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Economic News Release
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Employment Cost Index News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                 USDL-23-0798
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, April 28, 2023

Technical information: (202) 691-6199  *  ncsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/eci
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  pressoffice@bls.gov

				EMPLOYMENT COST INDEX  MARCH 2023

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 1.2 percent, seasonally adjusted, for the 3-month 
period ending in March 2023, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries 
increased 1.2 percent and benefit costs increased 1.2 percent from December 2022. (See tables A, 1,
2, and 3.)

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 4.8 percent for the 12-month period ending in 
March 2023 and increased 4.5 percent in March 2022. Wages and salaries increased 5.0 percent for 
the 12-month period ending in March 2023 and increased 4.7 percent for the 12-month period ending 
in March 2022. Benefit costs increased 4.5 percent over the year and increased 4.1 percent for the 
12-month period ending in March 2022. (See tables A, 4, 8, and 12.)

Compensation costs for private industry workers increased 4.8 percent over the year. In March 2022, 
the increase was 4.8 percent. Wages and salaries increased 5.1 percent for the 12-month period ending 
in March 2023 and increased 5.0 percent in March 2022. The cost of benefits increased 4.3 percent 
for the 12-month period ending in March 2023 and increased 4.1 percent in March 2022. 
Inflation-adjusted (constant dollar) private wages and salaries increased 0.1 percent for the 12 months 
ending March 2023. Inflation-adjusted benefit costs in the private sector declined 0.6 percent over 
that same period. (See tables A, 5, 9, and 12.)

Among private industry occupational groups, compensation cost increases for the 12-month period ending 
in March 2023 ranged from 4.3 percent for management, professional, and related occupations and natural 
resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, to 6.0 percent for service occupations. 
Within industry supersectors, compensation cost increases ranged from 4.2 percent for manufacturing 
to 5.9 percent for leisure and hospitality. (See table 5.)

Compensation costs for state and local government workers increased 4.9 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in March 2023, compared with an increase of 3.2 percent in March 2022. Wages and salaries 
increased 4.7 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2023 and 3.1 percent a year ago. Benefit 
costs increased 5.0 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2023. The prior year increase 
was 3.5 percent. (See tables A, 7, 11, and 12.)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   Updated Employment Weights

Beginning with the December 2022 news release, the Employment Cost Index introduced new 
employment weights based on the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system, see 
www.bls.gov/eci/notices/2022/eci-2021-fixed-weights-and-2018-soc-update.htm.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table A. Major series of the Employment Cost Index [Percent change]
Category 3-month,
seasonally adjusted
12-month, not seasonally adjusted, current dollar 12-month, not seasonally adjusted, constant dollar
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

Civilian workers(1)

Compensation(2)

1.1 1.2 4.5 5.1 4.8 -3.7 -1.3 -0.2

Wages and salaries

1.2 1.2 4.7 5.1 5.0 -3.6 -1.2 0.0

Benefits

1.0 1.2 4.1 4.9 4.5 -4.2 -1.4 -0.5

Private industry

Compensation(2)

1.1 1.2 4.8 5.1 4.8 -3.5 -1.2 -0.2

Wages and salaries

1.2 1.2 5.0 5.1 5.1 -3.3 -1.2 0.1

Benefits

0.9 1.1 4.1 4.8 4.3 -4.0 -1.5 -0.6

Health benefits

- - 2.2 4.7 3.1 - - -

State and local government

Compensation(2)

1.1 1.1 3.2 4.8 4.9 -4.9 -1.5 -0.1

Wages and salaries

1.1 0.9 3.1 4.7 4.7 -5.1 -1.5 -0.2

Benefits

1.0 1.5 3.5 5.0 5.0 -4.7 -1.3 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes private industry and state and local government.
(2) Includes wages and salaries and benefits.

Note: All estimates in the table can be found in the public database at www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm. Dashes indicate data not available.



					   TECHNICAL NOTE

The Employment Cost Index (ECI) measures the change in the cost of labor, free from the influence 
of employment shifts among occupations and industries. For information on survey concepts, 
coverage, methods, nonresponse adjustment, and imputation see National Compensation Measures 
Handbook of Methods at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Sample size
Data for this reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 27,800 
occupational observations selected from a sample of about 6,900 private industry establishments and 
approximately 7,500 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and local 
government establishments that provided data at the initial interview. Beginning December 2021, an 
additional (fourth) private industry sample is used in estimation to mitigate the impact of 
decreasing response rates.

Standard errors
To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ECI series, standard errors of all current 
quarter not seasonally adjusted 3- and 12-month percent change series are also available, see 
www.bls.gov/eci/factsheets/eci-standard-errors.htm and the database query tool at 
www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm. Standard errors provide users a measure of the precision of an estimate 
to ensure that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose. 

Historical listings
Historical ECI data are available in xlsx format at www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. The continuous 
occupational and industry series listing uses the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual 
and Occupational Classification System (OCS) series from 1975 through 2005 and the North American 
Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) from 2006 to
the present. It provides the official series deemed continuous after the change in classification 
systems. For more information on the criteria used in defining continuous series, see the article 
published in the Monthly Labor Review at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/04/art2full.pdf.

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation data
The costs per hour worked of compensation components are published as part of the Employer Costs 
for Employee Compensation (ECEC) news release. The ECEC release dates are available at 
www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/ecec.htm. Historical ECEC data are available in xlsx format at 
www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. Since the ECEC is calculated with current employment weights rather 
than the fixed weights used in computing the ECI, year-to-year changes in the cost levels usually
differ from those in the ECI.

Fixed employment weights
For additional information on the use of fixed employment weights in computing the ECI, see 
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/introducing-2012-fixed-employment-weights-for-the-
employment-cost-index.htm. Beginning with the December 2022 release, the ECI introduced new
employment weights, see www.bls.gov/eci/notices/2022/eci-2021-fixed-weights-and-2018-soc-update.htm.

Additional information
Historical tables are available in (xlsx) format for constant dollar, current dollar, and continuous
series, see www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. ECI release dates are available on the release calendar at 
www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/eci.htm. Subscribe to receive the BLS Economic News Release email 
at public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new. If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or 
have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications relay services.

Table 1. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(2)

155.6 157.4 0.9 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

150.8 152.6 0.6 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.2

Manufacturing

150.6 152.2 0.5 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.1

Service-providing industries(4)

156.7 158.5 1.0 0.6 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1

Education and health services

154.1 156.0 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.5 1.2 1.2

Educational services

152.9 154.8 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.6 1.1 0.9 1.6 1.1 1.2

Elementary and secondary schools

153.4 155.1 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.7 1.7 1.1 1.1

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

151.3 153.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.5 1.1 1.3

Health care and social assistance

155.3 157.2 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2

Hospitals

155.6 157.7 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.3

Nursing and residential care facilities

155.8 157.8 0.9 1.2 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.2 1.3

Public administration

158.9 160.2 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.6 1.1 0.8

Private industry workers

All workers

155.5 157.3 1.0 0.7 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

151.1 152.8 0.6 0.7 1.3 0.8 1.2 1.3 0.8 1.1 1.1

Management, business, and financial

152.1 153.7 0.6 0.8 1.5 0.6 1.2 1.4 0.5 0.9 1.1

Professional and related

150.3 152.2 0.7 0.6 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.3

Sales and office

158.9 160.8 1.8 0.3 1.3 1.1 1.6 2.0 1.2 1.2 1.2

Sales and related

157.1 158.9 3.2 -0.4 1.5 1.0 1.8 2.6 1.0 1.2 1.1

Office and administrative support

159.9 161.8 0.7 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

153.0 154.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

152.6 154.1 0.8 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair

153.5 155.7 1.1 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.4

Production, transportation, and material moving

158.7 160.6 0.8 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.2

Production

155.0 157.1 0.9 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.3 0.9 1.4

Transportation and material moving

163.4 165.1 0.5 1.1 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.1 0.9 1.0

Service occupations

166.7 168.7 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.2 1.2

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

150.7 152.6 0.6 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.3

Construction

151.5 153.7 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.5

Manufacturing

150.6 152.2 0.5 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.1

Aircraft manufacturing

131.7 132.9 0.6 0.6 7.1 0.4 2.1 0.7 -5.6 0.8 0.9

Service-providing industries(5)

156.8 158.7 1.1 0.6 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

160.3 162.0 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1

Wholesale trade

153.8 155.0 0.9 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.6 0.7 1.1 0.8

Retail trade

165.0 167.3 1.0 1.1 1.6 2.5 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.0 1.4

Transportation and warehousing

159.5 160.8 0.4 0.6 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8

Utilities

164.8 166.5 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.0

Information

152.7 154.4 0.8 0.5 1.3 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.1

Financial activities

154.9 155.2 3.3 -1.9 2.3 -0.4 1.2 1.9 1.0 1.3 0.2

Finance and insurance

155.5 155.6 3.9 -2.4 2.5 -0.9 1.0 1.9 0.9 1.4 0.1

Credit intermediation and related activities

155.2 157.6 0.6 1.3 5.3 -1.3 0.0 2.0 -0.1 1.6 1.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

155.9 157.8 0.6 0.2 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.7 1.1 1.0 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

152.1 153.6 0.4 0.6 1.1 1.6 1.8 1.9 0.9 0.8 1.0

Professional and business services

155.4 157.7 0.8 0.6 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.5

Professional, scientific, and technical services

156.4 158.8 0.6 0.6 1.6 0.8 1.1 1.6 1.1 0.8 1.5

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

155.8 158.1 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.0 1.1 1.5

Education and health services

154.0 155.9 0.7 0.7 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2

Educational services

151.2 153.1 0.4 0.3 1.4 0.5 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.3

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

150.6 152.1 0.4 0.6 1.2 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.0

Health care and social assistance

154.6 156.5 0.8 0.8 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2

Hospitals

155.4 157.5 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

154.5 156.6 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.4

Leisure and hospitality

167.0 169.3 1.6 2.2 2.2 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.4

Accommodation and food services

170.5 173.0 1.6 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.1 1.7 1.5 1.1 1.5

Other services, except public administration

156.8 159.5 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.3 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.7

State and local government workers

All workers

156.0 157.7 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.7 1.1 1.1

Industry

Education and health services

154.1 156.0 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.7 1.1 1.2

Educational services

153.3 155.2 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.8 1.1 1.2

Schools

153.3 155.1 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.7 1.1 1.2

Elementary and secondary schools

153.8 155.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.7 1.1 1.1

Health care and social assistance

160.3 162.1 0.6 1.1 0.7 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.2 1.1

Hospitals

156.6 158.5 0.7 1.1 0.6 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.1 1.2

Public administration

158.9 160.2 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.6 1.1 0.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 2. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

155.3 157.1 1.1 0.8 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

153.9 156.2 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.5

Manufacturing

154.1 156.0 0.6 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2

Service-providing industries(3)

155.6 157.3 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1

Education and health services

149.8 151.6 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.6 1.3 1.2

Educational services

143.7 145.1 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.9 0.8 1.6 1.1 1.0

Elementary and secondary schools

142.3 143.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 1.0 0.5 1.9 1.1 0.9

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

145.1 146.5 0.4 0.6 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.1 1.0

Health care and social assistance

156.1 158.3 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.4

Hospitals

155.7 158.3 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

158.6 160.8 1.1 1.3 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 2.0 1.4 1.4

Private industry workers

All workers

157.6 159.5 1.2 0.8 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

152.2 153.9 0.7 0.8 1.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 0.9 1.0 1.1

Professional and related

151.7 153.9 0.7 0.7 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.4

Management, business, and financial

153.0 154.2 0.6 1.0 1.7 0.4 1.0 1.5 0.4 0.9 0.8

Sales and office

160.8 162.8 2.3 0.3 1.4 1.1 1.5 2.1 1.1 1.3 1.2

Office and administrative support

160.9 162.9 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

154.0 156.3 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.5

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

153.9 155.7 0.9 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.3 1.0 1.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

154.4 157.0 1.3 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

162.5 164.5 1.0 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.2

Production

158.4 160.8 1.3 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.1 1.5

Transportation and material moving

167.3 169.0 0.7 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.0

Service occupations

170.9 173.2 1.4 2.0 2.2 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.2 1.4

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

154.0 156.3 0.7 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.5

Construction

153.6 156.3 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.8

Manufacturing

154.1 156.0 0.6 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2

Aircraft manufacturing

156.9 157.5 0.0 0.7 0.1 0.5 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.4

Service-providing industries(4)

158.5 160.3 1.3 0.8 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

161.4 163.1 1.0 1.3 1.6 2.1 1.2 1.5 0.9 1.0 1.1

Wholesale trade

151.4 152.4 0.9 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.5 1.8 0.5 1.1 0.7

Retail trade

168.0 170.2 1.0 1.3 1.8 2.8 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.3

Transportation and warehousing

162.3 163.8 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9

Utilities

159.1 160.7 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.0

Information

151.6 153.5 0.9 0.8 1.4 0.7 1.4 0.8 1.3 1.4 1.3

Financial activities

156.4 155.7 4.5 -2.4 3.0 -1.1 0.7 1.8 0.9 1.6 -0.4

Finance and insurance

157.3 156.2 5.5 -3.1 3.4 -1.8 0.5 1.8 1.0 1.6 -0.7

Credit intermediation and related activities

155.0 157.1 0.8 2.3 7.5 -2.3 -0.9 1.7 -0.6 1.9 1.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

154.4 156.4 0.7 0.3 1.0 0.9 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

152.6 154.3 0.4 0.9 1.2 1.8 1.9 2.0 0.9 0.9 1.1

Professional and business services

157.1 159.4 0.7 0.9 1.4 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.5

Professional, scientific, and technical services

157.7 159.9 0.4 0.8 1.6 0.7 1.1 1.6 1.2 0.7 1.4

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

160.1 162.4 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.3 1.1 1.5

Education and health services

155.2 157.3 0.8 0.9 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4

Educational services

150.0 152.0 0.4 0.4 1.5 0.4 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.1 1.3

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

147.8 149.2 0.5 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.0

Health care and social assistance

156.3 158.5 0.9 1.0 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4

Hospitals

156.5 159.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

159.5 161.8 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.4

Leisure and hospitality

172.9 175.3 1.7 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.4

Accommodation and food services

176.4 178.9 1.8 2.5 2.3 2.3 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.4

Other services, except public administration

158.8 161.7 1.2 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.0 1.1 0.8 1.9

State and local government workers

All workers

145.4 146.7 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.8 1.1 0.9

Industry

Education and health services

143.6 144.9 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 1.8 1.1 0.9

Educational services

142.4 143.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.6 1.8 1.1 0.9

Schools

142.4 143.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.6 1.8 1.1 0.9

Elementary and secondary schools

141.9 143.1 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.5 1.9 1.1 0.8

Health care and social assistance

153.4 155.4 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.4 1.9 1.3 1.3

Hospitals

151.9 154.0 0.8 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.7 1.1 1.4

Public administration

148.5 149.6 0.4 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.7 1.2 0.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 3. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

156.4 158.3 0.6 0.4 0.9 1.0 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2

Private industry workers

All workers

150.6 152.3 0.5 0.4 1.1 1.1 1.7 1.3 0.9 0.9 1.1

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

148.5 150.3 0.5 0.4 1.0 1.1 1.6 1.3 0.8 1.0 1.2

Sales and office

154.0 155.6 0.5 0.1 1.0 1.2 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.0 1.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

150.9 151.9 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.7 0.7 0.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

151.2 152.7 0.1 0.4 1.6 0.7 1.9 1.0 0.7 0.6 1.0

Service occupations

153.2 154.3 0.6 0.5 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.6 1.3 1.3 0.7

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

144.2 145.2 0.4 0.5 1.4 0.6 1.8 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.7

Manufacturing

143.8 144.9 0.2 0.4 1.8 0.4 2.2 0.8 0.3 0.6 0.8

Service-providing industries(3)

152.7 154.6 0.6 0.2 1.1 1.1 1.7 1.4 1.1 0.9 1.2

State and local government workers

All workers(1)

176.8 179.4 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.9 1.4 0.9 1.6 1.0 1.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 4. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

All workers(2)

150.2 155.4 157.4 1.6 0.8 1.3 4.5 5.1 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(3)

150.1 155.2 157.3 1.6 0.8 1.4 4.6 5.0 4.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

146.9 151.5 153.4 1.3 0.8 1.3 3.8 4.5 4.4

Management, business, and financial

148.0 152.1 154.0 1.4 0.7 1.2 4.0 4.2 4.1

Professional and related

146.3 151.2 153.2 1.2 0.9 1.3 3.7 4.6 4.7

Sales and office

152.7 159.1 161.3 1.7 1.0 1.4 4.3 6.0 5.6

Sales and related

150.0 157.0 159.1 1.9 1.2 1.3 4.0 6.7 6.1

Office and administrative support

154.2 160.0 162.3 1.7 0.9 1.4 4.7 5.5 5.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

148.8 153.3 155.2 1.2 0.7 1.2 4.1 4.3 4.3

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

148.8 152.9 154.6 1.3 0.7 1.1 4.3 4.1 3.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

148.8 153.7 156.0 1.2 0.7 1.5 3.8 4.5 4.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

153.6 158.5 160.6 1.7 0.8 1.3 5.6 4.9 4.6

Production

149.9 154.9 157.1 1.6 0.8 1.4 5.6 5.0 4.8

Transportation and material moving

158.7 163.8 165.8 1.6 0.7 1.2 5.7 4.9 4.5

Service occupations

158.7 165.8 168.1 2.0 1.1 1.4 6.9 6.6 5.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(4)

146.2 150.6 152.5 1.5 0.8 1.3 4.4 4.6 4.3

Manufacturing

146.2 150.3 152.3 1.9 0.8 1.3 4.9 4.7 4.2

Service-providing industries(5)

150.9 156.3 158.3 1.5 0.9 1.3 4.5 5.1 4.9

Education and health services

148.2 154.1 155.8 1.2 1.1 1.1 4.1 5.2 5.1

Educational services

147.0 152.8 154.1 0.8 0.9 0.9 3.0 4.7 4.8

Elementary and secondary schools

147.4 153.2 154.4 0.8 0.9 0.8 2.9 4.7 4.7

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

145.8 151.5 152.9 0.7 0.9 0.9 3.3 4.6 4.9

Health care and social assistance

149.5 155.4 157.4 1.5 1.3 1.3 5.1 5.5 5.3

Hospitals

150.0 155.7 158.0 1.6 1.3 1.5 4.9 5.4 5.3

Nursing and residential care facilities

148.8 155.8 157.8 1.6 1.2 1.3 6.4 6.4 6.0

Public administration

152.9 158.6 160.1 1.5 0.8 0.9 3.7 5.3 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(4) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 5. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

All workers

150.2 155.3 157.4 1.6 0.8 1.4 4.8 5.1 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

150.1 155.0 157.3 1.7 0.8 1.5 5.0 5.0 4.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

146.6 150.8 152.9 1.5 0.8 1.4 4.2 4.4 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

145.8 149.8 152.1 1.7 0.7 1.5 4.1 4.5 4.3

Management, business, and financial

147.9 151.8 153.8 1.4 0.6 1.3 4.2 4.1 4.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

146.8 150.4 152.7 1.9 0.6 1.5 4.0 4.4 4.0

Professional and related

145.6 150.1 152.4 1.5 0.9 1.5 4.2 4.7 4.7

Sales and office

152.6 159.1 161.3 1.8 1.1 1.4 4.4 6.1 5.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

154.4 160.3 163.0 1.8 0.9 1.7 5.4 5.7 5.6

Sales and related

149.9 156.9 159.0 1.9 1.2 1.3 3.9 6.7 6.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

154.7 160.6 163.8 2.1 0.9 2.0 6.5 6.0 5.9

Office and administrative support

153.8 159.6 161.9 1.7 0.9 1.4 4.7 5.6 5.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

148.4 152.9 154.8 1.2 0.7 1.2 4.0 4.2 4.3

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

148.4 152.5 154.1 1.2 0.7 1.0 4.2 4.0 3.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

148.5 153.3 155.6 1.2 0.7 1.5 3.8 4.4 4.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

153.4 158.2 160.3 1.7 0.8 1.3 5.7 4.8 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

153.0 157.9 160.1 1.6 0.8 1.4 5.7 4.8 4.6

Production

149.9 154.9 157.1 1.8 0.9 1.4 5.8 5.2 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

150.4 155.3 157.5 1.7 0.8 1.4 5.8 5.0 4.7

Transportation and material moving

158.5 163.4 165.5 1.6 0.7 1.3 5.7 4.7 4.4

Service occupations

159.4 166.6 169.0 2.2 1.0 1.4 7.8 6.9 6.0

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(3)

146.2 150.6 152.5 1.5 0.8 1.3 4.5 4.6 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

146.4 150.3 152.3 1.7 0.7 1.3 4.6 4.4 4.0

Management, professional, and related

142.1 144.3 146.4 2.0 0.6 1.5 4.0 3.6 3.0

Sales and office

148.0 158.0 160.4 -0.2 1.7 1.5 3.1 6.5 8.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

147.7 151.8 153.5 1.2 0.7 1.1 4.1 4.0 3.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

148.2 153.2 155.1 1.8 0.8 1.2 5.6 5.2 4.7

Construction

146.1 151.4 153.3 0.6 0.8 1.3 3.4 4.3 4.9

Manufacturing

146.2 150.3 152.3 1.9 0.8 1.3 4.9 4.7 4.2

Management, professional, and related

143.4 145.5 147.6 2.1 0.6 1.4 4.1 3.6 2.9

Sales and office occupations

148.8 155.0 156.8 2.1 1.2 1.2 4.9 6.4 5.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

145.7 150.1 151.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 3.8 4.1 4.3

Production, transportation, and material moving

147.9 153.0 154.9 1.9 0.9 1.2 5.6 5.4 4.7

Aircraft manufacturing

141.0 131.3 133.6 3.0 0.4 1.8 12.8 -4.1 -5.2

Service-providing industries(4)

151.3 156.6 158.8 1.6 0.8 1.4 4.9 5.2 5.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

151.2 156.4 158.8 1.7 0.9 1.5 5.0 5.2 5.0

Management, professional, and related

147.4 151.9 154.1 1.4 0.8 1.4 4.2 4.5 4.5

Sales and office

153.1 159.2 161.4 2.0 1.0 1.4 4.6 6.1 5.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

149.6 154.5 156.8 1.2 0.8 1.5 4.0 4.5 4.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

159.1 163.8 166.1 1.5 0.7 1.4 5.9 4.5 4.4

Service occupations

159.4 166.6 169.0 2.2 1.0 1.4 7.8 6.9 6.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

155.3 160.1 162.2 1.8 0.8 1.3 5.9 4.9 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

155.2 160.1 162.7 1.7 0.8 1.6 5.4 4.9 4.8

Wholesale trade

148.8 153.2 155.2 2.2 0.7 1.3 6.4 5.2 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

150.9 155.9 158.4 1.8 0.8 1.6 5.2 5.2 5.0

Retail trade

158.8 164.7 167.4 1.8 0.9 1.6 7.0 5.6 5.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

157.0 162.8 166.0 2.0 0.7 2.0 6.5 5.8 5.7

Transportation and warehousing

156.3 159.8 161.2 1.0 0.9 0.9 3.9 3.3 3.1

Utilities

160.8 164.2 166.8 1.5 0.7 1.6 3.3 3.6 3.7

Information

147.1 152.3 154.5 1.7 1.1 1.4 4.0 5.3 5.0

Financial activities

148.5 153.8 155.1 1.7 0.6 0.8 1.2 5.3 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

149.3 154.0 156.9 2.3 0.5 1.9 4.6 5.5 5.1

Finance and insurance

148.8 154.3 155.4 1.6 0.7 0.7 0.3 5.3 4.4

Credit intermediation and related activities

148.5 154.1 156.3 -0.2 0.3 1.4 5.2 3.6 5.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

152.0 157.6 161.1 2.4 0.4 2.2 4.3 6.2 6.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

150.1 155.1 157.8 2.0 0.5 1.7 3.8 5.4 5.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

148.8 152.9 155.8 2.1 0.5 1.9 3.9 4.9 4.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

146.9 151.9 153.9 2.1 0.5 1.3 5.2 5.6 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

151.0 156.0 158.1 2.0 0.6 1.3 4.9 5.3 4.7

Professional and business services

150.2 155.2 157.9 1.6 0.7 1.7 4.5 4.9 5.1

Professional, scientific, and technical services

151.1 156.1 158.9 1.3 0.4 1.8 4.1 4.6 5.2

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

150.4 155.5 158.2 2.0 0.9 1.7 5.8 5.4 5.2

Education and health services

148.3 154.1 156.1 1.5 1.2 1.3 5.0 5.5 5.3

Educational services

145.4 151.4 152.8 1.0 1.0 0.9 3.5 5.1 5.1

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

145.8 150.8 151.9 0.6 0.7 0.7 3.4 4.1 4.2

Health care and social assistance

148.9 154.7 156.8 1.6 1.3 1.4 5.3 5.5 5.3

Hospitals

149.8 155.4 157.8 1.6 1.3 1.5 5.0 5.4 5.3

Nursing and residential care facilities

147.6 154.5 156.6 1.8 1.2 1.4 6.7 6.6 6.1

Nursing care facilities(2)

146.6 154.2 156.0 1.7 1.4 1.2 6.5 7.0 6.4

Leisure and hospitality

159.8 166.3 169.3 2.2 0.7 1.8 8.4 6.4 5.9

Accommodation and food service

163.4 169.8 173.0 2.4 0.6 1.9 8.8 6.4 5.9

Other services, except public administration

152.6 156.3 159.7 1.7 0.3 2.2 5.8 4.1 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 6. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

Bargaining status

Union

152.6 156.6 158.1 0.9 1.0 1.0 3.5 3.6 3.6

Goods-producing industries(2)

147.5 150.0 150.6 0.9 0.7 0.4 4.0 2.6 2.1

Manufacturing

142.3 144.0 144.4 1.1 0.8 0.3 5.1 2.3 1.5

Service-providing industries(3)

156.5 161.3 163.4 1.0 1.2 1.3 3.2 4.1 4.4

Nonunion

149.7 155.0 157.2 1.7 0.8 1.4 4.9 5.3 5.0

Goods-producing industries(2)

145.7 150.5 152.7 1.7 0.9 1.5 4.6 5.0 4.8

Manufacturing

147.3 151.8 154.1 2.0 0.7 1.5 4.8 5.1 4.6

Service-providing industries(3)

150.7 156.1 158.3 1.7 0.8 1.4 4.9 5.3 5.0

Census region and division(4)

Northeast

152.2 157.0 159.0 1.7 1.0 1.3 4.2 4.9 4.5

New England

156.5 162.1 163.0 2.0 1.1 0.6 5.0 5.7 4.2

Middle Atlantic

150.7 155.2 157.5 1.6 0.9 1.5 3.9 4.7 4.5

South

147.5 152.9 155.1 1.3 0.7 1.4 4.6 5.0 5.2

South Atlantic

149.4 155.8 158.1 1.3 0.8 1.5 4.0 5.6 5.8

East South Central

148.2 152.3 154.8 1.8 0.9 1.6 6.3 4.6 4.5

West South Central

144.0 148.2 150.2 1.1 0.4 1.3 5.1 4.0 4.3

Midwest

147.9 152.8 154.6 1.6 0.7 1.2 5.1 5.0 4.5

East North Central

146.3 151.4 153.2 1.7 0.9 1.2 5.2 5.3 4.7

West North Central

151.9 156.2 157.9 1.5 0.2 1.1 5.0 4.4 3.9

West

154.3 159.5 162.1 1.9 1.1 1.6 5.1 5.4 5.1

Mountain

152.2 157.0 160.1 1.9 1.0 2.0 5.8 5.2 5.2

Pacific

155.3 160.6 163.1 1.9 1.1 1.6 4.9 5.4 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(4) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 7. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

All workers

150.0 155.8 157.3 0.9 0.9 1.0 3.2 4.8 4.9

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

147.7 153.3 154.6 0.8 0.9 0.8 2.8 4.6 4.7

Professional and related

147.6 153.2 154.5 0.8 0.9 0.8 2.8 4.6 4.7

Sales and office

153.3 159.0 160.8 1.3 0.8 1.1 3.3 5.0 4.9

Office and administrative support

153.4 159.1 160.8 1.3 0.8 1.1 3.3 5.1 4.8

Service occupations

156.2 163.3 165.1 1.4 1.2 1.1 4.4 6.0 5.7

Industry

Education and health services

148.1 154.0 155.4 0.7 0.9 0.9 3.0 4.8 4.9

Educational services

147.4 153.2 154.5 0.7 0.9 0.8 2.9 4.6 4.8

Schools

147.3 153.2 154.5 0.7 0.9 0.8 2.9 4.7 4.9

Elementary and secondary schools

147.8 153.6 154.8 0.7 0.9 0.8 2.8 4.6 4.7

Health care and social assistance

153.7 160.4 162.1 1.1 1.3 1.1 4.1 5.5 5.5

Hospitals

150.8 156.9 158.6 1.1 1.2 1.1 4.1 5.2 5.2

Public administration

152.9 158.6 160.1 1.5 0.8 0.9 3.7 5.3 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 8. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

All workers(1)

149.6 155.2 157.1 1.3 1.0 1.2 4.7 5.1 5.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

149.1 154.4 156.5 1.4 0.8 1.4 4.9 5.0 5.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

144.9 149.6 151.3 1.0 0.8 1.1 3.7 4.3 4.4

Management, business, and financial

147.6 151.8 153.1 1.0 0.6 0.9 4.0 3.9 3.7

Professional and related

143.5 148.5 150.4 1.1 1.0 1.3 3.7 4.6 4.8

Sales and office

153.2 160.1 162.2 1.5 1.2 1.3 4.4 6.1 5.9

Sales and related

152.4 160.2 162.1 1.6 1.3 1.2 3.7 6.8 6.4

Office and administrative support

153.4 159.6 161.9 1.5 1.1 1.4 4.9 5.6 5.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

148.6 153.5 155.7 1.3 0.9 1.4 4.4 4.6 4.8

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

148.7 153.3 155.2 1.4 0.9 1.2 4.9 4.5 4.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

148.7 153.8 156.3 1.2 0.8 1.6 4.1 4.7 5.1

Production, transportation, and material moving

155.8 161.6 163.7 1.4 0.9 1.3 6.1 5.2 5.1

Production

152.1 158.2 160.6 1.3 1.0 1.5 5.8 5.4 5.6

Transportation and material moving

160.7 166.4 168.3 1.5 0.8 1.1 6.5 5.1 4.7

Service occupations

159.2 166.8 169.2 2.0 1.1 1.4 7.7 6.9 6.3

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

148.3 153.8 155.9 1.2 1.0 1.4 4.5 5.0 5.1

Manufacturing

148.7 153.9 156.0 1.6 0.9 1.4 4.9 5.1 4.9

Service-providing industries(4)

149.9 155.4 157.3 1.4 0.9 1.2 4.8 5.1 4.9

Education and health services

144.0 150.0 151.5 1.0 1.2 1.0 4.2 5.2 5.2

Educational services

138.5 144.0 144.8 0.5 0.8 0.6 2.7 4.5 4.5

Elementary and secondary schools

137.2 142.6 143.3 0.5 0.8 0.5 2.5 4.5 4.4

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

140.0 145.4 146.3 0.5 0.9 0.6 3.1 4.4 4.5

Health care and social assistance

149.9 156.3 158.4 1.4 1.5 1.3 5.6 5.8 5.7

Hospitals

149.6 155.9 158.4 1.3 1.5 1.6 5.4 5.6 5.9

Nursing and residential care facilities

150.9 158.7 160.9 1.7 1.3 1.4 7.1 6.9 6.6

Public administration

142.7 148.5 149.7 1.3 0.8 0.8 4.0 5.5 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 9. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Index value (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

All workers

151.8 157.4 159.5 1.4 1.0 1.3 5.0 5.1 5.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

151.4 156.7 159.0 1.6 0.9 1.5 5.2 5.2 5.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

147.6 152.0 154.0 1.2 0.8 1.3 4.2 4.3 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

146.2 150.5 152.6 1.5 0.8 1.4 4.1 4.4 4.4

Management, business, and financial

148.6 152.8 154.1 1.0 0.7 0.9 4.1 3.9 3.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

146.4 150.2 152.1 1.7 0.5 1.3 3.9 4.3 3.9

Professional and related

146.8 151.5 154.0 1.3 1.0 1.7 4.3 4.6 4.9

Sales and office

154.3 161.3 163.5 1.6 1.2 1.4 4.5 6.2 6.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

155.7 162.0 164.9 1.6 1.1 1.8 5.7 5.7 5.9

Sales and related

152.6 160.3 162.3 1.7 1.3 1.2 3.7 6.8 6.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

157.0 163.4 166.8 1.9 1.0 2.1 6.7 6.0 6.2

Office and administrative support

154.4 160.6 163.0 1.6 1.1 1.5 4.9 5.7 5.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

149.0 153.9 156.2 1.2 0.9 1.5 4.4 4.6 4.8

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

149.1 153.7 155.7 1.3 0.9 1.3 4.8 4.4 4.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

149.1 154.2 156.8 1.3 0.9 1.7 4.2 4.8 5.2

Production, transportation, and material moving

156.2 161.9 164.1 1.5 0.9 1.4 6.2 5.2 5.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

155.8 161.6 164.0 1.4 0.9 1.5 6.2 5.2 5.3

Production

152.1 158.3 160.8 1.4 1.0 1.6 5.8 5.5 5.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

152.7 158.7 161.2 1.4 1.0 1.6 6.0 5.4 5.6

Transportation and material moving

161.7 167.2 169.2 1.5 0.8 1.2 6.7 5.0 4.6

Service occupations

163.0 170.7 173.4 2.2 1.1 1.6 8.6 7.0 6.4

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(2)

148.3 153.9 156.0 1.2 1.0 1.4 4.4 5.0 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

148.6 153.5 155.6 1.4 0.9 1.4 4.6 4.8 4.7

Management, professional, and related

145.1 148.2 150.4 1.7 0.7 1.5 3.7 3.9 3.7

Sales and office

150.5 163.2 165.8 -1.2 2.1 1.6 2.6 7.1 10.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

148.7 153.4 155.4 1.2 0.9 1.3 4.4 4.4 4.5

Production, transportation, and material moving

150.8 157.0 159.1 1.5 1.0 1.3 5.9 5.7 5.5

Construction

147.2 153.6 155.6 0.4 1.1 1.3 3.6 4.8 5.7

Manufacturing

148.7 153.9 156.0 1.6 0.9 1.4 4.9 5.1 4.9

Management, professional, and related

145.9 148.9 151.2 1.7 0.6 1.5 3.8 3.8 3.6

Sales and office

150.7 158.0 159.9 1.9 1.4 1.2 4.9 6.8 6.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

148.6 154.2 156.6 0.7 1.2 1.6 3.7 4.5 5.4

Production, transportation, and material moving

150.6 157.0 159.1 1.5 1.0 1.3 5.8 5.8 5.6

Aircraft manufacturing

153.5 155.9 158.2 2.2 0.4 1.5 2.4 3.8 3.1

Service-providing industries(3)

152.8 158.3 160.4 1.5 0.9 1.3 5.2 5.2 5.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

152.2 157.5 159.9 1.6 0.9 1.5 5.4 5.1 5.1

Management, professional, and related

148.0 152.6 154.5 1.2 0.8 1.2 4.3 4.3 4.4

Sales and office

154.7 161.1 163.2 1.9 1.1 1.3 4.7 6.1 5.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

149.6 154.5 157.2 1.4 0.8 1.7 4.5 4.7 5.1

Production, transportation, and material moving

161.5 166.9 169.1 1.4 0.8 1.3 6.4 4.8 4.7

Service occupations

163.0 170.7 173.4 2.2 1.1 1.6 8.6 7.0 6.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

156.0 161.2 163.2 1.5 0.9 1.2 6.3 4.9 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

155.4 160.8 163.4 1.5 0.9 1.6 5.7 5.0 5.1

Wholesale trade

146.5 150.8 152.6 2.0 0.7 1.2 6.8 5.0 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

147.7 152.8 155.2 1.7 0.8 1.6 5.4 5.2 5.1

Retail trade

161.4 167.8 170.2 1.5 1.0 1.4 7.4 5.5 5.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

159.0 165.2 168.3 1.7 0.8 1.9 6.9 5.7 5.8

Transportation and warehousing

158.3 162.5 164.0 0.8 1.1 0.9 4.3 3.5 3.6

Utilities

155.6 158.6 161.1 1.4 0.6 1.6 3.3 3.4 3.5

Information

146.7 151.4 153.7 1.7 1.4 1.5 4.3 4.9 4.8

Financial activities

149.8 155.2 155.7 1.4 0.7 0.3 0.2 5.0 3.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

149.2 153.5 156.4 2.2 0.5 1.9 4.6 5.1 4.8

Finance and insurance

150.5 155.9 156.0 1.1 0.7 0.1 -1.1 4.8 3.7

Credit intermediation and related activities

148.6 153.9 155.2 -1.4 0.3 0.8 6.1 2.1 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

151.0 156.2 159.4 2.4 0.5 2.0 4.8 5.9 5.6

Insurance carriers and related activities

148.9 153.7 156.5 1.8 0.5 1.8 3.5 5.1 5.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

146.2 149.7 152.8 1.8 0.5 2.1 3.6 4.2 4.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

147.2 152.2 154.5 2.3 0.6 1.5 6.0 5.8 5.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

151.9 157.1 159.3 2.2 0.8 1.4 5.9 5.7 4.9

Professional and business services

151.6 157.0 159.5 1.4 0.7 1.6 4.6 5.0 5.2

Professional, scientific, and technical services

152.3 157.5 159.9 1.2 0.4 1.5 4.2 4.7 5.0

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

154.0 159.8 162.5 1.9 0.8 1.7 6.4 5.8 5.5

Education and health services

149.1 155.4 157.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 5.4 5.6 5.6

Educational services

144.1 150.3 151.6 0.8 0.9 0.9 3.4 5.1 5.2

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

143.0 148.0 148.9 0.4 0.6 0.6 3.3 3.9 4.1

Health care and social assistance

150.2 156.5 158.7 1.5 1.5 1.4 5.8 5.7 5.7

Hospitals

150.4 156.7 159.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 5.5 5.7 5.9

Nursing and residential care facilities

151.7 159.6 161.8 1.9 1.4 1.4 7.4 7.2 6.7

Nursing care facilities(1)

150.2 158.9 160.9 1.8 1.7 1.3 7.0 7.7 7.1

Leisure and hospitality

165.3 172.3 175.3 2.2 0.7 1.7 9.0 6.6 6.0

Accommodation and food service

168.9 175.8 179.0 2.3 0.6 1.8 9.4 6.5 6.0

Other services, except public administration

154.5 158.4 161.8 1.7 0.3 2.1 6.3 4.3 4.7

Footnotes
(1) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 10. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

Bargaining status

Union

149.8 154.4 156.1 0.8 1.2 1.1 3.7 3.9 4.2

Goods-producing industries(1)

143.5 147.3 148.6 0.6 0.9 0.9 3.5 3.3 3.6

Manufacturing

142.3 146.2 147.3 0.6 1.2 0.8 4.1 3.4 3.5

Service-providing industries(2)

153.8 158.9 160.8 0.9 1.5 1.2 3.7 4.3 4.6

Nonunion

152.0 157.7 159.8 1.5 0.9 1.3 5.1 5.3 5.1

Goods-producing industries(1)

149.4 155.3 157.6 1.3 1.0 1.5 4.6 5.3 5.5

Manufacturing

150.0 155.4 157.8 1.7 0.8 1.5 5.0 5.4 5.2

Service-providing industries(2)

152.6 158.3 160.4 1.5 0.9 1.3 5.2 5.3 5.1

Census region and division(3)

Northeast

153.1 158.1 159.8 1.6 1.1 1.1 4.4 4.9 4.4

New England

159.4 165.5 165.6 2.0 1.2 0.1 5.2 5.9 3.9

Middle Atlantic

150.8 155.4 157.6 1.4 1.0 1.4 4.1 4.5 4.5

South

149.9 155.9 158.0 1.0 0.8 1.3 4.8 5.1 5.4

South Atlantic

151.9 159.1 161.4 0.9 1.0 1.4 3.8 5.6 6.3

East South Central

149.3 154.2 156.7 1.7 1.0 1.6 6.3 5.0 5.0

West South Central

146.8 151.4 153.0 0.8 0.5 1.1 5.8 4.0 4.2

Midwest

149.0 154.0 155.8 1.6 0.7 1.2 5.5 5.0 4.6

East North Central

147.3 152.4 154.3 1.6 0.9 1.2 5.6 5.1 4.8

West North Central

153.1 157.8 159.5 1.4 0.1 1.1 5.2 4.5 4.2

West

156.3 162.3 165.1 1.8 1.2 1.7 5.3 5.7 5.6

Mountain

154.6 160.1 163.2 1.8 1.2 1.9 6.4 5.4 5.6

Pacific

157.2 163.4 166.0 1.7 1.2 1.6 4.9 5.8 5.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(2) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(3) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 11. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

All workers

140.0 145.6 146.6 0.7 0.9 0.7 3.1 4.7 4.7

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

138.0 143.4 144.1 0.5 0.8 0.5 2.5 4.4 4.4

Professional and related

137.8 143.2 144.0 0.5 0.9 0.6 2.5 4.4 4.5

Sales and office

140.6 146.2 147.5 0.9 0.8 0.9 3.2 5.0 4.9

Office and administrative support

141.0 146.6 148.0 0.9 0.8 1.0 3.1 4.9 5.0

Service occupations

146.7 153.9 155.2 1.2 1.3 0.8 4.9 6.2 5.8

Industry

Education and health services

138.3 143.9 144.7 0.4 0.9 0.6 2.7 4.5 4.6

Educational services

137.3 142.8 143.4 0.4 0.8 0.4 2.4 4.5 4.4

Schools

137.3 142.8 143.4 0.4 0.8 0.4 2.5 4.5 4.4

Elementary and secondary schools

136.8 142.2 142.8 0.4 0.8 0.4 2.2 4.3 4.4

Health care and social assistance

146.7 153.9 155.4 0.8 1.5 1.0 4.5 5.7 5.9

Hospitals

145.7 152.4 154.0 0.8 1.4 1.0 4.5 5.4 5.7

Public administration

142.7 148.5 149.7 1.3 0.8 0.8 4.0 5.5 4.9

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 12. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group, industry, and bargaining status [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group, industry, and bargaining status Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

151.5 155.9 158.3 2.0 0.7 1.5 4.1 4.9 4.5

Private industry workers

All workers

146.1 150.1 152.4 2.0 0.6 1.5 4.1 4.8 4.3

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

144.2 147.9 150.5 2.1 0.7 1.8 4.0 4.7 4.4

Sales and office

148.3 153.2 155.5 2.5 0.7 1.5 4.4 5.9 4.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

147.1 150.6 151.8 1.0 0.4 0.8 3.1 3.4 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving

147.6 150.6 152.6 2.1 0.5 1.3 4.7 4.1 3.4

Service occupations

147.3 152.7 154.5 2.3 0.9 1.2 5.1 6.0 4.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

141.8 143.9 145.4 2.2 0.4 1.0 4.4 3.7 2.5

Manufacturing

141.7 143.5 145.1 2.5 0.5 1.1 5.0 3.8 2.4

Aircraft manufacturing

127.3 105.0 107.2 4.0 0.3 2.1 29.4 -14.2 -15.8

Service-providing industries(3)

147.8 152.3 154.8 2.1 0.7 1.6 4.2 5.2 4.7

Bargaining status

Union

157.2 160.2 161.6 1.1 0.6 0.9 3.2 3.0 2.8

Nonunion

143.9 148.1 150.4 2.2 0.7 1.6 4.4 5.2 4.5

State and local government workers

All workers

170.9 176.9 179.5 1.4 0.9 1.5 3.5 5.0 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 13. Employment Cost Index for total compensation and wages and salaries, for private industry workers by area [Not seasonally adjusted]
Census region and metropolitan area(1) Percent changes for 12-months ended-
Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023

Northeast

Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT CSA

5.6 5.5 3.9 6.1 5.8 4.0

New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA

4.0 5.1 4.6 4.2 5.0 4.3

Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA

4.5 4.1 5.7 4.7 4.4 6.5

South

Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA CSA

3.3 4.4 5.1 3.4 4.8 5.6

Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK CSA

4.5 5.5 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.1

Houston-The Woodlands, TX CSA

4.5 3.1 3.5 5.2 3.3 3.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL CSA

4.3 6.3 6.1 4.6 6.8 6.0

Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA CSA

3.5 4.3 5.5 3.5 4.3 5.7

Midwest

Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI CSA

3.9 4.4 3.8 3.8 4.4 3.5

Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI CSA

4.6 4.9 4.1 5.1 4.1 3.8

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI CSA

5.1 4.9 4.0 5.0 5.3 4.3

West

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA

5.2 5.7 4.7 5.6 5.9 4.9

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ MSA

5.5 4.4 4.6 6.4 5.0 5.2

San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA

3.6 4.6 4.4 3.8 4.5 4.7

Seattle-Tacoma, WA CSA

7.8 3.2 2.6 4.5 6.2 5.9

Footnotes
(1) These areas include Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) and Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Beginning with the December 2018 release, area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 13-01, dated February 28, 2013. Previous area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 04-03, dated February 18, 2004. For more information on metropolitan area definitions, see www.census.gov/programs-surveys/metro-micro.html.
(2) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Last Modified Date: April 28, 2023