Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

October 2021 | Vol. 10 / No. 14
EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT

Job openings and labor turnover trends for States in 2020

By Skyla Skopovi, Paul Calhoun, and Larry Akinyooye

The Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program publishes estimates on job openings, hires, and separations. JOLTS estimates can provide greater insights into labor market dynamics, such as labor demand and labor turnover, than other employment measures. In 2019, the JOLTS program published JOLTS experimental state estimates for the first time.1 This Beyond the Numbers article provides updated JOLTS state estimates through 2020 for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We explore trends in several measures—job openings, hires, separations (including quits, layoffs, and discharges), labor churn, fill rates, and unemployed persons per job opening—that can give us a deeper understanding of business cycles and labor demand across the United States and help businesses and workers make better informed decisions. This article also shows data users how they can use these estimates to evaluate labor demand and labor turnover at regional and state levels.

Labor patterns across the United States in 2020

Nationally, the 2020 JOLTS estimates reflected the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the 2020 recession. The 2020 estimates described an economic environment in which job openings, hires, and separations experienced substantially large movements early in the year. After the initial economic stress, many of the JOLTS data elements started to return to pre-pandemic levels.2

The COVID-19 pandemic and 2020 recession affected all states; however, each state exhibited its own unique labor patterns because of variations in geography; climate; composition of industry employment; labor force demographics, such as education and age; and other factors. Although neighboring states may have different labor patterns, there are often traits shared by states in the same geographic region that directly affect labor markets.3

Of the four census regions, the Northeast has the highest population density, which means the most people per square mile.4 Consequently, this region has the largest labor force per square mile. States within the Northeast region have large variations in population and employment, resulting in differing labor market patterns between states. 

The South has the largest labor force, which is dispersed along a diverse landscape. In addition, government was the largest employer in 6 states in the South.5 Government has historically been a top employer in Southern states. Because the 17 Southern states also vary in climate and geography, some states exhibit more seasonal employment patterns than others.6 The Midwest has a distinct industrial composition. States within the region have large variations in population and employment, resulting in differing labor market patterns between states. For a majority of Midwestern states, trade, transportation, and utilities was the major industry with the largest number of employees. This is notable because no other region had one industry that had historically employed the majority of industrial-sector workers. The West has the lowest population density—the least number of people per square mile. As a result, this region has the smallest labor force per square mile. States within the region have large variations in population and employment, resulting in differing labor market patterns between states. For instance, California’s annual average employment level is approximately 60 times that of Wyoming.7

Trends in job openings

JOLTS defines job openings as all positions that are open on the last business day of the month. Job openings are a procyclical measure of labor demand; that is, the number of job openings tends to increase during economic expansions and decrease during economic contractions. An increase in job openings generally indicates that employers need additional workers, which is a sign of an increased demand for labor and confidence in the economy.

Chart 1 shows job openings rates in the United States for all states and the District of Columbia. All states experienced a decrease in job openings rates early in 2020. Although all states experienced a decrease in job openings early in the year as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the rate of decline varied from state to state. Alaska experienced the largest decline in job openings, decreasing from 6.5 percent in February to 1.7 percent in May.

As the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns were lifted throughout the states, state job openings rates began to return to pre-pandemic rates by the end of 2020. When comparing December 2019 to December 2020, 8 states fell below their December 2019 job openings rates while 42 states and the District of Columbia returned to or surpassed December 2019 rates. Nationally, the job openings rate increased by 0.3 percentage point from December 2019 to December 2020. At the regional level, the Midwest, Northeast, and South increased by 0.4, 0.2, and 0.5 percentage point, respectively, during the same time frame. The Western region saw a 0.1-percentage-point decrease between 2019 and 2020.

Job openings and unemployment

One way to look at labor supply and labor demand is to look at the number of job openings and the number of people looking for work. JOLTS state estimates allow for the comparison of unemployment (labor supply) to job openings (labor demand) at the state level. The number of unemployed persons per job opening factors in both the supply of unemployed persons and the demand of employers.8 The number of unemployed persons per job opening is a ratio of the level of unemployed persons, as published by the Current Population Survey, and the level of job openings. A ratio of 1.0 means there is a job available for every unemployed person. Lower ratios signal tighter labor markets where firms have more job openings than there are people available to work. Higher ratios indicate there are more unemployed persons competing for each job opening. (See chart 2.)

At the start of 2020, the U.S. unemployed persons per job opening was 0.8. The U.S. ratio reached 5.0 in April 2020 partly because of the recession and lockdowns throughout the country that were caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Among the states, Nevada had the highest ratio of unemployed persons per job opening in April 2020 at 12.6, followed by Michigan and Hawaii at 11.1 and 8.7, respectively. The District of Columbia, Nebraska, and Wyoming had the lowest ratios in April 2020 at 1.6, 1.9, and 1.2, respectively. By December 2020, the national ratio had declined from its 2020 high of 5.0 down to 1.6, indicating that many previously unemployed workers were finding jobs. Among the regions, the West had the highest unemployed persons per job opening in December 2020 at 2.0. The Midwest and the South had the lowest ratio of 1.3, while the Northeast had a ratio of 1.9. In December 2020, 9 states had an unemployed persons per job openings ratio below 1.0, signaling a tighter labor market.

Trends in hiring

JOLTS defines hires as all additions to the payroll during the month. Like job openings, hires are considered a procyclical measurement, going up during economic expansions and down during economic contractions. Hires rates saw a similar trend to job openings in 2020, with declines in March and April as states reacted to the COVID-19 pandemic. As chart 3 shows, states began to see a rebound in hires rates beginning in May 2020, with 36 states reaching series highs by June 2020, as before the pandemic.9 Michigan was the only state between January 2020 and December 2020 that did not see hires fall below its January 2020 rate.

By December 2020, 23 states and the District of Columbia dropped below their December 2019 rates while 27 states surpassed or returned to their 2019 rates. Nationally, the hires rate decreased by 0.1 percentage point from December 2019 to December 2020. At the regional level, the West and South saw decreases of 0.3 and 0.2 percentage point, respectively. The Midwest had an increase of 0.2 percentage point. The Northeast saw no change from December 2019 to December 2020. 

Trends in separations

Trends in separations often mirror the trends in hires. States with higher seasonal hiring patterns also tend to exhibit higher seasonal separations patterns. JOLTS defines separations as the number of employees separated from the payroll during the month. Total separations are composed of quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Other separations are not published with the release of state estimates as they represent a small portion of total separations, with quits and layoffs and discharges representing over 93 percent of all separations.

Nationally, total separations increased by 20 percent from December 2019 to December 2020. All regions saw an increase in total separations between 2019 and 2020. The Northeast saw the largest regional increase at 34.2 percent, while the South had the lowest increase at 11.5 percent. With the exception of Alaska, North Carolina, Utah, and Wyoming, all states saw an increase in total separations between 2019 and 2020. Alaska had the largest decrease from 2019 to 2020 at 7.3 percent, followed by Utah, Wyoming, and North Carolina. Nevada saw the largest increase in total separations at 72.3 percent. (See table 1A in the appendix.)

Quits, a component of total separations, are voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Like job openings, quits are procyclical, which means the number of quits typically rises when the economy expands and declines when the economy contracts. Quits can show employee confidence in the labor market. Employees tend to quit their jobs more frequently when they are confident they can find another one. During the COVID-19 pandemic, employees were less willing to leave their current job for a new one.

At the national level, quits decreased by 14 percent from 2019 to 2020. At the regional level, the West saw the largest decrease in quits, at 20 percent, while the Northeast, Midwest, and South all saw a 12-percent decrease from 2019 to 2020. As shown in table 2A (see the appendix), except for Missouri, all states saw a decrease in quits over the year. Missouri saw a small increase of 1 percent between 2019 and 2020. The state with the largest percent decrease was Alaska, a western state, decreasing by 31 percent.

Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Layoffs and discharges are countercyclical, which means that layoffs typically increase during economic contractions and decrease during economic expansions. Nationally, layoffs and discharges increased by 88 percent from 2019 to 2020. All regions saw an increase of layoffs and discharges, and three of the four regions had larger percentage increases in layoffs and discharges than at the national level. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, all states saw increases in layoffs and discharges; however, the amount of the increase varied widely by state. Nevada saw the largest increase in layoffs while South Carolina saw the smallest increase. (See table 3A in the appendix.)

Trends in churn rates

The churn rate is defined as the sum of the state hires rate and the state separations rate. A high churn rate indicates a labor market with a high hires rate, a high separations rate, or both. It can signify that workers are moving more frequently into and out of jobs in the labor market. Conversely, a low churn rate indicates a labor market with a low hires rate, a low separations rate, or both.

JOLTS state estimates allowed for measurement of churn experienced by states during the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic around the country in 2020. The top 3 states in 2020 with higher churn rates than the U.S. churn rate of 9.1 were: Nevada at 14.3, Alaska at 12.2, and Montana at 11.3. (See chart 4.) The top states tend to have more seasonal employment patterns, which can lead to more frequent job-to-job movement. The average monthly churn rates were higher than the national average in 33 of the 50 states. The geographic areas with the lowest average monthly churn rates were the District of Columbia at 6.1, Minnesota at 7.8, and New York at 7.8. 

By examining monthly churn rates, we can more readily identify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on state labor markets. By far, the majority of states (43 and the District of Columbia) had their highest churn rates in March 2020, and the remaining 7 experienced it in April 2020. These estimates show the concentration of the highest churn rates across a 2-month period (March to April, 2020) following the pandemic shock. In contrast, the lowest churn rates of the year were distributed across distinct times of the year. A total of 13 states reached their lowest churn rate pre-pandemic in January 2020, while 12 states had their lowest churn rate in December 2020. Six states and the District of Columbia experienced their lowest churn rate in September 2020. (See table 4A in the appendix.) 

Trends in fill rates

The fill rate is a measure used to evaluate how employers differ in the pace that job openings are filled. The annual fill rate is the ratio of hires to job openings over the year. An annual fill rate near or above 1.0 can indicate that employers are more efficient at filling job openings over the year. On the other hand, an annual fill rate of less than 1.0 can indicate a tighter labor market, with employers having difficulties filling job openings.

In 2020, after the nationwide shutdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, employers across the country sought to quickly fill vacated positions. There were many factors that hindered the filling of vacant positions by employers, such as health concerns, employee skills, childcare needs, and industry characteristics. In 2020, fill rates increased nationwide. (See table 5A in the appendix.)  Fill rates in Louisiana, Maryland, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia decreased over the year. Oklahoma’s fill rate had no change over the year. Nevada had the highest annual fill rate nationally at 1.2, while the median annual fill rate was 1.0.

Conclusion

JOLTS experimental state estimates allow for economic comparisons among states, regions, and the whole nation. The analyses in this article show differing labor trends between states within their various regions and the greater United States. Through job openings, hires, and separations and other measures such as churn rate and fill rate, JOLTS experimental state estimates provide valuable information about labor demand, labor turnover, and business cycles. JOLTS state-level estimates allow researchers and policymakers to better understand state-level economies, and help businesses and workers make better informed decisions at a more granular level than national and regional estimates. State estimates can also be useful to those seeking employment opportunities as this information can help jobseekers evaluate labor market opportunities across states.

Appendix

Table 1A. Total separations levels in the United States, regions, and states, 2019–20, seasonally adjusted
Area Level by year Over-the-year percent change
2019 2020

United States

67,994 81,598 20.0

Northeast

10,393 13,945 34.2

Midwest

14,393 18,108 25.8

South

27,020 30,125 11.5

West

16,187 19,422 20.0

Alabama

947 1,007 6.3

Alaska

248 230 -7.3

Arizona

1,430 1,575 10.1

Arkansas

645 686 6.4

California

7,389 8,985 21.6

Colorado

1,380 1,789 29.6

Connecticut

624 881 41.2

Delaware

247 264 6.9

District of Columbia

266 305 14.7

Florida

4,051 4,874 20.3

Georgia

2,204 2,660 20.7

Hawaii

298 377 26.5

Idaho

414 473 14.3

Illinois

2,354 3,369 43.1

Indiana

1,707 1,858 8.8

Iowa

671 782 16.5

Kansas

630 697 10.6

Kentucky

932 1,155 23.9

Louisiana

1,080 1,134 5.0

Maine

281 341 21.4

Maryland

1,251 1,280 2.3

Massachusetts

1,302 1,811 39.1

Michigan

1,988 2,700 35.8

Minnesota

1,102 1,415 28.4

Mississippi

591 672 13.7

Missouri

1,298 1,664 28.2

Montana

296 315 6.4

Nebraska

451 526 16.6

Nevada

700 1,206 72.3

New Hampshire

290 366 26.2

New Jersey

1,744 2,505 43.6

New Mexico

434 481 10.8

New York

3,397 4,439 30.7

North Carolina

2,650 2,613 -1.4

North Dakota

232 284 22.4

Ohio

2,514 3,075 22.3

Oklahoma

897 938 4.6

Oregon

1,039 1,197 15.2

Pennsylvania

2,383 3,113 30.6

Rhode Island

228 299 31.1

South Carolina

1,214 1,244 2.5

South Dakota

200 233 16.5

Tennessee

1,463 1,784 21.9

Texas

6,390 7,166 12.1

Utah

874 834 -4.6

Vermont

146 190 30.1

Virginia

1,798 1,922 6.9

Washington

1,498 1,775 18.5

West Virginia

390 422 8.2

Wisconsin

1,249 1,500 20.1

Wyoming

188 185 -1.6

Note: JOLTS states estimates (released June, 30th 2021). JOLTS National, regional and state data are presented as seasonally adjusted series. Figures in this article date back to January 2010; however, JOLTS state estimates are available starting in December 2000 in LABSTAT.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2A. Quits levels in the United States, regions, and states, 2019–20, seasonally adjusted
Area Level by year Over-the-year percent change
2019 2020

Total United States

42,146 36,390 -13.7

Northeast

5,701 5,017 -12.0

Midwest

9,187 8,119 -11.6

South

17,258 15,248 -11.6

West

9,999 8,005 -19.9

Alabama

607 566 -6.8

Alaska

154 106 -31.2

Arizona

971 804 -17.2

Arkansas

421 373 -11.4

California

4,374 3,495 -20.1

Colorado

888 737 -17.0

Connecticut

335 317 -5.4

Delaware

157 135 -14.0

District of Columbia

164 149 -9.1

Florida

2,626 2,477 -5.7

Georgia

1,444 1,401 -3.0

Hawaii

195 159 -18.5

Idaho

274 224 -18.2

Illinois

1,522 1,490 -2.1

Indiana

1,035 860 -16.9

Iowa

415 366 -11.8

Kansas

412 332 -19.4

Kentucky

590 583 -1.2

Louisiana

702 568 -19.1

Maine

152 138 -9.2

Maryland

769 591 -23.1

Massachusetts

741 625 -15.7

Michigan

1,285 1,147 -10.7

Minnesota

709 558 -21.3

Mississippi

375 352 -6.1

Missouri

816 825 1.1

Montana

180 142 -21.1

Nebraska

293 268 -8.5

Nevada

456 422 -7.5

New Hampshire

161 136 -15.5

New Jersey

983 944 -4.0

New Mexico

291 213 -26.8

New York

1,786 1,566 -12.3

North Carolina

1,636 1,246 -23.8

North Dakota

146 123 -15.8

Ohio

1,618 1,381 -14.6

Oklahoma

599 469 -21.7

Oregon

655 481 -26.6

Pennsylvania

1,339 1,133 -15.4

Rhode Island

121 103 -14.9

South Carolina

755 678 -10.2

South Dakota

128 107 -16.4

Tennessee

959 919 -4.2

Texas

4,091 3,606 -11.9

Utah

563 406 -27.9

Vermont

82 65 -20.7

Virginia

1,120 934 -16.6

Washington

882 733 -16.9

West Virginia

249 212 -14.9

Wisconsin

807 664 -17.7

Wyoming

118 84 -28.8

Note: JOLTS states estimates (released June, 30th 2021). JOLTS National, regional and state data are presented as seasonally adjusted series. Figures in this article date back to January 2010; however, JOLTS state estimates are available starting in December 2000 in LABSTAT.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3A. Layoffs and discharges levels in the United States, regions, and states, 2019–20, seasonally adjusted, levels in thousands
Area Level by year Over-the-year percent change
2019 2020

Total United States

21,846 41,041 87.9

Northeast

3,971 8,259 108.0

Midwest

4,413 9,128 106.8

South

8,251 13,328 61.5

West

5,210 10,326 98.2

Alabama

270 381 41.1

Alaska

80 112 40.0

Arizona

382 686 79.6

Arkansas

188 267 42.0

California

2,527 4,963 96.4

Colorado

414 923 122.9

Connecticut

247 523 111.7

Delaware

76 116 52.6

District of Columbia

85 137 61.2

Florida

1,211 2,207 82.2

Georgia

626 1,111 77.5

Hawaii

86 197 129.1

Idaho

116 227 95.7

Illinois

711 1,728 143.0

Indiana

594 914 53.9

Iowa

220 373 69.5

Kansas

181 329 81.8

Kentucky

282 513 81.9

Louisiana

323 502 55.4

Maine

110 188 70.9

Maryland

392 624 59.2

Massachusetts

473 1,107 134.0

Michigan

582 1,431 145.9

Minnesota

319 784 145.8

Mississippi

183 282 54.1

Missouri

413 776 87.9

Montana

101 157 55.4

Nebraska

130 233 79.2

Nevada

211 732 246.9

New Hampshire

109 212 94.5

New Jersey

618 1,458 135.9

New Mexico

118 240 103.4

New York

1,380 2,625 90.2

North Carolina

869 1,211 39.4

North Dakota

71 149 109.9

Ohio

761 1,556 104.5

Oklahoma

242 412 70.2

Oregon

329 652 98.2

Pennsylvania

891 1,844 107.0

Rhode Island

89 184 106.7

South Carolina

389 491 26.2

South Dakota

60 115 91.7

Tennessee

426 779 82.9

Texas

2,000 3,220 61.0

Utah

268 390 45.5

Vermont

56 117 108.9

Virginia

569 892 56.8

Washington

514 951 85.0

West Virginia

117 183 56.4

Wisconsin

367 743 102.5

Wyoming

60 94 56.7

Note: JOLTS states estimates (released June, 30th 2021). JOLTS National, regional and state data are presented as seasonally adjusted series. Figures in this article date back to January 2010; however, JOLTS state estimates are available starting in December 2000 in LABSTAT.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4A. State distribution of monthly churn rates, 2020
Month, year Lowest churn rate Highest churn rate

Jan-20

13 0

Feb-20

4 0

Mar-20

0 44

Apr-20

0 7

May-20

2 0

Jun-20

2 0

Jul-20

2 0

Aug-20

5 0

Sep-20

7 0

Oct-20

4 0

Nov-20

0 0

Dec-20

12 0

Note: JOLTS states estimates (released June, 30th 2021). JOLTS National, regional and state data are presented as seasonally adjusted series. Figures in this article date back to January 2010; however, JOLTS state estimates are available starting in December 2000 in LABSTAT.

Churn = Hires + Separations

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5A. Annual fill rates in the United States, regions, and states, 2019–20, seasonally adjusted
Area Fill rate by year Over-the-year percent change
2019 2020

Total United States

0.81 0.96 0.14

Midwest

0.77 0.96 0.19

Northeast

0.76 0.91 0.15

West

0.88 0.95 0.07

South

0.80 1.00 0.20

Alabama

0.83 0.88 0.05

Alaska

0.87 0.97 0.10

Arizona

0.78 0.88 0.09

Arkansas

0.90 0.99 0.09

California

0.76 0.99 0.23

Colorado

0.79 1.13 0.34

Connecticut

0.88 1.12 0.24

Delaware

0.95 0.98 0.03

District of Columbia

0.76 0.70 -0.06

Florida

0.84 0.95 0.10

Georgia

0.80 0.86 0.05

Hawaii

0.76 1.01 0.25

Idaho

0.89 1.11 0.22

Illinois

0.77 1.01 0.23

Indiana

0.91 1.02 0.10

Iowa

0.75 0.90 0.15

Kansas

0.75 0.79 0.04

Kentucky

0.91 1.00 0.09

Louisiana

0.97 0.92 -0.05

Maine

0.81 0.96 0.15

Maryland

0.75 0.71 -0.04

Massachusetts

0.73 0.86 0.13

Michigan

0.77 1.05 0.28

Minnesota

0.71 0.87 0.17

Mississippi

0.92 0.97 0.05

Missouri

0.75 1.04 0.28

Montana

0.86 1.07 0.21

Nebraska

0.79 0.88 0.09

Nevada

0.88 1.23 0.35

New Hampshire

0.83 0.88 0.06

New Jersey

0.76 1.00 0.25

New Mexico

0.80 0.87 0.07

New York

0.76 0.90 0.14

North Carolina

0.83 1.05 0.22

North Dakota

0.77 1.00 0.23

Ohio

0.77 0.98 0.22

Oklahoma

0.90 0.90 0.00

Oregon

0.82 0.89 0.07

Pennsylvania

0.74 0.83 0.08

Rhode Island

0.83 1.05 0.22

South Carolina

0.89 0.94 0.05

South Dakota

0.77 0.89 0.12

Tennessee

0.98 1.01 0.03

Texas

0.99 1.10 0.11

Utah

0.89 1.01 0.12

Vermont

0.82 0.98 0.16

Virginia

0.73 0.81 0.08

Washington

0.83 1.00 0.17

West Virginia

0.80 0.74 -0.06

Wisconsin

0.72 0.83 0.11

Wyoming

0.88 1.02 0.13

Note: JOLTS states estimates (released June, 30th 2021). JOLTS National, regional and state data are presented as seasonally adjusted series. Figures in this article date back to January 2010; however, JOLTS state estimates are available starting in December 2000 in LABSTAT.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

This Beyond the Numbers article was prepared by Skyla Skopovi, an economist, Larry Akinyooye, an economist, and Paul Calhoun, a supervisory economist in the Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics: Job Openings and Labor Turnover, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. E-mail: Skopovi.skyla@bls.gov, Akinyooye.larry@bls.gov, and calhoun.paul@bls.gov, telephone: 202-691-5870.

Information in this article will be made available upon request to individuals with sensory impairments. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200. Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339. This article is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission.

Suggested citation:

Skyla Skopovi, Paul Calhoun, and Larry Akinyooye , “Job openings and labor turnover trends for States in 2020,” Beyond the Numbers: Employment & Unemployment, vol. 10, no. 14 (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, October 2021), https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-10/jolts-2020-state-estimates.htm

1 The JOLTS program publishes monthly estimates for major industries at the national level and total nonfarm estimates at the regional level. Users expressed a desire for state-level estimates, therefore the JOLTS program developed and published the state experimental series for the first time in 2019. The experimental models enable the production of estimates at the state total nonfarm level, using a combination of the current JOLTS sample, data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), and data from the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. Information on the methodology can be found on the JOLTS experimental state estimates website.

2 Please see the following link for definitions of JOLTS terms.

3 The four census regions are the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Census regions and divisions of the United States are available at: https://www2.census.gov/geo/pdfs/maps-data/maps/reference/us_regdiv.pdf.

4 State population totals can be found at https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/popest/2010s-state-total.html. Total area of each state and area in the United States can be found at https://www.census.gov/geographies/reference-files/2010/geo/state-area.html.

5 Labor force by state can be found at https://www.bls.gov/lau/.

6 Geographic employment information by state and region can be found at https://www.bls.gov/regions/home.htm.

7 Employment by state can be found at https://www.bls.gov/sae/data/home.htm. Not seasonally adjusted annual averages are used in this analysis.

8 To calculate this ratio, divide the number of people who are unemployed by the number of job openings. Unemployment levels for the nation are published by the Current Population Survey and unemployment levels for regions and states are published by the Local Area Unemployment Statistics. Persons are classified as unemployed if they do not have a job, have actively looked for work in the prior 4 weeks, and are currently available for work. https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#unemp.

9 The series dates back to December 2000.

 

Publish Date: Monday, October 25, 2021