70.9 57.1 71.8 76.6 67.7 67.0 74.0 60.3

2005

63.5 70.0 57.2 73.4 77.1 69.8 67.0 72.0 62.3

2006

63.1 68.6 57.9 74.5 80.8 68.6 65.9 72.3 59.7

2007

63.3 69.9 57.0 73.0 78.4 68.2 66.3 71.9 60.8

2008

63.7 70.2 57.6 72.5 78.9 66.6 65.5 70.7 60.4

2009

59.0 64.1 54.2 69.4 77.3 62.3 65.6 70.4 61.0

2010

57.7 64.0 51.8 68.4 71.3 65.5 65.4 70.9 60.3

2011

59.2 65.2 53.2 69.4 75.6 63.6 64.0 68.9 59.5

2012

59.3 66.4 52.6 71.4 73.9 69.1 65.3 70.4 60.5

2013

59.2 65.3 53.3 70.0 73.7 66.6 63.3 69.2 57.8

2014

60.9 67.2 54.7 67.6 73.8 61.6 64.2 69.7 59.0

2015

60.6 65.9 55.5 66.6 73.7 59.7 64.5 68.4 60.9

2016

61.1 67.2 55.4 68.7 76.0 61.3 65.0 68.1 62.1

2017

60.3 65.8 54.8 67.0 72.6 61.7 66.9 70.7 63.3

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2017 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

57.0 75.0 41.0 57.4 76.0 40.7 53.7 66.8 43.0 - - - - - -

1973

57.8 75.5 42.0 58.2 76.5 41.8 54.5 67.5 43.8 - - - 55.6 76.0 37.3

1974

57.8 74.9 42.6 58.3 75.9 42.4 53.5 65.8 43.5 - - - 56.2 75.7 38.4

1975

56.1 71.7 42.0 56.7 73.0 42.0 50.1 60.6 41.6 - - - 53.4 71.5 37.4

1976

56.8 72.0 43.2 57.5 73.4 43.2 50.8 60.6 42.8 - - - 53.8 71.1 38.6

1977

57.9 72.8 44.5 58.6 74.1 44.5 51.4 61.4 43.3 - - - 55.4 73.6 39.1

1978

59.3 73.8 46.4 60.0 75.0 46.3 53.6 63.3 45.8 - - - 57.2 74.9 41.3

1979

59.9 73.8 47.5 60.6 75.1 47.5 53.8 63.4 46.0 - - - 58.3 75.6 42.5

1980

59.2 72.0 47.7 60.0 73.4 47.8 52.3 60.4 45.7 - - - 57.6 73.5 42.4

1981

59.0 71.3 48.0 60.0 72.8 48.3 51.3 59.1 45.1 - - - 57.4 72.4 43.0

1982

57.8 69.0 47.7 58.8 70.6 48.1 49.4 56.0 44.2 - - - 54.9 68.9 41.3

1983

57.9 68.8 48.0 58.9 70.4 48.5 49.5 56.3 44.1 - - - 55.1 69.4 41.1

1984

59.5 70.7 49.5 60.5 72.1 49.8 52.3 59.2 46.7 - - - 57.9 72.1 44.2

1985

60.1 70.9 50.4 61.0 72.3 50.7 53.4 60.0 48.1 - - - 57.8 72.1 43.8

1986

60.7 71.0 51.4 61.5 72.3 51.7 54.1 60.6 48.8 - - - 58.5 72.5 44.7

1987

61.5 71.5 52.5 62.3 72.7 52.8 55.6 62.0 50.3 - - - 60.5 74.0 47.4

1988

62.3 72.0 53.4 63.1 73.2 53.8 56.3 62.7 51.2 - - - 61.9 75.3 48.8

1989

63.0 72.5 54.3 63.8 73.7 54.6 56.9 62.8 52.0 - - - 62.2 75.8 48.8

1990

62.8 72.0 54.3 63.7 73.3 54.7 56.7 62.6 51.9 - - - 61.9 74.9 48.6

1991

61.7 70.4 53.7 62.6 71.6 54.2 55.4 61.3 50.6 - - - 59.8 72.1 47.3

1992

61.5 69.8 53.8 62.4 71.1 54.2 54.9 59.9 50.8 - - - 59.1 71.2 46.8

1993

61.7 70.0 54.1 62.7 71.4 54.6 55.0 60.0 50.9 - - - 59.1 71.7 46.3

1994

62.5 70.4 55.3 63.5 71.8 55.8 56.1 60.8 52.3 - - - 59.5 71.7 47.2

1995

62.9 70.8 55.6 63.8 72.0 56.1 57.1 61.7 53.4 - - - 59.7 72.1 47.3

1996

63.2 70.9 56.0 64.1 72.3 56.3 57.4 61.1 54.4 - - - 60.6 73.3 47.9

1997

63.8 71.3 56.8 64.6 72.7 57.0 58.2 61.4 55.6 - - - 62.6 74.5 50.2

1998

64.1 71.6 57.1 64.7 72.7 57.1 59.7 62.9 57.2 - - - 63.1 74.7 51.0

1999

64.3 71.6 57.4 64.8 72.8 57.3 60.6 63.1 58.6 - - - 63.4 75.3 51.7

2000

64.4 71.9 57.5 64.9 73.0 57.4 60.9 63.6 58.6 64.8 73.3 57.1 65.7 77.4 53.6

2001

63.7 70.9 57.0 64.2 72.0 57.0 59.7 62.1 57.8 64.2 72.7 56.4 64.9 76.2 53.3

2002

62.7 69.7 56.3 63.4 70.8 56.4 58.1 61.1 55.8 63.2 71.3 55.8 63.9 74.5 52.9

2003

62.3 68.9 56.1 63.0 70.1 56.3 57.4 59.5 55.6 62.4 70.9 54.9 63.1 74.3 51.2

2004

62.3 69.2 56.0 63.1 70.4 56.1 57.2 59.3 55.5 63.0 71.6 55.1 63.8 75.1 51.8

2005

62.7 69.6 56.2 63.4 70.8 56.3 57.7 60.2 55.7 63.4 71.8 55.9 64.0 75.8 51.5

2006

63.1 70.1 56.6 63.8 71.3 56.6 58.4 60.6 56.5 64.2 72.7 56.5 65.2 76.8 52.8

2007

63.0 69.8 56.6 63.6 70.9 56.7 58.4 60.7 56.5 64.3 72.8 56.6 64.9 76.2 53.0

2008

62.2 68.5 56.2 62.8 69.7 56.3 57.3 59.1 55.8 64.3 72.2 57.2 63.3 74.1 51.9

2009

59.3 64.5 54.4 60.2 66.0 54.8 53.2 53.7 52.8 61.2 68.7 54.4 59.7 68.9 50.1

2010

58.5 63.7 53.6 59.4 65.1 54.0 52.3 53.1 51.7 59.9 67.5 53.0 59.0 68.0 49.6

2011

58.4 63.9 53.2 59.4 65.3 53.7 51.7 52.8 50.8 60.0 68.2 52.6 58.9 67.9 49.3

2012

58.6 64.4 53.1 59.4 65.8 53.3 53.0 54.1 52.2 60.1 68.1 53.1 59.5 68.6 50.4

2013

58.6 64.4 53.2 59.4 65.7 53.3 53.2 54.5 52.0 61.2 69.0 54.3 60.0 69.6 50.4

2014

59.0 64.9 53.5 59.7 66.1 53.7 54.3 55.9 52.9 60.4 68.6 53.3 61.2 71.0 51.4

2015

59.3 65.3 53.7 59.9 66.5 53.7 55.7 57.2 54.4 60.4 68.6 53.2 61.6 71.5 51.8

2016

59.7 65.8 54.1 60.2 66.7 54.0 56.4 58.3 54.8 60.9 69.6 53.4 62.0 71.9 52.3

2017

60.1 66.0 54.6 60.4 66.9 54.2 57.6 59.4 56.1 61.5 69.5 54.5 62.7 72.3 53.2
Table 5a. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2017 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

57.7 63.1 52.4 63.6 69.8 58.4 61.4 66.4 56.8

2004

57.7 64.0 51.8 67.4 71.4 64.1 61.2 67.6 55.0

2005

57.6 63.9 51.5 70.2 73.4 67.1 61.6 66.3 57.2

2006

58.1 63.2 53.3 70.6 75.7 65.7 61.5 67.0 56.2

2007

58.1 64.3 52.3 69.4 74.2 65.3 61.5 66.5 56.6

2008

57.4 62.6 52.5 67.8 72.8 63.3 59.3 63.6 55.2

2009

51.2 54.2 48.3 61.8 68.3 56.0 56.7 60.4 53.2

2010

49.0 53.0 45.2 60.1 61.6 58.7 56.5 60.8 52.5

2011

50.5 55.2 45.9 62.2 67.0 57.7 55.3 59.2 51.7

2012

52.1 58.5 45.9 63.0 64.7 61.4 57.6 61.9 53.5

2013

51.6 56.6 46.9 62.9 65.5 60.4 56.4 61.3 51.7

2014

54.0 59.2 48.9 63.5 69.6 57.5 57.6 62.1 53.4

2015

54.6 58.6 50.8 62.8 69.5 56.3 59.0 62.8 55.6

2016

55.7 61.0 50.6 65.7 72.7 58.5 60.2 62.9 57.6

2017

55.6 60.3 50.9 62.9 68.7 57.4 62.4 65.8 59.2

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 6. Employment status of people 25 years and older by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Employment status, gender, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total, 25 years
and older
Less than a
high school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some college,
no degree
Associate's
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

Total

Civilian noninstitutional population

216,929 22,638 62,192 35,211 22,050 74,838

Civilian labor force

139,159 10,343 35,874 22,339 15,357 55,246

Percent of population

64.1 45.7 57.7 63.4 69.6 73.8

Employed

134,132 9,668 34,210 21,440 14,842 53,971

Employment-population ratio

61.8 42.7 55.0 60.9 67.3 72.1

Unemployed

5,028 674 1,664 899 515 1,275

Unemployment rate

3.6 6.5 4.6 4.0 3.4 2.3

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

104,056 11,220 30,948 16,813 9,497 35,579

Civilian labor force

74,258 6,529 20,944 11,811 7,193 27,781

Percent of population

71.4 58.2 67.7 70.2 75.7 78.1

Employed

71,638 6,129 20,013 11,355 6,969 27,172

Employment-population ratio

68.8 54.6 64.7 67.5 73.4 76.4

Unemployed

2,620 401 931 456 223 608

Unemployment rate

3.5 6.1 4.4 3.9 3.1 2.2

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

112,873 11,418 31,244 18,399 12,553 39,259

Civilian labor force

64,902 3,813 14,930 10,528 8,165 27,465

Percent of population

57.5 33.4 47.8 57.2 65.0 70.0

Employed

62,494 3,540 14,197 10,085 7,873 26,799

Employment-population ratio

55.4 31.0 45.4 54.8 62.7 68.3

Unemployed

2,408 273 733 443 292 667

Unemployment rate

3.7 7.2 4.9 4.2 3.6 2.4

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

170,902 17,229 48,904 27,518 17,766 59,485

Civilian labor force

108,918 8,151 27,837 17,127 12,239 43,563

Percent of population

63.7 47.3 56.9 62.2 68.9 73.2

Employed

105,449 7,690 26,710 16,515 11,872 42,662

Employment-population ratio

61.7 44.6 54.6 60.0 66.8 71.7

Unemployed

3,468 461 1,127 612 366 902

Unemployment rate

3.2 5.7 4.1 3.6 3.0 2.1

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

83,016 8,771 24,536 13,323 7,725 28,661

Civilian labor force

59,234 5,349 16,670 9,274 5,829 22,112

Percent of population

71.4 61.0 67.9 69.6 75.5 77.2

Employed

57,396 5,074 16,029 8,954 5,670 21,670

Employment-population ratio

69.1 57.8 65.3 67.2 73.4 75.6

Unemployed

1,838 275 641 320 160 442

Unemployment rate

3.1 5.1 3.8 3.5 2.7 2.0

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

87,886 8,459 24,368 14,195 10,041 30,823

Civilian labor force

49,683 2,802 11,167 7,853 6,410 21,451

Percent of population

56.5 33.1 45.8 55.3 63.8 69.6

Employed

48,053 2,616 10,681 7,562 6,203 20,992

Employment-population ratio

54.7 30.9 43.8 53.3 61.8 68.1

Unemployed

1,630 186 486 291 207 459

Unemployment rate

3.3 6.7 4.4 3.7 3.2 2.1

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

26,497 3,218 8,863 5,212 2,726 6,478

Civilian labor force

17,093 1,186 5,302 3,550 2,000 5,055

Percent of population

64.5 36.9 59.8 68.1 73.4 78.0

Employed

16,031 1,038 4,889 3,335 1,894 4,874

Employment-population ratio

60.5 32.3 55.2 64.0 69.5 75.2

Unemployed

1,062 148 412 215 106 182

Unemployment rate

6.2 12.5 7.8 6.1 5.3 3.6

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,892 1,480 4,298 2,269 1,132 2,713

Civilian labor force

8,072 619 2,784 1,634 865 2,171

Percent of population

67.9 41.8 64.8 72.0 76.4 80.0

Employed

7,554 535 2,564 1,535 821 2,098

Employment-population ratio

63.5 36.2 59.7 67.7 72.6 77.3

Unemployed

518 84 219 99 44 72

Unemployment rate

6.4 13.5 7.9 6.1 5.1 3.3

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,605 1,737 4,565 2,944 1,594 3,765

Civilian labor force

9,021 567 2,518 1,916 1,135 2,885

Percent of population

61.8 32.6 55.2 65.1 71.2 76.6

Employed

8,477 503 2,325 1,800 1,073 2,775

Employment-population ratio

58.0 29.0 50.9 61.2 67.3 73.7

Unemployed

544 64 193 116 62 109

Unemployment rate

6.0 11.3 7.7 6.1 5.4 3.8

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

13,131 1,237 2,491 1,192 884 7,327

Civilian labor force

8,847 503 1,515 788 632 5,409

Percent of population

67.4 40.7 60.8 66.1 71.5 73.8

Employed

8,590 481 1,474 764 611 5,261

Employment-population ratio

65.4 38.9 59.2 64.1 69.1 71.8

Unemployed

257 22 41 24 21 148

Unemployment rate

2.9 4.4 2.7 3.0 3.4 2.7

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,069 462 1,113 603 365 3,526

Civilian labor force

4,697 237 794 443 289 2,933

Percent of population

77.4 51.4 71.3 73.5 79.3 83.2

Employed

4,564 222 770 431 280 2,860

Employment-population ratio

75.2 48.1 69.2 71.6 76.9 81.1

Unemployed

133 15 24 12 9 73

Unemployment rate

2.8 6.3 3.1 2.7 3.0 2.5

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,062 775 1,378 589 519 3,801

Civilian labor force

4,150 266 721 345 343 2,476

Percent of population

58.8 34.3 52.3 58.6 66.0 65.1

Employed

4,027 258 704 333 330 2,401

Employment-population ratio

57.0 33.3 51.1 56.6 63.5 63.2

Unemployed

124 7 17 12 13 75

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.7 2.3 3.5 3.7 3.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,841 9,728 10,012 4,566 2,654 5,880

Civilian labor force

22,789 5,755 6,967 3,393 2,013 4,661

Percent of population

69.4 59.2 69.6 74.3 75.8 79.3

Employed

21,825 5,462 6,642 3,258 1,937 4,525

Employment-population ratio

66.5 56.1 66.3 71.4 73.0 77.0

Unemployed

964 293 325 134 76 136

Unemployment rate

4.2 5.1 4.7 4.0 3.8 2.9

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,253 4,994 5,199 2,243 1,131 2,686

Civilian labor force

13,158 3,830 4,234 1,836 946 2,312

Percent of population

81.0 76.7 81.4 81.9 83.6 86.1

Employed

12,663 3,662 4,067 1,771 915 2,248

Employment-population ratio

77.9 73.3 78.2 78.9 80.9 83.7

Unemployed

495 167 166 66 31 64

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.4 3.9 3.6 3.3 2.8

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,588 4,734 4,813 2,323 1,523 3,195

Civilian labor force

9,631 1,925 2,733 1,556 1,067 2,349

Percent of population

58.1 40.7 56.8 67.0 70.1 73.5

Employed

9,162 1,799 2,575 1,488 1,023 2,277

Employment-population ratio

55.2 38.0 53.5 64.0 67.2 71.3

Unemployed

469 126 158 68 45 72

Unemployment rate

4.9 6.5 5.8 4.4 4.2 3.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 7. Employed people by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages
Occupation and gender Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

153,337 120,176 18,587 9,448 25,938

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

39.7 40.6 30.8 52.0 22.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.6 17.5 11.2 17.2 9.8

Management occupations

11.6 12.4 7.3 11.2 6.8

Business and financial operations occupations

4.9 5.1 3.8 6.0 3.0

Professional and related occupations

23.2 23.0 19.6 34.8 12.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

3.1 2.7 2.2 10.6 1.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.1 2.1 1.0 4.3 1.1

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.9 0.9 0.4 2.4 0.5

Community and social service occupations

1.7 1.6 2.8 1.1 1.3

Legal occupations

1.2 1.3 0.7 0.8 0.6

Education, training, and library occupations

6.0 6.3 5.3 4.7 3.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.1 2.3 1.3 1.8 1.3

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6.0 5.8 5.9 9.1 2.9

Service occupations

17.4 16.2 24.2 16.8 24.8

Healthcare support occupations

2.3 1.9 4.7 1.9 2.5

Protective service occupations

2.0 1.9 3.4 1.0 1.5

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.4 5.1 6.2 5.4 8.2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.8 3.8 4.7 2.0 8.6

Personal care and service occupations

3.9 3.4 5.1 6.4 3.9

Sales and office occupations

21.9 21.9 23.4 17.9 20.6

Sales and related occupations

10.3 10.5 9.4 9.3 9.7

Office and administrative support occupations

11.6 11.4 13.9 8.5 10.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.3 10.3 5.6 3.3 16.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.8 0.9 0.3 0.2 2.0

Construction and extraction occupations

5.2 5.9 3.0 1.4 11.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.2 3.5 2.3 1.7 3.6

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

11.7 11.1 16.0 10.0 15.4

Production occupations

5.5 5.4 6.1 5.5 7.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

6.2 5.7 9.9 4.5 7.9

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

81,402 65,000 8,742 4,989 14,874

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

36.2 36.7 25.4 54.1 18.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17.5 18.5 10.8 18.0 9.2

Management occupations

13.2 14.1 7.9 12.7 6.9

Business and financial operations occupations

4.3 4.4 3.0 5.3 2.3

Professional and related occupations

18.8 18.2 14.5 36.1 9.4

Computer and mathematical occupations

4.4 3.8 3.0 15.1 1.9

Architecture and engineering occupations

3.3 3.3 1.7 6.3 1.7

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.9 0.9 0.5 2.2 0.5

Community and social service occupations

1.1 1.0 1.8 0.8 0.6

Legal occupations

1.1 1.2 0.4 0.7 0.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.1 3.1 2.9 3.4 1.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.1 2.2 1.6 1.7 1.3

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

2.8 2.6 2.7 5.8 1.5

Service occupations

14.3 13.2 21.1 12.9 19.5

Healthcare support occupations

0.6 0.5 1.1 0.7 0.6

Protective service occupations

3.0 2.8 5.0 1.5 2.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4.7 4.3 6.7 5.4 7.3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4.3 4.2 5.6 2.2 8.0

Personal care and service occupations

1.7 1.5 2.8 3.2 1.5

Sales and office occupations

15.9 15.9 17.1 14.6 14.3

Sales and related occupations

9.9 10.2 8.2 9.1 8.1

Office and administrative support occupations

6.1 5.7 8.9 5.5 6.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

16.6 18.1 11.3 5.6 27.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.1 1.2 0.5 0.2 2.5

Construction and extraction occupations

9.6 10.5 6.1 2.4 19.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5.9 6.3 4.6 3.0 6.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17.0 16.1 25.2 12.8 20.0

Production occupations

7.4 7.4 8.2 5.8 8.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

9.6 8.7 16.9 7.0 11.3

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

71,936 55,176 9,845 4,458 11,064

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

43.7 45.1 35.6 49.7 27.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

15.5 16.3 11.4 16.3 10.5

Management occupations

9.8 10.5 6.9 9.5 6.6

Business and financial operations occupations

5.7 5.9 4.6 6.7 3.9

Professional and related occupations

28.1 28.8 24.1 33.5 17.1

Computer and mathematical occupations

1.7 1.4 1.6 5.4 0.6

Architecture and engineering occupations

0.7 0.7 0.3 2.1 0.3

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.9 0.9 0.4 2.6 0.5

Community and social service occupations

2.4 2.3 3.7 1.4 2.1

Legal occupations

1.3 1.5 0.9 0.9 0.9

Education, training, and library occupations

9.4 10.1 7.5 6.2 6.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.1 2.3 1.0 2.0 1.3

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9.5 9.6 8.7 12.8 4.7

Service occupations

21.0 19.7 27.0 21.1 31.9

Healthcare support occupations

4.2 3.6 8.0 3.4 5.2

Protective service occupations

1.0 0.8 2.1 0.3 0.8

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6.2 6.2 5.8 5.4 9.3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.3 3.3 3.9 1.9 9.5

Personal care and service occupations

6.3 5.8 7.2 10.1 7.2

Sales and office occupations

28.6 29.0 29.0 21.5 29.1

Sales and related occupations

10.8 10.9 10.5 9.6 11.9

Office and administrative support occupations

17.8 18.2 18.5 11.9 17.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.0 1.1 0.6 0.7 2.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 0.5 0.1 0.2 1.4

Construction and extraction occupations

0.3 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.7 5.1 7.9 6.9 9.2

Production occupations

3.4 3.1 4.2 5.2 5.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.3 2.0 3.7 1.7 3.3

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 8. Employed people by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total
employed
Percent of total employed
White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and over

153,337 78.4 12.1 6.2 16.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

60,901 80.0 9.4 8.1 9.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,379 83.0 8.2 6.4 10.0

Management occupations

17,804 84.0 7.6 5.9 9.9

Chief executives

1,639 90.0 3.8 4.6 4.7

General and operations managers

1,005 85.0 8.3 4.5 11.4

Legislators

18 - - - -

Advertising and promotions managers

61 84.5 8.0 7.5 7.4

Marketing and sales managers

1,078 86.4 6.0 6.1 10.2

Public relations and fundraising managers

73 87.9 7.8 3.2 3.7

Administrative services managers

151 83.5 9.4 3.2 10.3

Computer and information systems managers

630 78.0 6.6 13.0 6.6

Financial managers

1,167 83.5 6.7 8.2 11.2

Compensation and benefits managers

16 - - - -

Human resources managers

327 81.7 12.3 4.3 7.9

Training and development managers

63 89.2 5.6 2.2 9.0

Industrial production managers

280 89.5 3.8 5.9 9.3

Purchasing managers

205 84.3 10.6 3.3 9.1

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

291 79.7 10.7 5.3 13.8

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1,018 95.4 0.8 1.4 6.1

Construction managers

1,081 90.2 4.9 2.3 12.4

Education administrators

918 81.8 12.9 2.1 10.3

Architectural and engineering managers

129 79.7 8.3 11.2 6.2

Food service managers

1,210 74.7 9.5 11.7 16.9

Funeral service managers

15 - - - -

Gaming managers

19 - - - -

Lodging managers

156 72.9 11.2 12.5 12.0

Medical and health services managers

671 77.9 14.0 5.7 9.1

Natural sciences managers

16 - - - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

27 - - - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

743 81.8 11.6 3.5 14.4

Social and community service managers

390 78.1 13.7 4.0 8.6

Emergency management directors

11 - - - -

Managers, all other

4,398 83.2 7.4 7.0 9.4

Business and financial operations occupations

7,574 80.7 9.4 7.5 10.2

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

50 77.3 15.9 6.1 4.0

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

11 - - - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

194 84.2 7.7 6.2 9.0

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

270 82.7 9.4 6.1 11.9

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

350 77.0 18.2 3.0 11.4

Compliance officers

260 80.1 11.9 5.9 9.0

Cost estimators

118 94.4 3.1 2.2 8.5

Human resources workers

736 80.2 11.8 5.7 13.8

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

59 72.2 21.5 2.3 15.7

Training and development specialists

133 81.6 12.4 1.1 18.2

Logisticians

112 70.9 17.1 7.4 11.7

Management analysts

937 77.2 9.1 11.2 7.4

Meeting, convention, and event planners

137 91.6 4.7 1.4 9.0

Fundraisers

84 88.4 8.8 0.2 2.6

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

344 84.2 5.4 7.7 9.0

Business operations specialists, all other

273 79.2 9.1 9.3 13.6

Accountants and auditors

1,804 79.5 8.2 9.7 9.6

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

97 88.8 9.0 1.8 11.0

Budget analysts

53 71.1 12.5 9.7 11.1

Credit analysts

29 - - - -

Financial analysts

309 75.6 8.8 12.5 6.9

Personal financial advisors

525 87.0 4.8 6.6 8.3

Insurance underwriters

104 85.5 8.8 5.4 8.1

Financial examiners

15 - - - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

353 83.8 8.5 4.2 14.2

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

65 77.2 11.1 9.8 14.8

Tax preparers

107 78.3 17.2 4.0 14.9

Financial specialists, all other

45 - - - -

Professional and related occupations

35,522 77.9 10.3 9.3 9.3

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,804 67.8 8.7 20.8 7.3

Computer and information research scientists

24 - - - -

Computer systems analysts

554 70.9 9.7 16.6 7.2

Information security analysts

105 68.5 15.6 12.6 4.6

Computer programmers

473 65.9 7.1 25.4 5.3

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,536 59.3 5.6 32.4 6.2

Web developers

204 82.0 4.5 9.8 5.8

Computer support specialists

532 70.7 14.6 11.3 10.3

Database administrators

96 70.6 10.1 18.1 6.2

Network and computer systems administrators

210 79.5 6.3 11.8 10.9

Computer network architects

106 73.1 10.6 15.2 3.1

Computer occupations, all other

693 73.5 11.4 11.9 9.7

Actuaries

29 - - - -

Mathematicians

3 - - - -

Operations research analysts

147 70.9 12.4 15.3 7.3

Statisticians

87 63.1 9.0 22.4 6.4

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

3 - - - -

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,224 79.3 5.6 12.7 8.7

Architects, except naval

253 82.5 2.1 14.0 7.7

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

43 - - - -

Aerospace engineers

148 79.1 8.1 11.4 5.5

Agricultural engineers

2 - - - -

Biomedical engineers

17 - - - -

Chemical engineers

77 91.0 1.7 7.0 4.1

Civil engineers

461 82.5 6.4 7.1 10.7

Computer hardware engineers

80 55.4 5.8 38.3 7.8

Electrical and electronics engineers

284 74.6 3.5 19.5 9.0

Environmental engineers

38 - - - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

221 80.8 5.3 11.6 6.2

Marine engineers and naval architects

12 - - - -

Materials engineers

32 - - - -

Mechanical engineers

344 84.2 3.6 11.1 6.0

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

11 - - - -

Nuclear engineers

8 - - - -

Petroleum engineers

24 - - - -

Engineers, all other

582 73.1 6.9 17.8 9.4

Drafters

137 89.9 6.2 2.4 16.5

Engineering technicians, except drafters

375 76.9 8.9 10.7 10.3

Surveying and mapping technicians

73 90.3 2.1 1.7 10.1

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,431 76.4 5.7 15.8 9.0

Agricultural and food scientists

32 - - - -

Biological scientists

98 81.2 3.1 13.1 7.9

Conservation scientists and foresters

29 - - - -

Medical scientists

161 66.4 6.6 26.2 6.7

Life scientists, all other

3 - - - -

Astronomers and physicists

18 - - - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

7 - - - -

Chemists and materials scientists

105 66.7 11.3 20.8 5.9

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

84 90.8 5.0 0.7 4.8

Physical scientists, all other

301 61.2 4.0 32.1 7.9

Economists

28 - - - -

Survey researchers

3 - - - -

Psychologists

187 89.5 6.5 3.6 8.5

Sociologists

2 - - - -

Urban and regional planners

32 - - - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

41 - - - -

Agricultural and food science technicians

32 - - - -

Biological technicians

23 - - - -

Chemical technicians

57 79.8 7.3 7.8 14.3

Geological and petroleum technicians

13 - - - -

Nuclear technicians

7 - - - -

Social science research assistants

4 - - - -

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

164 80.2 5.7 11.8 13.4

Community and social service occupations

2,635 73.1 19.9 3.8 12.4

Counselors

853 72.3 21.4 2.9 13.0

Social workers

802 69.5 23.5 4.0 14.0

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

99 63.8 26.7 5.3 11.1

Social and human service assistants

232 68.4 22.8 3.1 19.0

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

76 68.9 19.6 7.0 17.3

Clergy

406 81.3 12.1 4.6 6.1

Directors, religious activities and education

81 88.9 7.1 3.6 6.0

Religious workers, all other

85 86.7 5.0 5.2 5.0

Legal occupations

1,827 86.6 6.9 4.3 8.6

Lawyers

1,137 88.6 5.6 4.4 4.8

Judicial law clerks

14 - - - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

66 87.3 12.7 0.0 7.0

Paralegals and legal assistants

424 82.9 7.7 4.8 17.5

Miscellaneous legal support workers

186 83.7 10.8 3.0 12.9

Education, training, and library occupations

9,215 82.0 10.7 4.9 10.5

Postsecondary teachers

1,423 77.7 8.4 11.7 6.4

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

712 77.1 16.2 3.4 14.1

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,268 85.2 10.1 2.9 10.1

Secondary school teachers

1,039 86.2 8.6 2.8 9.4

Special education teachers

422 86.2 10.0 2.4 7.9

Other teachers and instructors

907 78.8 11.1 6.3 11.9

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

59 80.2 6.4 7.8 1.7

Librarians

194 86.3 6.4 5.2 10.4

Library technicians

40 - - - -

Teacher assistants

989 78.0 14.6 4.2 17.3

Other education, training, and library workers

161 78.5 12.6 5.3 6.0

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,246 83.9 7.3 5.3 10.2

Artists and related workers

236 89.6 3.5 4.5 10.8

Designers

908 84.2 5.1 7.6 12.0

Actors

40 - - - -

Producers and directors

180 87.8 5.2 4.6 8.9

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

345 88.2 5.0 3.0 8.5

Dancers and choreographers

21 - - - -

Musicians, singers, and related workers

188 75.6 17.3 4.3 6.7

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

67 74.1 9.2 9.9 7.5

Announcers

50 77.5 12.0 7.1 8.5

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

84 73.0 13.4 7.9 16.4

Public relations specialists

118 87.9 8.3 2.6 5.7

Editors

174 90.9 3.8 2.9 4.1

Technical writers

76 84.6 6.7 5.6 1.2

Writers and authors

226 86.3 6.3 3.2 4.6

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

112 70.6 9.5 14.3 32.9

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

119 78.2 14.0 3.7 16.8

Photographers

214 84.4 9.1 3.0 8.7

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

82 86.1 7.2 1.9 7.6

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

5 - - - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9,141 76.5 11.9 9.4 8.2

Chiropractors

51 97.4 0.1 1.7 5.1

Dentists

159 81.6 3.7 13.5 4.7

Dietitians and nutritionists

114 79.7 12.8 5.6 9.0

Optometrists

51 91.9 0.0 7.9 3.2

Pharmacists

342 68.5 8.2 21.7 4.5

Physicians and surgeons

1,079 72.0 8.2 18.1 6.8

Physician assistants

116 86.0 4.7 7.9 5.1

Podiatrists

12 - - - -

Audiologists

15 - - - -

Occupational therapists

122 82.9 8.7 6.4 6.2

Physical therapists

258 78.2 5.3 14.7 5.0

Radiation therapists

10 - - - -

Recreational therapists

7 - - - -

Respiratory therapists

100 73.3 16.6 10.0 8.8

Speech-language pathologists

141 93.0 2.8 2.7 10.5

Exercise physiologists

5 - - - -

Therapists, all other

221 81.8 12.5 3.3 10.2

Veterinarians

89 91.2 2.1 3.7 3.6

Registered nurses

3,159 76.7 12.3 8.7 6.9

Nurse anesthetists

35 - - - -

Nurse midwives

7 - - - -

Nurse practitioners

175 84.7 10.6 4.0 3.4

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

39 - - - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

376 71.2 17.1 9.4 11.0

Dental hygienists

168 88.6 7.0 2.4 11.9

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

319 84.3 8.2 6.4 12.5

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

223 83.9 9.7 3.1 8.4

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

632 75.6 13.5 7.3 14.3

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

630 64.0 28.4 5.4 12.4

Medical records and health information technicians

167 74.6 13.2 6.9 9.8

Opticians, dispensing

48 - - - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

160 66.8 18.5 10.4 10.0

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

110 84.0 9.0 6.5 9.4

Service occupations

26,751 72.6 16.8 5.9 24.0

Healthcare support occupations

3,506 65.6 25.1 5.2 18.8

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,936 56.4 33.9 5.6 16.7

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

27 - - - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

83 88.0 5.2 5.6 11.0

Massage therapists

172 83.7 4.6 6.7 12.4

Dental assistants

299 82.9 7.9 5.0 29.1

Medical assistants

539 76.2 15.0 4.0 27.9

Medical transcriptionists

36 - - - -

Pharmacy aides

39 - - - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

61 86.4 2.3 6.0 8.4

Phlebotomists

112 64.7 27.6 5.9 17.2

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

200 60.3 31.4 4.1 16.1

Protective service occupations

3,113 72.6 20.5 2.9 12.8

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

52 77.7 13.1 3.8 10.1

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

95 81.1 14.1 0.9 7.1

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

44 - - - -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

72 74.7 15.0 5.4 10.0

Firefighters

283 88.5 7.5 1.0 7.7

Fire inspectors

27 - - - -

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

408 67.4 29.0 1.8 13.5

Detectives and criminal investigators

136 87.1 11.6 0.9 14.1

Fish and game wardens

4 - - - -

Parking enforcement workers

6 - - - -

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

704 79.8 13.9 2.4 10.9

Transit and railroad police

7 - - - -

Animal control workers

15 - - - -

Private detectives and investigators

94 79.0 13.8 4.6 11.3

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

920 57.5 32.3 4.4 17.0

Crossing guards

63 69.4 21.5 4.7 20.9

Transportation security screeners

46 - - - -

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

136 88.5 4.1 2.5 9.4

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,305 74.4 13.9 6.2 25.5

Chefs and head cooks

465 65.0 16.4 13.9 21.0

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

519 74.8 17.0 3.7 18.9

Cooks

2,079 73.2 16.8 5.1 35.4

Food preparation workers

1,068 72.2 14.5 6.5 27.4

Bartenders

417 85.5 7.2 2.8 14.1

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

372 70.0 17.3 4.4 22.8

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

225 72.0 16.9 5.0 21.3

Waiters and waitresses

2,016 78.2 9.2 7.6 20.9

Food servers, nonrestaurant

207 69.9 18.5 7.0 21.8

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

334 76.4 9.9 7.8 27.9

Dishwashers

274 70.9 19.9 2.9 31.2

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

324 74.8 12.9 3.3 17.1

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

4 - - - -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,888 77.4 14.9 3.3 38.0

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

326 79.9 12.0 4.6 28.5

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

255 91.6 5.4 1.2 21.5

Janitors and building cleaners

2,307 72.5 18.6 3.8 31.7

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,527 74.3 17.9 3.9 49.4

Pest control workers

108 82.0 11.4 1.4 13.3

Grounds maintenance workers

1,365 85.6 7.9 2.0 43.1

Personal care and service occupations

5,939 69.5 16.1 10.2 17.1

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

208 82.4 7.7 4.7 6.8

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

232 63.8 15.4 18.8 11.1

Animal trainers

49 - - - -

Nonfarm animal caretakers

263 90.8 2.8 1.6 13.6

Gaming services workers

90 45.1 8.9 34.0 10.2

Motion picture projectionists

1 - - - -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

37 - - - -

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

224 75.9 16.1 1.8 18.6

Embalmers and funeral attendants

17 - - - -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

42 - - - -

Barbers

135 50.7 38.1 5.1 24.1

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

806 76.7 13.5 5.6 16.3

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

397 27.2 8.3 62.3 9.1

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

89 60.1 24.9 8.3 27.5

Tour and travel guides

68 81.2 4.5 5.3 8.8

Childcare workers

1,225 77.3 15.4 4.3 22.3

Personal care aides

1,365 62.0 24.8 9.1 20.7

Recreation and fitness workers

480 80.1 11.4 3.5 9.6

Residential advisors

44 - - - -

Personal care and service workers, all other

167 74.6 14.6 4.9 17.8

Sales and office occupations

33,566 78.5 13.0 5.0 15.9

Sales and related occupations

15,815 79.9 11.1 5.6 15.9

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,272 81.6 9.4 6.2 15.0

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,220 84.6 6.8 5.4 13.3

Cashiers

3,253 70.2 17.9 6.4 22.3

Counter and rental clerks

109 78.4 12.7 7.0 18.6

Parts salespersons

130 88.8 4.5 2.5 21.9

Retail salespersons

3,235 77.6 12.8 5.7 17.2

Advertising sales agents

241 80.7 14.8 3.9 10.6

Insurance sales agents

624 81.3 10.0 5.9 11.9

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

262 85.8 6.0 5.1 10.3

Travel agents

89 81.9 11.2 6.4 13.0

Sales representatives, services, all other

525 88.5 6.4 3.2 12.9

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,264 89.9 4.6 3.7 10.1

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

61 82.4 6.0 8.7 12.8

Real estate brokers and sales agents

997 85.7 7.2 4.8 11.5

Sales engineers

35 - - - -

Telemarketers

58 61.3 24.7 7.0 25.8

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

166 82.9 11.0 5.4 22.0

Sales and related workers, all other

276 84.2 9.5 4.9 8.1

Office and administrative support occupations

17,751 77.3 14.6 4.5 15.9

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,425 80.3 13.4 4.0 11.6

Switchboard operators, including answering service

23 - - - -

Telephone operators

47 - - - -

Communications equipment operators, all other

9 - - - -

Bill and account collectors

139 70.7 22.9 3.1 18.9

Billing and posting clerks

473 79.4 13.6 3.8 13.1

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,089 87.4 6.9 3.7 11.3

Gaming cage workers

14 - - - -

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

129 75.6 14.3 4.2 17.7

Procurement clerks

30 - - - -

Tellers

306 79.9 12.6 5.0 16.4

Financial clerks, all other

82 78.3 16.0 3.9 17.8

Brokerage clerks

7 - - - -

Correspondence clerks

7 - - - -

Court, municipal, and license clerks

90 75.8 15.6 2.0 16.6

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

55 90.5 3.2 5.7 17.3

Customer service representatives

2,494 73.2 17.2 5.4 17.4

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

62 58.8 26.8 10.0 21.9

File clerks

182 77.2 13.6 6.9 17.8

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

125 64.8 21.5 7.8 15.7

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

142 71.9 18.0 2.8 21.2

Library assistants, clerical

96 81.3 8.6 5.1 10.4

Loan interviewers and clerks

120 77.6 15.3 5.1 14.6

New accounts clerks

32 - - - -

Order clerks

107 66.2 18.8 8.0 14.4

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

45 - - - -

Receptionists and information clerks

1,267 79.9 12.8 3.5 19.7

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

127 60.8 25.3 5.9 15.1

Information and record clerks, all other

110 75.5 10.1 5.2 15.0

Cargo and freight agents

16 - - - -

Couriers and messengers

239 67.3 25.5 5.5 18.1

Dispatchers

292 81.7 11.6 2.0 16.9

Meter readers, utilities

18 - - - -

Postal service clerks

111 70.8 22.4 4.8 15.9

Postal service mail carriers

306 67.4 22.2 5.6 14.4

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

50 51.0 38.4 7.9 3.8

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

270 81.6 7.8 6.7 9.7

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

623 72.2 20.4 3.7 27.0

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,525 74.0 18.4 4.2 20.6

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

52 85.9 7.4 3.5 29.0

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,769 83.7 9.3 3.6 12.4

Computer operators

73 74.8 14.0 6.3 7.4

Data entry keyers

267 72.4 16.5 8.5 15.2

Word processors and typists

94 69.7 21.1 6.8 13.9

Desktop publishers

2 - - - -

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

237 70.8 20.3 4.2 14.9

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

61 67.4 24.4 3.0 11.9

Office clerks, general

1,271 75.1 14.8 6.3 18.4

Office machine operators, except computer

33 - - - -

Proofreaders and copy markers

10 - - - -

Statistical assistants

21 - - - -

Office and administrative support workers, all other

576 77.6 15.1 3.7 12.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,193 86.9 7.3 2.2 30.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,184 89.3 4.9 1.7 44.3

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

62 87.2 6.6 4.4 27.1

Agricultural inspectors

18 - - - -

Animal breeders

2 - - - -

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

110 80.4 12.4 4.2 48.8

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

854 91.7 3.3 1.3 51.1

Fishers and related fishing workers

44 - - - -

Hunters and trappers

1 - - - -

Forest and conservation workers

27 - - - -

Logging workers

66 82.9 10.3 0.0 9.1

Construction and extraction occupations

8,031 87.8 6.9 1.6 36.0

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

639 89.8 5.4 1.2 24.5

Boilermakers

15 - - - -

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

166 84.6 7.1 1.2 45.1

Carpenters

1,351 89.3 5.3 1.7 35.4

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

183 87.2 6.9 1.3 47.4

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

54 90.4 8.5 0.0 46.7

Construction laborers

1,946 85.9 8.6 1.7 46.9

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

15 - - - -

Pile-driver operators

2 - - - -

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

358 90.4 5.2 0.8 19.3

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

156 91.7 3.8 0.6 63.9

Electricians

857 87.9 6.7 2.5 19.1

Glaziers

44 - - - -

Insulation workers

58 82.1 9.6 0.0 42.6

Painters, construction and maintenance

540 89.7 5.9 1.5 53.4

Paperhangers

4 - - - -

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

600 86.6 9.0 1.5 27.1

Plasterers and stucco masons

27 - - - -

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

12 - - - -

Roofers

220 86.6 6.9 2.5 56.1

Sheet metal workers

137 91.4 4.3 1.6 18.7

Structural iron and steel workers

43 - - - -

Solar photovoltaic installers

11 - - - -

Helpers, construction trades

69 88.2 3.8 2.1 38.3

Construction and building inspectors

89 85.5 9.8 2.2 11.2

Elevator installers and repairers

40 - - - -

Fence erectors

34 - - - -

Hazardous materials removal workers

30 - - - -

Highway maintenance workers

101 79.4 13.7 0.1 15.5

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

17 - - - -

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

10 - - - -

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

24 - - - -

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

30 - - - -

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

23 - - - -

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

10 - - - -

Mining machine operators

51 85.8 7.8 2.7 23.9

Roof bolters, mining

2 - - - -

Roustabouts, oil and gas

4 - - - -

Helpers--extraction workers

4 - - - -

Other extraction workers

54 93.1 2.0 0.0 35.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,977 85.0 8.6 3.3 19.0

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

253 84.0 9.4 4.1 12.8

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

212 73.8 12.7 10.2 17.1

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

134 85.3 7.3 6.1 19.7

Avionics technicians

9 - - - -

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

28 - - - -

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

1 - - - -

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

12 - - - -

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

11 - - - -

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

50 81.9 14.2 3.7 26.5

Security and fire alarm systems installers

77 78.4 11.0 5.8 24.1

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

150 83.0 5.6 7.8 13.9

Automotive body and related repairers

140 86.0 6.1 2.9 31.6

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22 - - - -

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

902 84.1 8.7 3.8 23.2

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

401 85.6 9.4 1.3 18.1

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

201 91.8 4.5 1.4 11.5

Small engine mechanics

44 - - - -

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

83 85.6 7.5 4.4 32.2

Control and valve installers and repairers

26 - - - -

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

448 90.6 5.4 2.4 17.9

Home appliance repairers

41 - - - -

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

424 85.8 7.8 3.4 16.5

Maintenance and repair workers, general

528 85.9 8.9 2.1 19.7

Maintenance workers, machinery

27 - - - -

Millwrights

40 - - - -

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

129 89.8 7.8 0.0 11.6

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

189 78.3 18.4 1.7 19.1

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

63 80.9 14.7 1.4 10.9

Wind turbine service technicians

5 - - - -

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

34 - - - -

Commercial divers

0 - - - -

Locksmiths and safe repairers

35 - - - -

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

4 - - - -

Riggers

14 - - - -

Signal and track switch repairers

9 - - - -

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

18 - - - -

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

215 86.7 6.4 2.3 23.5

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,927 74.2 16.6 5.3 22.2

Production occupations

8,482 76.8 13.3 6.2 22.8

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

768 82.2 10.4 3.7 16.7

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

1 - - - -

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

128 63.5 15.3 17.2 18.2

Engine and other machine assemblers

13 - - - -

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

30 - - - -

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,033 68.0 20.8 8.0 18.9

Bakers

215 71.3 15.6 8.5 31.5

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

269 68.5 19.8 7.2 35.3

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

12 - - - -

Food batchmakers

89 77.2 12.4 6.6 26.2

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

15 - - - -

Food processing workers, all other

175 62.8 24.1 7.0 37.3

Computer control programmers and operators

99 82.8 9.8 5.6 10.7

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

19 - - - -

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8 - - - -

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8 - - - -

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

80 82.6 10.0 4.7 12.5

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

4 - - - -

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

38 - - - -

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

14 - - - -

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 - - - -

Machinists

366 86.1 4.4 6.3 13.9

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

19 - - - -

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

5 - - - -

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

45 - - - -

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 - - - -

Tool and die makers

62 97.6 1.1 0.7 6.9

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

600 87.4 7.5 1.1 24.3

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3 - - - -

Layout workers, metal and plastic

12 - - - -

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

17 - - - -

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

6 - - - -

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

388 71.1 14.9 9.5 23.1

Prepress technicians and workers

24 - - - -

Printing press operators

173 85.0 6.6 5.8 22.2

Print binding and finishing workers

11 - - - -

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

151 66.1 18.5 8.0 38.7

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

30 - - - -

Sewing machine operators

197 72.0 8.0 16.0 42.2

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

5 - - - -

Shoe machine operators and tenders

5 - - - -

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

77 79.1 9.5 8.9 29.6

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

1 - - - -

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

8 - - - -

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

19 - - - -

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

16 - - - -

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0 - - - -

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

3 - - - -

Upholsterers

31 - - - -

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

18 - - - -

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

49 - - - -

Furniture finishers

15 - - - -

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

1 - - - -

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

27 - - - -

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

19 - - - -

Woodworkers, all other

28 - - - -

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

38 - - - -

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

76 84.8 8.2 5.5 13.0

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

107 90.2 6.3 1.0 11.5

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

42 - - - -

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

55 79.3 15.7 3.0 15.8

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

72 75.4 15.3 2.2 15.0

Cutting workers

62 78.7 12.4 5.2 30.1

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

21 - - - -

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

10 - - - -

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

793 74.7 13.6 8.8 18.9

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

43 - - - -

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

70 73.3 14.6 9.7 14.4

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

292 68.5 17.6 9.2 41.8

Painting workers

157 82.1 9.6 2.5 32.9

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

31 - - - -

Semiconductor processors

3 - - - -

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

6 - - - -

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

11 - - - -

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

3 - - - -

Etchers and engravers

11 - - - -

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

35 - - - -

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

29 - - - -

Tire builders

10 - - - -

Helpers--production workers

50 73.5 8.8 11.9 31.2

Production workers, all other

995 76.5 15.7 4.4 25.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,445 71.9 19.5 4.5 21.7

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

205 74.0 18.4 4.0 17.4

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

120 94.9 1.8 1.5 8.0

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

17 - - - -

Flight attendants

98 71.6 15.1 10.1 18.4

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

11 - - - -

Bus drivers

578 65.9 26.7 4.8 12.6

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,506 76.3 16.6 3.2 20.8

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

674 55.0 28.4 12.8 17.0

Motor vehicle operators, all other

76 72.6 19.4 4.8 14.7

Locomotive engineers and operators

42 - - - -

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

4 - - - -

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

50 73.8 17.6 5.3 8.4

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15 - - - -

Sailors and marine oilers

19 - - - -

Ship and boat captains and operators

35 - - - -

Ship engineers

2 - - - -

Bridge and lock tenders

5 - - - -

Parking lot attendants

95 67.4 23.3 6.7 38.4

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

94 73.6 9.6 8.9 21.1

Transportation inspectors

41 - - - -

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

35 - - - -

Other transportation workers

24 - - - -

Conveyor operators and tenders

1 - - - -

Crane and tower operators

53 76.8 20.9 0.1 10.5

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

30 - - - -

Hoist and winch operators

7 - - - -

Industrial truck and tractor operators

611 69.4 25.0 1.8 25.7

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

331 69.7 20.7 3.0 33.3

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,930 70.2 20.2 3.8 22.2

Machine feeders and offbearers

31 - - - -

Packers and packagers, hand

539 69.9 18.9 8.4 41.8

Pumping station operators

21 - - - -

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

94 70.2 26.8 2.1 24.2

Mine shuttle car operators

0 - - - -

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

6 - - - -

Material moving workers, all other

40 - - - -

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 9. Employed people by industry, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages
Industry and gender Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

153,337 120,176 18,587 9,448 25,938

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

1.6 1.9 0.4 0.4 2.4

Mining

0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.5

Construction

7.0 7.9 3.5 2.1 12.3

Manufacturing

10.0 10.3 8.4 11.6 9.8

Durable goods

6.3 6.5 4.9 7.7 5.2

Nondurable goods

3.7 3.8 3.5 3.9 4.6

Wholesale and retail trade

13.2 13.3 12.8 12.6 13.3

Wholesale trade

2.3 2.5 1.8 2.2 2.3

Retail trade

10.9 10.9 11.0 10.4 11.0

Transportation and utilities

5.3 5.0 8.2 4.3 5.6

Information

1.9 1.9 1.8 2.4 1.3

Financial activities

6.8 7.0 5.9 7.7 5.2

Professional and business services

12.3 12.3 10.1 16.6 11.8

Education and health services

22.5 21.9 27.6 22.3 16.8

Leisure and hospitality

9.3 8.9 10.1 10.2 12.4

Other services

4.9 4.8 4.5 6.3 5.4

Other services, except private households

4.5 4.4 4.1 6.0 4.4

Other services, private households

0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.9

Public administration

4.6 4.4 6.5 3.4 3.2

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

81,402 65,000 8,742 4,989 14,874

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

2.3 2.6 0.8 0.4 3.2

Mining

0.8 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.9

Construction

11.9 13.3 6.9 3.4 20.3

Manufacturing

13.3 13.6 11.8 13.6 11.5

Durable goods

8.9 9.1 7.1 9.7 6.6

Nondurable goods

4.4 4.5 4.7 3.9 4.9

Wholesale and retail trade

13.7 13.7 14.0 13.5 12.7

Wholesale trade

3.1 3.2 2.9 2.5 2.8

Retail trade

10.6 10.5 11.1 11.0 10.0

Transportation and utilities

7.6 7.1 12.4 6.4 7.5

Information

2.2 2.2 2.0 2.8 1.3

Financial activities

6.1 6.2 4.9 7.4 4.2

Professional and business services

13.4 13.1 11.6 20.1 12.1

Education and health services

10.8 10.2 13.6 14.0 7.1

Leisure and hospitality

8.6 8.0 10.6 10.0 11.1

Other services

4.4 4.4 4.8 4.6 5.0

Other services, except private households

4.4 4.3 4.8 4.5 4.9

Other services, private households

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1

Public administration

4.8 4.8 6.1 3.4 3.1

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

71,936 55,176 9,845 4,458 11,064

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

0.8 1.0 0.1 0.3 1.4

Mining

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Construction

1.3 1.6 0.5 0.6 1.5

Manufacturing

6.3 6.3 5.3 9.3 7.6

Durable goods

3.4 3.4 2.9 5.4 3.4

Nondurable goods

2.9 2.9 2.4 3.9 4.2

Wholesale and retail trade

12.7 12.9 11.7 11.7 14.2

Wholesale trade

1.5 1.6 0.8 1.9 1.8

Retail trade

11.2 11.3 10.9 9.8 12.4

Transportation and utilities

2.7 2.5 4.5 1.9 3.0

Information

1.6 1.5 1.6 1.9 1.1

Financial activities

7.7 7.9 6.7 8.0 6.4

Professional and business services

11.1 11.4 8.8 12.7 11.4

Education and health services

35.7 35.5 39.9 31.5 29.9

Leisure and hospitality

10.1 9.9 9.7 10.4 14.2

Other services

5.4 5.4 4.2 8.2 5.9

Other services, except private households

4.5 4.5 3.6 7.7 3.8

Other services, private households

0.8 0.9 0.6 0.5 2.1

Public administration

4.4 3.9 6.8 3.4 3.3

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 10. Employment and unemployment in families by type of family, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Family type and employment status of family members Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total families

82,015 64,910 10,017 4,735 12,936

With at least one family member employed

66,027 52,016 7,886 4,195 11,244

As a percent of total families

80.5 80.1 78.7 88.6 86.9

With at least one family member unemployed

4,744 3,343 951 255 994

As a percent of total families

5.8 5.2 9.5 5.4 7.7

Some family member(s) employed

3,277 2,385 553 214 715

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

69.1 71.3 58.1 84.0 71.9

Some family member(s) employed full time

2,870 2,098 469 194 634

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

60.5 62.8 49.4 76.1 63.8

Married-couple families(1)

59,910 50,108 4,603 3,816 8,159

With at least one family member employed

48,525 40,182 3,769 3,385 7,306

As a percent of total families

81.0 80.2 81.9 88.7 89.5

With at least one family member unemployed

2,783 2,162 321 198 563

As a percent of total families

- 4.3 7.0 5.2 6.9

Some family member(s) employed

2,245 1,739 256 173 456

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

80.7 80.4 79.8 87.2 81.1

Some family member(s) employed full time

2,016 1,561 228 156 412

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

72.5 72.2 71.2 78.7 73.2

Families maintained by women(2)

15,438 9,938 4,269 553 3,152

With at least one family member employed

11,861 7,655 3,234 470 2,491

As a percent of total families

76.8 77.0 75.7 84.9 79.0

With at least one family member unemployed

1,389 802 492 31 287

As a percent of total families

- 8.1 11.5 5.6 9.1

Some family member(s) employed

691 421 218 22 162

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

49.8 52.5 44.4 71.0 56.4

Some family member(s) employed full time

561 341 176 21 135

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

40.4 42.5 35.8 66.4 47.0

Families maintained by men(2)

6,666 4,863 1,145 365 1,625

With at least one family member employed

5,641 4,179 883 340 1,447

As a percent of total families

84.6 85.9 77.1 93.3 89.0

With at least one family member unemployed

573 379 138 25 145

As a percent of total families

- 7.8 12.1 7.0 8.9

Some family member(s) employed

340 225 78 19 97

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

59.4 59.3 56.7 75.7 67.1

Some family member(s) employed full time

293 196 65 17 88

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

51.2 51.6 46.9 68.0 60.5

Footnotes
(1) Refers to opposite-sex married-couple families only.
(2) No opposite-sex spouse present.

Note: The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder, the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 11. Labor force participation rates by presence and age of youngest child, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1994–2017 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or
African American
Asian Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

With no children under 18 years

1994

60.2 67.1 53.6 60.6 67.7 53.8 57.2 62.0 52.4 - - - 62.3 71.5 51.5

1995

60.2 67.0 53.5 60.5 67.6 53.6 57.5 62.3 52.7 - - - 61.2 70.9 50.2

1996

60.1 66.8 53.5 60.5 67.6 53.6 56.9 61.5 52.3 - - - 61.6 71.3 50.5

1997

60.4 67.0 53.8 60.8 67.8 53.8 57.3 61.2 53.5 - - - 62.6 72.1 51.4

1998

60.3 67.0 53.9 60.6 67.6 53.8 58.0 62.0 54.2 - - - 62.8 72.1 51.7

1999

60.4 66.8 54.1 60.7 67.5 53.9 58.3 62.1 54.6 - - - 62.5 71.6 52.2

2000

60.6 67.0 54.3 60.9 67.7 54.3 58.4 62.5 54.5 - - - 63.7 73.2 52.6

2001

60.4 66.7 54.3 60.8 67.4 54.3 57.9 61.7 54.4 - - - 63.0 72.4 52.6

2002

60.0 66.2 53.9 60.4 66.8 54.0 56.8 61.0 52.7 61.2 67.8 55.0 63.9 72.7 53.2

2003

59.7 65.4 54.1 60.1 66.1 54.1 56.5 60.0 53.2 59.7 66.4 53.7 62.8 72.1 51.5

2004

59.6 65.3 54.0 60.0 66.1 54.0 56.4 59.5 53.5 59.1 65.0 53.5 63.5 72.6 52.5

2005

59.8 65.5 54.2 60.1 66.2 54.1 57.3 60.8 53.9 59.9 66.0 54.3 63.0 72.1 51.9

2006

60.0 65.8 54.2 60.4 66.5 54.2 57.1 60.5 53.9 60.0 66.2 54.1 63.7 73.0 52.2

2007

59.8 65.6 54.0 60.3 66.4 54.1 56.5 60.1 53.0 60.2 66.6 54.0 63.7 72.8 52.4

2008

59.9 65.6 54.3 60.3 66.3 54.3 56.9 60.4 53.6 60.3 66.6 54.4 63.5 72.7 52.1

2009

59.3 64.6 54.0 59.9 65.4 54.3 55.9 59.3 52.7 59.0 65.3 53.1 62.6 70.7 52.8

2010

58.7 63.8 53.6 59.1 64.5 53.7 56.0 59.1 52.9 58.1 64.3 52.4 62.0 69.8 52.3

2011

58.1 63.1 53.0 58.6 63.8 53.2 55.1 58.4 51.8 58.0 63.9 52.6 60.8 68.3 51.6

2012

57.5 62.6 52.5 58.1 63.7 52.4 55.2 57.6 52.8 58.1 63.2 53.4 60.7 68.1 52.0

2013

57.2 62.3 52.1 57.4 62.9 52.0 54.5 57.1 52.0 58.8 64.5 53.6 60.6 68.2 51.9

2014

56.7 61.7 51.7 56.9 62.2 51.6 54.8 57.5 52.1 57.0 63.0 51.7 60.5 68.0 51.8

2015

56.5 61.6 51.5 56.7 62.1 51.2 55.3 58.0 52.7 56.5 61.7 51.7 60.4 68.1 51.9

2016

56.7 61.9 51.6 56.8 62.3 51.4 55.2 58.4 52.2 57.1 63.1 51.8 60.3 67.9 52.0

2017

56.8 61.9 51.9 56.8 62.2 51.4 56.1 59.2 53.2 57.4 62.9 52.5 61.0 68.2 53.2

With children under 18 years

1994

79.8 94.1 69.0 80.9 94.8 69.5 74.9 89.5 68.4 - - - 70.2 92.1 54.7

1995

80.3 94.1 69.8 81.3 94.9 70.3 76.3 89.6 70.3 - - - 71.0 92.2 55.6

1996

81.1 94.5 70.8 81.8 95.3 70.7 78.5 89.7 73.3 - - - 72.3 93.7 56.7

1997

81.8 94.6 71.9 82.4 95.4 71.7 79.6 89.6 75.0 - - - 74.0 93.4 59.6

1998

81.8 94.6 71.8 82.2 95.3 71.3 81.0 90.4 76.7 - - - 74.2 92.9 60.2

1999

82.0 94.6 72.2 82.3 95.4 71.5 82.0 89.3 78.5 - - - 74.6 93.8 60.3

2000

82.1 94.7 72.3 82.3 95.3 71.6 82.2 90.3 78.2 - - - 75.7 93.8 62.0

2001

81.9 94.6 72.1 82.2 95.3 71.5 81.8 89.7 77.9 - - - 75.7 93.6 62.0

2002

81.6 94.3 71.8 81.9 94.8 71.1 81.9 90.3 77.7 78.3 93.2 66.6 75.8 93.2 62.7

2003

81.2 94.1 71.1 81.4 94.7 70.3 81.5 89.7 77.5 78.9 93.5 67.0 75.1 93.4 61.2

2004

80.7 94.1 70.4 81.1 94.8 69.8 80.5 88.4 76.5 77.9 93.8 64.9 74.9 93.9 60.4

2005

80.7 94.1 70.5 81.1 94.8 69.8 80.4 88.7 76.3 77.9 93.1 65.6 74.5 94.2 59.6

2006

81.0 94.1 70.9 81.4 94.9 70.2 80.5 88.1 76.9 78.3 93.2 66.3 75.3 94.2 60.9

2007

81.4 94.3 71.0 81.7 95.0 70.3 81.2 89.6 76.6 78.9 93.1 67.1 76.5 94.8 61.4

2008

81.5 94.1 71.4 81.8 94.8 70.8 81.1 89.7 76.7 80.0 93.0 68.8 76.4 94.4 61.4

2009

81.3 93.8 71.4 81.8 94.5 70.9 80.2 87.7 76.3 80.1 94.1 68.0 76.5 94.2 61.5

2010

80.9 93.7 70.8 81.4 94.5 70.5 79.7 89.0 74.9 78.2 92.2 66.2 76.6 93.9 62.1

2011

80.6 93.5 70.6 81.1 94.3 70.2 79.6 87.9 75.3 78.3 93.0 65.4 76.1 93.5 61.8

2012

80.4 93.1 70.3 81.0 94.0 70.3 80.0 88.9 75.4 76.7 93.0 63.2 76.4 93.7 63.2

2013

80.0 92.8 69.9 80.6 93.6 69.6 80.0 87.9 75.6 77.0 92.7 64.2 75.3 92.9 61.2

2014

80.1 92.8 70.1 80.6 93.5 69.8 79.9 87.9 75.4 77.4 93.3 64.3 75.8 93.1 62.0

2015

80.0 92.7 69.9 80.4 93.5 69.4 80.4 87.3 76.6 76.2 92.9 62.4 75.7 93.4 61.4

2016

80.4 92.8 70.5 80.8 93.6 70.0 80.8 87.3 77.2 76.7 92.6 63.4 76.0 93.4 61.8

2017

80.8 92.8 71.1 81.2 93.7 70.5 81.6 87.3 78.4 77.8 93.1 65.0 76.0 93.1 61.9

With children 6 to 17 years, none younger

1994

83.5 93.1 76.1 84.3 93.9 76.5 79.6 88.0 75.5 - - - 74.9 89.7 64.5

1995

83.7 93.0 76.6 84.6 93.7 77.2 80.1 88.1 76.4 - - - 75.4 89.7 65.5

1996

84.5 93.5 77.5 85.3 94.4 77.7 81.3 87.9 78.1 - - - 77.3 92.3 66.7

1997

84.7 93.6 77.9 85.4 94.4 78.0 81.8 88.1 78.7 - - - 77.6 91.2 68.2

1998

84.5 93.5 77.6 84.9 94.2 77.3 83.1 88.2 80.6 - - - 77.5 90.6 68.1

1999

84.8 93.4 78.2 85.4 94.4 78.1 83.2 86.7 81.4 - - - 78.6 91.2 69.5

2000

85.1 93.5 78.7 85.7 94.3 78.6 83.3 87.8 81.0 - - - 79.3 91.5 70.5

2001

85.0 93.6 78.3 85.5 94.5 78.1 83.3 87.5 81.1 - - - 79.6 91.7 70.9

2002

84.8 93.3 78.2 85.1 94.0 77.8 84.3 89.2 81.8 82.6 91.6 75.7 79.0 91.1 70.2

2003

84.5 93.1 77.8 84.7 93.7 77.3 84.0 88.0 82.1 82.9 93.5 74.3 78.8 91.5 69.4

2004

84.1 93.1 77.3 84.5 93.9 76.9 82.7 86.3 80.9 82.6 93.8 73.4 79.6 92.8 70.2

2005

83.7 93.0 76.5 84.1 93.8 76.3 82.4 86.9 80.2 80.7 92.3 71.2 78.8 92.9 68.7

2006

83.8 93.1 76.7 84.3 94.0 76.3 82.4 85.7 80.8 80.8 91.8 72.0 79.1 92.6 69.4

2007

84.3 93.2 77.2 84.6 94.0 76.7 83.7 87.7 81.5 81.8 91.7 73.6 80.5 93.1 70.4

2008

84.3 93.1 77.3 84.7 93.9 77.0 83.1 87.8 80.6 82.7 91.8 74.9 80.4 93.2 70.0

2009

84.2 92.7 77.3 84.7 93.7 77.0 82.2 85.7 80.3 82.7 92.9 74.0 80.7 93.6 69.9

2010

83.7 92.8 76.5 84.2 93.6 76.3 81.9 87.1 79.2 81.8 92.2 73.1 80.1 92.6 69.9

2011

83.3 92.6 76.1 83.9 93.5 76.0 81.5 86.5 78.8 80.8 92.2 71.2 79.2 91.9 69.0

2012

82.6 92.2 75.1 83.2 93.0 75.1 81.9 87.3 79.1 78.4 91.6 67.7 79.4 92.7 69.1

2013

82.3 91.9 74.7 83.0 92.8 74.8 81.4 86.4 78.6 78.8 91.7 68.4 78.1 91.8 67.5

2014

82.2 91.6 74.7 82.7 92.4 74.6 81.7 86.5 79.0 80.1 92.6 70.1 78.4 91.9 68.2

2015

82.1 91.8 74.4 82.5 92.5 74.2 81.4 85.5 79.1 79.0 92.0 68.4 78.3 92.3 67.3

2016

82.5 91.9 75.0 82.8 92.7 74.6 81.9 85.6 79.9 80.0 92.2 69.9 78.5 92.4 67.7

2017

82.8 91.7 75.7 83.3 92.6 75.3 82.4 84.9 81.1 81.5 92.8 72.2 78.8 92.0 68.1

With children under 6 years

1994

75.8 95.2 61.2 77.1 95.9 61.6 70.0 91.3 61.2 - - - 66.6 94.0 47.0

1995

76.6 95.5 62.3 77.7 96.1 62.6 72.0 91.4 63.9 - - - 67.6 94.1 47.7

1996

77.2 95.6 63.2 77.9 96.3 62.7 75.4 91.9 68.2 - - - 68.5 94.8 48.7

1997

78.3 95.8 64.8 78.8 96.5 64.1 77.1 91.3 70.8 - - - 70.9 95.1 52.3

1998

78.6 96.1 64.9 78.9 96.6 64.1 78.5 93.0 72.0 - - - 71.3 94.9 53.0

1999

78.5 96.1 64.8 78.5 96.7 63.4 80.6 92.5 74.9 - - - 71.2 95.9 52.1

2000

78.4 96.1 64.6 78.2 96.5 63.0 80.9 93.3 74.9 - - - 72.5 95.7 54.5

2001

78.1 95.8 64.3 78.1 96.2 63.0 80.0 92.5 73.9 - - - 72.2 95.2 53.8

2002

77.7 95.5 63.7 77.9 95.9 62.7 78.9 91.8 72.5 73.5 94.8 56.3 73.1 94.8 56.1

2003

77.2 95.4 62.8 77.3 96.0 61.5 78.2 92.1 71.8 74.2 93.4 58.5 71.9 94.9 53.4

2004

76.5 95.4 61.8 76.8 96.0 60.7 77.6 91.1 70.8 73.1 93.8 56.0 70.6 94.8 51.2

2005

77.0 95.4 62.8 77.2 96.1 61.6 77.8 91.2 71.4 74.9 94.0 59.3 70.6 95.4 50.9

2006

77.5 95.4 63.5 77.7 95.9 62.5 78.0 91.1 71.8 75.6 94.8 59.9 71.7 95.6 52.7

2007

77.8 95.7 63.3 77.9 96.2 62.3 77.9 92.3 70.4 75.8 94.8 59.9 72.9 96.1 53.0

2008

77.9 95.4 64.0 78.0 95.9 62.9 78.6 92.4 71.7 77.1 94.3 61.9 72.7 95.5 53.0

2009

77.8 95.1 64.2 78.1 95.6 63.3 77.7 90.4 71.4 77.3 95.4 61.4 72.4 94.9 53.1

2010

77.5 94.7 63.9 78.0 95.5 63.4 77.1 91.3 69.8 74.3 92.2 58.3 73.2 95.2 54.6

2011

77.4 94.5 63.9 77.7 95.2 63.0 77.4 89.7 71.1 75.4 93.8 58.4 73.2 95.0 54.7

2012

77.7 94.2 64.6 78.2 95.1 64.3 77.6 91.0 71.0 74.7 94.5 57.8 73.3 94.6 57.0

2013

77.2 93.9 63.9 77.5 94.7 62.9 78.5 89.8 72.1 74.9 93.8 59.3 72.3 94.0 54.5

2014

77.5 94.2 64.2 78.0 94.9 63.7 77.6 89.6 71.0 74.3 94.0 57.4 73.1 94.4 55.2

2015

77.4 93.9 64.2 77.7 94.7 63.3 79.2 89.5 73.4 72.8 94.1 55.0 72.9 94.5 54.7

2016

77.8 94.0 64.7 78.2 94.8 63.9 79.4 89.5 73.6 72.8 93.2 55.6 72.9 94.6 54.8

2017

78.2 94.1 65.1 78.4 95.0 64.2 80.7 90.1 75.0 73.1 93.5 55.2 72.5 94.4 54.3

With children under 3 years

1994

74.0 95.3 57.7 75.6 96.0 58.6 66.0 91.5 55.6 - - - 64.4 94.1 42.2

1995

74.8 95.5 58.9 76.0 96.2 59.2 68.9 90.9 60.0 - - - 65.7 94.1 43.7

1996

75.4 95.8 59.4 76.2 96.5 59.2 72.1 92.2 63.1 - - - 66.2 94.6 44.7

1997

76.6 95.9 61.4 77.5 96.5 61.4 73.6 92.1 65.1 - - - 68.6 94.6 48.0

1998

77.2 96.2 61.9 77.7 96.7 61.5 75.8 93.2 67.5 - - - 69.5 95.0 48.9

1999

77.0 96.4 61.5 77.0 97.0 60.1 78.7 92.4 72.0 - - - 68.8 96.2 47.4

2000

76.3 96.4 60.4 76.3 96.7 59.0 77.6 93.6 69.8 - - - 70.4 96.2 50.0

2001

76.0 95.9 60.2 76.1 96.4 58.9 77.3 92.6 69.7 - - - 69.7 95.3 48.7

2002

76.1 95.8 60.2 76.3 96.2 59.2 76.9 93.2 68.6 72.1 95.4 53.5 70.3 95.1 50.3

2003

75.2 95.7 58.9 75.6 96.2 57.8 74.7 91.4 67.0 73.0 94.5 55.1 69.5 95.2 47.9

2004

74.4 95.7 57.5 74.9 96.3 56.8 74.7 91.0 66.4 70.2 93.8 50.4 68.2 95.2 46.0

2005

74.8 95.5 58.4 75.1 96.4 57.2 74.7 90.6 67.0 72.4 92.9 55.8 67.7 96.0 45.0

2006

75.8 95.5 60.2 76.2 96.2 59.3 75.0 90.6 67.2 73.4 94.2 56.8 69.5 95.9 48.6

2007

75.6 95.9 59.2 76.0 96.4 58.3 74.8 92.8 65.7 73.6 94.2 56.2 69.9 96.0 47.6

2008

76.1 95.7 60.4 76.4 96.2 59.4 75.0 92.4 66.7 75.9 94.4 59.5 70.3 95.9 47.9

2009

76.1 95.0 61.1 76.6 95.5 60.5 74.5 90.2 66.6 76.1 95.9 58.2 70.0 94.4 49.1

2010

75.7 94.7 60.7 76.4 95.7 60.3 74.2 91.0 65.6 72.2 91.2 55.3 71.3 95.3 50.8

2011

75.7 94.7 60.6 76.1 95.3 60.0 75.0 89.2 67.5 73.8 95.3 54.1 71.3 95.5 50.1

2012

76.0 95.0 61.2 76.6 95.5 61.2 75.5 92.2 67.0 72.4 94.3 53.7 71.2 95.5 52.4

2013

75.8 94.0 61.1 76.2 94.9 60.3 76.6 89.9 68.8 72.5 92.6 55.5 70.3 94.3 50.4

2014

76.0 94.4 61.0 76.6 95.0 60.8 75.9 90.2 67.6 72.6 94.5 53.4 70.8 95.1 50.6

2015

76.1 93.9 61.4 76.4 94.7 60.6 77.5 89.7 70.3 70.8 92.8 52.0 70.9 94.4 50.6

2016

76.5 94.2 61.8 77.1 95.1 61.3 78.2 90.2 70.8 69.3 92.5 49.8 70.9 94.5 50.6

2017

77.0 94.6 62.3 77.4 95.3 61.8 79.2 91.5 71.1 70.7 93.2 50.8 70.9 95.3 50.5

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, and Asian race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included in these groups. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 12. Unemployment rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2017 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

5.6 5.0 6.6 5.1 4.5 5.9 10.4 9.3 11.8 - - - - - -

1973

4.9 4.2 6.0 4.3 3.8 5.3 9.4 8.0 11.1 - - - 7.5 6.7 9.0

1974

5.6 4.9 6.7 5.0 4.4 6.1 10.5 9.8 11.3 - - - 8.1 7.3 9.4

1975

8.5 7.9 9.3 7.8 7.2 8.6 14.8 14.8 14.8 - - - 12.2 11.4 13.5

1976

7.7 7.1 8.6 7.0 6.4 7.9 14.0 13.7 14.3 - - - 11.5 10.8 12.7

1977

7.1 6.3 8.2 6.2 5.5 7.3 14.0 13.3 14.9 - - - 10.1 9.0 11.9

1978

6.1 5.3 7.2 5.2 4.6 6.2 12.8 11.8 13.8 - - - 9.1 7.7 11.3

1979

5.8 5.1 6.8 5.1 4.5 5.9 12.3 11.4 13.3 - - - 8.3 7.0 10.3

1980

7.1 6.9 7.4 6.3 6.1 6.5 14.3 14.5 14.0 - - - 10.1 9.7 10.7

1981

7.6 7.4 7.9 6.7 6.5 6.9 15.6 15.7 15.6 - - - 10.4 10.2 10.8

1982

9.7 9.9 9.4 8.6 8.8 8.3 18.9 20.1 17.6 - - - 13.8 13.6 14.1

1983

9.6 9.9 9.2 8.4 8.8 7.9 19.5 20.3 18.6 - - - 13.7 13.6 13.8

1984

7.5 7.4 7.6 6.5 6.4 6.5 15.9 16.4 15.4 - - - 10.7 10.5 11.1

1985

7.2 7.0 7.4 6.2 6.1 6.4 15.1 15.3 14.9 - - - 10.5 10.2 11.0

1986

7.0 6.9 7.1 6.0 6.0 6.1 14.5 14.8 14.2 - - - 10.6 10.5 10.8

1987

6.2 6.2 6.2 5.3 5.4 5.2 13.0 12.7 13.2 - - - 8.8 8.7 8.9

1988

5.5 5.5 5.6 4.7 4.7 4.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 - - - 8.2 8.1 8.3

1989

5.3 5.2 5.4 4.5 4.5 4.5 11.4 11.5 11.4 - - - 8.0 7.6 8.8

1990

5.6 5.7 5.5 4.8 4.9 4.7 11.4 11.9 10.9 - - - 8.2 8.0 8.4

1991

6.8 7.2 6.4 6.1 6.5 5.6 12.5 13.0 12.0 - - - 10.0 10.3 9.6

1992

7.5 7.9 7.0 6.6 7.0 6.1 14.2 15.2 13.2 - - - 11.6 11.7 11.4

1993

6.9 7.2 6.6 6.1 6.3 5.7 13.0 13.8 12.1 - - - 10.8 10.6 11.0

1994

6.1 6.2 6.0 5.3 5.4 5.2 11.5 12.0 11.0 - - - 9.9 9.4 10.7

1995

5.6 5.6 5.6 4.9 4.9 4.8 10.4 10.6 10.2 - - - 9.3 8.8 10.0

1996

5.4 5.4 5.4 4.7 4.7 4.7 10.5 11.1 10.0 - - - 8.9 7.9 10.2

1997

4.9 4.9 5.0 4.2 4.2 4.2 10.0 10.2 9.9 - - - 7.7 7.0 8.9

1998

4.5 4.4 4.6 3.9 3.9 3.9 8.9 8.9 9.0 - - - 7.2 6.4 8.2

1999

4.2 4.1 4.3 3.7 3.6 3.8 8.0 8.2 7.8 - - - 6.4 5.6 7.6

2000

4.0 3.9 4.1 3.5 3.4 3.6 7.6 8.0 7.1 3.6 3.6 3.6 5.7 5.0 6.8

2001

4.7 4.8 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.1 8.6 9.3 8.1 4.5 4.5 4.4 6.6 5.9 7.5

2002

5.8 5.9 5.6 5.1 5.3 4.9 10.2 10.7 9.8 5.9 6.1 5.7 7.5 7.2 8.0

2003

6.0 6.3 5.7 5.2 5.6 4.8 10.8 11.6 10.2 6.0 6.2 5.7 7.7 7.2 8.4

2004

5.5 5.6 5.4 4.8 5.0 4.7 10.4 11.1 9.8 4.4 4.5 4.3 7.0 6.5 7.6

2005

5.1 5.1 5.1 4.4 4.4 4.4 10.0 10.5 9.5 4.0 4.0 3.9 6.0 5.4 6.9

2006

4.6 4.6 4.6 4.0 4.0 4.0 8.9 9.5 8.4 3.0 3.0 3.1 5.2 4.8 5.9

2007

4.6 4.7 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.0 8.3 9.1 7.5 3.2 3.1 3.4 5.6 5.3 6.1

2008

5.8 6.1 5.4 5.2 5.5 4.9 10.1 11.4 8.9 4.0 4.1 3.7 7.6 7.6 7.7

2009

9.3 10.3 8.1 8.5 9.4 7.3 14.8 17.5 12.4 7.3 7.9 6.6 12.1 12.5 11.5

2010

9.6 10.5 8.6 8.7 9.6 7.7 16.0 18.4 13.8 7.5 7.8 7.1 12.5 12.7 12.3

2011

8.9 9.4 8.5 7.9 8.3 7.5 15.8 17.8 14.1 7.0 6.8 7.3 11.5 11.2 11.8

2012

8.1 8.2 7.9 7.2 7.4 7.0 13.8 15.0 12.8 5.9 5.8 6.1 10.3 9.9 10.9

2013

7.4 7.6 7.1 6.5 6.8 6.2 13.1 14.2 12.1 5.2 5.6 4.8 9.1 8.8 9.5

2014

6.2 6.3 6.1 5.3 5.4 5.2 11.3 12.2 10.5 5.0 5.3 4.6 7.4 6.8 8.2

2015

5.3 5.4 5.2 4.6 4.7 4.5 9.6 10.3 8.9 3.8 4.0 3.7 6.6 6.3 7.1

2016

4.9 4.9 4.8 4.3 4.4 4.2 8.4 9.1 7.8 3.6 3.5 3.9 5.8 5.4 6.3

2017

4.4 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.8 3.8 7.5 8.1 6.9 3.4 3.4 3.4 5.1 4.7 5.7
Table 12a. Unemployment rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2017 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

10.5 11.2 9.6 7.7 6.9 8.6 9.1 9.3 8.9

2004

9.6 9.7 9.4 6.1 6.8 5.4 8.7 8.7 8.7

2005

9.3 8.7 10.1 4.3 4.8 3.9 8.0 7.9 8.2

2006

7.9 7.9 8.0 5.3 6.3 4.3 6.7 7.3 6.0

2007

8.1 7.9 8.4 4.8 5.4 4.3 7.1 7.4 6.8

2008

9.9 10.8 8.8 6.4 7.7 4.9 9.5 10.1 8.7

2009

13.3 15.5 10.8 10.8 11.6 10.0 13.6 14.2 12.9

2010

15.1 17.3 12.7 12.0 13.6 10.4 13.6 14.2 13.0

2011

14.6 15.4 13.7 10.4 11.4 9.3 13.6 14.0 13.1

2012

12.3 11.9 12.7 11.8 12.4 11.2 11.9 12.1 11.5

2013

12.8 13.3 12.1 10.2 11.1 9.3 11.0 11.4 10.5

2014

11.3 11.9 10.6 6.1 5.7 6.6 10.2 10.9 9.5

2015

9.9 11.1 8.5 5.7 5.7 5.6 8.4 8.1 8.7

2016

8.9 9.2 8.7 4.4 4.3 4.5 7.5 7.6 7.3

2017

7.8 8.5 7.1 6.1 5.4 7.0 6.7 6.9 6.4

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 13. Unemployed people by duration of unemployment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages
Duration of unemployment Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

6,982 4,765 1,501 333 1,401

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than 5 weeks

32.5 34.3 26.6 27.2 36.1

5 to 14 weeks

28.8 29.4 26.8 29.4 29.1

15 to 26 weeks

14.6 13.6 17.7 15.2 13.8

27 weeks and over

24.2 22.7 28.9 28.2 21.0

Average (mean) duration, in weeks(1)

25.0 23.8 28.6 30.6 22.3

Median duration, in weeks

10.0 9.3 13.1 11.5 8.9

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

3,743 2,592 766 177 730

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than 5 weeks

31.9 33.6 26.4 26.4 38.2

5 to 14 weeks

28.7 29.3 26.0 31.6 30.2

15 to 26 weeks

15.0 13.7 19.0 16.4 12.6

27 weeks and over

24.4 23.4 28.5 25.6 19.0

Average (mean) duration, in weeks(1)

25.3 24.5 28.0 31.4 21.2

Median duration, in weeks

10.1 9.4 13.5 11.3 8.0

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

3,239 2,173 735 156 671

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than 5 weeks

33.2 35.1 26.9 28.0 33.8

5 to 14 weeks

28.8 29.4 27.6 27.0 27.9

15 to 26 weeks

14.1 13.5 16.3 13.9 15.1

27 weeks and over

23.9 21.9 29.2 31.1 23.2

Average (mean) duration, in weeks(1)

24.5 22.9 29.3 29.7 23.4

Median duration, in weeks

9.8 9.1 12.7 11.8 10.0

Footnotes
(1) Beginning in January 2011, this series reflects a change to the collection of data on unemployment duration. For more information, see https://www.bls.gov/cps/duration.htm.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 14. Unemployed people by reason for unemployment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages
Reason for unemployment Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

6,982 4,765 1,501 333 1,401

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

49.2 50.8 47.0 42.4 49.6

On temporary layoff

13.7 16.0 7.5 8.2 15.8

Not on temporary layoff

35.5 34.7 39.4 34.1 33.8

Permanent job losers

25.3 25.1 26.5 28.1 22.5

Persons who completed temporary jobs

10.2 9.6 13.0 6.0 11.3

Job leavers

11.1 11.7 9.7 11.5 10.5

Reentrants

29.8 28.7 32.1 31.0 29.1

New entrants

9.9 8.9 11.3 15.2 10.8

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

3,743 2,592 766 177 730

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

54.4 55.9 52.2 48.9 56.8

On temporary layoff

14.9 17.0 8.6 8.2 18.6

Not on temporary layoff

39.6 38.9 43.6 40.7 38.2

Permanent job losers

27.7 27.4 29.5 33.6 24.4

Persons who completed temporary jobs

11.9 11.5 14.1 7.2 13.8

Job leavers

10.2 10.8 8.4 11.2 10.2

Reentrants

25.7 25.0 27.2 25.6 24.1

New entrants

9.7 8.3 12.3 14.2 9.0

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

3,239 2,173 735 156 671

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

43.1 44.6 41.6 34.9 41.7

On temporary layoff

12.3 14.8 6.4 8.3 12.7

Not on temporary layoff

30.8 29.8 35.1 26.7 29.0

Permanent job losers

22.6 22.5 23.3 21.9 20.5

Persons who completed temporary jobs

8.2 7.3 11.8 4.7 8.5

Job leavers

12.2 12.7 11.0 11.7 10.9

Reentrants

34.5 33.2 37.2 37.1 34.5

New entrants

10.1 9.5 10.2 16.3 12.9

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 15. People in the labor force and not in the labor force by selected characteristics, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age, gender, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Civilian labor
force(1)
Not in the labor force
Total Want a job Do not
want a
job now
Total Searched for work in previous year,
but not in past 4 weeks
Total Marginally attached
(available to work now)(2)
Total Discouraged
workers(3)
Other(4)

Total

Total, 16 years and older

160,320 94,759 5,518 2,198 1,587 476 1,112 89,242

16 to 24 years

21,160 16,989 1,655 702 439 115 324 15,335

25 to 54 years

102,683 23,014 2,282 1,001 743 223 519 20,732

55 years and older

36,476 54,756 1,581 495 405 138 268 53,175

Men, 16 years and older

85,145 38,130 2,539 1,089 835 299 536 35,591

16 to 24 years

10,887 8,332 863 385 257 75 182 7,468

25 to 54 years

54,813 7,038 940 452 366 137 229 6,098

55 years and older

19,445 22,760 736 252 213 87 126 22,025

Women, 16 years and older

75,175 56,629 2,979 1,109 752 177 575 53,650

16 to 24 years

10,273 8,658 792 317 183 40 143 7,866

25 to 54 years

47,870 15,975 1,342 548 377 86 291 14,633

55 years and older

17,031 31,996 845 243 193 51 142 31,151

White

Total, 16 years and older

124,941 74,001 3,861 1,477 1,056 301 756 70,139

16 to 24 years

16,023 12,017 1,123 459 278 68 210 10,893

25 to 54 years

78,569 16,821 1,546 651 477 130 347 15,275

55 years and older

30,348 45,163 1,192 368 301 103 199 43,971

Men, 16 years and older

67,592 29,633 1,757 722 552 189 362 27,875

16 to 24 years

8,358 5,851 578 249 162 43 120 5,273

25 to 54 years

42,793 4,889 623 285 228 81 147 4,266

55 years and older

16,442 18,893 557 188 161 65 96 18,336

Women, 16 years and older

57,349 44,368 2,104 755 505 112 393 42,264

16 to 24 years

7,666 6,165 545 210 116 25 91 5,620

25 to 54 years

35,777 11,933 923 366 249 49 200 11,009

55 years and older

13,907 26,270 636 179 140 38 103 25,634

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

20,088 12,159 1,026 453 352 129 224 11,133

16 to 24 years

2,995 2,755 328 150 106 39 68 2,427

25 to 54 years

13,530 3,423 442 223 180 69 111 2,981

55 years and older

3,563 5,981 257 80 67 21 45 5,725

Men, 16 years and older

9,508 5,204 494 235 191 81 110 4,710

16 to 24 years

1,436 1,384 179 85 62 26 36 1,205

25 to 54 years

6,388 1,407 199 112 98 42 56 1,208

55 years and older

1,685 2,413 116 38 31 13 18 2,297

Women, 16 years and older

10,580 6,955 532 218 161 48 113 6,422

16 to 24 years

1,559 1,371 149 66 44 13 32 1,222

25 to 54 years

7,143 2,016 243 111 81 27 54 1,773

55 years and older

1,878 3,568 141 42 35 8 27 3,427

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

9,781 5,587 343 143 89 22 68 5,244

16 to 24 years

934 1,304 84 42 23 4 19 1,220

25 to 54 years

7,005 1,811 179 72 44 10 35 1,632

55 years and older

1,842 2,473 80 29 22 8 14 2,393

Men, 16 years and older

5,166 2,015 148 69 43 13 30 1,867

16 to 24 years

470 643 44 24 14 3 11 599

25 to 54 years

3,748 419 67 30 19 6 13 352

55 years and older

949 953 37 15 10 4 6 916

Women, 16 years and older

4,615 3,572 196 73 46 9 37 3,377

16 to 24 years

464 661 40 18 9 1 8 620

25 to 54 years

3,258 1,392 113 42 25 4 21 1,280

55 years and older

893 1,520 43 14 12 4 8 1,477

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

27,339 14,032 1,069 401 301 88 213 12,963

16 to 24 years

4,550 3,980 378 145 102 29 74 3,601

25 to 54 years

19,072 4,978 498 195 148 45 103 4,480

55 years and older

3,717 5,074 193 61 51 15 36 4,881

Men, 16 years and older

15,604 4,974 436 187 151 53 98 4,537

16 to 24 years

2,446 1,879 192 79 60 18 42 1,686

25 to 54 years

11,054 1,150 164 78 65 26 39 986

55 years and older

2,104 1,946 80 30 26 8 18 1,865

Women, 16 years and older

11,735 9,058 633 213 150 36 115 8,425

16 to 24 years

2,104 2,101 186 65 42 10 32 1,915

25 to 54 years

8,018 3,829 334 116 83 19 64 3,495

55 years and older

1,613 3,129 113 32 25 7 18 3,016

Footnotes
(1) The sum of the employed plus the unemployed.
(2) People marginally attached to the labor force are those who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(3) Discouraged workers are people marginally attached to the labor force who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks school or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(4) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as childcare and transportation problems, as well as a small number for which reason nonparticipation was not ascertained.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2017 annual averages
Year Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total

1979

$241 $248 $199 - $194

1980

262 269 212 - 209

1981

284 291 235 - 223

1982

302 310 245 - 240

1983

313 320 261 - 250

1984

326 336 269 - 259

1985

344 356 277 - 270

1986

359 371 291 - 277

1987

374 384 301 - 285

1988

385 395 314 - 290

1989

399 409 319 - 298

1990

412 424 329 - 304

1991

426 442 348 - 312

1992

440 458 357 - 321

1993

459 475 369 - 331

1994

467 484 371 - 324

1995

479 494 383 - 329

1996

490 506 387 - 339

1997

503 519 400 - 351

1998

523 545 426 - 370

1999

549 573 445 - 385

2000

576 590 474 $615 399

2001

596 610 491 639 417

2002

608 623 498 658 424

2003

620 636 514 693 440

2004

638 657 525 708 456

2005

651 672 520 753 471

2006

671 690 554 784 486

2007

695 716 569 830 503

2008

722 742 589 861 529

2009

739 757 601 880 541

2010

747 765 611 855 535

2011

756 775 615 866 549

2012

768 792 621 920 568

2013

776 802 629 942 578

2014

791 816 639 953 594

2015

809 835 641 993 604

2016

832 862 678 1,021 624

2017

860 890 682 1,043 655

Men

1979

$292 $298 $227 - $219

1980

313 320 244 - 234

1981

340 350 268 - 251

1982

364 375 278 - 269

1983

379 387 294 - 274

1984

392 401 303 - 287

1985

407 418 305 - 296

1986

419 433 319 - 299

1987

434 450 327 - 306

1988

449 465 348 - 308

1989

468 482 348 - 315

1990

481 494 361 - 318

1991

493 506 375 - 323

1992

501 514 380 - 339

1993

510 524 392 - 346

1994

522 547 400 - 343

1995

538 566 411 - 350

1996

557 580 412 - 356

1997

579 595 432 - 371

1998

598 615 468 - 390

1999

618 638 488 - 406

2000

641 662 510 $685 417

2001

670 689 529 732 440

2002

679 702 524 756 451

2003

695 715 555 772 464

2004

713 732 569 802 480

2005

722 743 559 825 489

2006

743 761 591 882 505

2007

766 788 600 936 520

2008

798 825 620 966 559

2009

819 845 621 952 569

2010

824 850 633 936 560

2011

832 856 653 970 571

2012

854 879 665 1,055 592

2013

860 884 664 1,059 594

2014

871 897 680 1,080 616

2015

895 920 680 1,129 631

2016

915 942 718 1,151 663

2017

941 971 710 1,207 690

Women

1979

$182 $184 $169 - $157

1980

201 203 185 - 172

1981

219 221 206 - 190

1982

239 242 217 - 203

1983

252 254 232 - 215

1984

265 268 241 - 223

1985

277 281 252 - 230

1986

291 294 264 - 241

1987

303 307 276 - 251

1988

315 318 288 - 260

1989

328 334 301 - 269

1990

346 353 308 - 278

1991

366 373 323 - 292

1992

380 387 335 - 302

1993

393 401 348 - 313

1994

399 408 346 - 305

1995

406 415 355 - 305

1996

418 428 362 - 316

1997

431 444 375 - 318

1998

456 468 400 - 337

1999

473 483 409 - 348

2000

493 502 429 $547 366

2001

512 522 454 563 388

2002

529 547 473 566 397

2003

552 567 491 598 410

2004

573 584 505 613 419

2005

585 596 499 665 429

2006

600 609 519 699 440

2007

614 626 533 731 473

2008

638 654 554 753 501

2009

657 669 582 779 509

2010

669 684 592 773 508

2011

684 703 595 751 518

2012

691 710 599 770 521

2013

706 722 606 819 541

2014

719 734 611 841 548

2015

726 743 615 877 566

2016

749 766 641 902 586

2017

770 795 657 903 603

Women's earnings as
a percent of men's

1979

62.3 61.7 74.4 - 71.7

1980

64.2 63.4 75.8 - 73.5

1981

64.4 63.1 76.9 - 75.7

1982

65.7 64.5 78.1 - 75.5

1983

66.5 65.6 78.9 - 78.5

1984

67.6 66.8 79.5 - 77.7

1985

68.1 67.2 82.6 - 77.7

1986

69.5 67.9 82.8 - 80.6

1987

69.8 68.2 84.4 - 82.0

1988

70.2 68.4 82.8 - 84.4

1989

70.1 69.3 86.5 - 85.4

1990

71.9 71.5 85.3 - 87.4

1991

74.2 73.7 86.1 - 90.4

1992

75.8 75.3 88.2 - 89.1

1993

77.1 76.5 88.8 - 90.5

1994

76.4 74.6 86.5 - 88.9

1995

75.5 73.3 86.4 - 87.1

1996

75.0 73.8 87.9 - 88.8

1997

74.4 74.6 86.8 - 85.7

1998

76.3 76.1 85.5 - 86.4

1999

76.5 75.7 83.8 - 85.7

2000

76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

2001

76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

2002

77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

2003

79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

2004

80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

2005

81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

2006

80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

2007

80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

2008

79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

2009

80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

2010

81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

2011

82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

2012

80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

2013

82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

2014

82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

2015

81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

2016

81.9 81.3 89.3 78.4 88.4

2017

81.8 81.9 92.5 74.8 87.4

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, and Asian race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included in these groups. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages
Educational attainment and gender Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 25 years and older

$907 $937 $712 $1,099 $688

Less than a high school diploma

520 527 483 505 510

High school graduates, no college(1)

712 746 599 653 651

Some college, no degree

774 810 661 762 733

Associate's degree

836 868 707 791 744

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,279 1,314 1,021 1,441 1,066

Men, 25 years and older

996 1,023 743 1,253 719

Less than a high school diploma

584 591 504 590 564

High school graduates, no college(1)

797 831 653 714 709

Some college, no degree

886 926 711 826 805

Associate's degree

978 1,003 790 911 823

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,481 1,516 1,109 1,625 1,173

Women, 25 years and older

810 836 685 932 634

Less than a high school diploma

447 446 450 438 431

High school graduates, no college(1)

610 627 539 591 575

Some college, no degree

680 696 624 691 661

Associate's degree

727 744 649 740 667

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,131 1,141 980 1,248 992

Footnotes
(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages
Occupation and gender Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

$860 $890 $682 $1,043 $655

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,224 1,236 966 1,480 1,025

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,327 1,350 1,009 1,565 1,045

Management occupations

1,392 1,430 1,040 1,679 1,072

Business and financial operations occupations

1,174 1,196 983 1,403 987

Professional and related occupations

1,160 1,164 934 1,444 1,013

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,465 1,443 1,157 1,734 1,186

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,478 1,471 1,257 1,594 1,416

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,286 1,283 1,035 1,449 1,161

Community and social services occupations

900 927 823 1,053 793

Legal occupations

1,443 1,452 1,190 1,743 1,087

Education, training, and library occupations

1,002 1,020 880 1,001 915

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,066 1,096 828 995 1,008

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

1,124 1,137 913 1,309 1,000

Service occupations

544 562 501 554 505

Healthcare support occupations

542 563 505 533 575

Protective service occupations

852 921 679 782 764

Food preparation and serving related occupations

484 487 443 519 467

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

522 538 477 542 495

Personal care and service occupations

520 525 498 551 502

Sales and office occupations

718 739 621 763 630

Sales and related occupations

763 817 583 722 604

Office and administrative support occupations

701 710 647 779 647

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

801 808 724 901 659

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

539 547 475 484 493

Construction and extraction occupations

796 804 704 999 671

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

878 889 782 825 752

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

692 717 606 653 596

Production occupations

701 721 614 656 599

Transportation and material-moving occupations

681 711 599 648 594

Men, 16 years and older

$941 $971 $710 $1,207 $690

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,442 1,458 1,099 1,662 1,166

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,526 1,553 1,119 1,756 1,146

Management occupations

1,573 1,618 1,143 1,850 1,159

Business and financial operations occupations

1,390 1,414 1,075 1,630 1,106

Professional and related occupations

1,391 1,389 1,082 1,617 1,195

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,552 1,522 1,252 1,784 1,300

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,518 1,509 1,356 1,638 1,450

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,361 1,337 1,405 1,488 1,168

Community and social services occupations

976 1,032 895 1,305 904

Legal occupations

1,896 1,901 1,652 1,668 1,609

Education, training, and library occupations

1,202 1,223 1,033 1,348 1,022

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,161 1,173 791 1,121 1,075

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

1,341 1,377 1,072 1,340 1,125

Service occupations

608 621 527 613 543

Healthcare support occupations

597 617 569 518 595

Protective service occupations

894 956 731 794 782

Food preparation and serving related occupations

502 504 452 589 495

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

573 585 503 559 535

Personal care and service occupations

612 633 512 662 592

Sales and office occupations

834 880 622 849 671

Sales and related occupations

934 974 624 862 724

Office and administrative support occupations

735 746 621 837 645

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

809 818 723 911 676

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

585 595 415 495 512

Construction and extraction occupations

796 804 703 995 672

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

883 896 776 850 759

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

736 772 641 705 642

Production occupations

769 792 668 717 672

Transportation and material-moving occupations

710 746 624 693 621

Women, 16 years and older

$770 $795 $657 $903 $603

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,052 1,065 903 1,309 921

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,134 1,144 962 1,389 945

Management occupations

1,173 1,189 971 1,500 970

Business and financial operations occupations

1,055 1,064 950 1,337 912

Professional and related occupations

1,014 1,024 869 1,247 902

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,235 1,223 1,054 1,484 995

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,307 1,306 1,099 1,387 1,120

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,183 1,205 899 1,403 1,134

Community and social services occupations

857 882 797 954 774

Legal occupations

1,192 1,184 1,004 1,760 843

Education, training, and library occupations

935 953 830 915 871

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

943 952 840 897 928

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

1,068 1,080 889 1,283 957

Service occupations

501 505 484 515 475

Healthcare support occupations

533 554 500 535 570

Protective service occupations

690 783 595 753 653

Food preparation and serving related occupations

459 465 435 482 424

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

463 471 420 513 435

Personal care and service occupations

503 502 493 524 483

Sales and office occupations

672 683 621 716 609

Sales and related occupations

609 628 524 634 506

Office and administrative support occupations

691 698 655 760 648

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

579 561 748 689 477

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

471 464 645 412 444

Construction and extraction occupations

802 809 745 1,186 549

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

736 674 904 664 585

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

545 551 530 577 479

Production occupations

564 568 545 601 489

Transportation and material-moving occupations

514 518 507 502 455

Note: People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Technical Notes

The estimates in this report were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 eligible households that provides a wide range of information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. Earnings data are collected from one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample. The survey is conducted for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau, using a scientifically selected national sample with coverage in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Material in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission.

Upon request, the information presented here is available to individuals who are sensory impaired. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

For more information on the data provided in this report, contact the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Labor Force Statistics. Email: cpsinfo@bls.gov; Telephone: (202) 691-6378.

Concepts and definitions

Civilian noninstitutional population. Making up the civilian noninstitutional population are people 16 years of age and older residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia who are not confined to institutions, such as nursing homes and prisons, and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.

Employed. Employed people include all those who, during the survey reference week (which is generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own business or profession or on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member’s business. People who were temporarily absent from their jobs or businesses because of illness, vacation, a labor dispute, or some other reason also are counted as employed.

Unemployed. The unemployed are people who had no employment during the reference week, were available for work (except if they had a temporary illness), and had made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. People who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

Duration of unemployment. The duration of unemployment is the length of time (through the reference week) that people classified as unemployed had been looking for work. For people on layoff, the duration of unemployment is the number of full weeks they had been on layoff. Mean duration is the arithmetic average computed from single weeks of unemployment; median duration is the midpoint of a distribution of weeks of unemployment.

Reason for unemployment. Unemployment also is categorized according to the status of individuals at the time they began to look for work. The reasons for unemployment are divided into four major categories:

  1. Job losers, comprising (a) people on temporary layoff, who have been given a date to return to work or who expect to return within 6 months (people on layoff need not be looking for work to qualify as unemployed), (b) permanent job losers, whose employment ended involuntarily and who began looking for work, and (c) people who completed temporary jobs, who began looking for work after the jobs ended.

  2. Job leavers, people who quit or otherwise terminated their employment voluntarily and immediately began looking for work.

  3. Reentrants, people who previously worked but who were out of the labor force prior to beginning their job search.

  4. New entrants, people who had never worked.

Civilian labor force. This group comprises all people classified as employed or unemployed in accordance with the criteria described above.

Unemployment rate. This rate is the number unemployed as a percentage of the civilian labor force.

Labor force participation rate. This rate is the labor force as a percentage of the population.

Employment–population ratio. This ratio is the number of employed as a percentage of the population.

Not in the labor force. Making up this group are all people in the civilian noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed. People marginally attached to the labor force are those individuals who are not in the labor force but who wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 months). They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, were not looking for work because they believed that no jobs were available for them.

Occupation and industry. Information on occupation and industry applies to the job held during the reference week. People with two or more jobs are classified into the occupation and industry in which they worked the greatest number of hours. The occupational and industry classification of CPS data is based on the 2010 Census occupational classification system and the 2012 Census industrial classification system, which are derived from the 2010 Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) and the 2012 North American Industry Classification (NAICS), respectively.[1]

White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. In accordance with Office of Management and Budget guidelines, these terms are used to describe the race of people. Beginning in 2003, people in these categories are those who selected that race group only. Those who identify multiple race groups are categorized as people of Two or More Races. (Previously, people identified a group as their main race.) People who identified themselves as Asian are further classified as Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or Other Asian. The Other Asian category includes both individuals of groups not listed—such as Pakistani, Hmong, and Cambodian—and those who reported two or more Asian groups. Estimates for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and people of Two or More Races are not shown separately in all tables because the number of survey respondents is too small to develop estimates of publication quality. In the enumeration process, race is determined by the household respondent.[2]

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. This term refers to people who identified themselves in the enumeration process as being of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. These individuals are further classified by detailed Hispanic ethnicity. Previous versions of this report presented data for the following detailed Hispanic ethnicity categories: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, and Other Hispanic or Latino. The latter two categories were expanded in 2014 into additional categories: Central American, which includes the two subcategories of Salvadoran and Other Central American (excluding Salvadorans); South American; and Other Hispanic or Latino, which includes the two subcategories of Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino (excluding Dominicans). People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.[3]

Usual weekly earnings. Usual weekly earnings data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions, and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job, in the case of multiple jobholders). Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly (for example, annual, monthly, or hourly) are converted to weekly. The term “usual” is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months. Data refer to the sole or primary job of wage and salary workers (excluding all self-employed people, regardless of whether their businesses were incorporated).

Median earnings. Median earnings figures indicate the numerical value that divides the earnings distribution into two equal parts, one part having values above the median and the other having values below the median. The medians shown in this publication are calculated by linear interpolation of the $50 centered interval within which each median falls.

Family. A family is defined as a group of two or more people residing together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption; all such people are considered members of one family. The race or ethnicity of families is determined by that of the householder: the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. The count of families is for “primary” families only—that is, the householder and all other people related to and residing with the householder. Families comprise those without children as well as those with children under 18 years and are defined as follows:

  • Married-couple families refer to opposite-sex married couples only.

  • Families maintained by women and families maintained by men are each made up of householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse. The household may or may not include a same-sex spouse or an unmarried domestic partner (of either sex).

Children. Data on children refer to one’s own children under age 18 who live in the household. Included are sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other related children, and all unrelated children living in the household.

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling error and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

All other types of error are referred to as nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information from all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of data.[4]



[1] Additional information about these classifications is available online; see “Historical comparability of occupation and industry data from the Current Population Survey,” Labor force statistics from the Current Population Survey (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 6, 2016), www.bls.gov/cps/cpsoccind.htm.

[2] More information on the 2003 changes to questions on race and Hispanic ethnicity is available on the BLS website; see Mary Bowler, Randy E. Ilg, Stephen Miller, Ed Robison, and Anne Polivka, “Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003” (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf.

[3] More information on the 2003 changes in the questions on race and Hispanic ethnicity is available online; see Bowler, Ilg, Miller, Robison, and Polivka, “Revisions to the Current Population Survey,” www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf.

[4] A more detailed discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and of information on estimating standard errors is available online; see “Reliability of estimates from the CPS,” Labor force statistics from the Current Population Survey (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 16, 2017), www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.