Acknowledgments and Important Note


The Bureau of Labor Statistics produced the Occupational Outlook Handbook under the general guidance and direction of Dixie Sommers, Assistant Commissioner for Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, and Kristina J. Bartsch, Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections. Roger J. Moncarz and Teresa L. Morisi, Managers of Occupational Outlook Studies, provided planning and day-to-day direction.

Supervisors overseeing the research and preparation of material were Alissa Emmel, Henry T. Kasper, T. Alan Lacey, and Michael Wolf. Occupational analysts who contributed material were Domingo Angeles, Adam Bibler, Lauren Csorny, Tamara Dillon, Christopher Harper, Stanislava Ilic-Godfrey, David Kay, Jonathan Kelinson, Erin Lane, William Lawhorn, Daniel Leffel, Rebecca Madden Sturges, Kevin M. McCarron, Alice Ramey, Michael J. Rieley, Emily Richards, Craig Stalzer, Megan Sweitzer, Patricia Tate, Colleen D. Teixeira Moffat, Jeffrey Wilkins, and Alan Zilberman. Other staff members who contributed material were Jeffrey Gruenert, James Hamilton, Drew Liming, C. Brett Lockard, Brian Roberts, and Elka Maria Torpey.

Kathleen Green and Drew Liming, Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, and Janice (Ginny) Redish provided editorial work. Editorial work also was provided by Brian I. Baker, Edith S. Baker, Monica R. Gabor, Charlotte M. Irby, Lawrence H. Leith, Carol Boyd Leon, Maureen Soyars, and James Titkemeyer, all of the Office of Publications and Special Studies, and Richard M. Devens, formerly of the Office of Publications and Special Studies, all under the supervision of Leslie Brown Joyner and Terry L. Schau, Branch Chiefs, Editorial Services. Data processing and technical support was provided by C. Brett Lockard, Brian Roberts, D. Terkanian, and Dalton B. Terrell, under the supervision of Michael Wolf.  Technical and computer programming support was provided by David Brumage, Daniel Murphy, Bakul Patel, Jerie Refugia, Dinara Sagatova, Roopa Sengupta, Connie Sielaff, Reginald Simmons, and Jo-Ann Yu, all of the Office of Technology and Survey Processing, under the supervision of Amrit Kohli, Divsion Chief, Enterprise Web Systems. Design and usability support was provided by Jean Fox, Brandon Kopp, and William Mockovak, all of the Office of Survey Methods Research. The cover art was designed by Keith Tapscott, Office of Publications and Special Studies.

The majority of photographs used in the Handbook are stock photographs; however, the Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to express its appreciation to the organizations who contributed photographs. Situations portrayed in the photographs may not be free of every possible safety or health hazard. Depiction of a company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of Labor.

Important Note

Many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial organizations, and government agencies provide career information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organizations and their Internet addresses are listed at the end of each occupational profile. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has neither the authority nor the facilities for investigating the organizations or the information or publications that may be sent in response to a request. As a result, the Bureau cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information and the listing of an organization does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recommendation by the Bureau, either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue.

The Handbook describes the job outlook over a projected 10-year period for occupations across the nation; consequently, short-term labor market fluctuations and regional differences in job outlook generally are not discussed. Similarly, the Handbook provides a general, composite description of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended, and should never be used, for any legal purpose. For example, the Handbook should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours of work, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Nor should earnings data in the Handbook be used to compute future loss of earnings in adjudication proceedings involving work injuries or accidental deaths.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has no role in establishing educational, licensing, or practicing standards for any occupation; any such standards are established by national accrediting organizations and are merely reported by BLS in the Handbook.  The education information provided by the Handbook pertains to the typical requirements for entry into that occupation and does not describe the education and training of those individuals already employed in the occupation.  In addition, education requirements for occupations may change over time and often vary by employer or state.  Therefore, the information in the Handbook should not be used to determine if an applicant is qualified to enter a specific job in an occupation.

All text, charts, and tables are in the public domain, and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Most photographs and illustrations are protected by copyright. Comments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome. Address all comments to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE, Room 2135, Washington, DC 20212. Phone: (202) 691-5700. FAX: (202) 691-5745. Email: Contact us. Additional information is available on the Home Page. Information in the Handbook is available to sensory-impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Publish Date: Thursday, April 26, 2012