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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, February 1, 2023 		    USDL-23-0149

Technical information: 
 Employment:   (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment: (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact: (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


	      METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- DECEMBER 2022      	


Unemployment rates were lower in December than a year earlier in 244 of the 389 
metropolitan areas, higher in 115 areas, and unchanged in 30 areas, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 172 areas had jobless rates of less
than 3.0 percent and 2 areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll
employment increased over the year in 81 metropolitan areas and was essentially 
unchanged in 308 areas. The national unemployment rate in December was 3.3 percent,
not seasonally adjusted, down from 3.7 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor 
force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those 
used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by
where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that measures
nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on 
payrolls defined by where the establishments are located. For more information about 
the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see the 
Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, Madison, WI, had the lowest unemployment rate, 1.6 percent, closely 
followed by Columbia, MO, 1.7 percent. El Centro, CA, had the highest rate, 14.8 
percent. The next highest rate was in Yuma, AZ, 13.7 percent. A total of 227 areas had
December jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 3.3 percent, 148 areas had rates above it,
and 14 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decreases in December occurred in Farmington,
NM (-2.1 percentage points), and Odessa, TX (-2.0 points). An additional 43 areas had
rate declines between 1.0 percentage point and 1.9 points. Yuma, AZ, had the largest 
over-the-year rate increase in December (+3.4 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Miami-
Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL, had the lowest jobless rate in December, 1.9 
percent. Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the highest rate, 5.4 percent. Forty 
large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, nine had increases, and two
had no change. The largest rate declines occurred in Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD, 
and Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA (-1.4 percentage points each). The largest
jobless rate increase was in Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN (+0.8 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In 
December, Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL, had the lowest division unemployment rate, 
1.4 percent. Tacoma-Lakewood, WA, had the highest rate among the divisions, 5.3
percent. (See table 2.)

In December, 34 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases
and 4 had increases. The largest rate decline occurred in Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall,
FL (-1.6 percentage points). The largest over-the-year jobless rate increase occurred 
in Gary, IN (+1.5 percentage points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 81 metropolitan
areas and was essentially unchanged in 308 areas. The largest over-the-year employment
increases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+344,400), Dallas-Fort
Worth-Arlington, TX (+234,700), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+215,700). 
The largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Charleston-North
Charleston, SC, and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+5.9 percent each), followed by
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ (+5.8 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 40 metropolitan areas with a 2010
Census population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in
11 areas. The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large
metropolitan areas occurred in Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+5.9 percent), 
Jacksonville, FL (+5.7 percent), and Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (+5.6
percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 22 metropolitan
divisions and was essentially unchanged in 16 divisions. The largest over-the-year 
increases in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey
City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+289,500), Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+182,100), and Los 
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+145,400). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Dallas-
Plano-Irving, TX (+6.4 percent), San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, 
CA (+5.3 percent), and Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford, MA-NH (+5.2 percent).

_____________
The Regional and State Unemployment 2022 Annual Averages news release is scheduled
to be released on Wednesday, March 1, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The State Employment
and Unemployment news release for January 2023 is scheduled to be released on 
Monday, March 13, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment and 
Unemployment news release for January 2023 is scheduled to be released on Friday,
March 17, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|	      Upcoming Changes to Local Area Unemployment Statistics Data       	|
|											|
| Effective with the release of Regional and State Unemployment 2022 Annual Averages on |
| March 1, 2023, the civilian labor force and unemployment data for the states, the 	|
| District of Columbia, and the modeled substate areas presented in tables 1 and 2 of 	|
| this news release will be revised from 2018 to 2022 to incorporate updated inputs, 	|
| new population controls, reestimation of models, and adjustment to new census 	|
| division and national control totals. The population controls will continue to 	|
| reflect a "blended base," with elements from three independent data sources for April |
| 1, 2020. Subsequently, civilian labor force and unemployment estimates for all other  |
| metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions will be revised to reflect updated 	|
| inputs and adjustment to the new statewide estimates. These revised estimates will be |
| published in conjunction with the March 2023 State Employment and Unemployment news 	|
| release on April 21, 2023.								|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		 Upcoming Changes to Current Employment Statistics Data 		|
|											|
| Effective with the release of January 2023 estimates on March 13, 2023, all nonfarm 	|
| payroll employment estimates for states and areas presented in tables 3 and 4 of this |
| news release will be adjusted to 2022 benchmark levels. Not seasonally adjusted data  |
| beginning with April 2021 and seasonally adjusted data beginning with January 2018 	|
| are subject to revision. Some not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted series 	|
| may be revised as far back as 1990.							|
|											|
| In addition, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) State and Area division will 	|
| revise the basis for industry classification from the 2017 North American Industry 	|
| Classification System (NAICS) to NAICS 2022. The conversion to NAICS 2022 will result |
| in revisions reflecting content and coding changes within the mining and logging, 	|
| manufacturing, wholesale trade, retail trade, information, financial activities, and  |
| other services sectors. The majority of the changes associated with the NAICS 2022	|
| update impact levels of detail not published by CES State and Area. Details of 	|
| updated titles and new, discontinued, and collapsed industries resulting from the 	|
| NAICS 2022 update, as well as changes due to the annual benchmarking process, will 	|
| be available on March 13, 2023. For more information on NAICS 2022, visit 		|
| www.census.gov/naics.									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|			     Household Data for Puerto Rico     			|
|											|
| Due to Hurricane Fiona, Puerto Rico was not able to conduct normal data collection 	|
| for its household survey for September 2022. Data collection started again in 	|
| October, and BLS resumed publication of the not seasonally adjusted data effective 	|
| with the release of October estimates. Publication of seasonally adjusted data for 	|
| Puerto Rico will resume at a later time, pending further research. 			|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
  
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible, these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria. For some employment series, the
estimates are produced with a model that uses direct sample estimates (described
above) combined with other regressors to compensate for smaller sample sizes. 

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program for states and
metropolitan areas are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to 
access telecommunications relay services.




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
November December Number Percent of labor force
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) November December November December
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) 2021 2022 2021 2022(p)

Alabama

2,256,694 2,287,325 2,249,968 2,284,705 58,866 54,460 59,223 51,645 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.3

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,845 46,344 45,712 46,442 1,442 1,222 1,460 1,116 3.1 2.6 3.2 2.4

Auburn-Opelika

77,602 78,593 77,399 78,506 1,727 1,711 1,671 1,557 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.0

Birmingham-Hoover

560,606 565,712 558,119 568,738 13,514 12,155 13,534 11,229 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.0

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

99,271 99,455 99,220 99,370 2,254 2,195 2,176 2,097 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.1

Decatur

73,657 74,723 73,696 74,770 1,511 1,457 1,487 1,316 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.8

Dothan

65,118 65,885 65,255 65,824 1,603 1,548 1,580 1,476 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.2

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,185 66,444 65,437 66,461 1,745 1,661 1,795 1,622 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.4

Gadsden

39,164 39,344 39,088 39,204 1,220 1,053 1,218 973 3.1 2.7 3.1 2.5

Huntsville

239,841 243,791 239,285 244,014 4,946 4,772 4,742 4,418 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.8

Mobile

192,003 191,010 191,694 190,953 6,568 5,717 6,909 5,684 3.4 3.0 3.6 3.0

Montgomery

174,090 176,534 174,277 176,075 5,354 4,687 5,656 4,471 3.1 2.7 3.2 2.5

Tuscaloosa

115,439 116,540 114,876 116,118 3,197 2,823 3,220 2,539 2.8 2.4 2.8 2.2

Alaska

359,883 356,997 358,926 357,502 19,216 15,243 18,586 14,969 5.3 4.3 5.2 4.2

Anchorage

205,570 206,031 205,827 206,845 9,906 7,454 9,522 7,276 4.8 3.6 4.6 3.5

Fairbanks

46,547 46,368 46,592 46,672 2,087 1,762 1,988 1,697 4.5 3.8 4.3 3.6

Arizona

3,549,254 3,638,190 3,536,972 3,642,051 113,525 130,713 104,124 117,092 3.2 3.6 2.9 3.2

Flagstaff

74,128 76,824 73,348 76,606 2,924 3,192 2,843 2,930 3.9 4.2 3.9 3.8

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

87,955 89,195 87,343 89,448 3,444 3,968 3,166 3,499 3.9 4.4 3.6 3.9

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,525,302 2,584,944 2,518,007 2,590,356 70,699 76,415 64,781 70,053 2.8 3.0 2.6 2.7

Prescott

106,091 109,317 105,633 109,004 2,786 3,171 2,524 2,959 2.6 2.9 2.4 2.7

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,242 49,680 48,973 49,874 1,652 1,943 1,514 1,787 3.4 3.9 3.1 3.6

Tucson

483,147 488,679 482,383 492,280 15,303 16,544 14,053 15,056 3.2 3.4 2.9 3.1

Yuma

97,216 109,722 96,004 105,123 10,992 18,301 9,911 14,380 11.3 16.7 10.3 13.7

Arkansas

1,334,229 1,346,605 1,330,940 1,344,018 34,193 40,735 35,898 39,470 2.6 3.0 2.7 2.9

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

290,790 296,946 290,164 294,714 5,168 6,337 5,428 6,034 1.8 2.1 1.9 2.0

Fort Smith

116,178 117,353 115,747 117,021 2,959 3,483 2,926 3,202 2.5 3.0 2.5 2.7

Hot Springs

39,896 40,449 39,935 40,743 1,271 1,451 1,323 1,442 3.2 3.6 3.3 3.5

Jonesboro

65,788 66,319 65,736 66,598 1,319 1,691 1,407 1,597 2.0 2.5 2.1 2.4

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

350,634 353,381 350,674 353,640 9,282 10,178 9,552 9,797 2.6 2.9 2.7 2.8

Pine Bluff

32,460 32,495 32,556 32,759 1,398 1,529 1,472 1,517 4.3 4.7 4.5 4.6

California

19,129,013 19,221,458 19,041,028 19,220,972 988,408 777,043 913,303 716,249 5.2 4.0 4.8 3.7

Bakersfield

387,242 391,538 378,851 388,872 28,700 26,559 28,473 25,861 7.4 6.8 7.5 6.7

Chico

92,737 93,092 91,982 92,616 4,567 4,057 4,393 3,747 4.9 4.4 4.8 4.0

El Centro

69,827 71,445 69,505 70,917 10,542 11,913 9,718 10,469 15.1 16.7 14.0 14.8

Fresno

444,030 449,440 443,813 450,426 31,513 29,850 30,725 28,122 7.1 6.6 6.9 6.2

Hanford-Corcoran

55,676 56,271 56,037 56,525 4,099 3,930 4,175 3,849 7.4 7.0 7.5 6.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,599,627 6,546,857 6,554,504 6,532,533 374,738 268,983 336,937 256,187 5.7 4.1 5.1 3.9

Madera

61,284 62,321 62,076 63,578 4,144 3,939 4,105 3,803 6.8 6.3 6.6 6.0

Merced

115,369 116,579 114,452 115,421 8,857 8,474 9,242 8,565 7.7 7.3 8.1 7.4

Modesto

240,177 238,168 237,626 236,180 15,029 13,342 14,393 12,458 6.3 5.6 6.1 5.3

Napa

67,640 67,552 67,092 67,404 2,857 2,160 2,722 1,989 4.2 3.2 4.1 3.0

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

406,379 412,137 405,313 412,678 18,359 15,248 16,964 13,375 4.5 3.7 4.2 3.2

Redding

73,200 73,867 72,624 73,387 3,695 3,234 3,499 2,981 5.0 4.4 4.8 4.1

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,156,212 2,194,177 2,154,984 2,200,196 115,582 92,098 106,683 79,578 5.4 4.2 5.0 3.6

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,106,356 1,113,951 1,102,380 1,115,511 51,617 41,262 47,378 36,611 4.7 3.7 4.3 3.3

Salinas

211,826 210,333 201,169 200,340 12,076 11,749 14,776 13,860 5.7 5.6 7.3 6.9

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,575,096 1,581,097 1,570,184 1,588,968 71,017 52,906 64,259 45,587 4.5 3.3 4.1 2.9

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,499,693 2,536,239 2,504,292 2,550,566 95,376 71,242 86,115 62,014 3.8 2.8 3.4 2.4

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,062,242 1,088,513 1,067,389 1,093,480 34,236 26,583 31,026 23,228 3.2 2.4 2.9 2.1

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

139,177 136,823 134,986 136,057 4,819 3,775 4,402 3,296 3.5 2.8 3.3 2.4

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

134,151 134,763 131,992 133,454 6,567 6,003 6,898 6,040 4.9 4.5 5.2 4.5

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

221,252 224,909 216,755 222,256 8,599 7,204 8,410 6,781 3.9 3.2 3.9 3.1

Santa Rosa

244,301 247,475 243,938 248,408 9,212 7,169 8,413 6,307 3.8 2.9 3.4 2.5

Stockton-Lodi

334,165 337,254 334,808 337,730 21,800 18,772 20,904 17,509 6.5 5.6 6.2 5.2

Vallejo-Fairfield

200,848 200,011 200,121 200,722 10,999 8,574 10,295 7,663 5.5 4.3 5.1 3.8

Visalia-Porterville

203,453 205,531 200,861 203,906 16,592 17,596 16,358 16,725 8.2 8.6 8.1 8.2

Yuba City

76,219 75,850 75,795 75,557 5,051 4,834 5,037 4,751 6.6 6.4 6.6 6.3

Colorado

3,184,714 3,257,021 3,184,396 3,229,977 125,142 107,695 114,622 89,526 3.9 3.3 3.6 2.8

Boulder

199,137 206,170 198,590 201,887 6,072 5,443 5,517 4,429 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.2

Colorado Springs

365,880 375,298 364,630 367,853 15,109 13,371 13,811 10,964 4.1 3.6 3.8 3.0

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,702,484 1,756,069 1,691,446 1,735,541 68,095 57,411 62,431 47,901 4.0 3.3 3.7 2.8

Fort Collins

209,056 214,298 208,863 212,087 6,918 6,053 6,259 5,030 3.3 2.8 3.0 2.4

Grand Junction

78,215 79,018 77,746 78,036 3,206 2,836 3,048 2,455 4.1 3.6 3.9 3.1

Greeley

166,758 169,712 167,574 168,716 6,911 5,927 6,346 5,076 4.1 3.5 3.8 3.0

Pueblo

78,042 79,694 77,843 78,452 4,719 4,055 4,462 3,353 6.0 5.1 5.7 4.3

Connecticut

1,872,194 1,896,539 1,855,780 1,882,348 81,514 66,274 75,286 58,909 4.4 3.5 4.1 3.1

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

454,971 460,493 451,403 458,388 20,180 16,809 18,470 14,861 4.4 3.7 4.1 3.2

Danbury

103,926 105,732 102,945 104,937 3,800 3,124 3,434 2,801 3.7 3.0 3.3 2.7

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

615,127 621,663 610,169 617,095 26,689 21,466 24,794 19,063 4.3 3.5 4.1 3.1

New Haven

331,352 337,134 327,755 334,058 13,594 11,057 12,411 9,658 4.1 3.3 3.8 2.9

Norwich-New London-Westerly

135,076 136,590 133,314 134,221 6,524 5,039 6,019 4,285 4.8 3.7 4.5 3.2

Waterbury

109,239 109,936 108,664 109,553 5,844 4,763 5,562 4,401 5.3 4.3 5.1 4.0

Delaware

497,828 495,541 499,290 494,354 20,186 20,234 20,385 19,877 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0

Dover

81,330 80,884 81,691 80,565 3,708 3,766 3,738 3,695 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.6

Salisbury(1)

193,175 192,262 193,655 192,515 9,375 9,023 9,911 9,095 4.9 4.7 5.1 4.7

District of Columbia

387,907 370,433 383,122 370,762 22,142 16,525 19,706 16,843 5.7 4.5 5.1 4.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,375,610 3,352,757 3,360,187 3,364,619 132,971 104,813 122,133 95,408 3.9 3.1 3.6 2.8

Florida

10,443,334 10,770,171 10,452,212 10,775,173 339,321 276,246 301,198 236,770 3.2 2.6 2.9 2.2

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

362,561 375,652 362,039 377,849 11,119 13,443 9,800 10,941 3.1 3.6 2.7 2.9

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

132,267 136,451 131,834 136,001 3,318 3,098 2,993 2,630 2.5 2.3 2.3 1.9

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

306,307 317,352 306,607 316,748 10,556 9,382 9,400 8,071 3.4 3.0 3.1 2.5

Gainesville

148,204 151,664 146,859 151,358 3,949 3,918 3,597 3,087 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.0

Homosassa Springs

47,019 47,144 46,971 47,332 2,024 1,897 1,838 1,648 4.3 4.0 3.9 3.5

Jacksonville

807,412 842,747 806,862 847,564 23,808 21,118 21,199 18,014 2.9 2.5 2.6 2.1

Lakeland-Winter Haven

333,449 342,135 334,394 339,911 13,064 10,978 11,489 9,300 3.9 3.2 3.4 2.7

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,104,480 3,165,450 3,106,486 3,178,898 102,678 66,978 91,401 59,312 3.3 2.1 2.9 1.9

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

183,987 188,970 185,431 189,173 4,851 5,041 4,257 4,101 2.6 2.7 2.3 2.2

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

381,043 393,204 381,270 390,770 10,843 10,161 9,611 8,636 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.2

Ocala

142,009 145,145 142,308 144,671 5,260 4,671 4,666 3,996 3.7 3.2 3.3 2.8

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,365,194 1,414,348 1,366,646 1,407,116 49,339 38,615 43,483 32,717 3.6 2.7 3.2 2.3

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

291,698 301,736 292,153 302,325 8,627 7,753 7,659 6,682 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.2

Panama City

90,610 94,568 90,585 94,308 2,578 2,279 2,427 2,024 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.1

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

233,147 239,375 232,348 237,685 7,142 6,225 6,420 5,523 3.1 2.6 2.8 2.3

Port St. Lucie

225,538 233,327 225,742 232,873 7,454 6,538 6,609 5,623 3.3 2.8 2.9 2.4

Punta Gorda

74,099 77,458 74,545 77,567 2,477 2,768 2,206 2,340 3.3 3.6 3.0 3.0

Sebastian-Vero Beach

65,563 67,315 65,815 67,311 2,308 2,010 2,039 1,746 3.5 3.0 3.1 2.6

Sebring

34,736 34,225 34,594 34,426 1,542 1,453 1,358 1,246 4.4 4.2 3.9 3.6

Tallahassee

197,773 204,873 195,731 204,666 6,080 5,569 5,456 4,555 3.1 2.7 2.8 2.2

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,591,139 1,662,945 1,596,468 1,661,495 49,245 42,607 43,485 36,390 3.1 2.6 2.7 2.2

The Villages

35,234 36,230 35,150 36,140 1,441 1,359 1,272 1,221 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.4

Georgia

5,227,324 5,256,585 5,235,548 5,258,315 151,516 147,520 150,215 141,838 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.7

Albany

65,715 65,403 66,197 64,412 2,492 2,377 2,423 2,253 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.5

Athens-Clarke County

101,755 104,715 102,226 103,727 2,518 2,630 2,648 2,533 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.4

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,169,178 3,208,706 3,175,581 3,216,104 91,366 86,468 89,847 82,674 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.6

Augusta-Richmond County

265,125 262,027 264,804 262,770 8,303 8,510 8,352 8,364 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2

Brunswick

52,503 52,753 52,663 52,554 1,487 1,471 1,494 1,389 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.6

Columbus

122,101 121,666 122,746 121,842 4,174 4,225 4,062 3,973 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.3

Dalton

58,795 57,976 59,152 58,247 1,701 2,078 1,750 2,236 2.9 3.6 3.0 3.8

Gainesville

106,204 105,605 106,540 106,065 2,191 2,291 2,289 2,260 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1

Hinesville

34,785 34,347 34,924 34,291 1,014 1,017 1,023 948 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.8

Macon-Bibb County

103,990 102,884 104,187 103,017 3,355 3,233 3,283 3,074 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.0

Rome

43,889 43,918 44,001 44,253 1,171 1,225 1,199 1,206 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7

Savannah

198,932 199,726 199,752 198,853 5,771 5,212 5,687 4,920 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.5

Valdosta

64,279 62,878 64,011 62,485 1,855 1,893 1,868 1,778 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.8

Warner Robins

88,128 86,609 87,874 86,456 2,448 2,527 2,420 2,396 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8

Hawaii

677,620 673,742 678,211 675,860 31,538 26,416 29,515 24,031 4.7 3.9 4.4 3.6

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

88,259 86,928 88,094 87,575 4,994 3,665 4,628 3,316 5.7 4.2 5.3 3.8

Urban Honolulu

457,348 455,429 459,370 457,096 20,139 17,301 18,903 15,689 4.4 3.8 4.1 3.4

Idaho

923,828 965,425 922,062 958,570 25,693 25,261 24,225 22,548 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.4

Boise City

398,087 414,824 400,832 416,686 10,893 10,332 9,971 8,867 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.1

Coeur d'Alene

83,275 86,541 82,918 86,111 2,841 2,863 2,775 2,772 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2

Idaho Falls

77,778 81,416 77,362 81,040 1,659 1,780 1,629 1,635 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.0

Lewiston

31,869 32,456 31,782 32,316 826 931 854 924 2.6 2.9 2.7 2.9

Pocatello

43,849 45,812 43,744 45,160 1,175 1,174 1,093 989 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.2

Twin Falls

54,957 57,641 54,724 57,286 1,514 1,444 1,425 1,364 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.4

Illinois

6,386,585 6,416,518 6,371,891 6,382,192 275,705 282,241 270,793 267,397 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.2

Bloomington

95,296 95,994 93,346 94,639 3,092 3,242 3,141 2,907 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.1

Carbondale-Marion

59,941 58,764 59,012 58,412 2,425 2,389 2,402 2,135 4.0 4.1 4.1 3.7

Champaign-Urbana

127,524 125,439 124,456 124,187 4,285 4,457 4,267 3,989 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.2

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,862,288 4,912,746 4,872,792 4,892,205 208,265 216,385 199,410 206,914 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.2

Danville

31,635 31,371 31,098 31,218 1,609 1,631 1,550 1,509 5.1 5.2 5.0 4.8

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

186,401 192,846 185,485 190,708 7,484 7,122 7,670 7,093 4.0 3.7 4.1 3.7

Decatur

46,707 46,171 46,032 45,645 2,812 2,619 2,785 2,329 6.0 5.7 6.1 5.1

Kankakee

52,314 52,379 51,748 52,251 2,656 2,800 2,763 2,652 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.1

Peoria

169,581 169,556 167,247 168,453 7,643 7,648 7,732 7,149 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.2

Rockford

159,328 159,143 158,340 158,987 10,343 9,281 10,670 8,573 6.5 5.8 6.7 5.4

Springfield

105,268 105,050 103,907 105,050 4,243 4,128 4,204 3,740 4.0 3.9 4.0 3.6

Indiana

3,314,714 3,397,027 3,289,362 3,398,327 72,337 96,888 49,475 83,107 2.2 2.9 1.5 2.4

Bloomington

80,753 84,103 79,382 81,604 1,393 2,183 899 1,636 1.7 2.6 1.1 2.0

Columbus

42,681 43,560 42,442 43,738 733 1,012 495 841 1.7 2.3 1.2 1.9

Elkhart-Goshen

116,228 118,895 115,874 119,011 1,716 3,339 1,140 2,998 1.5 2.8 1.0 2.5

Evansville

155,973 159,273 154,895 159,841 3,478 4,456 2,605 3,747 2.2 2.8 1.7 2.3

Fort Wayne

215,126 220,403 213,153 220,727 4,441 5,802 2,996 4,806 2.1 2.6 1.4 2.2

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,083,997 1,113,924 1,076,300 1,110,642 22,789 29,089 15,429 23,930 2.1 2.6 1.4 2.2

Kokomo

33,821 33,992 33,030 33,951 1,721 1,631 949 1,461 5.1 4.8 2.9 4.3

Lafayette-West Lafayette

108,823 111,808 108,224 111,882 2,152 2,937 1,423 2,219 2.0 2.6 1.3 2.0

Michigan City-La Porte

46,051 46,383 45,482 46,467 1,374 1,668 984 1,553 3.0 3.6 2.2 3.3

Muncie

51,848 54,270 51,484 54,251 1,265 1,647 855 1,328 2.4 3.0 1.7 2.4

South Bend-Mishawaka

153,016 159,258 151,621 158,837 4,001 5,363 3,088 4,901 2.6 3.4 2.0 3.1

Terre Haute

71,239 72,155 70,577 72,282 1,820 2,424 1,279 2,122 2.6 3.4 1.8 2.9

Iowa

1,680,211 1,709,010 1,680,583 1,702,556 53,327 48,427 59,381 51,751 3.2 2.8 3.5 3.0

Ames

58,873 60,811 58,970 59,701 1,299 1,304 1,405 1,137 2.2 2.1 2.4 1.9

Cedar Rapids

140,838 142,624 140,768 142,727 5,263 4,748 5,598 4,984 3.7 3.3 4.0 3.5

Des Moines-West Des Moines

363,098 368,525 362,322 367,598 11,436 10,139 12,130 10,339 3.1 2.8 3.3 2.8

Dubuque

54,639 55,378 55,177 55,603 1,772 1,545 2,069 1,774 3.2 2.8 3.7 3.2

Iowa City

97,158 100,516 96,554 99,710 2,661 2,408 2,858 2,332 2.7 2.4 3.0 2.3

Sioux City

91,710 93,183 92,149 93,179 2,627 2,503 3,017 2,726 2.9 2.7 3.3 2.9

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

88,053 89,401 87,951 89,452 2,922 2,548 3,266 2,805 3.3 2.9 3.7 3.1

Kansas

1,501,811 1,506,485 1,493,120 1,516,314 32,523 37,331 29,276 39,199 2.2 2.5 2.0 2.6

Lawrence

66,633 65,862 65,523 65,704 1,307 1,564 1,197 1,681 2.0 2.4 1.8 2.6

Manhattan

48,152 47,296 45,970 46,506 818 1,091 762 1,218 1.7 2.3 1.7 2.6

Topeka

118,606 120,007 117,612 120,519 2,477 3,032 2,323 3,222 2.1 2.5 2.0 2.7

Wichita

319,771 319,915 317,498 320,744 9,377 9,219 8,394 9,455 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.9

Kentucky

2,062,734 2,043,491 2,060,990 2,039,805 78,955 76,652 79,765 68,404 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.4

Bowling Green

84,157 83,961 84,099 83,633 2,743 3,088 2,805 2,645 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.2

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

64,798 64,214 65,010 64,394 2,700 2,582 2,694 2,291 4.2 4.0 4.1 3.6

Lexington-Fayette

275,446 273,257 275,622 274,006 8,214 8,556 8,384 7,184 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.6

Louisville/Jefferson County

673,880 680,771 672,926 678,057 24,768 21,067 22,337 18,131 3.7 3.1 3.3 2.7

Owensboro

54,432 53,929 54,722 54,052 1,803 2,181 1,885 1,987 3.3 4.0 3.4 3.7

Louisiana

2,071,852 2,103,985 2,061,712 2,091,398 83,122 61,710 73,584 70,011 4.0 2.9 3.6 3.3

Alexandria

64,030 65,607 63,922 65,003 1,904 1,625 1,668 1,886 3.0 2.5 2.6 2.9

Baton Rouge

420,969 425,819 420,239 423,863 14,767 11,152 13,003 12,564 3.5 2.6 3.1 3.0

Hammond

55,836 56,807 55,862 56,371 2,721 2,057 2,433 2,355 4.9 3.6 4.4 4.2

Houma-Thibodaux

83,088 84,652 82,637 83,865 3,495 2,348 3,010 2,659 4.2 2.8 3.6 3.2

Lafayette

212,691 217,332 211,602 215,089 7,587 5,787 6,708 6,622 3.6 2.7 3.2 3.1

Lake Charles

101,911 103,193 101,006 102,214 3,910 2,749 3,524 3,094 3.8 2.7 3.5 3.0

Monroe

78,524 79,068 78,277 78,245 2,816 2,290 2,512 2,584 3.6 2.9 3.2 3.3

New Orleans-Metairie

585,810 602,154 582,640 600,820 27,582 18,802 24,265 21,076 4.7 3.1 4.2 3.5

Shreveport-Bossier City

185,534 187,628 183,638 186,464 7,212 5,681 6,412 6,392 3.9 3.0 3.5 3.4

Maine

675,060 666,079 672,934 666,741 25,978 23,287 23,592 22,855 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.4

Bangor

70,304 69,435 69,619 69,590 2,529 2,233 2,320 2,159 3.6 3.2 3.3 3.1

Lewiston-Auburn

54,606 53,545 54,537 53,984 2,192 1,915 1,928 1,866 4.0 3.6 3.5 3.5

Portland-South Portland

204,941 206,870 203,248 205,232 6,865 5,930 6,050 5,623 3.3 2.9 3.0 2.7

Maryland

3,203,506 3,171,678 3,199,841 3,194,131 159,874 111,813 149,245 102,193 5.0 3.5 4.7 3.2

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,499,667 1,492,656 1,501,247 1,502,740 70,749 51,750 67,083 46,989 4.7 3.5 4.5 3.1

California-Lexington Park

57,361 56,978 57,646 57,741 2,316 1,787 2,236 1,665 4.0 3.1 3.9 2.9

Cumberland

42,967 41,994 43,220 42,089 2,061 1,736 2,138 1,695 4.8 4.1 4.9 4.0

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

134,431 132,108 134,889 133,061 4,726 4,201 4,605 3,821 3.5 3.2 3.4 2.9

Massachusetts

3,770,869 3,716,814 3,763,429 3,712,433 159,898 107,741 155,428 119,667 4.2 2.9 4.1 3.2

Barnstable Town

120,051 117,731 119,832 115,717 6,018 4,322 6,228 5,249 5.0 3.7 5.2 4.5

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,800,552 2,788,174 2,795,481 2,788,246 108,377 73,890 102,801 80,002 3.9 2.7 3.7 2.9

Leominster-Gardner

79,835 78,465 79,939 78,764 3,897 2,684 3,978 3,101 4.9 3.4 5.0 3.9

New Bedford

85,104 82,503 84,888 82,369 4,956 3,679 5,080 4,116 5.8 4.5 6.0 5.0

Pittsfield

40,885 38,677 41,099 38,978 2,172 1,513 2,230 1,775 5.3 3.9 5.4 4.6

Springfield

377,390 370,026 375,491 367,530 18,222 12,658 18,011 13,729 4.8 3.4 4.8 3.7

Worcester

359,884 350,449 358,980 351,150 15,401 10,650 14,934 11,636 4.3 3.0 4.2 3.3

Michigan

4,798,984 4,848,178 4,787,712 4,844,991 190,863 169,173 199,169 186,123 4.0 3.5 4.2 3.8

Ann Arbor

193,039 199,140 192,598 196,315 5,406 6,120 5,598 5,898 2.8 3.1 2.9 3.0

Battle Creek

59,256 60,280 59,118 59,917 2,705 2,561 2,853 2,712 4.6 4.2 4.8 4.5

Bay City

47,861 48,833 47,845 48,734 2,000 2,170 2,281 2,481 4.2 4.4 4.8 5.1

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,135,252 2,106,174 2,134,360 2,118,919 90,378 62,013 89,737 69,913 4.2 2.9 4.2 3.3

Flint

173,853 177,367 173,854 176,881 9,332 9,147 9,686 9,534 5.4 5.2 5.6 5.4

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

566,623 587,958 563,869 586,790 17,035 17,599 18,056 18,187 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.1

Jackson

72,374 73,166 72,291 72,600 2,812 2,814 3,019 3,032 3.9 3.8 4.2 4.2

Kalamazoo-Portage

163,456 167,752 163,021 166,582 5,679 6,137 6,112 6,493 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.9

Lansing-East Lansing

236,212 248,195 234,375 245,627 7,902 8,463 8,353 8,734 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.6

Midland

38,122 38,898 38,165 38,616 1,261 1,490 1,395 1,590 3.3 3.8 3.7 4.1

Monroe

72,358 73,928 72,278 73,532 2,818 2,949 2,829 3,121 3.9 4.0 3.9 4.2

Muskegon

75,308 77,128 75,324 76,673 3,998 3,776 4,094 3,818 5.3 4.9 5.4 5.0

Niles-Benton Harbor

69,466 71,230 69,629 70,877 2,771 2,923 3,003 3,238 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.6

Saginaw

81,012 82,883 81,064 82,713 4,054 4,156 4,286 4,559 5.0 5.0 5.3 5.5

Minnesota

3,032,983 3,064,103 3,044,101 3,076,179 66,209 62,080 79,778 90,873 2.2 2.0 2.6 3.0

Duluth

139,266 139,703 139,630 138,971 3,809 3,847 4,490 5,042 2.7 2.8 3.2 3.6

Mankato-North Mankato

59,980 60,642 60,339 60,736 1,055 978 1,284 1,493 1.8 1.6 2.1 2.5

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

1,991,636 2,029,673 1,991,752 2,028,489 42,875 39,222 48,274 53,194 2.2 1.9 2.4 2.6

Rochester

125,175 126,776 126,103 127,371 2,275 2,084 2,758 3,128 1.8 1.6 2.2 2.5

St. Cloud

110,441 110,770 111,517 111,677 2,535 2,401 3,272 3,737 2.3 2.2 2.9 3.3

Mississippi

1,249,663 1,240,948 1,249,710 1,238,977 45,034 45,169 44,198 42,452 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

164,285 164,405 164,514 163,518 6,208 6,084 6,088 5,602 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.4

Hattiesburg

69,489 68,615 69,167 67,792 2,187 2,191 2,139 2,032 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.0

Jackson

259,457 255,082 259,386 254,735 8,475 8,454 8,287 7,667 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.0

Missouri

3,067,104 3,065,562 3,067,289 3,072,892 99,570 72,615 104,116 70,944 3.2 2.4 3.4 2.3

Cape Girardeau

48,027 47,560 48,142 47,740 1,402 1,104 1,432 1,049 2.9 2.3 3.0 2.2

Columbia

100,553 101,060 100,630 100,708 2,400 1,866 2,352 1,727 2.4 1.8 2.3 1.7

Jefferson City

73,678 73,824 74,077 74,144 1,837 1,448 1,887 1,399 2.5 2.0 2.5 1.9

Joplin

84,917 85,079 84,954 85,561 2,407 1,908 2,466 1,833 2.8 2.2 2.9 2.1

Kansas City

1,139,921 1,143,436 1,138,286 1,149,586 34,704 28,176 32,833 28,144 3.0 2.5 2.9 2.4

St. Joseph

61,510 60,970 61,675 61,394 1,659 1,301 1,697 1,248 2.7 2.1 2.8 2.0

St. Louis(2)

1,463,997 1,465,207 1,460,514 1,459,027 49,464 39,194 52,811 36,820 3.4 2.7 3.6 2.5

Springfield

240,388 240,130 240,277 240,345 6,242 4,926 6,398 4,650 2.6 2.1 2.7 1.9

Montana

555,830 565,835 552,309 566,515 14,202 12,383 14,290 13,479 2.6 2.2 2.6 2.4

Billings

91,941 93,649 91,356 93,827 2,086 1,753 2,124 1,935 2.3 1.9 2.3 2.1

Great Falls

38,391 38,880 38,163 38,984 923 916 917 919 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4

Missoula

65,858 67,084 65,872 67,545 1,683 1,402 1,746 1,638 2.6 2.1 2.7 2.4

Nebraska

1,057,965 1,062,929 1,053,545 1,061,478 18,057 22,816 18,552 24,423 1.7 2.1 1.8 2.3

Grand Island

45,025 44,555 44,909 44,711 797 958 863 1,088 1.8 2.2 1.9 2.4

Lincoln

189,918 192,106 188,166 191,439 3,068 4,015 3,023 4,065 1.6 2.1 1.6 2.1

Omaha-Council Bluffs

505,153 511,538 502,000 508,654 10,519 12,043 11,044 12,961 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.5

Nevada

1,493,684 1,551,731 1,484,272 1,558,931 69,199 79,791 64,089 76,926 4.6 5.1 4.3 4.9

Carson City

24,985 25,595 25,001 25,767 731 1,021 689 1,001 2.9 4.0 2.8 3.9

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,099,665 1,145,175 1,093,227 1,149,504 58,678 64,402 54,198 62,173 5.3 5.6 5.0 5.4

Reno

251,386 259,434 249,159 261,626 6,428 9,139 6,001 8,779 2.6 3.5 2.4 3.4

New Hampshire

755,514 769,710 755,049 775,940 19,303 19,389 17,920 19,142 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.5

Dover-Durham

84,744 85,305 84,176 86,386 1,979 2,021 1,823 1,960 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.3

Manchester

119,233 123,318 118,844 124,173 2,902 2,963 2,704 2,873 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3

Portsmouth

76,702 76,236 76,670 77,410 1,842 1,876 1,683 1,834 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.4

New Jersey

4,641,588 4,732,244 4,650,220 4,731,550 211,312 141,588 198,059 147,077 4.6 3.0 4.3 3.1

Atlantic City-Hammonton

123,443 127,939 124,181 128,025 8,166 5,252 8,000 5,776 6.6 4.1 6.4 4.5

Ocean City

42,918 43,857 42,429 44,119 3,258 2,779 3,498 3,448 7.6 6.3 8.2 7.8

Trenton

212,253 215,001 211,815 214,497 7,864 5,419 7,176 5,436 3.7 2.5 3.4 2.5

Vineland-Bridgeton

67,438 68,514 67,454 68,643 3,858 2,923 3,915 3,381 5.7 4.3 5.8 4.9

New Mexico

953,309 945,009 954,846 937,512 53,708 33,915 49,633 31,475 5.6 3.6 5.2 3.4

Albuquerque

446,635 438,175 445,726 434,352 23,245 14,344 21,330 13,278 5.2 3.3 4.8 3.1

Farmington

50,134 48,632 50,180 47,855 3,314 2,080 3,089 1,971 6.6 4.3 6.2 4.1

Las Cruces

99,060 99,556 99,600 99,107 5,571 3,966 5,171 3,708 5.6 4.0 5.2 3.7

Santa Fe

73,772 73,352 73,822 72,151 3,658 2,189 3,417 2,043 5.0 3.0 4.6 2.8

New York

9,347,999 9,453,068 9,322,127 9,436,995 454,916 354,358 420,494 362,977 4.9 3.7 4.5 3.8

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

445,124 452,715 442,846 450,115 12,981 11,042 11,516 11,357 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.5

Binghamton

102,108 105,510 101,857 105,180 3,581 3,032 3,289 3,290 3.5 2.9 3.2 3.1

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

526,620 537,186 523,582 537,869 20,331 16,577 18,179 17,402 3.9 3.1 3.5 3.2

Elmira

34,127 34,553 34,008 34,516 1,251 1,073 1,114 1,119 3.7 3.1 3.3 3.2

Glens Falls

57,050 57,352 57,040 57,377 1,940 1,635 1,803 1,828 3.4 2.9 3.2 3.2

Ithaca

48,602 49,383 48,471 49,095 1,236 1,160 1,063 1,165 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.4

Kingston

85,787 87,640 85,697 87,232 2,713 2,158 2,391 2,239 3.2 2.5 2.8 2.6

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,934,802 10,062,312 9,925,518 10,052,596 513,722 374,985 477,647 380,979 5.2 3.7 4.8 3.8

Rochester

515,161 519,288 513,142 517,798 17,376 14,447 15,544 15,007 3.4 2.8 3.0 2.9

Syracuse

302,068 309,413 302,308 307,461 10,228 8,669 9,278 9,211 3.4 2.8 3.1 3.0

Utica-Rome

125,738 127,570 125,318 126,965 4,547 3,849 4,138 4,146 3.6 3.0 3.3 3.3

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,668 43,803 43,228 43,720 1,573 1,524 1,516 1,712 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.9

North Carolina

5,008,793 5,116,575 4,993,364 5,089,679 186,830 192,849 160,670 163,346 3.7 3.8 3.2 3.2

Asheville

230,607 233,611 230,431 231,565 7,053 7,196 5,993 5,878 3.1 3.1 2.6 2.5

Burlington

81,685 82,927 81,214 82,464 3,010 3,105 2,578 2,626 3.7 3.7 3.2 3.2

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,373,276 1,417,600 1,377,149 1,414,791 49,661 49,152 44,226 43,330 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.1

Durham-Chapel Hill

314,080 321,014 311,304 319,367 9,380 10,176 7,950 8,431 3.0 3.2 2.6 2.6

Fayetteville

146,031 148,467 146,603 147,773 8,130 8,156 7,056 7,093 5.6 5.5 4.8 4.8

Goldsboro

50,746 50,931 50,545 50,754 2,012 2,061 1,723 1,710 4.0 4.0 3.4 3.4

Greensboro-High Point

360,889 366,131 360,317 364,357 15,260 15,179 13,203 13,053 4.2 4.1 3.7 3.6

Greenville

88,541 88,593 88,266 87,708 3,471 3,648 3,013 3,082 3.9 4.1 3.4 3.5

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

170,318 171,946 169,313 171,808 5,941 6,107 5,010 4,988 3.5 3.6 3.0 2.9

Jacksonville

65,721 66,673 65,646 66,437 2,586 2,969 2,201 2,484 3.9 4.5 3.4 3.7

New Bern

50,519 50,765 50,153 50,457 1,795 1,954 1,499 1,610 3.6 3.8 3.0 3.2

Raleigh

738,936 766,797 737,649 764,883 22,888 24,427 19,557 20,323 3.1 3.2 2.7 2.7

Rocky Mount

63,185 61,616 62,924 61,226 3,653 3,653 3,200 3,197 5.8 5.9 5.1 5.2

Wilmington

154,354 157,797 154,267 157,407 4,966 5,381 4,216 4,632 3.2 3.4 2.7 2.9

Winston-Salem

324,286 328,480 322,524 326,477 11,696 12,026 9,972 10,216 3.6 3.7 3.1 3.1

North Dakota

405,661 402,725 402,487 403,004 10,549 7,469 11,937 8,940 2.6 1.9 3.0 2.2

Bismarck

70,628 69,808 70,490 69,753 1,665 1,245 2,020 1,565 2.4 1.8 2.9 2.2

Fargo

144,483 143,334 143,613 142,810 2,703 2,204 3,115 2,764 1.9 1.5 2.2 1.9

Grand Forks

53,111 52,652 52,710 52,533 1,200 926 1,403 1,209 2.3 1.8 2.7 2.3

Ohio

5,753,180 5,707,509 5,731,474 5,722,975 213,184 187,433 206,497 203,480 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.6

Akron

349,211 342,883 348,419 345,635 13,007 10,984 12,725 13,361 3.7 3.2 3.7 3.9

Canton-Massillon

193,708 191,843 194,448 193,080 7,204 6,211 7,100 7,444 3.7 3.2 3.7 3.9

Cincinnati

1,125,821 1,113,439 1,123,242 1,116,215 36,606 32,897 34,367 34,107 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.1

Cleveland-Elyria

1,022,507 1,021,510 1,011,298 1,015,001 45,151 43,292 46,329 35,260 4.4 4.2 4.6 3.5

Columbus

1,127,024 1,111,860 1,121,138 1,118,600 35,565 30,372 33,049 34,354 3.2 2.7 2.9 3.1

Dayton

386,207 380,662 385,590 385,319 13,945 11,936 13,015 13,486 3.6 3.1 3.4 3.5

Lima

46,771 46,220 47,309 46,492 1,783 1,531 1,730 1,726 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.7

Mansfield

51,289 51,190 51,717 52,047 2,116 1,835 2,119 2,280 4.1 3.6 4.1 4.4

Springfield

62,297 61,619 62,169 62,150 2,262 1,926 2,152 2,287 3.6 3.1 3.5 3.7

Toledo

296,200 301,197 297,985 301,586 11,976 10,064 11,132 11,745 4.0 3.3 3.7 3.9

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,083 49,230 50,195 49,295 2,241 2,164 2,235 2,354 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.8

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

228,546 225,461 228,009 226,347 10,687 8,845 10,328 10,155 4.7 3.9 4.5 4.5

Oklahoma

1,860,799 1,893,141 1,847,217 1,882,716 44,914 56,380 39,714 49,449 2.4 3.0 2.1 2.6

Enid

26,674 26,749 26,560 26,669 586 746 510 662 2.2 2.8 1.9 2.5

Lawton

50,122 50,607 49,561 50,192 1,354 1,778 1,211 1,584 2.7 3.5 2.4 3.2

Oklahoma City

702,904 715,477 699,178 711,592 15,700 19,975 13,706 17,424 2.2 2.8 2.0 2.4

Tulsa

482,102 495,658 479,679 491,520 12,237 15,006 10,902 13,062 2.5 3.0 2.3 2.7

Oregon

2,170,411 2,185,247 2,162,903 2,176,198 79,012 93,558 77,422 98,007 3.6 4.3 3.6 4.5

Albany

61,088 61,268 61,000 61,012 2,467 2,964 2,407 3,061 4.0 4.8 3.9 5.0

Bend-Redmond

103,680 103,515 103,724 103,118 3,780 4,467 3,795 4,979 3.6 4.3 3.7 4.8

Corvallis

48,671 49,072 48,492 48,825 1,250 1,599 1,217 1,750 2.6 3.3 2.5 3.6

Eugene

184,001 184,519 182,517 183,357 7,104 8,857 6,888 8,984 3.9 4.8 3.8 4.9

Grants Pass

37,042 37,228 36,951 37,109 1,703 2,242 1,711 2,413 4.6 6.0 4.6 6.5

Medford

108,548 107,461 107,391 106,538 4,082 5,158 3,975 5,422 3.8 4.8 3.7 5.1

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,371,702 1,391,396 1,369,607 1,391,563 48,920 54,948 47,474 56,776 3.6 3.9 3.5 4.1

Salem

210,902 210,249 210,043 208,341 7,428 9,067 7,310 9,425 3.5 4.3 3.5 4.5

Pennsylvania

6,368,072 6,415,111 6,303,482 6,442,442 303,714 221,260 277,460 225,528 4.8 3.4 4.4 3.5

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

451,042 456,130 447,351 458,516 21,474 15,263 19,064 15,229 4.8 3.3 4.3 3.3

Altoona

58,586 59,190 58,229 59,737 2,581 1,947 2,481 2,118 4.4 3.3 4.3 3.5

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,252 42,133 41,736 42,088 1,733 1,449 1,688 1,506 4.1 3.4 4.0 3.6

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

76,469 76,930 76,233 77,426 2,765 2,122 2,571 2,195 3.6 2.8 3.4 2.8

East Stroudsburg

81,395 81,799 80,778 81,988 4,992 4,011 4,584 3,932 6.1 4.9 5.7 4.8

Erie

125,021 126,346 123,703 126,612 6,866 5,080 6,559 5,279 5.5 4.0 5.3 4.2

Gettysburg

54,516 55,131 54,041 55,608 1,682 1,245 1,577 1,293 3.1 2.3 2.9 2.3

Harrisburg-Carlisle

302,153 308,489 297,676 310,160 11,937 8,510 10,744 8,586 4.0 2.8 3.6 2.8

Johnstown

54,972 55,146 54,531 55,613 2,914 2,215 2,820 2,471 5.3 4.0 5.2 4.4

Lancaster

282,685 283,758 280,206 285,439 10,198 7,078 9,234 7,253 3.6 2.5 3.3 2.5

Lebanon

72,264 74,199 71,651 74,927 2,838 1,930 2,558 1,975 3.9 2.6 3.6 2.6

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,147,900 3,190,093 3,135,960 3,197,031 149,196 108,817 135,868 107,315 4.7 3.4 4.3 3.4

Pittsburgh

1,166,113 1,174,342 1,147,805 1,177,164 55,395 41,191 51,096 43,009 4.8 3.5 4.5 3.7

Reading

209,828 210,070 207,345 211,578 10,451 7,230 9,363 7,192 5.0 3.4 4.5 3.4

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

274,889 272,848 270,524 273,679 15,906 11,434 14,440 11,707 5.8 4.2 5.3 4.3

State College

77,355 77,978 76,815 78,451 2,478 1,978 2,456 2,183 3.2 2.5 3.2 2.8

Williamsport

54,391 54,412 53,907 54,425 2,793 2,010 2,681 2,174 5.1 3.7 5.0 4.0

York-Hanover

233,948 236,691 231,328 237,868 9,214 6,623 8,231 6,681 3.9 2.8 3.6 2.8

Rhode Island

574,747 574,176 570,621 567,047 23,046 19,666 19,635 13,112 4.0 3.4 3.4 2.3

Providence-Warwick

710,362 705,887 706,157 698,803 29,457 24,068 26,312 18,521 4.1 3.4 3.7 2.7

South Carolina

2,365,142 2,356,400 2,371,018 2,359,973 75,441 63,923 79,238 70,343 3.2 2.7 3.3 3.0

Charleston-North Charleston

398,954 409,812 400,171 408,735 11,153 9,177 11,642 10,166 2.8 2.2 2.9 2.5

Columbia

398,413 391,447 399,511 392,721 11,769 10,222 12,329 11,019 3.0 2.6 3.1 2.8

Florence

95,457 91,980 95,645 93,278 3,171 2,644 3,305 2,824 3.3 2.9 3.5 3.0

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

435,948 437,762 434,455 436,717 12,184 10,526 12,634 11,433 2.8 2.4 2.9 2.6

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

88,835 87,420 89,285 88,591 2,506 2,193 2,641 2,517 2.8 2.5 3.0 2.8

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

201,510 201,549 201,384 199,089 8,602 7,614 8,801 8,122 4.3 3.8 4.4 4.1

Spartanburg

167,423 166,654 168,818 167,229 5,420 4,472 5,651 4,901 3.2 2.7 3.3 2.9

Sumter

42,204 40,373 42,180 40,932 1,543 1,413 1,606 1,640 3.7 3.5 3.8 4.0

South Dakota

471,563 476,708 467,498 474,089 12,003 9,547 12,862 10,558 2.5 2.0 2.8 2.2

Rapid City

76,269 78,500 75,515 77,481 2,083 1,707 2,105 1,703 2.7 2.2 2.8 2.2

Sioux Falls

160,790 164,187 159,168 162,847 3,517 2,808 3,776 3,197 2.2 1.7 2.4 2.0

Tennessee

3,358,423 3,300,377 3,366,777 3,286,597 103,210 108,004 103,520 96,624 3.1 3.3 3.1 2.9

Chattanooga

278,476 269,554 276,886 269,198 7,765 8,221 7,839 7,698 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.9

Clarksville

120,079 117,258 120,311 117,511 4,256 4,571 4,516 4,200 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.6

Cleveland

58,001 56,319 58,113 55,982 1,729 1,993 1,737 1,755 3.0 3.5 3.0 3.1

Jackson

64,522 62,603 64,600 62,299 1,931 2,086 1,972 1,806 3.0 3.3 3.1 2.9

Johnson City

93,416 91,485 93,609 90,721 2,640 3,087 2,745 2,756 2.8 3.4 2.9 3.0

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

134,390 131,681 134,051 131,090 3,972 4,466 3,913 4,054 3.0 3.4 2.9 3.1

Knoxville

439,692 437,994 439,504 436,643 11,041 12,944 11,353 11,455 2.5 3.0 2.6 2.6

Memphis

642,129 631,993 646,075 629,481 27,430 25,813 27,082 23,245 4.3 4.1 4.2 3.7

Morristown

53,038 52,196 53,320 52,196 1,609 1,751 1,655 1,586 3.0 3.4 3.1 3.0

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,116,333 1,114,034 1,124,910 1,111,047 28,790 29,322 28,178 25,847 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.3

Texas

14,393,136 14,704,057 14,369,567 14,720,000 651,011 543,883 608,019 530,622 4.5 3.7 4.2 3.6

Abilene

79,788 79,151 79,384 79,315 2,958 2,532 2,662 2,529 3.7 3.2 3.4 3.2

Amarillo

134,449 134,288 134,091 134,268 4,231 3,737 3,838 3,446 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.6

Austin-Round Rock

1,341,688 1,372,926 1,339,834 1,372,624 42,645 37,936 38,751 36,833 3.2 2.8 2.9 2.7

Beaumont-Port Arthur

165,529 165,948 165,601 166,454 12,883 9,916 12,521 10,483 7.8 6.0 7.6 6.3

Brownsville-Harlingen

174,021 174,900 175,175 176,374 11,645 9,887 11,518 10,098 6.7 5.7 6.6 5.7

College Station-Bryan

140,401 142,123 138,941 140,832 4,686 4,348 4,305 3,962 3.3 3.1 3.1 2.8

Corpus Christi

202,417 202,591 202,410 202,880 12,118 9,375 11,658 9,209 6.0 4.6 5.8 4.5

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,180,476 4,328,083 4,170,319 4,327,848 164,953 141,892 151,376 136,569 3.9 3.3 3.6 3.2

El Paso

368,434 365,444 365,233 366,661 18,380 15,454 17,280 14,604 5.0 4.2 4.7 4.0

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,457,881 3,549,739 3,460,832 3,565,905 176,962 142,903 166,817 140,487 5.1 4.0 4.8 3.9

Killeen-Temple

182,514 183,217 181,913 183,372 8,722 7,557 7,985 7,247 4.8 4.1 4.4 4.0

Laredo

117,630 118,583 117,470 118,859 5,831 4,544 5,515 4,368 5.0 3.8 4.7 3.7

Longview

96,174 96,581 95,602 96,411 4,934 3,931 4,541 3,844 5.1 4.1 4.7 4.0

Lubbock

166,865 168,898 166,318 168,652 5,927 5,253 5,457 4,821 3.6 3.1 3.3 2.9

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

367,158 374,406 368,989 376,182 28,250 23,872 28,767 25,553 7.7 6.4 7.8 6.8

Midland

103,660 104,795 103,649 105,497 4,444 2,941 4,130 2,736 4.3 2.8 4.0 2.6

Odessa

80,983 81,456 81,054 81,648 5,023 3,271 4,697 3,072 6.2 4.0 5.8 3.8

San Angelo

54,778 54,776 54,610 54,936 2,162 1,753 1,968 1,666 3.9 3.2 3.6 3.0

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,221,074 1,250,789 1,217,217 1,244,094 50,542 42,969 45,993 40,799 4.1 3.4 3.8 3.3

Sherman-Denison

66,202 67,792 66,158 68,002 2,518 2,250 2,289 2,199 3.8 3.3 3.5 3.2

Texarkana

63,516 63,790 63,692 63,958 2,749 2,427 2,660 2,332 4.3 3.8 4.2 3.6

Tyler

110,877 112,482 111,105 112,444 4,542 3,868 4,157 3,740 4.1 3.4 3.7 3.3

Victoria

44,324 44,093 44,308 44,029 2,324 1,770 2,163 1,671 5.2 4.0 4.9 3.8

Waco

130,608 131,999 130,347 132,121 5,091 4,398 4,621 4,255 3.9 3.3 3.5 3.2

Wichita Falls

63,609 64,462 63,631 64,460 2,673 2,248 2,437 2,156 4.2 3.5 3.8 3.3

Utah

1,707,720 1,767,210 1,701,096 1,774,925 33,035 35,972 31,229 35,995 1.9 2.0 1.8 2.0

Logan

78,426 81,484 77,895 81,494 1,196 1,478 1,149 1,459 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.8

Ogden-Clearfield

346,062 358,596 344,901 359,842 6,515 7,200 6,143 7,140 1.9 2.0 1.8 2.0

Provo-Orem

348,538 363,183 345,721 363,397 5,812 6,965 5,457 6,800 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.9

St. George

85,297 89,017 84,533 88,997 1,796 1,926 1,721 2,004 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.3

Salt Lake City

700,690 718,423 699,196 722,471 13,864 14,570 12,887 14,573 2.0 2.0 1.8 2.0

Vermont

329,546 337,945 328,117 340,092 8,361 8,089 8,341 9,099 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.7

Burlington-South Burlington

122,781 127,250 121,256 126,785 2,592 2,514 2,477 2,677 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1

Virginia

4,268,312 4,340,872 4,272,370 4,362,123 120,348 128,369 117,116 114,098 2.8 3.0 2.7 2.6

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

93,079 94,585 92,382 94,226 2,110 2,660 1,954 2,320 2.3 2.8 2.1 2.5

Charlottesville

117,993 119,530 118,034 119,879 2,880 3,292 2,684 2,898 2.4 2.8 2.3 2.4

Harrisonburg

66,263 66,969 66,329 67,081 1,527 1,899 1,526 1,619 2.3 2.8 2.3 2.4

Lynchburg

118,177 119,715 117,977 120,525 3,484 3,950 3,311 3,521 2.9 3.3 2.8 2.9

Richmond

660,452 666,893 664,206 670,336 20,650 21,585 21,168 19,386 3.1 3.2 3.2 2.9

Roanoke

152,080 152,833 152,506 154,654 4,126 4,510 3,890 4,013 2.7 3.0 2.6 2.6

Staunton-Waynesboro

58,771 59,834 58,949 59,754 1,394 1,584 1,442 1,402 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.3

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

818,958 835,143 821,309 840,432 27,782 28,226 26,300 25,090 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.0

Winchester

75,023 76,038 75,524 76,523 1,629 1,937 1,928 1,739 2.2 2.5 2.6 2.3

Washington

3,966,632 3,987,698 3,968,555 3,997,079 154,714 166,228 157,023 176,328 3.9 4.2 4.0 4.4

Bellingham

116,925 117,288 116,826 117,580 5,211 5,574 5,146 5,822 4.5 4.8 4.4 5.0

Bremerton-Silverdale

131,549 130,609 132,451 131,380 4,880 5,621 4,780 5,690 3.7 4.3 3.6 4.3

Kennewick-Richland

149,661 151,917 148,281 151,542 7,042 7,815 7,380 9,464 4.7 5.1 5.0 6.2

Longview

49,282 49,602 49,359 49,742 2,476 2,817 2,408 2,887 5.0 5.7 4.9 5.8

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

63,402 62,516 63,210 62,554 3,165 3,274 3,030 3,426 5.0 5.2 4.8 5.5

Olympia-Tumwater

149,423 147,733 149,394 148,020 5,864 6,827 5,749 6,944 3.9 4.6 3.8 4.7

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,182,363 2,203,301 2,193,880 2,213,681 74,987 75,613 75,787 75,268 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.4

Spokane-Spokane Valley

293,196 293,414 292,999 293,502 11,708 14,128 12,469 16,004 4.0 4.8 4.3 5.5

Walla Walla

34,589 33,923 33,301 32,876 1,173 1,359 1,296 1,627 3.4 4.0 3.9 4.9

Wenatchee

65,497 65,275 64,934 64,832 2,886 3,209 2,883 3,945 4.4 4.9 4.4 6.1

Yakima

128,870 128,562 126,455 128,425 7,820 8,581 8,211 11,293 6.1 6.7 6.5 8.8

West Virginia

790,853 788,902 789,702 782,655 26,878 27,895 27,923 26,438 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4

Beckley

45,712 46,541 45,845 46,010 1,730 1,719 1,762 1,608 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.5

Charleston

90,521 90,193 90,963 89,388 3,206 3,160 3,264 2,944 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.3

Huntington-Ashland

144,723 142,569 145,105 142,605 5,364 5,385 5,564 5,469 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8

Morgantown

72,969 73,673 72,562 73,258 2,144 2,158 2,217 2,029 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.8

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,710 39,176 38,718 38,887 1,415 1,507 1,502 1,437 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.7

Wheeling

61,432 61,123 61,911 61,251 2,424 2,379 2,563 2,577 3.9 3.9 4.1 4.2

Wisconsin

3,142,112 3,060,109 3,124,753 3,050,770 76,582 79,677 72,279 69,828 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.3

Appleton

133,507 131,436 132,969 131,144 2,616 2,820 2,455 2,452 2.0 2.1 1.8 1.9

Eau Claire

94,335 92,602 93,865 91,465 2,008 2,215 2,067 2,296 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.5

Fond du Lac

57,758 56,208 57,496 56,100 1,154 1,231 1,049 1,032 2.0 2.2 1.8 1.8

Green Bay

175,498 171,740 173,797 170,959 3,856 4,038 3,626 3,551 2.2 2.4 2.1 2.1

Janesville-Beloit

86,940 85,029 86,604 84,587 2,528 2,602 2,398 2,193 2.9 3.1 2.8 2.6

La Crosse-Onalaska

78,596 76,658 78,288 76,633 1,505 1,602 1,443 1,528 1.9 2.1 1.8 2.0

Madison

401,831 397,523 400,355 395,887 7,579 7,965 6,637 6,457 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.6

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

824,758 800,422 817,582 799,375 23,977 23,850 21,386 18,938 2.9 3.0 2.6 2.4

Oshkosh-Neenah

93,763 92,114 93,142 91,676 1,954 2,104 1,767 1,767 2.1 2.3 1.9 1.9

Racine

98,856 95,504 98,234 95,330 3,027 2,959 2,809 2,494 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.6

Sheboygan

62,648 61,336 62,380 61,092 1,267 1,368 1,121 1,089 2.0 2.2 1.8 1.8

Wausau

74,665 72,680 74,452 72,379 1,439 1,550 1,337 1,371 1.9 2.1 1.8 1.9

Wyoming

290,796 290,792 288,271 290,931 10,106 9,085 9,331 9,910 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.4

Casper

39,853 39,291 39,111 38,841 1,756 1,395 1,651 1,507 4.4 3.6 4.2 3.9

Cheyenne

50,620 50,724 50,117 50,572 1,523 1,471 1,446 1,667 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.3

Puerto Rico

1,216,239 1,215,771 1,239,889 1,233,170 88,302 75,758 82,480 73,493 7.3 6.2 6.7 6.0

Aguadilla-Isabela

97,010 97,191 97,999 97,847 8,642 8,536 8,214 8,245 8.9 8.8 8.4 8.4

Arecibo

59,289 59,192 59,933 59,575 4,548 4,594 4,247 4,489 7.7 7.8 7.1 7.5

Guayama

21,782 21,784 22,228 22,367 1,732 1,697 1,654 1,689 8.0 7.8 7.4 7.6

Mayaguez

30,700 30,390 31,189 30,625 2,563 2,124 2,398 2,062 8.3 7.0 7.7 6.7

Ponce

102,999 102,900 104,563 105,013 9,365 8,798 8,895 8,572 9.1 8.6 8.5 8.2

San German

39,146 38,831 39,764 39,114 3,556 3,093 3,309 2,919 9.1 8.0 8.3 7.5

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

817,822 819,029 836,354 831,412 53,286 42,801 49,395 41,535 6.5 5.2 5.9 5.0

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
November December Number Percent of labor force
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) November December November December
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) 2021 2022 2021 2022(p)

California

19,129,013 19,221,458 19,041,028 19,220,972 988,408 777,043 913,303 716,249 5.2 4.0 4.8 3.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,599,627 6,546,857 6,554,504 6,532,533 374,738 268,983 336,937 256,187 5.7 4.1 5.1 3.9

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,572,253 1,598,060 1,574,275 1,604,854 64,338 47,308 58,089 40,672 4.1 3.0 3.7 2.5

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,027,374 4,948,797 4,980,229 4,927,679 310,400 221,675 278,848 215,515 6.2 4.5 5.6 4.4

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,499,693 2,536,239 2,504,292 2,550,566 95,376 71,242 86,115 62,014 3.8 2.8 3.4 2.4

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,367,322 1,379,240 1,371,024 1,385,793 59,298 44,884 53,699 38,961 4.3 3.3 3.9 2.8

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,001,335 1,028,552 1,003,772 1,035,986 32,141 23,188 28,900 20,284 3.2 2.3 2.9 2.0

San Rafael

131,036 128,447 129,496 128,787 3,937 3,170 3,516 2,769 3.0 2.5 2.7 2.2

District of Columbia

387,907 370,433 383,122 370,762 22,142 16,525 19,706 16,843 5.7 4.5 5.1 4.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,375,610 3,352,757 3,360,187 3,364,619 132,971 104,813 122,133 95,408 3.9 3.1 3.6 2.8

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

686,615 680,815 683,847 683,545 31,324 20,883 28,437 18,898 4.6 3.1 4.2 2.8

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,688,995 2,671,942 2,676,340 2,681,074 101,647 83,930 93,696 76,510 3.8 3.1 3.5 2.9

Florida

10,443,334 10,770,171 10,452,212 10,775,173 339,321 276,246 301,198 236,770 3.2 2.6 2.9 2.2

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,104,480 3,165,450 3,106,486 3,178,898 102,678 66,978 91,401 59,312 3.3 2.1 2.9 1.9

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,040,443 1,072,635 1,037,371 1,066,747 36,158 27,328 31,787 23,192 3.5 2.5 3.1 2.2

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,320,592 1,322,139 1,320,238 1,343,886 43,283 19,784 39,190 19,459 3.3 1.5 3.0 1.4

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

743,445 770,676 748,877 768,265 23,237 19,866 20,424 16,661 3.1 2.6 2.7 2.2

Illinois

6,386,585 6,416,518 6,371,891 6,382,192 275,705 282,241 270,793 267,397 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.2

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,862,288 4,912,746 4,872,792 4,892,205 208,265 216,385 199,410 206,914 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.2

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,758,599 3,801,035 3,779,864 3,777,215 167,523 171,952 159,362 162,718 4.5 4.5 4.2 4.3

Elgin

317,540 318,125 314,236 316,541 13,450 13,486 14,423 13,575 4.2 4.2 4.6 4.3

Gary(3)

326,246 334,870 322,349 335,297 10,644 13,711 7,798 13,176 3.3 4.1 2.4 3.9

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

459,903 458,716 456,343 463,152 16,648 17,236 17,827 17,445 3.6 3.8 3.9 3.8

Massachusetts

3,770,869 3,716,814 3,763,429 3,712,433 159,898 107,741 155,428 119,667 4.2 2.9 4.1 3.2

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,800,552 2,788,174 2,795,481 2,788,246 108,377 73,890 102,801 80,002 3.9 2.7 3.7 2.9

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,676,821 1,669,273 1,673,210 1,666,434 62,846 41,201 58,764 44,429 3.7 2.5 3.5 2.7

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

110,288 108,884 109,920 108,868 5,596 3,765 5,552 4,155 5.1 3.5 5.1 3.8

Framingham

157,952 155,972 158,010 156,433 5,249 3,474 4,959 3,997 3.3 2.2 3.1 2.6

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

117,348 116,693 116,939 116,760 4,222 3,173 4,054 3,453 3.6 2.7 3.5 3.0

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

100,359 99,235 100,106 99,637 6,015 4,214 5,887 4,527 6.0 4.2 5.9 4.5

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

197,320 197,589 197,320 197,936 7,678 5,427 7,457 5,981 3.9 2.7 3.8 3.0

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

86,227 84,119 85,964 84,203 4,441 2,791 4,283 3,061 5.2 3.3 5.0 3.6

Nashua(2)

175,520 181,257 175,833 182,824 4,683 4,621 4,397 4,680 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.6

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

92,347 90,610 92,027 90,681 3,778 2,516 3,577 2,713 4.1 2.8 3.9 3.0

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

86,370 84,542 86,152 84,470 3,869 2,708 3,871 3,006 4.5 3.2 4.5 3.6

Michigan

4,798,984 4,848,178 4,787,712 4,844,991 190,863 169,173 199,169 186,123 4.0 3.5 4.2 3.8

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,135,252 2,106,174 2,134,360 2,118,919 90,378 62,013 89,737 69,913 4.2 2.9 4.2 3.3

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

804,285 786,102 806,245 793,324 43,769 28,710 42,494 31,951 5.4 3.7 5.3 4.0

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,330,967 1,320,072 1,328,114 1,325,595 46,609 33,303 47,242 37,962 3.5 2.5 3.6 2.9

New York

9,347,999 9,453,068 9,322,127 9,436,995 454,916 354,358 420,494 362,977 4.9 3.7 4.5 3.8

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,934,802 10,062,312 9,925,518 10,052,596 513,722 374,985 477,647 380,979 5.2 3.7 4.8 3.8

Dutchess County-Putnam County

190,941 194,246 190,971 192,624 5,778 4,778 5,006 4,764 3.0 2.5 2.6 2.5

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,485,041 1,520,595 1,481,343 1,513,083 45,442 37,146 39,544 37,005 3.1 2.4 2.7 2.4

Newark(3)

1,272,302 1,288,975 1,274,592 1,289,296 58,342 39,246 54,325 40,716 4.6 3.0 4.3 3.2

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

6,986,518 7,058,496 6,978,612 7,057,593 404,160 293,815 378,772 298,494 5.8 4.2 5.4 4.2

Pennsylvania

6,368,072 6,415,111 6,303,482 6,442,442 303,714 221,260 277,460 225,528 4.8 3.4 4.4 3.5

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,147,900 3,190,093 3,135,960 3,197,031 149,196 108,817 135,868 107,315 4.7 3.4 4.3 3.4

Camden(3)

667,934 687,748 669,571 686,869 29,134 20,226 27,349 21,212 4.4 2.9 4.1 3.1

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,078,553 1,093,898 1,073,246 1,101,700 38,873 28,859 34,994 29,155 3.6 2.6 3.3 2.6

Philadelphia

1,013,470 1,022,199 1,004,235 1,021,788 64,843 44,910 57,376 42,495 6.4 4.4 5.7 4.2

Wilmington(3)

387,943 386,248 388,908 386,674 16,346 14,822 16,149 14,453 4.2 3.8 4.2 3.7

Texas

14,393,136 14,704,057 14,369,567 14,720,000 651,011 543,883 608,019 530,622 4.5 3.7 4.2 3.6

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,180,476 4,328,083 4,170,319 4,327,848 164,953 141,892 151,376 136,569 3.9 3.3 3.6 3.2

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,833,097 2,946,984 2,825,024 2,943,498 110,555 95,607 101,404 92,297 3.9 3.2 3.6 3.1

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,347,379 1,381,099 1,345,295 1,384,350 54,398 46,285 49,972 44,272 4.0 3.4 3.7 3.2

Washington

3,966,632 3,987,698 3,968,555 3,997,079 154,714 166,228 157,023 176,328 3.9 4.2 4.0 4.4

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,182,363 2,203,301 2,193,880 2,213,681 74,987 75,613 75,787 75,268 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.4

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,725,035 1,748,623 1,736,759 1,756,133 53,565 52,209 55,108 51,096 3.1 3.0 3.2 2.9

Tacoma-Lakewood

457,328 454,678 457,121 457,548 21,422 23,404 20,679 24,172 4.7 5.1 4.5 5.3

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area November December December 2021 to December 2022(p)
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) Level change Percent change

Alabama

2,068.5 2,120.2 2,064.6 2,120.5 55.9 2.7

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46.6 47.6 46.3 48.0 1.7 3.7

Auburn-Opelika

68.0 69.6 67.8 69.6 1.8 2.7

Birmingham-Hoover

547.6 559.3 546.1 562.7 16.6 3.0

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

80.9 81.8 81.2 82.0 0.8 1.0

Decatur

57.5 58.6 57.5 59.1 1.6 2.8

Dothan

60.1 61.6 60.6 61.7 1.1 1.8

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.0 57.8 56.3 58.0 1.7 3.0

Gadsden

33.9 34.5 33.9 34.5 0.6 1.8

Huntsville

254.7 261.5 254.5 261.9 7.4 2.9

Mobile

187.8 188.8 187.1 188.7 1.6 0.9

Montgomery

176.1 181.1 176.1 180.3 4.2 2.4

Tuscaloosa

108.3 110.5 107.7 110.3 2.6 2.4


Alaska

303.2 312.9 301.6 311.5 9.9 3.3

Anchorage

168.7 177.5 168.9 176.8 7.9