News Release Information

16-2157-DAL
Wednesday, November 23, 2016

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Technical information:
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Business Employment Dynamics in Texas – First Quarter 2016

From December 2015 to March 2016 gross job losses in private sector establishments in Texas totaled 543,545, while gross job gains numbered 460,303, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Assistant Commissioner for Regional Operations Stanley W. Suchman noted that gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 83,242. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 57,002.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

Over the longer term, gross job losses in Texas have trended upward since the recent low of 433,128 recorded in March 2011. (See chart 1.) More recently, gross job losses were little changed in the state since March 2015 when they rose sharply to 556,791–the highest level recorded since June 2009. Gross job gains had been generally trending upward since the series low of 436,521 in June 2009. However, in March 2016, Texas gross job gains fell to 460,303, a level not seen since September 2009 when the state was emerging from the national recession.

Gross job losses represented 5.5 percent of private sector employment in Texas in the quarter ended March 2016, while nationally gross job losses accounted for 5.7 percent of private sector employment. (See chart 2.) Despite a large rise in March 2015, the rate of gross job losses in Texas has generally remained below the U.S. rate since the series inception in September 1992. In March 2016 the state’s rate of gross job gain as a percent of private sector employment fell to 4.7 percent compared to the national rate of 5.8 percent. The rate of gross job gains in Texas has been below the U.S. rate in every quarter since March 2009 and generally below the U.S. rate since the series began. Still, March 2016 was the lowest rate of gross job gains in the state since the series began.

During the first quarter of 2016, Texas gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in 10 of the 11 industry sectors. For example, within professional and business services, opening and expanding establishments added nearly 91,000 jobs, while closing and contracting establishments lost more than 109,900 jobs. The resulting net loss of 18,945 jobs was the largest of any Texas sector in the first quarter of 2016. In manufacturing, about 25,000 jobs were created at opening and expanding establishments, but more than 35,000 jobs were lost at closing and contracting establishments, resulting in a net loss of 10,346 jobs. Texas’s wholesale trade sector lost 8,003 jobs resulting from approximately 22,100 gross job gains in opening and expanding establishments, and nearly 30,100 job losses in closing and contracting establishments. Opening and expanding establishments in transportation and warehousing added nearly 17,700 jobs while losing more than 24,000 jobs at closing and contracting establishments, for a net loss of 6,307. (See table 1.)

Retail trade was the only Texas sector in which gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in March 2016. With approximately 67,100 gross jobs gains in opening and expanding establishments and about 65,000 jobs losses in closing and contracting establishments, this sector added 2,008 jobs.

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics for Second Quarter 2016 are scheduled to be released on Wednesday, January 25, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).

Revisions to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data

Data in this release incorporate annual revisions to the BED series. Annual revisions are published each year with the release of first quarter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted data and five years of seasonally adjusted data.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or the ES-202 program. The BED data are compiled from existing quarterly QCEW records. The QCEW reports are sent by the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs) to BLS and form the basis of the Bureau’s QCEW program and establishment universe sampling frame. These reports are also used to produce the QCEW data on total employment and wages. Other important Bureau uses of the QCEW reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, net changes, and earnings by detailed industry.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request: voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Texas, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Mar.
2015
June
2015
Sept.
2015
Dec.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
June
2015
Sept.
2015
Dec.
2015
Mar.
2016

Total private (1)

 

Gross job gains

563,722 581,041 587,566 600,731 460,303 5.8 6.0 5.9 6.1 4.7

At expanding establishments

459,228 486,326 494,647 506,618 413,737 4.7 5.0 5.0 5.1 4.2

At opening establishments

104,494 94,715 92,919 94,113 46,566 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.5

Gross job losses

556,791 547,248 549,814 543,729 543,545 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5

At contracting establishments

477,643 466,340 466,406 454,592 462,095 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.7

At closing establishments

79,148 80,908 83,408 89,137 81,450 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8

Net employment change (2)

6,931 33,793 37,752 57,002 -83,242 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.6 -0.8

Construction

 

Gross job gains

55,993 55,391 59,120 57,533 48,167 8.3 8.1 8.6 8.3 6.9

At expanding establishments

47,975 47,850 52,152 49,788 45,185 7.1 7.0 7.6 7.2 6.5

At opening establishments

8,018 7,541 6,968 7,745 2,982 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 0.4

Gross job losses

53,799 51,665 53,645 50,757 52,777 8.0 7.6 7.8 7.4 7.6

At contracting establishments

47,807 44,418 46,607 43,914 45,552 7.1 6.5 6.8 6.4 6.6

At closing establishments

5,992 7,247 7,038 6,843 7,225 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0

Net employment change (2)

2,194 3,726 5,475 6,776 -4,610 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.9 -0.7

Manufacturing

 

Gross job gains

27,549 27,831 25,949 28,208 25,001 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.3 2.9

At expanding establishments

24,753 25,043 23,480 25,704 23,826 2.8 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.8

At opening establishments

2,796 2,788 2,469 2,504 1,175 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1

Gross job losses

36,623 39,681 38,356 36,478 35,347 4.1 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.1

At contracting establishments

33,677 36,738 35,018 32,643 31,826 3.8 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.7

At closing establishments

2,946 2,943 3,338 3,835 3,521 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4

Net employment change (2)

-9,074 -11,850 -12,407 -8,270 -10,346 -1.0 -1.3 -1.4 -0.9 -1.2

Wholesale trade

 

Gross job gains

27,272 27,292 28,694 34,602 22,063 4.6 4.6 4.8 5.8 3.7

At expanding establishments

21,596 23,208 24,327 29,823 19,894 3.6 3.9 4.1 5.0 3.3

At opening establishments

5,676 4,084 4,367 4,779 2,169 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.4

Gross job losses

26,015 27,585 25,380 27,318 30,066 4.3 4.6 4.2 4.6 5.1

At contracting establishments

21,615 23,192 20,949 22,040 25,333 3.6 3.9 3.5 3.7 4.3

At closing establishments

4,400 4,393 4,431 5,278 4,733 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.8

Net employment change (2)

1,257 -293 3,314 7,284 -8,003 0.3 0.0 0.6 1.2 -1.4

Retail trade

 

Gross job gains

76,298 79,893 74,223 71,336 67,055 6.0 6.2 5.7 5.5 5.2

At expanding establishments

63,536 68,840 63,850 62,563 61,144 5.0 5.3 4.9 4.8 4.7

At opening establishments

12,762 11,053 10,373 8,773 5,911 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.5

Gross job losses

66,114 58,150 69,148 70,483 65,047 5.2 4.5 5.3 5.4 5.0

At contracting establishments

57,741 50,995 61,888 62,990 58,329 4.5 3.9 4.7 4.8 4.5

At closing establishments

8,373 7,155 7,260 7,493 6,718 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5

Net employment change (2)

10,184 21,743 5,075 853 2,008 0.8 1.7 0.4 0.1 0.2

Transportation and warehousing

 

Gross job gains

23,280 23,194 24,255 27,398 17,699 5.4 5.4 5.7 6.3 4.0

At expanding establishments

19,893 19,251 20,884 25,236 16,192 4.6 4.5 4.9 5.8 3.7

At opening establishments

3,387 3,943 3,371 2,162 1,507 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.3

Gross job losses

24,330 21,798 23,400 22,033 24,006 5.7 5.1 5.5 5.1 5.5

At contracting establishments

21,843 19,094 19,703 19,023 21,349 5.1 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.9

At closing establishments

2,487 2,704 3,697 3,010 2,657 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.6

Net employment change (2)

-1,050 1,396 855 5,365 -6,307 -0.3 0.3 0.2 1.2 -1.5

Information

 

Gross job gains

8,422 10,002 9,505 11,219 6,454 4.3 5.0 4.7 5.5 3.2

At expanding establishments

7,519 8,736 8,305 9,549 5,687 3.8 4.4 4.1 4.7 2.8

At opening establishments

903 1,266 1,200 1,670 767 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.4

Gross job losses

8,909 7,711 9,974 9,294 8,983 4.5 3.9 5.0 4.6 4.5

At contracting establishments

7,365 6,330 8,440 7,714 7,644 3.7 3.2 4.2 3.8 3.8

At closing establishments

1,544 1,381 1,534 1,580 1,339 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7

Net employment change (2)

-487 2,291 -469 1,925 -2,529 -0.2 1.1 -0.3 0.9 -1.3

Financial activities

 

Gross job gains

32,561 36,409 36,180 36,782 26,809 4.6 5.2 5.1 5.2 3.8

At expanding establishments

25,415 29,397 29,562 28,990 22,677 3.6 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.2

At opening establishments

7,146 7,012 6,618 7,792 4,132 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.6

Gross job losses

30,452 32,475 31,294 32,125 29,578 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.1

At contracting establishments

25,005 25,823 24,651 25,276 22,892 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.2

At closing establishments

5,447 6,652 6,643 6,849 6,686 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9

Net employment change (2)

2,109 3,934 4,886 4,657 -2,769 0.2 0.6 0.7 0.6 -0.3

Professional and business services

 

Gross job gains

113,000 109,970 114,792 120,946 90,998 7.1 6.9 7.2 7.5 5.7

At expanding establishments

92,332 90,826 95,179 98,884 81,382 5.8 5.7 6.0 6.1 5.1

At opening establishments

20,668 19,144 19,613 22,062 9,616 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.4 0.6

Gross job losses

111,161 108,915 102,151 102,562 109,943 7.0 6.9 6.4 6.3 6.8

At contracting establishments

92,100 92,020 83,582 82,480 92,114 5.8 5.8 5.2 5.1 5.7

At closing establishments

19,061 16,895 18,569 20,082 17,829 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1

Net employment change (2)

1,839 1,055 12,641 18,384 -18,945 0.1 0.0 0.8 1.2 -1.1

Education and health services

 

Gross job gains

69,497 74,134 74,051 77,661 55,829 4.6 4.9 4.9 5.0 3.6

At expanding establishments

56,909 62,945 62,520 66,394 49,185 3.8 4.2 4.1 4.3 3.2

At opening establishments

12,588 11,189 11,531 11,267 6,644 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.4

Gross job losses

60,860 58,346 60,207 58,356 60,631 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.9

At contracting establishments

51,114 47,404 48,972 44,345 49,567 3.4 3.1 3.2 2.9 3.2

At closing establishments

9,746 10,942 11,235 14,011 11,064 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.7

Net employment change (2)

8,637 15,788 13,844 19,305 -4,802 0.5 1.1 1.0 1.2 -0.3

Leisure and hospitality

 

Gross job gains

89,828 95,615 98,078 95,362 70,391 7.3 7.7 7.8 7.5 5.5

At expanding establishments

68,563 76,774 80,126 77,472 62,401 5.6 6.2 6.4 6.1 4.9

At opening establishments

21,265 18,841 17,952 17,890 7,990 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.4 0.6

Gross job losses

76,437 78,837 81,757 81,465 75,955 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.4 6.0

At contracting establishments

65,222 66,675 70,001 69,747 64,484 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.5 5.1

At closing establishments

11,215 12,162 11,756 11,718 11,471 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9

Net employment change (2)

13,391 16,778 16,321 13,897 -5,564 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.1 -0.5

Other services (3)

 

Gross job gains

20,557 22,577 22,052 20,365 16,204 7.0 7.7 7.4 6.9 5.5

At expanding establishments

16,162 18,366 17,495 16,185 13,991 5.5 6.3 5.9 5.5 4.7

At opening establishments

4,395 4,211 4,557 4,180 2,213 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.4 0.8

Gross job losses

21,199 19,219 20,579 20,538 20,584 7.2 6.6 7.0 6.9 7.0

At contracting establishments

17,354 15,463 16,482 16,736 16,015 5.9 5.3 5.6 5.6 5.4

At closing establishments

3,845 3,756 4,097 3,802 4,569 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.6

Net employment change (2)

-642 3,358 1,473 -173 -4,380 -0.2 1.1 0.4 0.0 -1.5

(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.


Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
State Gross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Mar.
2015
June
2015
Sept.
2015
Dec.
2015
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2015
June
2015
Sept.
2015
Dec.
2015
Mar.
2016

United States (1)

6.0 6.4 6.3 6.6 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.7

Alabama

5.7 5.9 5.8 6.2 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.5 5.3 5.4

Alaska

10.4 10.6 9.1 9.6 9.4 9.3 10.9 10.3 10.5 9.7

Arizona

6.0 6.0 6.8 6.9 6.0 5.7 5.7 5.4 5.4 5.7

Arkansas

5.4 6.0 6.1 6.3 5.4 5.8 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3

California

7.0 6.9 6.9 7.6 6.5 6.2 6.5 5.9 6.7 6.3

Colorado

6.8 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.6 6.2 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.1

Connecticut

4.9 5.7 5.1 5.5 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.9 4.9 5.0

Delaware

5.8 7.7 6.1 7.3 6.5 7.3 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.4

District of Columbia

5.8 6.1 6.1 6.2 5.2 5.2 5.8 5.4 4.6 5.6

Florida

6.4 7.0 6.9 7.2 6.1 5.6 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.8

Georgia

6.3 6.7 6.5 6.9 6.1 5.8 5.8 5.9 5.7 5.6

Hawaii

5.1 4.9 5.1 5.8 4.9 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.9

Idaho

9.0 7.6 7.8 7.9 8.2 7.1 7.2 7.0 6.9 6.3

Illinois

5.8 6.1 5.4 6.4 5.3 5.7 5.2 5.8 5.6 5.4

Indiana

5.4 5.7 5.5 6.2 5.5 5.4 5.2 5.3 4.9 5.3

Iowa

6.0 6.0 5.7 6.0 6.0 5.5 6.0 6.0 5.7 5.3

Kansas

5.7 6.0 5.7 6.2 5.8 5.8 5.9 5.8 5.6 5.9

Kentucky

5.6 6.4 6.1 6.7 5.7 6.1 5.5 5.7 5.4 5.8

Louisiana

6.1 6.4 6.2 6.5 6.0 6.8 6.8 6.2 6.4 6.6

Maine

6.6 8.3 6.6 8.6 8.0 7.1 6.5 7.1 7.1 6.9

Maryland

6.0 7.1 6.5 6.8 6.2 6.2 5.9 6.2 5.9 6.0

Massachusetts

5.4 6.4 5.4 5.9 5.2 5.5 5.1 5.6 5.2 5.0

Michigan

5.3 6.1 5.4 6.1 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.6 5.3 4.9

Minnesota

5.6 6.1 5.4 6.1 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.8 5.7 5.2

Mississippi

5.7 6.5 6.2 7.1 5.7 6.4 5.9 5.9 5.4 6.1

Missouri

5.6 6.0 5.7 6.3 5.7 5.4 5.2 5.5 5.3 5.3

Montana

9.2 8.0 7.6 8.5 7.8 7.2 8.4 7.7 7.3 7.2

Nebraska

6.1 5.9 6.0 6.1 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.5

Nevada

6.3 6.2 6.2 6.8 6.3 5.3 5.8 5.6 5.3 5.7

New Hampshire

5.8 6.8 6.1 6.7 6.0 5.7 6.0 6.4 5.6 5.8

New Jersey

6.0 7.1 6.3 6.7 5.9 6.3 6.0 6.2 5.9 5.9

New Mexico

6.5 6.8 6.5 7.0 6.2 6.7 6.9 6.6 6.9 6.3

New York

6.0 6.7 6.3 6.4 6.1 5.9 5.8 6.0 5.7 5.7

North Carolina

5.9 6.4 6.3 6.7 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.7 5.5 5.6

North Dakota

7.1 6.7 7.1 6.7 6.6 8.6 11.2 8.5 8.1 8.9

Ohio

5.5 6.0 5.5 6.0 5.4 5.6 5.2 5.6 5.1 5.1

Oklahoma

5.7 6.0 6.1 6.3 5.7 6.3 6.6 6.1 6.5 6.4

Oregon

7.0 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.0 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.2 5.8

Pennsylvania

4.9 5.6 5.3 5.7 5.4 5.3 4.9 5.3 5.1 5.2

Rhode Island

5.4 6.7 5.8 6.6 5.8 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.9

South Carolina

5.7 6.5 6.1 7.1 6.1 5.6 5.5 5.8 5.3 5.8

South Dakota

6.3 6.3 5.9 6.7 6.2 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.9 6.1

Tennessee

5.2 6.0 5.8 6.3 5.2 5.3 4.8 5.1 4.8 5.1

Texas

5.8 6.0 5.9 6.1 4.7 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5

Utah

7.4 6.9 7.0 7.2 7.3 6.0 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.9

Vermont

6.9 7.3 6.9 7.2 6.6 6.7 6.9 7.7 6.5 6.9

Virginia

6.1 6.5 7.1 6.4 5.9 5.6 5.4 5.8 5.6 5.9

Washington

6.9 7.3 6.7 6.8 7.1 6.4 6.1 6.8 6.2 5.6

West Virginia

6.0 6.4 5.8 6.6 5.9 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.3 6.9

Wisconsin

5.5 5.7 5.6 6.0 5.6 5.2 5.2 5.6 5.2 5.2

Wyoming

9.1 7.9 8.5 9.0 7.9 8.9 11.0 9.2 9.3 9.4

Puerto Rico

5.3 5.7 5.9 6.3 5.7 6.4 6.2 6.3 5.7 6.0

Virgin Islands

5.7 6.5 6.0 7.3 5.7 5.8 6.8 7.3 5.3 5.4

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Wednesday, November 23, 2016