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Thursday, July 12, 2012


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Occupational Employment and Wages in
Norwich-New London, May 2011

Workers in the Norwich-New London Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $21.75 in May 2011, about the same as the nationwide average of $21.74, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Regional Commissioner Deborah A. Brown noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were significantly higher than their respective national averages in 11 of the 22 major occupational groups, including production, healthcare support, and construction and extraction. Three groups had significantly lower wages than their respective national averages: sales and related, management, and transportation and material moving.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, local employment was more highly concentrated in 6 of the 22 occupational groups, including personal care and service, food preparation and serving related, and architecture and engineering. Conversely, 12 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including office and administrative support, production, and business and financial operations. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

One occupational group—food preparation and serving related—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Norwich-New London had 15,910 jobs in food preparation and serving related, accounting for 12.3 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 8.7-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $11.81, measurably above the national wage of $10.30.

With employment of 3,160, waiters and waitresses was the largest occupation within the food preparation and serving related group, followed by combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food (2,670) and food preparation workers (1,510). Among the higher paying jobs were chefs and head cooks and first-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers, with mean hourly wages of $27.54 and $18.44, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers ($9.32) and combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food ($9.52). (Detailed occupational data for food preparation and serving related are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Norwich-New London Metropolitan Statistical Area, above average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the food preparation and serving related group. For instance, both food preparation workers and fast food cooks were employed at 1.9 times the national rate in Norwich. On the other hand, combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food had a location quotient of 1.0 in Norwich, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Norwich-New London Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2011
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Norwich United States Norwich Percent

Total, all occupations

100.0% 100.0% $21.74 $21.75 0


4.8 4.4 51.64 48.71 * -6

Business and financial operations

4.8 3.2 * 33.05 31.80 -4

Computer and mathematical

2.7 1.8 * 37.85 36.98 -2

Architecture and engineering

1.8 4.4 * 37.08 37.12 0

Life, physical, and social science

0.8 1.5 32.44 35.28 * 9

Community and social service

1.5 2.0 * 21.07 23.54 * 12


0.8 0.4 * 47.30 43.87 -7

Education, training, and library

6.6 6.4 24.46 25.22 3

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3 1.1 * 25.89 24.43 -6

Healthcare practitioners and technical

5.9 5.1 * 34.97 38.90 * 11

Healthcare support

3.1 2.9 * 13.16 15.89 * 21

Protective service

2.5 2.8 * 20.54 21.68 6

Food preparation and serving related

8.7 12.3 * 10.30 11.81 * 15

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.3 3.9 * 12.29 13.11 * 7

Personal care and service

2.8 7.3 * 11.84 13.58 * 15

Sales and related

10.6 10.1 18.04 14.97 * -17

Office and administrative support

16.7 13.8 * 16.40 17.34 * 6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 ***[2] * 11.68 13.77 18

Construction and extraction

3.9 3.2 * 21.46 24.64 * 15

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 3.3 * 20.86 22.32 * 7


6.5 4.2 * 16.45 21.33 * 30

Transportation and material moving

6.7 5.8 * 15.96 14.91 * -7

[1] A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in Norwich is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.

[2] Indicates a value of less than 0.05 percent.

* The percent share of employment or mean hourly wage for this area is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Connecticut Department of Labor. The OES survey provides estimates of employment and hourly and annual wages for wage and salary workers in 22 major occupational groups and nearly 800 detailed occupations for the nation, states, metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan divisions, and nonmetropolitan areas.

OES wage and employment data for the 22 major occupational groups in the Norwich Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared to their respective national averages based on statistical significance testing. Only those occupations with wages or employment shares above or below the national wage or share after testing for significance at the 90-percent confidence level meet the criteria.

NOTE:  A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands also are surveyed, but their data are not included in the national estimates. OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Forms are mailed to approximately 200,000 establishments in May and November of each year for a 3-year period. The nationwide response rate for the May 2011 survey was 77.3 percent based on establishments and 73.3 percent based on employment. May 2011 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2011, November 2010, May 2010, November 2009, May 2009, and November 2008. The sample in the Norwich-New London Metropolitan Statistical Area included 1,700 establishments with a response rate of 82 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to

The May 2011 OES estimates mark the first set of estimates based in part on data collected using the 2010 Standard Occupational  Classification (SOC) system. Nearly all the occupations in this release are 2010 SOC occupations; however, some are not. The May 2012 OES data will reflect the full set of detailed occupations in the 2010 SOC. For a list of all occupations, including 2010 SOC occupations, and how data collected on two structures were combined, see the OES Frequently Asked Questions online at

Area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Norwich-New London, Conn. New England City and Town Area (NECTA) includes Bozrah town, CT, Canterbury town, CT, East Lyme town, CT, Franklin town, CT, Griswold town, CT, Groton town, CT, Ledyard town, CT, Lisbon town, CT, Lyme town, CT, Montville town, CT, New London city, CT, North Stonington town, CT, Norwich city, CT, Old Lyme town, CT, Preston town, CT, Salem town, CT, Sprague town, CT, Stonington town, CT, Voluntown town, CT, Waterford town, CT, and Westerly town, RI.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at If you have additional questions, contact the New England Information Office at 617-565-2327. Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request – Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD message referral phone: 1-800-877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Norwich-New London Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2011
Occupation(1) Employment Mean wages
Level(2) Location
Hourly Annual(4)

Food preparation and serving related occupations

15,910 1.4 $11.81 $24,560

Chefs and head cooks

160 1.8 27.54 57,270

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

830 1.1 18.44 38,360

Cooks, fast food

950 1.9 11.49 23,890

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

780 2.0 14.14 29,410

Cooks, restaurant

1,130 1.2 14.88 30,950

Cooks, short order

[5] [5] 12.29 25,570

Cooks, all other

30 1.5 12.21 25,390

Food preparation workers

1,510 1.9 11.55 24,020


930 1.8 10.05 20,910

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

2,670 1.0 9.52 19,800

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

780 1.8 9.55 19,860

Waiters and waitresses

3,160 1.4 12.30 25,590

Food servers, nonrestaurant

290 1.3 12.56 26,130

Dining room and cafeteria attendants, and bartender helpers

240 0.6 [5] 25,180


950 1.9 9.63 20,040

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

510 1.5 10.71 22,270

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Norwich metropolitan statistical area, see
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a 'year-round, full-time' hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimate not released.


Last Modified Date: July 12, 2012