Minimum wage workers account for 4.3 percent of hourly paid workers in 2013
April 03, 2014
In 2013, there were 3.3 million hourly paid workers in the United States with wages at or below the federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. These workers made up 4.3 percent of the 75.9 million workers age 16 and over who were paid at hourly rates. In 2013, about 5 percent of women who were paid hourly rates had wages at or below the federal minimum, compared with about 3 percent of men.
Note: Data for 1990–1991, 1996–1997, and 2007–2009 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place during those years.
The percentage of hourly paid workers earning the federal minimum wage or less declined from 4.7 percent in 2012 to 4.3 percent in 2013. This remains well below the figure of 13.4 percent in 1979, when data were first collected on a regular basis.
Among occupational groups, the highest percentage of hourly paid workers earning at or below the federal minimum wage was in food preparation and serving‑related jobs, at about 22 percent. Nearly half of the 3.3 million workers earning the federal minimum wage or less in 2013 were employed in these jobs.
Total, 16 years and older
Management, professional, and related occupations
Management, business, and financial operations occupations
Professional and related occupations
Healthcare support occupations
Protective service occupations
Food preparation and serving related occupations
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations
Personal care and service occupations
Sales and office occupations
Sales and related occupations
Office and administrative support occupations
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations
Construction and extraction occupations
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations
Transportation and material moving occupations
These data are from the Current Population Survey. For more information, see Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers, 2013 (PDF). Data are for wage and salary workers age 16 and older and refer to earnings on a person's sole or principal job. Hourly earnings for hourly paid workers do not include overtime pay, commissions, or tips received. The estimates of the number of workers with reported earnings at or below the federal minimum wage pertain only to workers who are paid hourly rates. Salaried workers and other nonhourly paid workers are excluded. All self-employed persons also are excluded, regardless of whether their businesses are incorporated.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, Minimum wage workers account for 4.3 percent of hourly paid workers in 2013 on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2014/ted_20140403.htm (visited December 10, 2016).
Recent editions of Spotlight on Statistics
Workplace injuries and illnesses and employer costs for workers’ compensation
Workplace injury and illness data and the costs to employers for workers’ compensation in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations.
A look at the future of the U.S. labor force to 2060
Projected long-term trends in the growth, size, and composition of the labor force.
Union membership in the United States
Historical trends in union membership among employed wage and salary workers; union membership by a variety of demographic characteristics.
A look at healthcare spending, employment, pay, benefits, and prices
Spending on healthcare, current and projected employment in the industry, employer-provided healthcare benefits, healthcare prices, and pay for workers in healthcare occupations.
Self-employment in the United States
Trends in self-employment by various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, including both the unincorporated and the incorporated self-employed, as well as data on paid employees who work for the self-employed.