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Tuesday, June 16, 2015


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Occupational Employment and Wages in Harrisburg-Carlisle – May 2014

Workers in the Harrisburg-Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $22.02 in May 2014, about 3 percent below the nationwide average of $22.71, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Sheila Watkins, the Bureau’s regional commissioner, noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were significantly lower than their respective national averages in 11 of the 22 major occupational groups, including architecture and engineering; computer and mathematical; and arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Harrisburg-Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2014
Major occupational group Employment share (percent of total) Average (mean) hourly wage
United States Harrisburg-Carlisle Significant difference (1) United States Harrisburg-Carlisle Significant difference (1) Percent difference (2)

Total, all occupations

100.0% 100.0%   $22.71 $22.02 No -3


5.0 4.0 Yes 54.08 50.57 Yes -6

Business and financial operations

5.1 6.6 Yes 34.81 30.73 Yes -12

Computer and mathematical

2.8 3.5 Yes 40.37 34.59 Yes -14

Architecture and engineering

1.8 1.7 No 39.19 33.29 Yes -15

Life, physical, and social science

0.8 0.8 No 33.69 29.87 Yes -11

Community and social service

1.4 1.9 Yes 21.79 20.53 Yes -6


0.8 1.0 Yes 48.61 45.10 No -7

Education, training, and library

6.2 5.4 Yes 25.10 28.59 No 14

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3 1.1 Yes 26.82 22.70 Yes -15

Healthcare practitioners and technical

5.8 6.3 Yes 36.54 36.82 No 1

Healthcare support

2.9 2.7 No 13.86 13.69 No -1

Protective service

2.4 1.9 Yes 21.14 21.77 No 3

Food preparation and serving related

9.1 8.0 Yes 10.57 10.20 Yes -4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.2 2.7 Yes 12.68 12.05 Yes -5

Personal care and service

3.1 3.4 No 12.01 12.43 No 3

Sales and related

10.5 9.1 Yes 18.59 17.76 Yes -4

Office and administrative support

16.0 18.8 Yes 17.08 17.02 No 0

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 0.1 Yes 12.09 15.76 Yes 30

Construction and extraction

3.9 2.9 Yes 22.40 21.87 No -2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 3.8 No 21.74 21.13 Yes -3


6.6 4.5 Yes 17.06 16.57 No -3

Transportation and material moving

6.8 9.7 Yes 16.57 16.55 No 0

(1) Statistical significance testing at the 90-percent confidence level.
(2) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in Harrisburg is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, Harrisburg employment shares were significantly higher in 7 of the 22 occupational groups, including transportation and material moving, office and administrative support, and business and financial operations. Conversely, 10 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation including production, sales and related, and food preparation and serving related.

One occupational group—transportation and material moving—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Harrisburg had 30,130 jobs in transportation and material moving, accounting for 9.7 percent of local area employment, significantly above the national share of 6.8 percent. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $16.55, similar to the national wage of $16.57.

With employment of 10,010, hand laborers and freight, stock, and material movers was the largest occupation within the transportation and material moving group, followed by heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers (5,870). Among the higher-paying jobs were first-line supervisors of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators, with a mean hourly wage of $29.06, and first-line supervisors of hand helpers, laborers, and material movers with a wage of $24.77. At the lower end of the wage scale were driver/sales workers ($10.64) and hand packers and packagers ($10.90). (Detailed occupational data for transportation and material moving are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area as it does nationally. In the Harrisburg area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in several of the occupations within the transportation and material moving group. For instance, hand packers and packagers were employed at just over twice the national rate in Harrisburg. In contrast, light truck or delivery services drivers had a location quotient of 1.3 in Harrisburg, indicating that this particular occupation’s local employment share was similar to the national share.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry.


OES wage and employment data for the 22 major occupational groups in the Harrisburg-Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared to their respective national averages based on statistical significance testing. Only those occupations with wages or employment shares above or below the national wage or share after testing for significance at the 90-percent confidence level meet the criteria.

NOTE: A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are also surveyed, but their data are not included in the national estimates. OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Each year, forms are mailed to two semiannual panels of approximately 200,000 sampled establishments, one panel in May and the other in November. May 2014 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2014, November 2013, May 2013, November 2012, May 2012, and November 2011. The overall national response rate for the six panels is 74.3 percent based on establishments and 70.5 percent based on employment. The sample in the Harrisburg-Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area included 2,703 establishments with a response rate of 74 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to

The OES survey provides estimates of employment and hourly and annual wages for wage and salary workers in 22 major occupational groups and 821 detailed occupations for the nation, states, metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan divisions, and nonmetropolitan areas. In addition, employment and wage estimates for 94 minor groups and 458 broad occupations are available in the national data. OES data by state and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area are available from and, respectively.

The May 2014 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at

Area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Harrisburg-Carlisle, Pa. Metropolitan Statistical Area includes Cumberland, Dauphin, and Perry Counties in Pennsylvania.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request – Voice phone: 202-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Harrisburg-Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2014
Occupation (1) Employment (2) Mean wage
Level Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual (4)

Transportation and material moving occupations

30,130 1.4 $16.55 $34,430

First-line supervisors of helpers, laborers, and material movers, hand

640 1.6 24.77 51,510

First-line supervisors of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators

560 1.2 29.06 60,440

Bus drivers, transit and intercity

250 0.7 21.53 44,770

Bus drivers, school or special client

1,450 1.3 13.50 28,070

Driver/sales workers

1,470 1.6 10.64 22,140

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

5,870 1.6 22.39 46,570

Light truck or delivery services drivers

2,420 1.3 15.79 32,840

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

530 1.3 11.48 23,880

Motor vehicle operators, all other

70 0.5 18.24 37,950

Parking lot attendants

40 0.1 11.28 23,460

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

(5) (5) 9.92 20,630

Transportation workers, all other

60 0.7 25.84 53,760

Crane and tower operators

110 1.1 26.74 55,610

Industrial truck and tractor operators

2,220 1.9 17.50 36,400

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

440 0.6 11.70 24,330

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

10,010 1.8 15.18 31,570

Machine feeders and offbearers

80 0.3 14.75 30,680

Packers and packagers, hand

3,350 2.1 10.90 22,680

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

(5) (5) 12.28 25,550

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Harrisburg-Carlisle MSA, see
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a 'year-round, full time' hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimate not released.


Last Modified Date: Tuesday, June 16, 2015