Purpose and History of Time-Use Studies in the United States
Economists, social scientists, and other researchers design
time-use studies to find out how people allocate their time between
work, family, leisure, and other activities. Many people
increasingly feel a time crunch trying to meet all of their work
and family obligations, and time-use data provide insight into how
household members divide up these duties.
Time-use data also measure the time spent in activities such as
childcare, eldercare, and volunteer work. These activities are
currently not included in measures of domestic economic output.
Measuring these activities provides a better picture of all economic
activity performed in the United States. Time-use data also provide
more accurate information on labor for measuring productivity.
Finally, researchers use these data to compare time-use patterns
in the United States with other countries. Many industrialized
countries, such as Canada, Australia, and numerous European
countries, collect and publish time-use data on a regular basis. An
increasing number of developing countries also conduct time-use
Various organizations have conducted time-use studies in the
United States in the past. The U.S. Department of Agriculture
sponsored the earliest study during the 1920s and early 1930s. This
study primarily collected time diaries from farm housewives.
The University of Michigan and the University of Maryland
conducted the majority of the most recent time-use studies. The
University of Michigan conducted its studies in 1965, 1975–76, 1981,
and 1982. The 1965 study surveyed adults ages 18 to 64 nationwide
who lived in mainly urban areas and were employed outside the farm
sector. Subsequent University of Michigan studies included all
adults over 18 and their spouses.
The University of Maryland conducted time-use studies of
individuals nationwide in 1985, 1992–94, 1995, 1997–1998, and 2001.
The 1985 study included data collection for children over 12.
Subsequent University of Maryland studies focused mainly on adults
age 18 and over.
Periodically, other private or government organizations conducted
time-use surveys. These mainly targeted specific populations, such
as children, or residents in a specific metropolitan area.
The American Time Use Survey is the first federally-funded,
continuous time-use survey in the United States. It is sponsored by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau.
In 1991, a bill was proposed in Congress, which called for BLS to
conduct a time-use study that would be used to calculate the
monetary value of unpaid work. Although the bill did not pass, BLS
decided to pursue the possibility of a time-use survey.
Between 1991 and 1997, BLS convened various working groups that
studied the conceptual issues and feasibility of conducting a
time-use survey. In 1997, BLS conducted the first pilot study and
presented the results at a conference cosponsored by BLS and the
MacArthur Network on Family and the Economy.
The results of the pilot study were well-received, and BLS
convened another working group that developed a more detailed plan.
This plan became the foundation of the current American Time Use
Survey. In 1999, BLS presented this proposal at a workshop sponsored
by the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy workshop
endorsed the BLS proposal, and development continued.
In 2000, the survey received official government approval and
funding, and interagency collaboration between BLS and the U.S.
Census Bureau began. The two agencies conducted a field test in 2001
and 2002. The American Time Use Survey went into full production in
January 2003. Data are released annually.
Last Modified Date: October 29, 2015