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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, September 29, 2021 		       USDL-21-1755

Technical information: 
 Employment:   (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment: (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact: (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- AUGUST 2021


Unemployment rates were lower in August than a year earlier in 385 of the 389
metropolitan areas, higher in 3 areas, and unchanged in 1 area, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 43 areas had jobless rates of
less than 3.0 percent and 4 areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm
payroll employment increased over the year in 104 metropolitan areas and was
essentially unchanged in 285 areas. The national unemployment rate in August
was 5.3 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 8.5 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian
labor force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions
as those used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain
to individuals by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment
survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These
data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by
these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In August, Lincoln, NE, and Grand Island, NE, had the lowest unemployment rates,
1.7 percent and 1.9 percent, respectively. El Centro, CA, had the highest rate,
19.4 percent. A total of 248 areas had August jobless rates below the U.S. rate
of 5.3 percent, 131 areas had rates above it, and 10 areas had rates equal to
that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in August occurred in
Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (-15.0 percentage points). Rates fell over the
year by at least 5.0 percentage points in an additional 11 areas. No area had an
unemployment rate increase greater than 0.4 percentage point.

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Oklahoma City, OK, and Salt Lake City, UT, had the lowest jobless rates in August,
2.6 percent each. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, had the highest unemployment
rate, 8.8 percent. All 51 large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases.
The largest jobless rate decline was in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (-8.7 
percentage points). The smallest over-the-year rate decrease occurred in Dallas-
Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (-1.6 percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In
August, Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI, had the lowest division unemployment rate,
3.0 percent, closely followed by Nashua, NH-MA, 3.1 percent. Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Glendale, CA, had the highest rate among the divisions, 9.7 percent. (See table 2.)

In August, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate 
decreases. Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the largest rate decline (-8.5 percentage
points). The smallest rate decreases occurred in Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (-1.5
percentage points), and Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (-1.6 points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In August, 104 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll 
employment and 285 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment
increases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+463,600), Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+394,700), and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+196,500).
The largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-
Lahaina, HI (+22.5 percent), Ocean City, NJ (+20.0 percent), and Atlantic City-
Hammonton, NJ (+10.3 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 50 metropolitan areas with a 2010
Census population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged
in 1 area. The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these
large metropolitan areas occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+9.7 percent),
and Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY, and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 
(+7.2 percent each).   

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In August, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 27 metropolitan divisions and
was essentially unchanged in 11 divisions over the year. The largest over-the-year
increase in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey
City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+366,300), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale,
CA (+275,300), and Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+152,500). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Anaheim-
Santa Ana-Irvine, CA (+8.1 percent), San Rafael, CA (+7.2 percent), and Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+6.9 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for September is scheduled to
be released on Friday, October 22, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area
Employment and Unemployment news release for September is scheduled to be released
on Wednesday, November 3, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


  _________________________________________________________________________________________ 
 |											   |
 |                 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on August 2021		   |
 |                       Establishment and Household Survey Data			   |
 |											   |
 | Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment	   |
 | survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the	   |
 | pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and 		   |
 | respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could   |
 | not be done.										   |
 |											   |
 | For information on the modifications made to the Current Employment Statistics (CES)	   |
 | estimation and methodological procedures due to the impact of COVID-19, see		   |
 | www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.							   |
 |											   |
 | For the August 2021 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the Local   |
 | Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement level-shift	   |
 | outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state models, based on	   |
 | statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. These level shifts preserved |
 | movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise would have discounted,   |
 | without requiring changes to how the models create estimates at other points in the	   |
 | time series.										   |
 |											   |
 | The "Frequently asked questions" document at 					   |
 | www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-august-2021.htm extensively	   |
 | discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national	   |
 | estimates for August 2021. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative to   |
 | prior months, this misclassification continued to be widespread geographically, with	   |
 | BLS analysis indicating that most states again were affected to at least some extent,   |
 | which in turn affected the official LAUS estimates for August 2021. 			   |
 |											   |
 | Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment	   |
 | totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary August and 	   |
 | revised July estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift outliers,	   |
 | where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas. The substate	   |
 | area estimates also were impacted by misclassification in the household survey, in	   |
 | proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on the data for their model-based   |
 | control areas.									   |
 |											   |
 | Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly   |
 | household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico Department   |
 | of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey similar in nature to  |
 | the misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which has affected the local    |
 | area data proportionally.								   |
 |_________________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   Special technical note: This technical note describes the procedures regularly
used on a monthly basis to develop estimates from the CES survey and the LAUS
program. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the procedures described in this
technical note have been modified. The modifications are briefly described in the
box note of this news release. More information on the changes to the CES business
birth-death model is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.
   
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
July August Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) July August July August
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

Alabama

2,236,392 2,226,916 2,234,629 2,217,056 177,309 76,058 163,319 76,347 7.9 3.4 7.3 3.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,599 45,749 46,513 45,707 4,109 1,904 3,849 1,875 8.8 4.2 8.3 4.1

Auburn-Opelika

74,839 74,852 75,794 75,791 5,179 2,113 4,710 2,182 6.9 2.8 6.2 2.9

Birmingham-Hoover

548,950 555,273 548,906 551,212 41,383 17,170 38,640 17,362 7.5 3.1 7.0 3.1

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

99,493 102,811 98,278 100,803 7,054 2,764 6,300 2,828 7.1 2.7 6.4 2.8

Decatur

73,300 73,529 73,009 72,997 4,363 1,879 4,028 1,920 6.0 2.6 5.5 2.6

Dothan

64,601 65,163 64,123 64,720 4,367 2,086 4,145 2,142 6.8 3.2 6.5 3.3

Florence-Muscle Shoals

65,340 63,996 65,549 64,264 4,897 2,318 4,439 2,236 7.5 3.6 6.8 3.5

Gadsden

40,587 39,478 40,569 39,122 4,009 1,585 3,691 1,551 9.9 4.0 9.1 4.0

Huntsville

231,250 235,752 232,391 234,087 13,796 6,000 13,012 6,115 6.0 2.5 5.6 2.6

Mobile

193,381 186,680 192,367 185,278 22,680 8,933 19,898 8,948 11.7 4.8 10.3 4.8

Montgomery

175,467 171,049 175,011 169,901 16,922 7,335 15,720 7,182 9.6 4.3 9.0 4.2

Tuscaloosa

114,913 112,651 115,608 113,123 10,342 4,411 9,641 4,217 9.0 3.9 8.3 3.7

Alaska

353,072 355,856 339,540 353,087 35,864 21,021 20,973 17,925 10.2 5.9 6.2 5.1

Anchorage

196,354 195,393 188,181 193,498 19,983 11,276 11,958 9,575 10.2 5.8 6.4 4.9

Fairbanks

44,315 45,722 43,781 45,345 3,775 2,070 2,110 1,775 8.5 4.5 4.8 3.9

Arizona

3,609,819 3,644,623 3,518,126 3,635,739 394,487 233,367 249,959 194,517 10.9 6.4 7.1 5.4

Flagstaff

75,980 76,682 74,350 76,152 9,663 5,830 6,157 4,849 12.7 7.6 8.3 6.4

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

90,985 90,696 87,367 89,526 11,178 6,498 7,254 5,389 12.3 7.2 8.3 6.0

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,553,493 2,595,009 2,487,770 2,580,581 263,528 149,207 165,465 122,721 10.3 5.7 6.7 4.8

Prescott

108,907 110,910 106,230 111,339 10,569 5,863 6,612 4,733 9.7 5.3 6.2 4.3

Sierra Vista-Douglas

52,447 52,128 51,675 52,426 4,786 3,241 3,037 2,721 9.1 6.2 5.9 5.2

Tucson

499,389 495,749 486,417 496,319 53,274 31,914 32,862 26,207 10.7 6.4 6.8 5.3

Yuma

99,582 98,306 95,324 101,048 24,684 19,498 17,323 18,354 24.8 19.8 18.2 18.2

Arkansas

1,356,900 1,369,922 1,347,895 1,357,858 102,232 62,998 84,611 51,514 7.5 4.6 6.3 3.8

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

284,860 298,063 281,939 295,155 16,091 9,559 13,550 7,853 5.6 3.2 4.8 2.7

Fort Smith

118,489 119,956 118,171 118,669 8,576 4,693 7,117 4,005 7.2 3.9 6.0 3.4

Hot Springs

42,803 42,768 41,997 41,406 4,069 2,316 3,644 1,854 9.5 5.4 8.7 4.5

Jonesboro

66,401 67,211 65,316 66,353 4,552 2,590 3,769 2,138 6.9 3.9 5.8 3.2

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

359,855 359,951 353,922 352,036 29,703 16,905 25,003 14,074 8.3 4.7 7.1 4.0

Pine Bluff

34,760 34,727 34,421 34,381 3,224 2,337 2,780 1,946 9.3 6.7 8.1 5.7

California

18,789,689 19,162,864 18,690,463 19,024,443 2,548,914 1,505,402 2,299,887 1,424,252 13.6 7.9 12.3 7.5

Bakersfield

379,667 377,668 385,614 385,819 57,699 40,566 50,164 38,393 15.2 10.7 13.0 10.0

Chico

90,377 93,198 91,344 93,078 10,053 6,642 8,934 6,327 11.1 7.1 9.8 6.8

El Centro

68,647 68,106 68,175 68,469 18,863 13,306 16,885 13,261 27.5 19.5 24.8 19.4

Fresno

440,989 448,594 439,517 445,549 57,297 41,578 50,503 39,360 13.0 9.3 11.5 8.8

Hanford-Corcoran

56,419 56,532 55,466 55,945 6,977 5,449 6,112 5,100 12.4 9.6 11.0 9.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,479,271 6,690,809 6,464,674 6,604,381 1,090,189 620,827 1,026,135 580,322 16.8 9.3 15.9 8.8

Madera

60,659 61,633 61,747 62,832 7,512 5,636 6,479 5,246 12.4 9.1 10.5 8.3

Merced

110,828 117,210 112,481 119,692 15,396 12,029 13,330 11,237 13.9 10.3 11.9 9.4

Modesto

240,646 246,954 241,678 246,425 31,044 20,731 26,988 19,666 12.9 8.4 11.2 8.0

Napa

69,621 71,463 68,417 70,960 7,429 4,093 6,368 3,869 10.7 5.7 9.3 5.5

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

405,592 412,317 401,451 408,343 45,622 26,331 39,318 25,263 11.2 6.4 9.8 6.2

Redding

72,095 74,115 72,526 74,813 7,246 5,168 6,343 4,898 10.1 7.0 8.7 6.5

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,070,858 2,108,948 2,059,398 2,090,843 268,003 166,832 236,682 159,304 12.9 7.9 11.5 7.6

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,091,399 1,102,723 1,079,730 1,098,769 121,780 73,956 107,397 70,801 11.2 6.7 9.9 6.4

Salinas

219,315 228,723 217,046 224,171 22,780 15,688 19,149 14,774 10.4 6.9 8.8 6.6

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,535,410 1,545,350 1,518,659 1,533,581 189,612 106,336 164,732 101,747 12.3 6.9 10.8 6.6

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,461,722 2,489,405 2,437,221 2,474,679 274,337 145,674 239,181 139,023 11.1 5.9 9.8 5.6

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,048,827 1,060,063 1,039,834 1,055,695 98,311 53,033 84,979 50,845 9.4 5.0 8.2 4.8

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

131,828 130,738 129,399 128,986 13,033 7,454 11,089 7,149 9.9 5.7 8.6 5.5

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

134,720 135,298 132,158 134,412 14,298 8,915 12,149 8,456 10.6 6.6 9.2 6.3

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

219,400 221,925 216,272 220,303 20,996 12,749 17,888 12,128 9.6 5.7 8.3 5.5

Santa Rosa

245,233 249,250 243,406 248,712 24,587 13,862 21,107 13,214 10.0 5.6 8.7 5.3

Stockton-Lodi

331,605 332,429 331,302 334,325 45,902 29,999 40,402 28,394 13.8 9.0 12.2 8.5

Vallejo-Fairfield

202,729 204,054 200,438 203,505 24,510 15,529 21,953 14,898 12.1 7.6 11.0 7.3

Visalia-Porterville

195,971 198,953 196,826 201,168 29,324 22,197 25,779 21,089 15.0 11.2 13.1 10.5

Yuba City

76,400 77,589 75,457 77,732 9,117 6,668 7,832 6,272 11.9 8.6 10.4 8.1

Colorado

3,083,369 3,193,950 3,125,930 3,195,524 230,437 190,072 219,516 171,287 7.5 6.0 7.0 5.4

Boulder

187,992 195,449 191,671 196,694 12,643 9,624 11,735 8,667 6.7 4.9 6.1 4.4

Colorado Springs

354,597 370,723 359,936 370,445 24,767 23,165 23,764 20,707 7.0 6.2 6.6 5.6

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,651,093 1,709,513 1,674,266 1,713,045 131,945 104,064 126,215 93,801 8.0 6.1 7.5 5.5

Fort Collins

199,414 203,744 203,395 205,389 12,361 10,533 11,832 9,617 6.2 5.2 5.8 4.7

Grand Junction

73,903 75,875 76,126 76,666 5,332 4,925 5,148 4,357 7.2 6.5 6.8 5.7

Greeley

162,291 167,169 164,852 168,180 12,088 10,473 11,818 9,467 7.4 6.3 7.2 5.6

Pueblo

75,682 78,216 76,601 78,228 5,941 6,996 5,852 6,204 7.8 8.9 7.6 7.9

Connecticut

1,928,598 1,835,117 1,854,836 1,804,681 222,745 126,865 154,840 110,390 11.5 6.9 8.3 6.1

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

468,883 447,403 448,853 439,760 55,709 31,194 38,620 27,161 11.9 7.0 8.6 6.2

Danbury

106,157 102,267 103,082 100,655 10,957 6,000 7,511 5,106 10.3 5.9 7.3 5.1

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

634,079 597,784 609,570 588,682 72,278 41,933 50,289 36,536 11.4 7.0 8.2 6.2

New Haven

337,777 325,079 326,097 318,713 36,316 21,322 25,393 18,492 10.8 6.6 7.8 5.8

Norwich-New London-Westerly

143,094 133,605 137,118 131,472 19,924 9,760 14,207 8,684 13.9 7.3 10.4 6.6

Waterbury

113,620 109,295 109,233 106,913 15,080 9,116 10,661 7,985 13.3 8.3 9.8 7.5

Delaware

492,039 492,377 490,448 489,621 42,346 27,031 37,775 26,151 8.6 5.5 7.7 5.3

Dover

80,601 79,533 80,337 78,730 7,771 5,398 6,915 4,957 9.6 6.8 8.6 6.3

Salisbury(1)

199,590 203,022 197,655 199,802 15,685 10,093 14,227 10,028 7.9 5.0 7.2 5.0

District of Columbia

407,168 419,413 406,441 410,599 38,812 27,612 36,135 26,045 9.5 6.6 8.9 6.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,415,701 3,416,981 3,431,156 3,365,715 287,934 174,624 267,439 165,599 8.4 5.1 7.8 4.9

Florida

10,113,079 10,646,695 10,003,284 10,627,415 1,205,307 545,882 803,812 526,445 11.9 5.1 8.0 5.0

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

343,658 359,659 337,518 358,887 36,963 17,165 24,949 16,568 10.8 4.8 7.4 4.6

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

130,743 138,169 129,122 136,084 9,310 5,479 6,211 5,170 7.1 4.0 4.8 3.8

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

296,130 311,687 293,494 310,685 32,109 16,105 21,772 15,320 10.8 5.2 7.4 4.9

Gainesville

139,163 149,354 138,854 148,157 11,262 6,656 7,565 6,204 8.1 4.5 5.4 4.2

Homosassa Springs

45,929 48,650 46,297 49,146 5,354 3,174 3,682 3,102 11.7 6.5 8.0 6.3

Jacksonville

781,050 835,687 773,980 829,406 71,188 37,682 48,505 35,510 9.1 4.5 6.3 4.3

Lakeland-Winter Haven

319,892 330,717 315,869 330,412 42,730 19,856 29,475 18,659 13.4 6.0 9.3 5.6

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,017,794 3,182,989 3,006,079 3,169,259 415,692 179,892 271,363 177,584 13.8 5.7 9.0 5.6

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

173,682 185,364 171,373 185,737 18,181 8,162 12,397 7,851 10.5 4.4 7.2 4.2

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

357,958 384,877 353,647 383,150 34,540 17,341 23,089 16,715 9.6 4.5 6.5 4.4

Ocala

137,473 147,289 136,739 146,753 13,872 8,106 9,720 7,885 10.1 5.5 7.1 5.4

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,325,784 1,344,203 1,284,687 1,348,628 207,207 71,288 137,291 67,618 15.6 5.3 10.7 5.0

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

283,508 300,058 280,876 300,067 26,766 13,330 18,103 12,856 9.4 4.4 6.4 4.3

Panama City

89,117 95,599 87,686 94,879 6,978 4,120 4,888 3,904 7.8 4.3 5.6 4.1

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

229,780 243,228 227,811 242,790 20,441 11,574 13,886 10,847 8.9 4.8 6.1 4.5

Port St. Lucie

218,121 233,988 214,200 232,941 22,596 11,703 15,361 11,300 10.4 5.0 7.2 4.9

Punta Gorda

70,435 74,791 70,040 74,644 7,257 3,803 4,983 3,718 10.3 5.1 7.1 5.0

Sebastian-Vero Beach

63,435 68,000 62,682 67,920 6,785 3,691 4,655 3,601 10.7 5.4 7.4 5.3

Sebring

34,279 36,001 33,821 36,624 3,957 2,444 2,708 2,391 11.5 6.8 8.0 6.5

Tallahassee

187,855 197,524 187,658 196,491 16,998 9,950 11,751 9,286 9.0 5.0 6.3 4.7

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,555,707 1,645,304 1,535,677 1,647,335 165,302 76,791 110,792 73,499 10.6 4.7 7.2 4.5

The Villages

31,916 33,276 31,645 33,640 3,502 2,170 2,387 2,159 11.0 6.5 7.5 6.4

Georgia

4,982,393 5,168,565 4,930,238 5,147,836 403,003 164,586 343,514 161,600 8.1 3.2 7.0 3.1

Albany

64,690 65,344 63,910 64,735 5,774 2,778 5,131 2,705 8.9 4.3 8.0 4.2

Athens-Clarke County

93,068 96,545 93,793 97,193 6,393 2,637 5,331 2,733 6.9 2.7 5.7 2.8

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,011,500 3,127,347 2,974,777 3,105,015 261,575 99,934 223,385 97,278 8.7 3.2 7.5 3.1

Augusta-Richmond County

265,100 271,276 261,753 268,504 18,744 9,657 14,900 9,436 7.1 3.6 5.7 3.5

Brunswick

50,776 53,342 49,947 53,047 3,721 1,503 3,157 1,672 7.3 2.8 6.3 3.2

Columbus

121,069 120,964 119,432 121,060 10,342 4,598 8,761 4,658 8.5 3.8 7.3 3.8

Dalton

57,256 59,133 56,371 58,377 4,505 2,020 3,455 1,806 7.9 3.4 6.1 3.1

Gainesville

99,697 104,663 98,537 104,425 5,515 2,177 4,410 2,300 5.5 2.1 4.5 2.2

Hinesville

33,143 34,385 32,898 34,391 2,238 1,011 2,022 1,018 6.8 2.9 6.1 3.0

Macon-Bibb County

100,022 103,854 98,965 103,059 8,317 3,659 7,163 3,548 8.3 3.5 7.2 3.4

Rome

42,764 43,661 41,670 43,299 3,165 1,289 2,464 1,249 7.4 3.0 5.9 2.9

Savannah

186,378 201,043 185,582 199,664 15,597 6,265 13,711 6,108 8.4 3.1 7.4 3.1

Valdosta

62,491 65,135 61,679 65,331 4,567 1,981 3,754 2,020 7.3 3.0 6.1 3.1

Warner Robins

84,875 88,630 83,349 88,433 5,171 2,538 4,457 2,561 6.1 2.9 5.3 2.9

Hawaii

643,980 646,745 645,049 648,554 91,356 44,339 91,155 43,013 14.2 6.9 14.1 6.6

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

80,959 80,639 81,261 81,393 18,870 7,375 19,059 6,950 23.3 9.1 23.5 8.5

Urban Honolulu

439,012 444,187 438,829 444,365 52,992 27,656 52,918 27,154 12.1 6.2 12.1 6.1

Idaho

895,098 912,147 891,663 912,060 50,728 26,396 38,766 24,077 5.7 2.9 4.3 2.6

Boise City

381,993 389,740 379,716 388,794 23,885 11,671 18,033 10,457 6.3 3.0 4.7 2.7

Coeur d'Alene

82,551 84,512 81,973 84,608 5,707 2,647 4,371 2,452 6.9 3.1 5.3 2.9

Idaho Falls

74,282 76,678 74,300 76,630 2,839 1,715 2,314 1,588 3.8 2.2 3.1 2.1

Lewiston

31,094 31,705 30,990 31,847 1,702 850 1,308 864 5.5 2.7 4.2 2.7

Pocatello

42,164 44,010 41,921 43,960 2,195 1,239 1,666 1,132 5.2 2.8 4.0 2.6

Twin Falls

53,339 53,767 53,371 53,689 2,843 1,599 2,117 1,441 5.3 3.0 4.0 2.7

Illinois

6,232,556 6,318,805 6,275,238 6,239,394 771,918 442,160 690,102 425,859 12.4 7.0 11.0 6.8

Bloomington

90,634 91,038 94,292 89,879 8,342 4,475 6,456 4,711 9.2 4.9 6.8 5.2

Carbondale-Marion

57,989 58,919 59,103 57,702 6,222 3,289 4,877 3,489 10.7 5.6 8.3 6.0

Champaign-Urbana

118,652 122,211 120,923 118,995 10,822 6,254 8,459 6,622 9.1 5.1 7.0 5.6

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,710,335 4,785,897 4,701,973 4,727,380 604,554 359,494 564,447 334,387 12.8 7.5 12.0 7.1

Danville

32,551 33,004 33,129 32,171 3,719 2,157 2,965 2,293 11.4 6.5 8.9 7.1

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

185,558 188,746 187,043 184,870 18,145 9,569 14,108 9,505 9.8 5.1 7.5 5.1

Decatur

47,611 47,849 49,144 47,362 6,538 3,599 5,229 3,871 13.7 7.5 10.6 8.2

Kankakee

53,923 54,174 54,954 53,159 6,129 3,294 4,926 3,584 11.4 6.1 9.0 6.7

Peoria

172,366 174,337 176,417 171,423 20,583 10,114 15,740 10,788 11.9 5.8 8.9 6.3

Rockford

165,305 158,841 164,689 157,928 26,508 13,836 18,013 13,085 16.0 8.7 10.9 8.3

Springfield

103,006 104,569 106,315 104,072 11,145 5,597 8,908 6,075 10.8 5.4 8.4 5.8

Indiana

3,336,724 3,354,296 3,339,458 3,334,878 298,074 142,656 238,890 133,638 8.9 4.3 7.2 4.0

Bloomington

73,599 74,942 76,456 77,455 5,763 2,823 4,676 2,775 7.8 3.8 6.1 3.6

Columbus

43,968 44,943 44,092 44,962 3,366 1,398 2,599 1,324 7.7 3.1 5.9 2.9

Elkhart-Goshen

111,555 117,579 111,907 116,695 9,706 3,390 7,151 3,244 8.7 2.9 6.4 2.8

Evansville

157,874 156,044 157,034 152,900 12,628 6,419 10,092 5,867 8.0 4.1 6.4 3.8

Fort Wayne

218,399 218,727 218,666 216,724 19,867 8,557 15,425 10,557 9.1 3.9 7.1 4.9

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,081,213 1,093,174 1,084,167 1,090,552 95,328 44,464 78,854 40,859 8.8 4.1 7.3 3.7

Kokomo

36,412 36,833 36,323 36,540 3,678 2,887 2,983 2,488 10.1 7.8 8.2 6.8

Lafayette-West Lafayette

104,918 108,489 105,881 108,280 8,515 4,026 7,071 3,873 8.1 3.7 6.7 3.6

Michigan City-La Porte

48,191 47,388 47,294 46,818 5,752 2,775 4,456 2,525 11.9 5.9 9.4 5.4

Muncie

51,388 51,741 51,283 51,680 4,771 2,407 3,970 2,472 9.3 4.7 7.7 4.8

South Bend-Mishawaka

159,666 161,681 158,683 159,224 17,004 7,525 13,425 6,795 10.6 4.7 8.5 4.3

Terre Haute

71,492 70,209 71,334 69,992 6,654 3,434 5,556 3,204 9.3 4.9 7.8 4.6

Iowa

1,643,799 1,683,018 1,631,247 1,647,396 97,420 67,876 79,510 62,712 5.9 4.0 4.9 3.8

Ames

52,528 54,202 54,861 56,148 2,445 1,773 1,936 1,698 4.7 3.3 3.5 3.0

Cedar Rapids

140,947 141,886 138,830 138,455 9,936 6,787 9,287 6,273 7.0 4.8 6.7 4.5

Des Moines-West Des Moines

355,760 369,366 351,259 361,557 22,224 14,617 18,289 13,357 6.2 4.0 5.2 3.7

Dubuque

54,232 55,814 53,731 54,498 3,489 2,214 2,724 2,104 6.4 4.0 5.1 3.9

Iowa City

95,460 94,382 94,638 92,663 5,565 3,555 4,658 3,326 5.8 3.8 4.9 3.6

Sioux City

90,135 92,017 89,257 89,311 4,901 3,352 4,023 3,050 5.4 3.6 4.5 3.4

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

85,854 86,384 85,297 84,378 5,484 3,598 4,405 3,415 6.4 4.2 5.2 4.0

Kansas

1,518,534 1,538,271 1,508,539 1,509,879 111,208 72,351 96,273 60,966 7.3 4.7 6.4 4.0

Lawrence

61,990 63,963 64,205 65,083 4,938 3,086 4,249 2,590 8.0 4.8 6.6 4.0

Manhattan

43,520 43,765 45,827 44,807 3,022 1,964 2,415 1,704 6.9 4.5 5.3 3.8

Topeka

123,969 125,768 121,892 122,553 8,027 5,384 7,097 4,611 6.5 4.3 5.8 3.8

Wichita

328,217 323,611 323,252 317,130 34,421 20,014 29,891 16,612 10.5 6.2 9.2 5.2

Kentucky

1,981,728 1,995,108 1,976,599 1,991,642 120,009 94,148 102,890 74,395 6.1 4.7 5.2 3.7

Bowling Green

78,782 79,338 79,808 80,113 4,572 3,432 3,851 2,806 5.8 4.3 4.8 3.5

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

64,427 64,411 63,328 63,953 3,921 3,146 3,353 2,441 6.1 4.9 5.3 3.8

Lexington-Fayette

264,884 265,868 264,514 266,216 14,355 10,397 12,345 8,515 5.4 3.9 4.7 3.2

Louisville/Jefferson County

649,280 659,579 650,580 657,713 43,306 29,475 36,486 22,378 6.7 4.5 5.6 3.4

Owensboro

53,358 52,729 52,804 52,546 2,890 2,362 2,473 1,912 5.4 4.5 4.7 3.6

Louisiana

1,983,701 2,089,612 2,101,254 2,060,627 198,185 132,366 174,030 113,530 10.0 6.3 8.3 5.5

Alexandria

61,068 64,741 64,561 63,780 4,424 2,802 3,960 2,444 7.2 4.3 6.1 3.8

Baton Rouge

394,491 419,957 421,756 415,653 36,467 24,385 31,231 20,765 9.2 5.8 7.4 5.0

Hammond

54,281 57,282 57,528 56,507 6,420 4,223 5,557 3,611 11.8 7.4 9.7 6.4

Houma-Thibodaux

83,681 89,383 88,742 88,405 7,189 4,686 6,267 4,068 8.6 5.2 7.1 4.6

Lafayette

203,340 215,102 214,234 211,339 18,741 12,064 16,411 10,420 9.2 5.6 7.7 4.9

Lake Charles

98,496 98,956 100,921 97,370 9,827 6,172 8,631 5,335 10.0 6.2 8.6 5.5

Monroe

76,046 79,716 80,448 78,233 6,565 4,402 5,878 3,810 8.6 5.5 7.3 4.9

New Orleans-Metairie

564,106 595,847 595,917 585,938 67,040 45,101 58,541 38,448 11.9 7.6 9.8 6.6

Shreveport-Bossier City

177,079 186,773 187,245 184,074 16,878 11,388 15,153 9,823 9.5 6.1 8.1 5.3

Maine

703,421 703,353 684,574 695,007 59,187 35,265 29,554 30,842 8.4 5.0 4.3 4.4

Bangor

69,333 68,826 67,589 67,520 5,407 3,437 2,738 3,013 7.8 5.0 4.1 4.5

Lewiston-Auburn

56,543 55,309 54,723 54,815 5,196 3,203 2,564 2,780 9.2 5.8 4.7 5.1

Portland-South Portland

209,241 210,472 204,215 210,163 18,465 9,389 8,995 8,191 8.8 4.5 4.4 3.9

Maryland

3,192,506 3,198,938 3,176,646 3,150,758 280,225 185,608 268,849 181,422 8.8 5.8 8.5 5.8

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,484,824 1,492,228 1,474,764 1,472,941 126,540 80,183 120,468 78,228 8.5 5.4 8.2 5.3

California-Lexington Park

57,400 57,984 57,047 57,035 3,686 2,688 3,429 2,710 6.4 4.6 6.0 4.8

Cumberland

42,884 43,618 42,942 43,009 3,682 2,442 3,405 2,336 8.6 5.6 7.9 5.4

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

131,824 132,080 130,842 129,931 10,396 6,036 9,534 5,631 7.9 4.6 7.3 4.3

Massachusetts

3,610,552 3,751,308 3,664,525 3,752,473 364,930 212,560 334,996 203,481 10.1 5.7 9.1 5.4

Barnstable Town

127,479 138,112 128,372 135,977 12,047 7,365 10,845 7,103 9.5 5.3 8.4 5.2

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,684,597 2,778,976 2,721,459 2,781,692 266,533 146,358 242,438 138,875 9.9 5.3 8.9 5.0

Leominster-Gardner

76,587 78,271 77,721 78,429 8,680 5,195 8,082 4,998 11.3 6.6 10.4 6.4

New Bedford

81,478 84,646 83,148 84,184 9,799 5,954 8,924 5,854 12.0 7.0 10.7 7.0

Pittsfield

40,460 40,954 40,918 41,340 4,367 2,710 3,978 2,618 10.8 6.6 9.7 6.3

Springfield

355,030 363,931 357,690 363,097 38,143 24,528 33,935 23,144 10.7 6.7 9.5 6.4

Worcester

343,451 353,084 347,194 353,939 34,372 21,060 30,400 20,040 10.0 6.0 8.8 5.7

Michigan

4,863,144 4,805,709 4,883,260 4,777,722 464,045 241,641 404,670 209,550 9.5 5.0 8.3 4.4

Ann Arbor

190,919 190,251 191,852 188,190 13,637 8,900 11,101 7,193 7.1 4.7 5.8 3.8

Battle Creek

61,634 60,438 61,313 59,816 5,730 4,014 4,777 3,473 9.3 6.6 7.8 5.8

Bay City

49,679 48,656 49,669 48,207 4,020 2,806 3,313 2,467 8.1 5.8 6.7 5.1

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,120,611 2,077,798 2,137,372 2,074,033 245,317 93,268 226,810 76,940 11.6 4.5 10.6 3.7

Flint

179,117 177,038 179,730 174,172 18,617 13,179 15,578 14,338 10.4 7.4 8.7 8.2

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

573,657 573,679 575,466 570,514 42,119 26,081 33,790 22,422 7.3 4.5 5.9 3.9

Jackson

72,917 71,806 72,878 71,051 6,452 4,144 5,186 3,625 8.8 5.8 7.1 5.1

Kalamazoo-Portage

166,434 163,757 165,584 162,487 12,757 8,607 10,491 7,454 7.7 5.3 6.3 4.6

Lansing-East Lansing

236,422 238,045 238,086 235,482 17,461 12,602 14,499 12,807 7.4 5.3 6.1 5.4

Midland

39,942 39,597 39,928 39,337 2,719 1,821 2,230 1,540 6.8 4.6 5.6 3.9

Monroe

73,584 73,142 73,011 71,679 5,791 5,044 4,687 3,704 7.9 6.9 6.4 5.2

Muskegon

78,164 75,557 77,902 74,242 8,712 5,805 7,156 4,970 11.1 7.7 9.2 6.7

Niles-Benton Harbor

74,242 72,589 73,661 71,678 6,446 4,036 5,256 3,443 8.7 5.6 7.1 4.8

Saginaw

84,575 83,686 84,581 82,790 7,789 5,671 6,645 5,426 9.2 6.8 7.9 6.6

Minnesota

3,163,899 3,050,504 3,126,078 3,036,134 239,267 103,672 195,939 102,067 7.6 3.4 6.3 3.4

Duluth

141,454 139,697 140,371 138,506 12,530 5,308 9,903 5,250 8.9 3.8 7.1 3.8

Mankato-North Mankato

60,389 59,172 60,034 58,896 3,985 1,823 3,285 1,796 6.6 3.1 5.5 3.0

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,065,421 1,991,076 2,044,641 1,982,989 171,017 69,244 141,253 68,687 8.3 3.5 6.9 3.5

Rochester

131,104 126,856 129,242 126,200 8,571 3,486 6,462 3,544 6.5 2.7 5.0 2.8

St. Cloud

113,762 110,177 112,448 108,623 7,337 4,094 6,002 3,970 6.4 3.7 5.3 3.7

Mississippi

1,262,877 1,292,782 1,255,536 1,271,875 121,084 87,029 96,874 75,231 9.6 6.7 7.7 5.9

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

165,625 171,265 164,884 169,492 16,866 11,614 13,455 10,123 10.2 6.8 8.2 6.0

Hattiesburg

67,304 70,057 67,709 68,580 5,864 4,256 4,855 3,684 8.7 6.1 7.2 5.4

Jackson

263,663 271,390 261,574 265,728 23,523 16,589 18,139 14,358 8.9 6.1 6.9 5.4

Missouri

3,140,441 3,099,297 3,093,781 3,056,710 228,801 119,647 187,462 106,901 7.3 3.9 6.1 3.5

Cape Girardeau

47,825 47,247 48,220 47,718 2,971 1,627 2,405 1,517 6.2 3.4 5.0 3.2

Columbia

98,359 97,969 96,859 96,961 5,040 2,463 4,259 2,359 5.1 2.5 4.4 2.4

Jefferson City

77,866 77,107 76,886 75,876 4,287 1,936 3,742 1,880 5.5 2.5 4.9 2.5

Joplin

84,920 85,040 83,671 83,817 5,629 2,785 4,596 2,533 6.6 3.3 5.5 3.0

Kansas City

1,177,742 1,195,984 1,155,392 1,171,744 87,293 52,499 72,907 44,347 7.4 4.4 6.3 3.8

St. Joseph

64,282 63,416 63,539 62,214 3,550 2,039 2,966 1,867 5.5 3.2 4.7 3.0

St. Louis(2)

1,494,430 1,475,900 1,483,662 1,456,904 127,470 65,050 102,966 60,726 8.5 4.4 6.9 4.2

Springfield

242,833 241,101 236,350 235,077 15,368 6,719 11,738 6,423 6.3 2.8 5.0 2.7

Montana

552,688 549,555 547,995 547,971 34,476 17,489 28,535 15,687 6.2 3.2 5.2 2.9

Billings

92,100 89,655 90,622 89,553 5,552 2,908 4,518 2,540 6.0 3.2 5.0 2.8

Great Falls

37,932 37,171 37,707 37,029 2,514 1,199 2,089 1,100 6.6 3.2 5.5 3.0

Missoula

64,614 64,220 64,170 64,170 4,419 2,002 3,641 1,793 6.8 3.1 5.7 2.8

Nebraska

1,042,865 1,034,150 1,031,473 1,022,095 49,400 21,733 39,782 18,780 4.7 2.1 3.9 1.8

Grand Island

44,176 44,247 44,013 43,385 2,254 1,074 2,105 829 5.1 2.4 4.8 1.9

Lincoln

186,425 186,928 185,795 186,936 9,073 3,491 7,217 3,160 4.9 1.9 3.9 1.7

Omaha-Council Bluffs

500,637 496,574 494,772 491,069 27,996 12,771 22,127 11,093 5.6 2.6 4.5 2.3

Nevada

1,514,424 1,547,673 1,523,321 1,533,342 254,963 126,825 219,299 109,306 16.8 8.2 14.4 7.1

Carson City

25,775 26,776 26,076 26,629 2,450 1,415 2,056 1,215 9.5 5.3 7.9 4.6

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,117,178 1,131,440 1,119,253 1,119,780 218,572 105,717 188,707 91,296 19.6 9.3 16.9 8.2

Reno

249,652 264,110 254,450 262,702 23,964 13,085 19,787 11,096 9.6 5.0 7.8 4.2

New Hampshire

770,338 760,531 768,870 757,045 62,617 25,914 48,630 21,649 8.1 3.4 6.3 2.9

Dover-Durham

85,727 84,860 85,029 84,171 6,915 2,850 4,846 2,275 8.1 3.4 5.7 2.7

Manchester

120,781 118,729 120,639 118,482 10,004 3,941 7,920 3,309 8.3 3.3 6.6 2.8

Portsmouth

78,964 79,046 79,072 78,390 5,900 2,427 4,219 2,054 7.5 3.1 5.3 2.6

New Jersey

4,657,034 4,496,967 4,548,021 4,437,037 631,398 339,199 494,604 298,831 13.6 7.5 10.9 6.7

Atlantic City-Hammonton

128,333 121,132 123,046 119,253 29,690 12,943 21,366 11,357 23.1 10.7 17.4 9.5

Ocean City

54,653 59,769 52,870 57,862 6,918 3,958 5,242 3,462 12.7 6.6 9.9 6.0

Trenton

213,005 206,707 207,771 203,918 22,421 12,793 17,483 11,114 10.5 6.2 8.4 5.5

Vineland-Bridgeton

67,079 65,937 66,405 66,103 9,522 6,087 7,509 5,425 14.2 9.2 11.3 8.2

New Mexico

945,825 957,319 915,617 950,043 126,619 73,983 85,672 59,762 13.4 7.7 9.4 6.3

Albuquerque

435,095 436,171 423,306 435,155 56,735 32,321 38,177 26,158 13.0 7.4 9.0 6.0

Farmington

51,270 49,468 48,949 48,877 7,932 4,581 5,468 3,688 15.5 9.3 11.2 7.5

Las Cruces

96,772 97,137 94,640 96,432 12,385 7,585 7,991 6,023 12.8 7.8 8.4 6.2

Santa Fe

72,035 71,023 69,483 69,682 9,837 5,105 6,517 4,126 13.7 7.2 9.4 5.9

New York

9,462,424 9,382,033 9,477,391 9,339,555 1,400,143 689,652 1,096,540 667,488 14.8 7.4 11.6 7.1

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

464,131 447,483 459,739 447,109 48,315 21,393 36,599 20,955 10.4 4.8 8.0 4.7

Binghamton

107,212 103,034 105,477 102,454 12,520 5,765 9,389 5,550 11.7 5.6 8.9 5.4

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

553,849 545,877 546,471 543,667 73,074 31,615 55,203 31,120 13.2 5.8 10.1 5.7

Elmira

36,293 34,920 36,006 34,589 4,310 1,979 3,283 1,946 11.9 5.7 9.1 5.6

Glens Falls

61,459 60,964 61,036 60,860 6,030 2,881 4,423 2,808 9.8 4.7 7.2 4.6

Ithaca

48,449 47,170 48,021 46,908 4,496 2,155 3,303 2,065 9.3 4.6 6.9 4.4

Kingston

89,056 86,795 88,039 86,186 10,419 4,469 7,747 4,380 11.7 5.1 8.8 5.1

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,945,132 9,806,528 9,915,186 9,727,332 1,528,846 784,618 1,210,352 736,652 15.4 8.0 12.2 7.6

Rochester

528,260 523,270 521,326 520,833 61,944 27,938 46,999 27,285 11.7 5.3 9.0 5.2

Syracuse

317,035 303,231 312,274 300,650 37,129 16,671 27,467 16,141 11.7 5.5 8.8 5.4

Utica-Rome

132,329 129,212 130,925 128,185 14,620 7,248 11,101 7,060 11.0 5.6 8.5 5.5

Watertown-Fort Drum

45,061 44,775 44,272 44,468 4,836 2,374 3,538 2,329 10.7 5.3 8.0 5.2

North Carolina

4,977,349 5,049,442 4,913,809 5,027,377 460,754 232,513 337,266 221,865 9.3 4.6 6.9 4.4

Asheville

226,664 228,555 224,463 228,657 22,333 9,185 15,956 8,729 9.9 4.0 7.1 3.8

Burlington

80,927 82,648 80,077 82,602 7,437 3,905 5,427 3,676 9.2 4.7 6.8 4.5

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,372,088 1,383,636 1,349,628 1,368,364 128,826 61,188 93,856 58,713 9.4 4.4 7.0 4.3

Durham-Chapel Hill

300,116 310,923 299,330 311,446 24,406 12,086 17,657 11,412 8.1 3.9 5.9 3.7

Fayetteville

146,847 144,943 144,108 143,998 17,544 9,640 13,040 9,247 11.9 6.7 9.0 6.4

Goldsboro

50,386 50,827 49,721 50,806 4,097 2,496 3,048 2,378 8.1 4.9 6.1 4.7

Greensboro-High Point

359,703 356,369 356,273 357,779 38,999 19,075 28,283 18,171 10.8 5.4 7.9 5.1

Greenville

85,999 90,453 86,165 89,340 7,778 4,394 5,637 4,189 9.0 4.9 6.5 4.7

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

171,998 174,190 169,052 174,193 15,690 7,519 11,297 7,196 9.1 4.3 6.7 4.1

Jacksonville

62,729 62,652 63,969 64,923 5,509 3,247 4,105 3,062 8.8 5.2 6.4 4.7

New Bern

50,785 51,695 49,987 51,719 3,905 2,254 2,933 2,183 7.7 4.4 5.9 4.2

Raleigh

719,481 740,286 710,114 738,185 59,073 28,788 42,910 27,440 8.2 3.9 6.0 3.7

Rocky Mount

63,124 63,658 61,692 63,042 7,538 4,221 5,704 4,035 11.9 6.6 9.2 6.4

Wilmington

150,461 156,265 149,092 155,808 12,935 6,291 9,446 6,000 8.6 4.0 6.3 3.9

Winston-Salem

322,915 326,340 318,870 325,365 29,496 14,685 21,345 13,970 9.1 4.5 6.7 4.3

North Dakota

413,915 411,327 415,991 406,692 24,952 14,950 24,206 13,041 6.0 3.6 5.8 3.2

Bismarck

72,198 73,713 71,384 71,704 3,296 2,294 3,297 2,010 4.6 3.1 4.6 2.8

Fargo

143,893 146,895 143,223 144,459 7,118 4,010 6,327 3,581 4.9 2.7 4.4 2.5

Grand Forks

53,086 52,745 52,906 51,761 3,070 1,970 2,656 1,594 5.8 3.7 5.0 3.1

Ohio

5,803,597 5,699,962 5,850,096 5,683,876 551,931 337,903 505,548 291,845 9.5 5.9 8.6 5.1

Akron

359,290 347,624 362,807 351,086 36,161 21,336 33,513 18,460 10.1 6.1 9.2 5.3

Canton-Massillon

199,136 192,354 200,944 194,113 19,530 11,723 17,807 10,057 9.8 6.1 8.9 5.2

Cincinnati

1,130,154 1,119,278 1,140,060 1,126,244 97,244 58,666 90,004 49,845 8.6 5.2 7.9 4.4

Cleveland-Elyria

994,711 1,036,127 990,490 1,004,690 91,227 60,703 79,764 53,399 9.2 5.9 8.1 5.3

Columbus

1,127,176 1,097,447 1,140,288 1,102,328 102,400 59,657 96,141 51,430 9.1 5.4 8.4 4.7

Dayton

395,822 377,507 400,117 380,413 39,272 23,110 36,314 20,030 9.9 6.1 9.1 5.3

Lima

47,923 47,824 48,890 48,014 4,695 3,003 4,232 2,551 9.8 6.3 8.7 5.3

Mansfield

52,966 50,712 52,828 51,230 5,500 3,267 4,785 3,002 10.4 6.4 9.1 5.9

Springfield

63,751 61,806 64,058 61,739 6,072 3,943 5,646 3,331 9.5 6.4 8.8 5.4

Toledo

301,858 290,783 306,386 293,140 33,395 20,852 30,209 17,053 11.1 7.2 9.9 5.8

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

51,265 50,683 51,440 50,405 5,867 3,580 5,531 3,222 11.4 7.1 10.8 6.4

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

238,701 225,608 238,336 226,213 29,835 16,861 26,800 15,287 12.5 7.5 11.2 6.8

Oklahoma

1,851,561 1,866,548 1,851,733 1,851,843 135,038 57,548 112,985 51,570 7.3 3.1 6.1 2.8

Enid

27,500 27,218 27,491 27,102 1,751 721 1,509 669 6.4 2.6 5.5 2.5

Lawton

51,291 52,231 50,736 51,475 3,848 1,686 3,101 1,542 7.5 3.2 6.1 3.0

Oklahoma City

693,162 707,349 688,628 695,694 50,660 20,835 41,869 18,392 7.3 2.9 6.1 2.6

Tulsa

486,609 488,867 482,764 483,000 37,552 15,431 31,418 13,867 7.7 3.2 6.5 2.9

Oregon

2,054,752 2,190,809 2,110,616 2,176,876 204,520 105,813 176,159 98,497 10.0 4.8 8.3 4.5

Albany

57,274 60,823 58,864 60,938 5,629 3,284 4,839 3,023 9.8 5.4 8.2 5.0

Bend-Redmond

96,393 101,596 98,894 100,779 9,336 4,768 7,655 4,402 9.7 4.7 7.7 4.4

Corvallis

43,548 46,430 44,441 46,571 3,522 1,878 2,946 1,761 8.1 4.0 6.6 3.8

Eugene

171,660 181,015 176,184 180,009 17,977 9,669 15,389 9,065 10.5 5.3 8.7 5.0

Grants Pass

35,075 37,424 36,197 37,376 3,404 2,171 3,039 2,054 9.7 5.8 8.4 5.5

Medford

102,191 110,297 105,940 110,696 10,367 5,635 8,887 5,280 10.1 5.1 8.4 4.8

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,294,197 1,359,617 1,319,516 1,356,773 139,259 62,985 118,339 59,746 10.8 4.6 9.0 4.4

Salem

200,067 217,104 205,577 214,660 17,175 10,079 14,767 9,403 8.6 4.6 7.2 4.4

Pennsylvania

6,516,443 6,363,999 6,307,843 6,325,232 879,551 428,251 646,398 423,494 13.5 6.7 10.2 6.7

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

445,376 437,331 430,725 434,839 60,072 30,258 44,696 29,229 13.5 6.9 10.4 6.7

Altoona

60,823 58,647 58,707 58,122 7,484 3,883 5,200 3,768 12.3 6.6 8.9 6.5

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,698 42,943 41,594 43,156 4,481 2,544 3,165 2,474 10.5 5.9 7.6 5.7

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

78,727 76,327 76,473 76,285 8,967 4,244 6,429 4,201 11.4 5.6 8.4 5.5

East Stroudsburg

83,971 80,834 81,008 80,874 13,555 6,488 9,929 6,673 16.1 8.0 12.3 8.3

Erie

129,725 125,788 125,742 125,316 18,174 9,390 13,257 9,303 14.0 7.5 10.5 7.4

Gettysburg

54,419 54,890 53,206 55,018 5,398 2,621 3,752 2,660 9.9 4.8 7.1 4.8

Harrisburg-Carlisle

305,400 302,658 297,238 299,775 34,975 17,697 25,416 17,253 11.5 5.8 8.6 5.8

Johnstown

57,252 53,898 55,007 53,094 7,794 4,416 5,572 4,253 13.6 8.2 10.1 8.0

Lancaster

287,269 284,115 280,200 282,351 32,052 15,567 22,608 15,235 11.2 5.5 8.1 5.4

Lebanon

73,057 71,230 71,079 71,048 8,449 4,325 6,187 4,298 11.6 6.1 8.7 6.0

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,174,157 3,094,068 3,085,730 3,074,435 429,559 213,252 328,517 206,895 13.5 6.9 10.6 6.7

Pittsburgh

1,211,675 1,188,107 1,171,219 1,176,910 167,026 79,006 121,830 77,064 13.8 6.6 10.4 6.5

Reading

216,070 206,673 209,144 204,803 29,575 14,525 22,069 14,379 13.7 7.0 10.6 7.0

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

278,646 270,654 269,239 268,868 40,381 21,305 30,043 21,144 14.5 7.9 11.2 7.9

State College

74,175 73,010 73,402 72,442 6,676 4,062 4,410 3,947 9.0 5.6 6.0 5.4

Williamsport

56,238 55,806 54,785 55,461 6,739 3,920 5,043 3,802 12.0 7.0 9.2 6.9

York-Hanover

236,662 235,007 229,856 233,325 27,404 13,940 20,125 13,665 11.6 5.9 8.8 5.9

Rhode Island

538,898 539,649 535,226 535,396 74,281 31,277 67,083 32,304 13.8 5.8 12.5 6.0

Providence-Warwick

666,133 673,698 665,420 669,957 87,412 39,515 79,062 40,195 13.1 5.9 11.9 6.0

South Carolina

2,454,331 2,439,076 2,414,177 2,417,092 193,284 104,586 130,920 102,212 7.9 4.3 5.4 4.2

Charleston-North Charleston

408,301 408,591 399,178 403,292 33,101 15,822 22,352 15,481 8.1 3.9 5.6 3.8

Columbia

417,233 410,502 409,012 406,911 28,507 16,586 19,827 16,266 6.8 4.0 4.8 4.0

Florence

99,512 99,472 99,239 98,937 7,786 4,557 5,578 4,484 7.8 4.6 5.6 4.5

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

444,595 443,959 438,956 441,932 31,890 17,033 21,001 16,560 7.2 3.8 4.8 3.7

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

93,641 97,759 91,804 94,835 6,053 3,464 3,997 3,408 6.5 3.5 4.4 3.6

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

212,665 212,414 205,014 208,104 20,396 10,979 14,064 10,823 9.6 5.2 6.9 5.2

Spartanburg

173,276 173,916 171,825 173,045 14,868 7,796 9,944 7,524 8.6 4.5 5.8 4.3

Sumter

44,318 44,520 43,603 43,731 3,997 2,178 2,808 2,135 9.0 4.9 6.4 4.9

South Dakota

461,807 479,266 459,134 475,721 23,651 12,686 21,131 13,572 5.1 2.6 4.6 2.9

Rapid City

76,908 79,456 76,685 78,842 4,299 2,048 3,806 2,266 5.6 2.6 5.0 2.9

Sioux Falls

156,293 165,046 153,941 162,286 7,264 3,581 6,381 3,915 4.6 2.2 4.1 2.4

Tennessee

3,184,398 3,354,367 3,371,004 3,316,531 298,721 156,612 262,028 141,194 9.4 4.7 7.8 4.3

Chattanooga

264,418 277,906 273,588 275,861 20,718 10,962 17,960 10,129 7.8 3.9 6.6 3.7

Clarksville

112,510 117,865 118,138 117,449 9,733 6,016 8,566 5,399 8.7 5.1 7.3 4.6

Cleveland

59,274 60,304 61,263 59,977 4,659 2,747 3,977 2,441 7.9 4.6 6.5 4.1

Jackson

62,364 65,530 66,047 64,955 5,535 3,095 4,980 2,874 8.9 4.7 7.5 4.4

Johnson City

86,497 90,802 91,716 89,798 6,848 3,906 5,978 3,678 7.9 4.3 6.5 4.1

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

131,840 135,658 136,771 134,125 10,884 6,044 9,242 5,371 8.3 4.5 6.8 4.0

Knoxville

411,414 439,460 434,147 431,071 30,251 16,877 25,916 15,226 7.4 3.8 6.0 3.5

Memphis

629,946 662,461 658,410 651,099 77,604 45,824 71,770 39,757 12.3 6.9 10.9 6.1

Morristown

50,807 53,410 53,157 52,184 4,221 2,393 3,478 2,166 8.3 4.5 6.5 4.2

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,037,299 1,098,277 1,097,607 1,087,208 95,425 41,182 82,040 37,990 9.2 3.7 7.5 3.5

Texas

14,010,729 14,191,587 14,090,773 14,192,497 1,349,002 850,567 973,671 759,139 9.6 6.0 6.9 5.3

Abilene

77,999 79,991 78,985 79,813 5,403 3,743 3,826 3,323 6.9 4.7 4.8 4.2

Amarillo

131,146 134,226 133,522 134,777 7,530 5,410 5,329 4,855 5.7 4.0 4.0 3.6

Austin-Round Rock

1,242,643 1,289,768 1,255,755 1,290,492 97,150 54,532 68,757 48,709 7.8 4.2 5.5 3.8

Beaumont-Port Arthur

171,884 173,477 170,847 173,080 23,647 17,127 17,220 15,246 13.8 9.9 10.1 8.8

Brownsville-Harlingen

170,587 171,012 171,497 169,515 21,353 15,082 15,369 13,393 12.5 8.8 9.0 7.9

College Station-Bryan

127,768 129,652 130,535 129,397 9,045 6,214 6,285 5,482 7.1 4.8 4.8 4.2

Corpus Christi

204,252 204,377 203,694 203,725 23,592 15,412 16,876 13,880 11.6 7.5 8.3 6.8

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,988,897 4,082,388 4,025,000 4,094,712 351,783 216,898 251,844 192,976 8.8 5.3 6.3 4.7

El Paso

367,313 366,436 369,297 366,324 36,660 23,646 26,303 21,167 10.0 6.5 7.1 5.8

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,419,877 3,440,550 3,411,341 3,433,838 379,678 233,654 277,140 209,340 11.1 6.8 8.1 6.1

Killeen-Temple

178,922 180,878 180,084 180,537 14,747 10,785 10,675 9,698 8.2 6.0 5.9 5.4

Laredo

116,719 116,446 116,853 116,450 12,421 7,736 9,095 6,741 10.6 6.6 7.8 5.8

Longview

95,890 96,732 96,620 97,413 9,434 6,354 6,998 5,670 9.8 6.6 7.2 5.8

Lubbock

162,570 164,853 164,901 164,975 11,951 8,160 8,301 7,053 7.4 4.9 5.0 4.3

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

362,393 365,173 360,352 366,439 51,565 36,259 38,101 32,527 14.2 9.9 10.6 8.9

Midland

97,817 99,767 98,285 99,740 11,368 5,930 8,361 5,264 11.6 5.9 8.5 5.3

Odessa

81,848 78,449 80,897 78,073 12,684 6,791 9,480 5,997 15.5 8.7 11.7 7.7

San Angelo

54,681 54,484 54,981 54,492 4,483 2,778 3,103 2,473 8.2 5.1 5.6 4.5

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,199,395 1,227,953 1,210,784 1,223,466 111,565 65,977 79,151 59,152 9.3 5.4 6.5 4.8

Sherman-Denison

64,613 66,485 65,501 66,200 4,419 3,082 3,217 2,809 6.8 4.6 4.9 4.2

Texarkana

64,084 63,867 63,855 63,073 5,406 3,757 4,081 3,241 8.4 5.9 6.4 5.1

Tyler

108,967 113,388 110,047 113,491 8,931 5,932 6,440 5,338 8.2 5.2 5.9 4.7

Victoria

44,345 43,858 44,450 43,817 4,943 2,922 3,329 2,631 11.1 6.7 7.5 6.0

Waco

127,443 131,369 130,113 131,623 9,708 6,736 6,860 6,036 7.6 5.1 5.3 4.6

Wichita Falls

64,594 65,238 64,886 65,204 5,253 3,502 3,737 3,062 8.1 5.4 5.8 4.7

Utah

1,648,720 1,672,081 1,646,330 1,674,828 91,049 44,211 78,638 42,593 5.5 2.6 4.8 2.5

Logan

70,387 72,877 70,704 73,171 2,275 1,329 2,145 1,495 3.2 1.8 3.0 2.0

Ogden-Clearfield

343,262 348,593 341,783 347,290 16,478 8,603 14,497 8,528 4.8 2.5 4.2 2.5

Provo-Orem

320,764 328,717 323,024 332,189 13,816 7,550 12,430 7,614 4.3 2.3 3.8 2.3

St. George

78,993 81,880 81,058 83,044 4,924 2,190 4,346 2,236 6.2 2.7 5.4 2.7

Salt Lake City

687,493 691,462 682,742 691,329 43,147 19,356 36,298 18,013 6.3 2.8 5.3 2.6

Vermont

330,100 324,858 325,514 322,573 21,934 10,276 16,427 9,543 6.6 3.2 5.0 3.0

Burlington-South Burlington

121,546 119,071 120,331 117,859 7,416 3,370 5,594 3,131 6.1 2.8 4.6 2.7

Virginia

4,363,071 4,315,705 4,401,474 4,265,719 354,094 174,890 312,141 161,621 8.1 4.1 7.1 3.8

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

86,812 87,062 89,740 88,399 5,930 3,122 5,505 2,951 6.8 3.6 6.1 3.3

Charlottesville

117,547 115,985 118,229 114,999 9,109 4,214 7,671 3,930 7.7 3.6 6.5 3.4

Harrisonburg

64,504 65,274 64,926 65,018 4,323 2,297 3,565 2,134 6.7 3.5 5.5 3.3

Lynchburg

120,881 119,786 122,493 117,090 9,093 4,996 8,027 4,651 7.5 4.2 6.6 4.0

Richmond

688,706 666,233 691,548 657,654 61,248 28,903 53,682 27,042 8.9 4.3 7.8 4.1

Roanoke

156,620 154,320 157,953 153,808 11,934 5,930 10,453 5,564 7.6 3.8 6.6 3.6

Staunton-Waynesboro

59,890 60,722 60,235 59,984 4,015 2,048 3,461 1,908 6.7 3.4 5.7 3.2

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

864,134 844,741 866,734 829,839 81,747 38,403 71,970 36,477 9.5 4.5 8.3 4.4

Winchester

74,965 75,866 75,284 75,627 4,440 2,312 3,835 2,100 5.9 3.0 5.1 2.8

Washington

3,931,051 3,971,158 3,886,399 3,959,766 419,461 196,909 335,071 197,106 10.7 5.0 8.6 5.0

Bellingham

114,130 115,597 111,079 113,977 14,108 5,621 10,814 5,892 12.4 4.9 9.7 5.2

Bremerton-Silverdale

128,235 126,130 126,397 125,546 12,677 5,256 9,971 5,579 9.9 4.2 7.9 4.4

Kennewick-Richland

149,069 153,384 145,539 151,143 16,845 7,041 12,628 7,413 11.3 4.6 8.7 4.9

Longview

48,653 48,155 48,270 48,411 5,832 2,537 4,601 2,711 12.0 5.3 9.5 5.6

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

63,234 63,170 61,803 63,268 7,894 3,164 5,981 3,297 12.5 5.0 9.7 5.2

Olympia-Tumwater

142,935 144,040 140,305 144,534 15,443 6,145 11,677 6,462 10.8 4.3 8.3 4.5

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,174,935 2,210,058 2,171,599 2,213,825 220,237 115,829 181,845 111,263 10.1 5.2 8.4 5.0

Spokane-Spokane Valley

278,323 287,514 272,207 283,562 32,234 12,394 24,712 13,100 11.6 4.3 9.1 4.6

Walla Walla

32,353 33,925 31,882 33,460 2,674 1,245 2,139 1,290 8.3 3.7 6.7 3.9

Wenatchee

72,063 74,116 67,399 68,820 6,643 2,739 5,270 2,980 9.2 3.7 7.8 4.3

Yakima

138,302 138,793 134,343 137,042 17,091 6,982 13,227 7,612 12.4 5.0 9.8 5.6

West Virginia

794,028 800,059 793,761 794,840 75,343 36,400 65,786 33,895 9.5 4.5 8.3 4.3

Beckley

47,327 48,457 47,379 47,667 4,821 2,350 4,301 2,161 10.2 4.8 9.1 4.5

Charleston

93,777 94,122 93,536 93,315 10,000 4,540 8,968 4,223 10.7 4.8 9.6 4.5

Huntington-Ashland

146,095 146,362 146,600 146,028 13,316 7,426 11,861 6,532 9.1 5.1 8.1 4.5

Morgantown

69,322 71,443 69,725 71,272 5,887 2,598 4,520 2,670 8.5 3.6 6.5 3.7

Parkersburg-Vienna

39,032 38,534 38,720 38,121 3,875 1,895 3,259 1,756 9.9 4.9 8.4 4.6

Wheeling

63,215 62,233 62,928 61,489 6,850 3,712 6,133 3,313 10.8 6.0 9.7 5.4

Wisconsin

3,090,324 3,165,804 3,079,474 3,130,288 224,423 129,295 179,297 125,946 7.3 4.1 5.8 4.0

Appleton

131,238 135,111 131,097 133,360 7,887 4,494 6,294 4,456 6.0 3.3 4.8 3.3

Eau Claire

91,073 94,884 91,817 95,104 6,153 3,309 4,905 3,291 6.8 3.5 5.3 3.5

Fond du Lac

56,771 59,032 56,047 58,291 3,514 2,044 2,577 2,029 6.2 3.5 4.6 3.5

Green Bay

173,382 177,536 172,652 176,468 11,835 6,404 9,323 6,345 6.8 3.6 5.4 3.6

Janesville-Beloit

86,467 88,907 85,597 87,351 7,239 4,401 5,447 3,956 8.4 5.0 6.4 4.5

La Crosse-Onalaska

74,932 76,872 74,487 76,107 4,491 2,326 3,595 2,367 6.0 3.0 4.8 3.1

Madison

386,635 398,205 385,169 395,064 22,650 12,399 18,137 12,255 5.9 3.1 4.7 3.1

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

820,398 839,462 818,592 832,861 72,193 42,277 58,713 40,802 8.8 5.0 7.2 4.9

Oshkosh-Neenah

92,058 95,699 91,881 94,360 5,722 3,363 4,454 3,357 6.2 3.5 4.8 3.6

Racine

98,665 100,654 98,079 99,613 8,131 5,245 6,690 5,126 8.2 5.2 6.8 5.1

Sheboygan

62,517 65,015 62,001 64,332 3,965 2,116 2,960 2,077 6.3 3.3 4.8 3.2

Wausau

72,649 75,123 72,205 74,303 4,120 2,465 3,158 2,418 5.7 3.3 4.4 3.3

Wyoming

301,260 296,818 299,955 294,925 20,340 13,098 17,661 10,969 6.8 4.4 5.9 3.7

Casper

41,181 40,359 40,891 39,817 4,096 2,342 3,683 2,003 9.9 5.8 9.0 5.0

Cheyenne

51,335 50,861 51,100 50,171 2,892 2,016 2,482 1,665 5.6 4.0 4.9 3.3

Puerto Rico

1,062,180 1,071,440 1,069,818 1,087,221 77,104 98,980 90,330 99,221 7.3 9.2 8.4 9.1

Aguadilla-Isabela

82,850 84,695 84,002 86,731 6,509 9,271 7,574 9,105 7.9 10.9 9.0 10.5

Arecibo

50,922 51,920 51,598 53,114 3,775 4,808 4,266 4,849 7.4 9.3 8.3 9.1

Guayama

19,208 19,936 19,550 19,987 1,299 2,089 1,491 2,025 6.8 10.5 7.6 10.1

Mayaguez

26,254 26,805 26,422 27,263 1,860 2,842 2,181 2,819 7.1 10.6 8.3 10.3

Ponce

87,305 90,633 88,013 92,177 6,477 10,278 7,724 10,420 7.4 11.3 8.8 11.3

San German

32,764 35,199 33,466 35,850 2,447 4,054 2,953 4,068 7.5 11.5 8.8 11.3

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

723,617 721,640 726,215 730,074 51,731 60,532 60,574 60,736 7.1 8.4 8.3 8.3

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
July August Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) July August July August
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

California

18,789,689 19,162,864 18,690,463 19,024,443 2,548,914 1,505,402 2,299,887 1,424,252 13.6 7.9 12.3 7.5

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,479,271 6,690,809 6,464,674 6,604,381 1,090,189 620,827 1,026,135 580,322 16.8 9.3 15.9 8.8

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,544,336 1,589,957 1,526,181 1,580,617 190,254 99,515 164,026 94,904 12.3 6.3 10.7 6.0

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

4,934,935 5,100,852 4,938,493 5,023,764 899,935 521,312 862,109 485,418 18.2 10.2 17.5 9.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,461,722 2,489,405 2,437,221 2,474,679 274,337 145,674 239,181 139,023 11.1 5.9 9.8 5.6

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,350,753 1,353,033 1,337,925 1,345,570 161,478 88,965 141,115 85,007 12.0 6.6 10.5 6.3

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

981,790 1,001,898 971,158 995,516 101,121 50,608 88,046 48,146 10.3 5.1 9.1 4.8

San Rafael

129,179 134,474 128,138 133,593 11,738 6,101 10,020 5,870 9.1 4.5 7.8 4.4

District of Columbia

407,168 419,413 406,441 410,599 38,812 27,612 36,135 26,045 9.5 6.6 8.9 6.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,415,701 3,416,981 3,431,156 3,365,715 287,934 174,624 267,439 165,599 8.4 5.1 7.8 4.9

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

686,696 690,267 685,286 682,166 57,616 37,970 54,987 37,219 8.4 5.5 8.0 5.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,729,005 2,726,714 2,745,870 2,683,549 230,318 136,654 212,452 128,380 8.4 5.0 7.7 4.8

Florida

10,113,079 10,646,695 10,003,284 10,627,415 1,205,307 545,882 803,812 526,445 11.9 5.1 8.0 5.0

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,017,794 3,182,989 3,006,079 3,169,259 415,692 179,892 271,363 177,584 13.8 5.7 9.0 5.6

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,034,280 1,059,149 1,007,873 1,054,310 140,820 54,473 96,088 51,894 13.6 5.1 9.5 4.9

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,266,534 1,366,295 1,296,605 1,358,384 192,170 88,702 118,303 90,370 15.2 6.5 9.1 6.7

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

716,980 757,545 701,601 756,565 82,702 36,717 56,972 35,320 11.5 4.8 8.1 4.7

Illinois

6,232,556 6,318,805 6,275,238 6,239,394 771,918 442,160 690,102 425,859 12.4 7.0 11.0 6.8

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,710,335 4,785,897 4,701,973 4,727,380 604,554 359,494 564,447 334,387 12.8 7.5 12.0 7.1

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,608,831 3,674,676 3,584,783 3,638,501 479,716 295,890 465,537 272,362 13.3 8.1 13.0 7.5

Elgin

312,939 314,464 320,796 307,802 38,035 17,612 29,770 18,686 12.2 5.6 9.3 6.1

Gary(3)

334,499 333,464 333,152 326,565 40,657 23,362 32,143 19,186 12.2 7.0 9.6 5.9

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

454,066 463,293 463,242 454,512 46,146 22,630 36,997 24,153 10.2 4.9 8.0 5.3

Massachusetts

3,610,552 3,751,308 3,664,525 3,752,473 364,930 212,560 334,996 203,481 10.1 5.7 9.1 5.4

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,684,597 2,778,976 2,721,459 2,781,692 266,533 146,358 242,438 138,875 9.9 5.3 8.9 5.0

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,593,159 1,660,265 1,617,463 1,661,363 153,209 85,534 141,297 81,529 9.6 5.2 8.7 4.9

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

106,466 109,638 108,400 110,224 13,045 7,438 12,047 7,127 12.3 6.8 11.1 6.5

Framingham

153,004 159,631 155,024 159,619 13,001 7,201 11,691 6,894 8.5 4.5 7.5 4.3

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

115,356 118,090 116,374 117,921 11,110 5,536 9,587 5,118 9.6 4.7 8.2 4.3

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

98,584 99,392 99,633 99,591 14,092 7,905 12,925 7,477 14.3 8.0 13.0 7.5

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

187,825 194,786 190,317 195,898 17,887 10,466 16,110 9,994 9.5 5.4 8.5 5.1

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

82,827 85,217 84,273 84,808 10,651 5,797 9,918 5,522 12.9 6.8 11.8 6.5

Nashua(2)

175,959 174,708 175,674 175,007 15,154 6,227 12,071 5,363 8.6 3.6 6.9 3.1

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

88,197 90,667 89,801 90,582 9,405 5,125 8,589 4,917 10.7 5.7 9.6 5.4

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

83,220 86,582 84,500 86,679 8,979 5,129 8,203 4,934 10.8 5.9 9.7 5.7

Michigan

4,863,144 4,805,709 4,883,260 4,777,722 464,045 241,641 404,670 209,550 9.5 5.0 8.3 4.4

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,120,611 2,077,798 2,137,372 2,074,033 245,317 93,268 226,810 76,940 11.6 4.5 10.6 3.7

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

805,556 779,570 812,499 777,820 113,604 45,788 108,225 37,671 14.1 5.9 13.3 4.8

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,315,055 1,298,228 1,324,873 1,296,212 131,713 47,480 118,585 39,269 10.0 3.7 9.0 3.0

New York

9,462,424 9,382,033 9,477,391 9,339,555 1,400,143 689,652 1,096,540 667,488 14.8 7.4 11.6 7.1

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,945,132 9,806,528 9,915,186 9,727,332 1,528,846 784,618 1,210,352 736,652 15.4 8.0 12.2 7.6

Dutchess County-Putnam County

198,067 190,186 195,205 189,185 22,379 9,510 16,689 9,262 11.3 5.0 8.5 4.9

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,529,586 1,463,430 1,507,730 1,450,729 192,967 75,454 145,527 73,994 12.6 5.2 9.7 5.1

Newark(3)

1,272,988 1,226,779 1,243,256 1,207,884 170,527 92,570 134,847 81,564 13.4 7.5 10.8 6.8

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

6,944,491 6,926,133 6,968,995 6,879,534 1,142,973 607,084 913,289 571,832 16.5 8.8 13.1 8.3

Pennsylvania

6,516,443 6,363,999 6,307,843 6,325,232 879,551 428,251 646,398 423,494 13.5 6.7 10.2 6.7

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,174,157 3,094,068 3,085,730 3,074,435 429,559 213,252 328,517 206,895 13.5 6.9 10.6 6.7

Camden(3)

659,368 640,502 644,075 634,371 83,290 47,849 64,934 42,271 12.6 7.5 10.1 6.7

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,084,031 1,077,523 1,053,730 1,070,796 123,616 57,474 89,633 56,989 11.4 5.3 8.5 5.3

Philadelphia

1,048,591 992,777 1,006,988 988,227 188,518 85,830 143,466 86,279 18.0 8.6 14.2 8.7

Wilmington(3)

382,167 383,266 380,937 381,041 34,135 22,099 30,484 21,356 8.9 5.8 8.0 5.6

Texas

14,010,729 14,191,587 14,090,773 14,192,497 1,349,002 850,567 973,671 759,139 9.6 6.0 6.9 5.3

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,988,897 4,082,388 4,025,000 4,094,712 351,783 216,898 251,844 192,976 8.8 5.3 6.3 4.7

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,688,720 2,769,886 2,718,385 2,776,107 235,599 144,704 168,602 128,827 8.8 5.2 6.2 4.6

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,300,177 1,312,502 1,306,615 1,318,605 116,184 72,194 83,242 64,149 8.9 5.5 6.4 4.9

Washington

3,931,051 3,971,158 3,886,399 3,959,766 419,461 196,909 335,071 197,106 10.7 5.0 8.6 5.0

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,174,935 2,210,058 2,171,599 2,213,825 220,237 115,829 181,845 111,263 10.1 5.2 8.4 5.0

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,724,697 1,767,151 1,732,288 1,769,257 163,069 93,414 137,176 87,870 9.5 5.3 7.9 5.0

Tacoma-Lakewood

450,238 442,907 439,311 444,568 57,168 22,415 44,669 23,393 12.7 5.1 10.2 5.3

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area July August Change from
August 2020 to August 2021(p)
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) Number Percent

Alabama

1,950.8 2,022.6 1,969.9 2,024.1 54.2 2.8

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

44.9 45.7 45.4 46.4 1.0 2.2

Auburn-Opelika

62.2 64.9 64.0 66.3 2.3 3.6

Birmingham-Hoover

510.5 538.1 515.2 536.6 21.4 4.2

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

78.3 85.1 78.0 83.4 5.4 6.9

Decatur

55.7 57.3 56.0 57.2 1.2 2.1

Dothan

57.2 59.8 57.4 59.7 2.3 4.0

Florence-Muscle Shoals

53.7 54.2 54.8 55.0 0.2 0.4

Gadsden

32.8 33.7 33.3 33.4 0.1 0.3

Huntsville

237.1 249.0 240.0 248.1 8.1 3.4

Mobile

173.4 179.5 175.8 179.0 3.2 1.8

Montgomery

166.1 170.2 167.7 169.9 2.2 1.3

Tuscaloosa

101.3 104.3 103.1 105.5 2.4 2.3


Alaska

307.6 326.7 308.9 322.0 13.1