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Summary

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Video transcript available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFyGWnWtXdw.
Quick Facts: Producers and Directors
2021 Median Pay $79,000 per year
$37.98 per hour
Typical Entry-Level Education Bachelor's degree
Work Experience in a Related Occupation Less than 5 years
On-the-job Training None
Number of Jobs, 2021 166,200
Job Outlook, 2021-31 8% (Faster than average)
Employment Change, 2021-31 12,800

What Producers and Directors Do

Producers and directors make business and creative decisions about film, television, stage, and other productions.

Work Environment

Producers and directors are often under pressure to finish their work on time. Most producers and directors work full time, and some work more than 40 hours per week. Their schedules may vary.

How to Become a Producer or Director

Producers and directors typically need a bachelor’s degree. They also typically need several years of experience working on set in film, TV, stage, or other productions in positions such as actors, film and video editors, or cinematographers or in related occupations, such as theater managers.

Pay

The median annual wage for producers and directors was $79,000 in May 2021.

Job Outlook

Employment of producers and directors is projected to grow 8 percent from 2021 to 2031, faster than the average for all occupations.

About 17,500 openings for producers and directors are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

State & Area Data

Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for producers and directors.

Similar Occupations

Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of producers and directors with similar occupations.

More Information, Including Links to O*NET

Learn more about producers and directors by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.

What Producers and Directors Do About this section

Producers and directors
Stage directors make sure the cast and crew give a consistently strong live performance.

Producers and directors make business and creative decisions about, film, television, stage, and other productions. They interpret a writer’s script to entertain, inform, or instruct an audience.

Duties

Producers and directors typically do the following:

  • Select scripts or topics for a film, television, video, stage, or radio production
  • Audition and select cast members and the film or stage crew
  • Approve the design and financial aspects of a production
  • Oversee the production process, including sound, lighting, and performances
  • Oversee the postproduction process, including editing, music selection, special effects, and a performance’s overall tone
  • Ensure that a project stays on schedule and within budget
  • Promote finished productions or works through advertisements, film festivals, and interviews

Although producers and directors have distinct roles in a production, their work may overlap. For example, directors ultimately answer to producers, but some directors share producing duties for their own films.

Producers make the business and financial decisions for a film, stage production, or TV show. They raise money for the project and hire the director and crew, which may include designers, editors, and other workers. Some producers also assist in the selection of cast members. Producers set the budget and approve any major changes to the project. They make sure that the production is completed on time, and they are ultimately responsible for the final product.

Various producers often share responsibilities on large productions. For example, on a large movie set, an executive producer is in charge of the entire production and a line producer runs the day-to-day operations. A TV show may employ several assistant producers to whom the head or executive producer gives certain duties, such as supervising the costume and makeup teams.

Directors are responsible for the creative decisions of a production. They select cast members, conduct rehearsals, and direct the work of the cast and crew. During rehearsals, they work with the actors to help them portray their characters accurately. For nonfiction video, such as documentaries or live broadcasts, directors choose topics or subjects to film. They research the topic and may interview experts or relevant participants on camera. Directors also work with cinematographers and other crew members to ensure that the final product matches the overall vision.

Directors work with set designers, location scouts, and art directors to build a project’s set. They also work with costume designers to ensure that clothing suits the overall look of the production. During a film’s postproduction phase, they work closely with film editors and music supervisors to make sure that the final product meets the producer’s and director’s vision. Stage directors, unlike television or film directors, who document their product with cameras, make sure that the cast and crew give consistently strong live performances.

As with assistant producers, several assistant directors may work on large productions. Assistant directors help the director with small production tasks, such as making set changes or notifying the performers when it is their time to go onstage. Their specific responsibilities vary with the size and type of production they work on.

For more information about occupations related to producers and directors, see the profiles on actors, writers and authors, film and video editors and camera operators, dancers and choreographers, and multimedia artists and animators.

Work Environment About this section

Producers and directors
Producers and directors audition and select cast members.

Producers and directors held about 166,200 jobs in 2021. The largest employers of producers and directors were as follows:

Motion picture and video industries 33%
Radio and television broadcasting 18
Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries 11
Self-employed workers 10
Advertising, public relations, and related services 5

Producers and directors are often under pressure to finish their work on time. Work assignments may be short, ranging from 1 day to a few months. They sometimes must work in unpleasant conditions, such as bad weather.

Theater directors and producers may travel with a touring show across the country, while those in film and television may work on location (a site away from the studio and where all or part of the filming occurs).

Work Schedules

Workdays for producers and directors may be long and irregular. Many do not have a standard workweek, because their schedules may change with each assignment or project. Evening, weekend, and holiday work is common. Most producers and directors work full time, and some work more than 40 hours per week.

How to Become a Producer or Director About this section

Producers and directors
Producers and directors ensure that a project stays on schedule and within budget.

Producers and directors typically have a bachelor’s degree. They also typically need several years of experience working on set in film, TV, stage, or other productions in positions such as actors, cinematographers, or film and video editors or in related occupations, such as theater managers.

Education

Producers and directors typically need a bachelor's degree in film or cinema studies or a related field, such as arts management, business, communications technology, or theater. In film or cinema studies programs, students learn about film history, editing, screenwriting, cinematography, and the filmmaking process.

Stage directors may complete a degree in theater, and some go on to earn a Master of Fine Arts (MFA) degree. Courses may include directing, playwriting, set design, and acting.

Work Experience in a Related Occupation

Producers and directors might start out working in theatrical management offices as business or company managers. In television or film, they may begin as assistants or in other low-profile studio jobs. They may also participate in internships that provide opportunities to work alongside producers and directors. For more information, see the profile on film and video editors and camera operators.

Advancement

As a producer’s or director’s reputation grows, he or she may work on increasingly large, challenging, and expensive projects that attract publicity.

Important Qualities

Communication skills. Producers and directors must convey information and ideas clearly in order to coordinate many people to finish a production on time and within budget.

Creativity. Because a script may be interpreted in different ways, directors must decide on their approach and on how to represent the script’s ideas for the production.

Decision-making skills. Producers must find and hire, within budget, the best director and crew for the production. Directors must make choices that affect the look and feel of the production.

Leadership skills. Directors instruct actors and help them portray their characters in a believable manner. They also supervise the crew, which is responsible for behind-the-scenes work.

Pay About this section

Producers and Directors

Median annual wages, May 2021

Producers and directors

$79,000

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers

$49,470

Total, all occupations

$45,760

 

The median annual wage for producers and directors was $79,000 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $38,210, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $206,860.

In May 2021, the median annual wages for producers and directors in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Advertising, public relations, and related services $99,810
Motion picture and video industries 98,680
Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries 80,570
Radio and television broadcasting 60,550

Some producers and directors earn a percentage of ticket sales. A few of the most successful producers and directors have extraordinarily high earnings, but most do not.

Workdays for producers and directors may be long and irregular. Many do not have a standard workweek, because their schedules may change with each assignment or project. Evening, weekend, and holiday work is common. Most producers and directors work full time, and some work more than 40 hours per week.

Job Outlook About this section

Producers and Directors

Percent change in employment, projected 2021-31

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers

13%

Producers and directors

8%

Total, all occupations

5%

 

Employment of producers and directors is projected to grow 8 percent from 2021 to 2031, faster than the average for all occupations.

About 17,500 openings for producers and directors are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Employment

The volume of TV shows is expected to grow as the number of online-only platforms, such as streaming services, increases along with the number of shows produced for these platforms. This growth should lead to more opportunities for producers and directors.

Demand for theater producers and directors will depend on funding availability. If there is a steady revenue stream, these workers may be in high demand. However, opportunities for theater producers and directors may be limited in theaters with funding challenges.

Employment projections data for producers and directors, 2021-31
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2021 Projected Employment, 2031 Change, 2021-31 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Producers and directors

27-2012 166,200 178,900 8 12,800 Get data

State & Area Data About this section

Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS)

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OEWS data maps for employment and wages by state and area.

Projections Central

Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.

CareerOneStop

CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code.

Similar Occupations About this section

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of producers and directors.

Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION Help on Entry-Level Education 2021 MEDIAN PAY Help on Median Pay
Actors Actors

Actors express ideas and portray characters in theater, film, television, and other performing arts media.

Some college, no degree The annual wage is not available.
Art directors Art Directors

Art directors are responsible for the visual style and images in magazines, newspapers, product packaging, and movie and television productions.

Bachelor's degree $100,890
Dancers and choreographers Dancers and Choreographers

Dancers and choreographers use dance performances to express ideas and stories.

See How to Become One The annual wage is not available.
Film and video editors and camera operators Film and Video Editors and Camera Operators

Film and video editors and camera operators manipulate moving images that entertain or inform an audience.

Bachelor's degree $60,360
Multimedia artists and animators Special Effects Artists and Animators

Special effects artists and animators create images that appear to move and visual effects for various forms of media and entertainment.

Bachelor's degree $78,790
Top executives Top Executives

Top executives plan strategies and policies to ensure that an organization meets its goals.

Bachelor's degree $98,980
Writers and authors Writers and Authors

Writers and authors develop written content for various types of media.

Bachelor's degree $69,510
Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Producers and Directors,
at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/entertainment-and-sports/producers-and-directors.htm (visited November 27, 2022).

Last Modified Date: Thursday, September 8, 2022

What They Do

The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties.

Work Environment

The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face.

How to Become One

The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation.

Pay

The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. For most profiles, this tab has a table with wages in the major industries employing the occupation. It does not include pay for self-employed workers, agriculture workers, or workers in private households because these data are not collected by the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey, the source of BLS wage data in the OOH.

State & Area Data

The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop.

Job Outlook

The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings.

Similar Occupations

The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile.

Contacts for More Information

The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET).

2021 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2021, the median annual wage for all workers was $45,760.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

Work experience in a related occupation

Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education.

Number of Jobs, 2021

The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2021, which is the base year of the 2021-31 employment projections.

Job Outlook, 2021-31

The projected percent change in employment from 2021 to 2031. The average growth rate for all occupations is 5 percent.

Employment Change, 2021-31

The projected numeric change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Employment Change, projected 2021-31

The projected numeric change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

Growth Rate (Projected)

The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2021 to 2031.

Projected Number of New Jobs

The projected numeric change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

Projected Growth Rate

The projected percent change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

2021 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2021, the median annual wage for all workers was $45,760.