Data for Occupations Not Covered in Detail

Although employment for hundreds of occupations are covered in detail in the Occupational Outlook Handbook, this page presents summary data on additional occupations for which employment projections are prepared but detailed occupational information is not developed. For each occupation, the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) code, the occupational definition, 2012 employment, the May 2012 median annual wage, the projected employment change and growth rate from 2012 to 2022, and education and training categories are presented.

Occupational Groups (Note—click a link below to scroll the page to the occupational group):

Management Occupations

Business and Financial Occupations

Math Occupations

Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations

Community and Social Service Occupations

Legal Occupations

Education Occupations

Arts and Design Occupations

Media and Communication Occupations

Healthcare Occupations

Protective Service Occupations

Food Preparation and Serving Occupations

Building and Grounds Cleaning Occupations

Personal Care and Service Occupations

Sales Occupations

Office and Administrative Support Occupations

Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations

Construction and Extraction Occupations

Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations

Production Occupations

Transportation and Material Moving Occupations

 

Management Occupations 

Legislators

(O*NET 11-1031.00)

Develop, introduce, or enact laws and statutes at the local, tribal, state, or federal level. Includes only workers in elected positions.

  • 2012 employment: 58,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $19,780
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,700
    • Growth rate: 6 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers

(O*NET 11-3071.00, 11-3071.01, 11-3071.02, and 11-3071.03)

Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations. Includes logistics managers.

  • 2012 employment: 105,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $81,830
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 5,100
    • Growth rate: 5 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: 5 years or more
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Postmasters and Mail Superintendents

(O*NET 11-9131.00)

Plan, direct, or coordinate operational, administrative, management, and supportive services of a U.S. post office. Also coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and related work in assigned post office.

  • 2012 employment: 23,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $63,050
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –5,600
    • Growth rate: –24 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

 

Business and Financial Occupations 

Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes

(O*NET 13-1011.00)

Represent and promote artists, performers, and athletes in dealings with current or prospective employers. May handle contract negotiations and other business matters for clients.

  • 2012 employment: 18,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $63,370
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,800
    • Growth rate: 10 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Compliance Officers

(O*NET 13-1041.00, 13-1041.01, 13-1041.02, 13-1041.03, 13-1041.04, 13-1041.06, and 13-1041.07)

Examine, evaluate, and investigate eligibility for or conformity with laws and regulations governing contract compliance of licenses and permits. Perform other compliance and enforcement inspection and analysis activities not classified elsewhere. Excludes "Financial Examiners" (13-2061), “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents" (13-2081), “Occupational Health and Safety Specialists” (29-9011), “Occupational Health and Safety Technicians” (29-9012), "Transportation Security Screeners" (33-9093), “Agricultural Inspectors” (45-2011), “Construction and Building Inspectors” (47-4011), and “Transportation Inspectors” (53-6051).

  • 2012 employment: 239,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $62,020
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 11,000
    • Growth rate: 5 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Credit Analysts

(O*NET 13-2041.00)

Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money. Prepare reports with credit information for use in decisionmaking.

  • 2012 employment: 61,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $61,080
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 6,400
    • Growth rate: 10 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Credit Counselors

(O*NET 13-2071.00 and 13-2071.01)

Advise and educate individuals or organizations on acquiring and managing debt. May provide guidance in determining the best type of loan and may explain loan requirements or restrictions. May help develop debt management plans, advise on credit issues, or provide budget, mortgage, and bankruptcy counseling.

  • 2012 employment: 30,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $39,420
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 6,400
    • Growth rate: 21 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tax Preparers

(O*NET 13-2082.00)

Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses. Excludes “Accountants and Auditors” (13-2011).

  • 2012 employment: 87,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $33,730
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 8,700
    • Growth rate: 10 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

 

Math Occupations 

Mathematical Technicians

(O*NET 15-2091.00)

Apply standardized mathematical formulas, principles, and methodology to technological problems in engineering and physical sciences in relation to specific industrial and research objectives, processes, equipment, and products.

  • 2012 employment: 1,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $56,820
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 200
    • Growth rate: 13 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

 

Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations 

Social Science Research Assistants

(O*NET 19-4061.00 and 19-4061.01)

Assist social scientists in laboratory, survey, and other research. May help prepare findings for publication and assist in laboratory analysis, quality control, or data management. Excludes “Graduate Teaching Assistants" (25-1191).

  • 2012 employment: 29,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $37,140
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 4,400
    • Growth rate: 15 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Associate’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

 

Community and Social Service Occupations 

Clergy

(O*NET 21-2011.00)

Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faiths or denominations. Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.

  • 2012 employment: 239,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $44,060
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 23,600
    • Growth rate: 10 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Directors, Religious Activities and Education

(O*NET 21-2021.00)

Plan, direct, or coordinate programs designed to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group. May provide counseling and guidance for marital, health, financial, and religious problems.

  • 2012 employment: 134,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $37,280
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 11,300
    • Growth rate: 8 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

 

Legal Occupations 

Judicial Law Clerks

(O*NET 23-1012.00)

Assist judges in court or by conducting research or preparing legal documents. Excludes "Lawyers" (23-1011) and "Paralegals and Legal Assistants" (23-2011).

  • 2012 employment: 12,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $47,120
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 500
    • Growth rate: 4 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Doctoral or professional degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers

(O*NET 23-2093.00)

Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents. May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies.

  • 2012 employment: 67,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $41,970
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 6,200
    • Growth rate: 9 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

 

Education Occupations 

Graduate Teaching Assistants

(O*NET 25-1191.00)

Assist faculty or other instructional staff in postsecondary institutions by performing teaching or teaching-related duties, such as teaching lower level courses, developing teaching materials, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers. Excludes “Teacher Assistants” (25-9041).

  • 2012 employment: 150,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $31,270
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 15,500
    • Growth rate: 10 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Home Economics Teachers, Postsecondary

(O*NET 25-1192.00)

Teach courses in childcare, family relations, finance, nutrition, and related subjects pertaining to home management. Includes both teachers engaged primarily in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

  • 2012 employment: 5,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $64,040
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 500
    • Growth rate: 10 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Master’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary

(O*NET 25-1193.00)

Teach courses pertaining to recreation, leisure, and fitness studies, including exercise physiology and facilities management. Includes both teachers engaged primarily in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

  • 2012 employment: 23,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $57,920
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 2,800
    • Growth rate: 12 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Doctoral or professional degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Self-Enrichment Education Teachers

(O*NET 25-3021.00)

Teach or instruct courses other than those which normally lead to an occupational objective or degree. Courses may include self-improvement, nonvocational, and nonacademic subjects. Teaching may or may not take place in a traditional educational institution. Excludes “Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors” (39-9031). Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).

  • 2012 employment: 316,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,320
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 43,900
    • Growth rate: 14 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Audio Visual and Multimedia Collections Specialists

(O*NET 25-9011.00)

Prepare, plan, and operate multimedia teaching aids for use in education. May record, catalog, and file materials.

  • 2012 employment: 9,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $43,350
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –100
    • Growth rate: –1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Farm and Home Management Advisors

(O*NET 25-9021.00)

Advise, instruct, and assist individuals and families engaged in agriculture, agriculture-related processes, or home economics activities. Demonstrate procedures and apply research findings to solve problems; and instruct and train in product development, sales, and the use of machinery and equipment to promote general welfare. Includes county agricultural agents, feed and farm management advisors, home economists, and extension service advisors.

  • 2012 employment: 13,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $46,760
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,300
    • Growth rate: 10 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Master’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

 

Arts and Design Occupations 

Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers

(O*NET 27-1026.00)

Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions.

  • 2012 employment: 98,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $26,410
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 10,000
    • Growth rate: 10 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent    
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Set and Exhibit Designers

(O*NET 27-1027.00)

Design special exhibits and movie, television, and theater sets. May study scripts, confer with directors, and conduct research to determine appropriate architectural styles.

  • 2012 employment: 11,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $50,300
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 700
    • Growth rate: 6 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree     
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

 

Media and Communication Occupations 

Radio Operators

(O*NET 27-4013.00)

Receive and transmit communications, using radiotelephone equipment in accordance with government regulations. May repair equipment. Excludes “Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairers” (49-2021).

  • 2012 employment: 1,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $42,080
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 0
    • Growth rate: 1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

 

Healthcare Occupations 

Dietetic Technicians

(O*NET 29-2051.00)

Assist in the provision of food service and nutritional programs under the supervision of a dietitian. May plan and produce meals based on established guidelines, teach principles of food and nutrition, or counsel individuals.

  • 2012 employment: 25,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $26,260
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 4,500
    • Growth rate: 18 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Associate’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Respiratory Therapy Technicians

(O*NET 29-2054.00)

Provide respiratory care under the direction of respiratory therapists and physicians.

  • 2012 employment: 13,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $46,760
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 2,300
    • Growth rate: 17 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Associate’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Ophthalmic Medical Technicians

(O*NET 29-2057.00)

Assist ophthalmologists by performing ophthalmic clinical functions. May administer eye exams, administer eye medications, and instruct the patient in the care and use of corrective lenses.

  • 2012 employment: 29,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $34,240
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 8,800
    • Growth rate: 30 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Postsecondary nondegree award
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Hearing Aid Specialists

(O*NET 29-2092)

Select and fit hearing aids for customers. Administer and interpret tests of hearing. Assess hearing instrument efficacy. Take ear impressions and prepare, design, and modify ear molds. Excludes “Audiologists” (29-1181).

  • 2012 employment: 5,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $41,430
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,300
    • Growth rate: 25 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Medical Equipment Preparers

(O*NET 31-9093.00)

Prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment. May perform routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment.

  • 2012 employment: 51,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $30,820
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 10,400
    • Growth rate: 20 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Pharmacy Aides

(O*NET 31-9095.00)

Record drugs delivered to the pharmacy, store incoming merchandise, and inform the supervisor of stock needs. May operate the cash register and accept prescriptions for filling.

  • 2012 employment: 42,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $21,860
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 4,800
    • Growth rate: 11 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

 

Protective Service Occupations 

First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers

(O*NET 33-1011.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of correctional officers and jailers.

  • 2012 employment: 46,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $57,840
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,900
    • Growth rate: 4 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives

(O*NET 33-1012.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of members of the police force.

  • 2012 employment: 103,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $78,270
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 5,000
    • Growth rate: 5 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

First-Line Supervisors of Fire Fighting and Prevention Workers

(O*NET 33-1021.00, 33-1021.01, and 33-1021.02)

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in firefighting and fire prevention and control.

  • 2012 employment: 62,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $68,210
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,900
    • Growth rate: 6 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Postsecondary nondegree award
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention Specialists

(O*NET 33-2022.00)

Enforce fire regulations, inspect forests for fire hazards, and recommend forest fire prevention or control measures. May report forest fires and weather conditions.

  • 2012 employment: 1,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,780
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 100
    • Growth rate: 3 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Parking Enforcement Workers

(O*NET 33-3041.00)

Patrol assigned area, such as public parking lots or city streets, to issue tickets to overtime parking violators and illegally parked vehicles.

  • 2012 employment: 9,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,690
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 0
    • Growth rate: 0 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Animal Control Workers

(O*NET 33-9011.00)

Handle animals to investigate possible mistreatment; control abandoned, dangerous, or unattended animals.

  • 2012 employment: 14,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $31,680
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,100
    • Growth rate: 8 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Crossing Guards

(O*NET 33-9091.00)

Guide or control vehicular or pedestrian traffic at places such as streets, schools, railroad crossings, or construction sites.

  • 2012 employment: 71,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $23,910
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,100
    • Growth rate: 4 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent    
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service Workers

(O*NET 33-9092.00)

Monitor recreational areas, such as pools, beaches, or ski slopes, to provide assistance and protection to participants.

  • 2012 employment: 130,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $18,950
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 13,300
    • Growth rate: 10 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent    
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Transportation Security Screeners

(O*NET 33-9093.00)

Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, or cargo to ensure compliance with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) regulations. May operate basic security equipment, such as x-ray machines and hand wands, at screening checkpoints.

  • 2012 employment: 50,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $36,850
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,000
    • Growth rate: 6 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent    
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

 

Food Preparation and Serving Occupations 

First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers

(O*NET 35-1012.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers who prepare and serve food.

  • 2012 employment: 848,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $29,270
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 109,400
    • Growth rate: 13 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Dishwashers

(O*NET 35-9021.00)

Clean dishes, utensils, kitchens, and food preparation equipment.

  • 2012 employment: 508,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $18,460
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 31,700
    • Growth rate: 6 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

 

Building and Grounds Cleaning Occupations 

First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers

(O*NET 37-1011.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate work activities of cleaning personnel in hotels, hospitals, offices, and other establishments.

  • 2012 employment: 249,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,310
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 32,000              
    • Growth rate: 13 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers

(O*NET 37-1012.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in landscaping or groundskeeping activities. Work may involve reviewing contracts to determine service, machine, and workforce requirements; answering inquiries from potential customers regarding methods, materials, and price ranges; and preparing estimates according to labor, material, and machine costs.

  • 2012 employment: 207,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $42,160
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 26,300
    • Growth rate: 13 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

 

Personal Care and Service Occupations 

First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers

(O*NET 39-1021.00 and 39-1021.01)

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of personal service workers, such as flight attendants, hairdressers, or caddies.

  • 2012 employment: 251,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,150
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 28,000
    • Growth rate: 11 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Motion Picture Projectionists

(O*NET 39-3021.00)

 Set up and operate motion picture projection and related sound reproduction equipment.

  • 2012 employment: 8,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $19,830
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: -2,100
    • Growth rate: -26 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers

(O*NET 39-3031.00)

Assist patrons at entertainment events by collecting admission tickets and passes from patrons, assisting in finding seats, searching for lost articles, and locating rest rooms and telephones.

  • 2012 employment: 108,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $18,730
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,900
    • Growth rate: 2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Amusement and Recreation Attendants

(O*NET 39-3091.00)

Perform a variety of duties at amusement or recreation facilities. May schedule the use of recreation facilities, maintain and provide equipment to participants in sporting events or recreational pursuits, or operate amusement concessions and rides.

  • 2012 employment: 267,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $18,710
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 30,300
    • Growth rate: 11 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Costume Attendants

(O*NET 39-3092.00)

Select, fit, and take care of costumes for cast members, and aid entertainers. May assist with multiple costume changes during performances.

  • 2012 employment: 5,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $36,760
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 400
    • Growth rate: 7 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Locker Room, Coatroom, and Dressing Room Attendants

(O*NET 39-3093.00)

Provide personal items to patrons or customers in locker rooms, dressing rooms, or coatrooms.

  • 2012 employment: 19,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $19,160
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 2,000
    • Growth rate: 10 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Embalmers

(O*NET 39-4011.00)

Prepare dead bodies for interment in conformity with legal requirements.

  • 2012 employment: 5,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $42,240
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: -800
    • Growth rate: –15 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Postsecondary nondegree award
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Funeral Attendants

(O*NET 39-4021.00)

Perform a variety of tasks during funerals, such as placing caskets in the parlor or chapel prior to services, arranging floral offerings or lights around caskets, directing or escorting mourners, closing caskets, and issuing and storing funeral equipment.

  • 2012 employment: 32,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $22,610
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 500
    • Growth rate: 1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

 Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance

(O*NET 39-5091.00)

Apply makeup to performers to reflect the period, setting, and situation of their roles.

  • 2012 employment: 2,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $64,450
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 100
    • Growth rate: 3 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Postsecondary nondegree award
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Shampooers

(O*NET 39-5093.00)

Shampoo and rinse customers' hair.

  • 2012 employment: 18,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $18,310
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –300
    • Growth rate: –2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Baggage Porters and Bellhops

(O*NET 39-6011.00)

 Handle baggage for travelers at transportation terminals or for guests at hotels or similar establishments.

  • 2012 employment: 41,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $20,050
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 5,000
    • Growth rate: 12 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Concierges

(O*NET 39-6012.00)

Offer personal services to assist patrons at hotels, apartments, or office buildings. May take messages; arrange or give advice on transportation, business services, or entertainment; or monitor guests’ requests for housekeeping and maintenance.

  • 2012 employment: 26,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $27,250
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 6,100
    • Growth rate: 23 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tour Guides and Escorts

(O*NET 39-7011.00)

Escort individuals or groups on sightseeing tours or through places of interest, such as industrial establishments, public buildings, and art galleries.

  • 2012 employment: 41,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $23,940
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,400
    • Growth rate: 8 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Travel Guides

(O*NET 39-7012.00)

Plan, organize, and conduct long-distance travel, tours, and expeditions for individuals and groups.

  • 2012 employment: 5,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $30,780
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 200
    • Growth rate: 4 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Residential Advisors

(O*NET 39-9041.00)

Coordinate activities in residential facilities in secondary school and college dormitories, group homes, or similar establishments. Order supplies and determine necessary maintenance, repairs, and furnishings. May maintain household records and assign rooms. May help residents solve problems or refer residents to counseling resources.

  • 2012 employment: 89,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $24,520
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 18,500
    • Growth rate: 21 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

 

Sales Occupations 

First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers

(O*NET 41-1011.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of retail sales workers in an establishment or a department. Duties also may include management functions, such as purchasing, budgeting, accounting, and personnel work.

  • 2012 employment: 1,603,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $36,820
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 70,900
    • Growth rate: 4 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

First-Line Supervisors of Nonretail Sales Workers

(O*NET 41-1012.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of sales workers other than retail sales workers. Duties also may include budgeting, accounting, and personnel work.

  • 2012 employment: 394,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $70,060
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –3,200
    • Growth rate: –1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Gaming Change Persons and Booth Cashiers

(O*NET 41-2012.00)

Exchange coins, tokens, and chips for patrons' money. May issue payoffs and obtain customer's signature on receipt. May operate a booth in the slot machine area and count and audit money in drawers. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).

  • 2012 employment: 22,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $24,690
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 0
    • Growth rate: 0 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Counter and Rental Clerks

(O*NET 41-2021.00)

Receive orders, generally in person, for repairs, rentals, and services. May describe available options, compute costs, and accept payment. Excludes “Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop” (35-3022), “Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks” (43-4081), “Order Clerks” (43-4151), and “Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks” (43-4181).

  • 2012 employment: 437,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $23,130
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 46,600
    • Growth rate: 11 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Demonstrators and Product Promoters

(O*NET 41-9011.00)

Demonstrate merchandise and answer questions for the purpose of creating public interest in buying the product. May sell merchandise demonstrated.

  • 2012 employment: 78,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $23,860
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 12,600
    • Growth rate: 16 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Telemarketers

(O*NET 41-9041.00)

Solicit donations or orders for goods or services over the telephone.

  • 2012 employment: 250,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $22,330
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 19,200
    • Growth rate: 8 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers

(O*NET 41-9091.00)

Sell goods or services door to door or on the street.

  • 2012 employment: 92,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $21,470
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –14,200
    • Growth rate: –15 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Office and Administrative Support Occupations 

First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers

(O*NET 43-1011.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of clerical and administrative support workers.

  • 2012 employment: 1,418,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $49,330
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 171,500
    • Growth rate: 12 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service

(O*NET 43-2011.00)

Operate telephone business systems equipment or switchboards to relay incoming, outgoing, and interoffice calls. May supply information to callers and record messages.

  • 2012 employment: 131,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $25,370
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –17,300
    • Growth rate: –13 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Telephone Operators

(O*NET 43-2021.00)

Provide information by accessing alphabetical, geographical, or other directories. Assist customers with special billing requests, such as charges to a third party and credits or refunds for incorrectly dialed numbers or bad connections. May handle emergency calls and assist children or people who have physical disabilities with making telephone calls.

  • 2012 employment: 11,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $32,850
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –1,400
    • Growth rate: –13 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Cargo and Freight Agents

(O*NET 43-5011.00)

Expedite and route movement of incoming and outgoing cargo and freight shipments in airline, train, and trucking terminals and shipping docks. Take orders from customers and arrange pickup of freight and cargo for delivery to loading platform. Prepare and examine bills of lading to determine shipping charges and tariffs.

  • 2012 employment: 79,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $39,720
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 11,500
    • Growth rate: 14 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Couriers and Messengers

(O*NET 43-5021.00)

Pick up and deliver messages, documents, packages, and other items between offices or departments within an establishment or directly to other business concerns, traveling by foot, bicycle, motorcycle, automobile, or public conveyance. Excludes "Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers" (53-3033).

  • 2012 employment: 98,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $25,440
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –10,900
    • Growth rate: –11 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance

(O*NET 43-5032.00)

Schedule and dispatch workers, work crews, equipment, or service vehicles for the conveyance of materials, freight, or passengers or for normal installation, service, or emergency repairs rendered outside the place of business. Duties may include using a radio, telephone, or computer to transmit assignments and compiling statistics and reports on work progress.

  • 2012 employment: 190,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,690
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 21,400
    • Growth rate: 11 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Meter Readers, Utilities

(O*NET 43-5041.00)

Read meters and record the consumption of electricity, gas, water, or steam.

  • 2012 employment: 40,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,940
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –7,700
    • Growth rate: –19 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Computer Operators

(O*NET 43-9011.00)

Monitor and control electronic computer and peripheral electronic data-processing equipment to process business, scientific, engineering, and other data according to operating instructions. Monitor and respond to operating and error messages. May enter commands at a computer terminal and set controls on the computer and peripheral devices. Excludes “Computer Occupations” (15-1100) and "Data Entry Keyers" (43-9021).

  • 2012 employment: 74,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $38,390
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –12,700
    • Growth rate: –17 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Data Entry Keyers

(O*NET 43-9021.00)

Operate a data entry device, such as a keyboard or photocomposing perforator. Duties may include verifying data and preparing materials for printing. Excludes "Word Processors and Typists" (43-9022).

  • 2012 employment: 220,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $28,010
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –54,200
    • Growth rate: –25 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Word Processors and Typists

(O*NET 43-9022.00)

Use a word processor, computer, or typewriter to type letters, reports, forms, or other material from rough draft, corrected copy, or voice recordings. May perform other clerical duties as assigned. Excludes “Data Entry Keyers" (43-9021), "Secretaries and Administrative Assistants" (43-6011 through 43-6014), "Court Reporters" (23-2091), and "Medical Transcriptionists" (31-9094).

  • 2012 employment: 104,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,270
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –26,200
    • Growth rate: –25 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service

(O*NET 43-9051.00)

Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution. Use hand or mail-handling machines to time-stamp, open, read, sort, and route incoming mail; address, seal, stamp, fold, stuff, and affix postage to outgoing mail or packages. Duties also may include storing, filing, or archiving necessary records and completed forms.

  • 2012 employment: 108,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $26,900
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –9,600
    • Growth rate: –9 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Office Machine Operators, Except Computer

(O*NET 43-9071.00)

Operate one or more of a variety of office machines, such as photocopying, photographic, and duplicating machines. Excludes “Computer Operators" (43-9011), "Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service" (43-9051), and "Billing and Posting Clerks" (43-3021).

  • 2012 employment: 68,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $27,950
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –7,000
    • Growth rate: –10 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Proofreaders and Copy Markers

(O*NET 43-9081.00)

Read transcripts or proof type to detect and correct any grammatical, typographical, or compositional errors. Excludes workers whose primary duty is editing copy. Includes proofreaders of Braille.

  • 2012 employment: 13,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $32,780
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –200
    • Growth rate: –1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Statistical Assistants

(O*NET 43-9111.00 and 43-9111.01)

Compile and compute data according to statistical formulas for use in statistical studies. May perform actuarial computations and compile charts and graphs for actuaries. Includes actuarial clerks.

  • 2012 employment: 17,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $39,840
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,600
    • Growth rate: 9 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

 

Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations 

First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers

(O*NET 45-1011.00, 45-1011.05, 45-1011.06, 45-1011.07, and 45-1011.08)

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of agricultural, forestry, aquacultural, and related workers. Excludes “First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers" (37-1012).

  • 2012 employment: 45,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $43,660
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –1,100
    • Growth rate: –2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Agricultural Inspectors

(O*NET 45-2011.00)

Inspect agricultural commodities, processing equipment and facilities, and fish and logging operations in order to ensure compliance with regulations and laws governing health, quality, and safety.

  • 2012 employment: 17,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $42,160
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –200
    • Growth rate: –1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products

(O*NET 45-2041.00)

Grade, sort, or classify unprocessed food and other agricultural products by size, weight, color, or condition. Excludes “Agricultural Inspectors" (45-2011).

  • 2012 employment: 49,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $19,150
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –1,000
    • Growth rate: –2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

 

Construction and Extraction Occupations 

First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers

(O*NET 47-1011.00 and 47-1011.03)

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of construction or extraction workers.

  • 2012 employment: 545,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $59,700
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 128,300
    • Growth rate: 24 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: 5 years or more
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Carpet Installers

(O*NET 47-2041.00)

Lay and install carpet from rolls or blocks onto floors. Install padding and trim flooring materials. Excludes “Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles" (47-2042).

  • 2012 employment: 36,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $36,740
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,200
    • Growth rate: 9 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles

(O*NET 47-2042.00)

Apply blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing, sound-deadening, or decorative coverings to floors.

  • 2012 employment: 14,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,510
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,900
    • Growth rate: 13 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Floor Sanders and Finishers

(O*NET 47-2043.00)

Scrape and sand wooden floors to smooth surfaces, using floor scrapers and floor-sanding machines. May also apply coats of finish.

  • 2012 employment: 6,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $33,240
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 900
    • Growth rate: 15 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Paperhangers

(O*NET 47-2142.00)

Cover interior walls or ceilings of rooms with decorative wallpaper or fabric, or attach advertising posters on surfaces such as walls and billboards. May remove old materials or prepare surfaces to be papered.

  • 2012 employment: 3,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $34,600
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 0
    • Growth rate: 0 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Pipelayers

(O*NET 47-2151.00)

Lay pipe for storm or sanitation sewers, drains, and water mains. Perform any combination of the following tasks: grade trenches or culverts, position pipes, and seal joints. Excludes “Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers" (51-4121).

  • 2012 employment: 48,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $36,180
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 10,100
    • Growth rate: 21 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Plasterers and Stucco Masons

(O*NET 47-2161.00)

Apply interior or exterior plaster, cement, stucco, or similar materials. May also set ornamental plaster.

  • 2012 employment: 22,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $37,130
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,400
    • Growth rate: 15 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers

(O*NET 47-2171.00)

Position and secure steel bars or mesh in concrete forms in order to reinforce concrete. Use a variety of fasteners, rod-bending machines, blowtorches, and hand tools. Includes rod busters.

  • 2012 employment: 15,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $45,910
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,600
    • Growth rate: 23 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Apprenticeship

Fence Erectors

(O*NET 47-4031.00)

Erect and repair fences, including gates, using hand and power tools.

  • 2012 employment: 24,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $30,190
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 7,500
    • Growth rate: 30 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Highway Maintenance Workers

(O*NET 47-4051.00)

Maintain highways, municipal and rural roads, airport runways, and rights-of-way. Duties include patching broken or eroded pavement and repairing guard rails, highway markers, and snow fences. Also may mow or clear brush from along roads or plow snow from roadways. Excludes “Tree Trimmers and Pruners" (37-3013).

  • 2012 employment: 147,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,260
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 8,400
    • Growth rate: 6 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Rail-Track Laying and Maintenance Equipment Operators

(O*NET 47-4061.00)

Lay, repair, and maintain track for standard or narrow-gauge railroad equipment used in regular railroad service or in plant yards, quarries, sand and gravel pits, and mines. Includes ballast cleaning machine operators and railroad bed tamping machine operators.

  • 2012 employment: 17,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $45,920
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 900
    • Growth rate: 5 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners

(O*NET 47-4071.00)

Clean and repair septic tanks, sewer lines, or drains. May patch walls and partitions of tanks, replace damaged drain tiles, or repair breaks in underground piping.

  • 2012 employment: 25,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $34,020
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 6,600
    • Growth rate: 26 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Segmental Pavers

(O*NET 47-4091.00)

Lay out, cut, and place segmental paving units. Includes installers of bedding and restraining materials for the paving units.

  • 2012 employment: 1,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $33,720
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 700
    • Growth rate: 38 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Derrick Operators, Oil and Gas           

(O*NET 47-5011.00)

Rig derrick equipment and operate pumps to circulate mud through drill hole.

  • 2012 employment: 22,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $46,900
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 4,300
    • Growth rate: 19 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas   

(O*NET 47-5012.00)

Set up or operate a variety of drills to remove underground oil and gas, or remove core samples for testing during oil and gas exploration. Excludes “Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas” (47-5021).

  • 2012 employment: 26,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $49,220
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 4,800
    • Growth rate: 19 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining  

(O*NET 47-5013.00)

Operate equipment to increase oil flow from producing wells or to remove stuck pipe, casing, tools, or other obstructions from drilling wells. May also perform similar services in mining exploration operations.

  • 2012 employment: 59,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $41,970
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 12,400
    • Growth rate: 21 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas

(O*NET 47-5021.00)

Operate a variety of drills, such as rotary, churn, and pneumatic drills, to tap subsurface water and salt deposits, to remove core samples during mineral exploration or soil testing, and to facilitate the use of explosives in mining or construction. May use explosives. Includes horizontal and earth boring machine operators.

  • 2012 employment: 19,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $40,790
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,800
    • Growth rate: 19 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, and Blasters

(O*NET 47-5031.00)

Place and detonate explosives to demolish structures or to loosen, remove, or displace earth, rock, or other materials. May perform specialized handling, storage, and accounting procedures. Includes seismograph shooters. Excludes “Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas" (47-5021) who also may work with explosives.

  • 2012 employment: 6,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $48,620
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 300
    • Growth rate: 5 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Continuous Mining Machine Operators

(O*NET 47-5041.00)

Operate self-propelled mining machines that rip coal, metal and nonmetal ores, rock, stone, or sand from the mine face and load it onto conveyors or into shuttle cars in a continuous operation.

  • 2012 employment: 14,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $51,950
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –100
    • Growth rate: –1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Mine Cutting and Channeling Machine Operators

(O*NET 47-5042.00)

Operate machinery such as longwall shears, plows, and cutting machines to cut or channel along the faces or seams of coal mines, stone quarries, or other mining surfaces in order to facilitate blasting, separating, or removing minerals or materials from mines or the Earth’s surface. Includes shale planers.

  • 2012 employment: 7,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $47,950
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 200
    • Growth rate: 3 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Rock Splitters, Quarry

(O*NET 47-5051.00)

Separate blocks of rough-dimension stone from quarry mass, using a jackhammer and wedges.

  • 2012 employment: 4,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $32,280
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 800
    • Growth rate: 17 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Roof Bolters, Mining

(O*NET 47-5061.00)

Operate machinery to install roof support bolts in underground mines.

  • 2012 employment: 6,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $54,320
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: -300
    • Growth rate: -4 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Roustabouts, Oil and Gas

(O*NET 47-5071.00)

Assemble or repair oil field equipment using hand and power tools. Perform other tasks as needed.

  • 2012 employment: 61,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $34,130
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 11,700
    • Growth rate: 19 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Helpers—Extraction Workers

(O*NET 47-5081.00)

Help extraction craftworkers, such as earth drillers, blasters and explosives workers, derrick operators, and mining machine operators, by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying equipment or cleaning work areas. Apprentices are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).

  • 2012 employment: 26,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $31,460
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 4,400
    • Growth rate: 17 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

 

Installation, Maintenance and Repair Occupations 

First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

(O*NET 49-1011.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of mechanics, installers, and repairers. Excludes team or work leaders.

  • 2012 employment: 436,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $60,250
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 33,900
    • Growth rate: 8 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairs

(O*NET 49-2021.00 and 49-2021.01)

Repair, install, or maintain mobile or stationary radio transmitting, broadcasting, and receiving equipment; two-way radio communications systems used in cellular telecommunications, mobile broadband, ship-to-shore, and aircraft-to-ground communications; and radio equipment in service and emergency vehicles. May test and analyze network coverage.

  • 2012 employment: 16,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $43,900
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,100
    • Growth rate: 7 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Associate's degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers and Repairers

(O*NET 49-2097.00)

Repair, adjust, or install audio or television receivers, stereo systems, camcorders, video systems, or other electronic home entertainment equipment.

  • 2012 employment: 31,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,060
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 400
    • Growth rate: 1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Postsecondary nondegree award
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers

(O*NET 49-2098.00)

Install, program, maintain, and repair security and fire alarm wiring and equipment. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. Excludes “Electricians" (47-2111) who do a broad range of electrical wiring.

  • 2012 employment: 58,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $41,030
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 9,200
    • Growth rate: 16 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Bicycle Repairers

(O*NET 49-3091.00)

Repair and service bicycles.

  • 2012 employment: 10,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $24,150
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 2,700
    • Growth rate: 25 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Recreational Vehicle Service Technicians

(O*NET 49-3092.00)

Diagnose, inspect, adjust, repair, or overhaul recreational vehicles, including travel trailers. May specialize in maintaining gas, electrical, hydraulic, plumbing, or chassis/towing systems, as well as in repairing generators, appliances, and interior components. Includes workers who perform customized van conversions. Excludes “Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics" (49-3023) and "Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031), who also work on recreation vehicles.

  • 2012 employment: 11,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $34,540
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,000
    • Growth rate: 9 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Tire Repairers and Changers

(O*NET 49-3093.00)

Repair and replace tires.

  • 2012 employment: 98,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $23,410
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 8,600
    • Growth rate: 9 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Mechanical Door Repairers

(O*NET 49-9011.00)

Install, service, or repair automatic door mechanisms and hydraulic doors. Includes garage door mechanics.

  • 2012 employment: 15,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $36,110
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,800
    • Growth rate: 24 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door

(O*NET 49-9012.00)

Install, repair, and maintain mechanical regulating and controlling devices, such as electric meters, gas regulators, thermostats, safety and flow valves, and other mechanical governors.

  • 2012 employment: 41,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $50,960
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: -200
    • Growth rate: 0 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Home Appliance Repairers

(O*NET 49-9031.00)

Repair, adjust, or install all types of electric or gas household appliances, such as refrigerators, washers, dryers, and ovens.

  • 2012 employment: 43,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,170
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 300
    • Growth rate: 1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons

(O*NET 49-9045.00)

Build or repair equipment, such as furnaces, kilns, cupolas, boilers, converters, ladles, soaking pits, and ovens, using refractory materials.

  • 2012 employment: 2,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $41,370
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 0
    • Growth rate: 0 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Camera and Photographic Equipment Repairers

(O*NET 49-9061.00)

Repair and adjust cameras and photographic equipment, including commercial video and motion picture camera equipment.

  • 2012 employment: 3,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $37,980
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 100
    • Growth rate: 3 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Associate's degree
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Musical Instrument Repairers and Tuners

(O*NET 49-9063.00)

Repair percussion, stringed, reed, or wind instruments. May specialize in one area, such as piano tuning. Excludes “Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers and Repairers" (49-2097), who repair electrical and electronic musical instruments.

  • 2012 employment: 8,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $30,630
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 500
    • Growth rate: 6 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Apprenticeship

Watch Repairers

(O*NET 49-9064.00)

Repair, clean, and adjust mechanisms of timing instruments, such as watches and clocks. Includes watchmakers, watch technicians, and mechanical timepiece repairers.

  • 2012 employment: 3,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $37,650
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 100
    • Growth rate: 2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers

(O*NET 49-9091.00)

Install, service, adjust, or repair coin, vending, or amusement machines, including video games, jukeboxes, pinball machines, or slot machines.

  • 2012 employment: 40,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $31,150
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: -900
    • Growth rate: -2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Commercial Divers

(O*NET 49-9092.00)

Work below the surface of waters, using scuba gear to inspect, repair, remove, or install equipment and structures. May use a variety of power and hand tools, such as drills, sledge hammers, torches, and welding equipment. May conduct tests or experiments, rig explosives, or photograph structures or marine life. Excludes “Fishers and Related Fishing Workers" (45-3011), "Athletes and Sports Competitors" (27-2021), and "Police and Sheriff's Patrol Officers" (33-3051).

  • 2012 employment: 3,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $46,880
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,100
    • Growth rate: 29 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Postsecondary nondegree award
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Fabric Menders, Except Garment

(O*NET 49-9093.00)

Repair tears, holes, and other defects in fabrics, such as draperies, linens, parachutes, and tents.

  • 2012 employment: 1,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $27,020
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –100
    • Growth rate: –10 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Locksmiths and Safe Repairers

(O*NET 49-9094.00)

Repair and open locks, make keys, change locks and safe combinations, and install and repair safes.

  • 2012 employment: 22,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $37,560
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,600
    • Growth rate: 7 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Manufactured Building and Mobile Home Installers

(O*NET 49-9095.00)

Move or install mobile homes or prefabricated buildings.

  • 2012 employment: 5,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $28,080
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: -800
    • Growth rate: –15 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Riggers

(O*NET 49-9096.00)

Set up or repair rigging for construction projects, manufacturing plants, logging yards, ships and shipyards, or the entertainment industry.

  • 2012 employment: 15,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $42,660
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,500
    • Growth rate: 23 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Signal and Track Switch Repairers

(O*NET 49-9097.00)

Install, inspect, test, maintain, or repair electric gate crossings, signals, signal equipment, track switches, section lines, or intercommunications systems within a railroad system.

  • 2012 employment: 8,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $55,450
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –100
    • Growth rate: –1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Helpers—Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers

(O*NET 49-9098.00)

Help installation, maintenance, and repair workers replace parts and maintain and repair vehicles, industrial machinery, and electrical and electronic equipment. Perform duties such as furnishing tools, materials, and supplies to other workers; cleaning work areas, machines, and tools; and holding materials or tools for other workers.

  • 2012 employment: 127,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $24,210
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 17,500
    • Growth rate: 14 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

 

Production Occupations 

First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers

(O*NET 51-1011.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of production and operating workers, such as inspectors, precision workers, machine setters and operators, assemblers, fabricators, and plant and system operators. Excludes team or work leaders.

  • 2012 employment: 594,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $54,040
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –10,500
    • Growth rate: –2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Postsecondary nondegree award
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic

(O*NET 51-4192.00)

Lay out reference points and dimensions on metal or plastic stock or workpieces, such as sheets, plates, tubes, structural shapes, castings, or machine parts, for further processing. Includes shipfitters.

  • 2012 employment: 12,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $42,050
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: -400
    • Growth rate: –3 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners

(O*NET 51-4194.00)

Perform precision smoothing, sharpening, polishing, or grinding of metal objects.

  • 2012 employment: 12,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $34,300
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 100
    • Growth rate: 0 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials

(O*NET 51-6021.00)

Press or shape articles by hand or machine.

  • 2012 employment: 54,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $19,670
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,400
    • Growth rate: 3 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Sewing Machine Operators

(O*NET 51-6031.00)

Operate or tend sewing machines to join, reinforce, decorate, or perform related sewing operations in the manufacture of garments or nongarment products.

  • 2012 employment: 161,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $21,270
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –41,700
    • Growth rate: –26 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers

(O*NET 51-6041.00)

Construct, decorate, or repair leather and leather-like products, such as luggage, shoes, and saddles.

  • 2012 employment: 8,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $23,950
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –1,200
    • Growth rate: –14 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders

(O*NET 51-6042.00)

Operate or tend a variety of machines to join, decorate, reinforce, or finish shoes and shoe parts.

  • 2012 employment: 3,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $24,310
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –1,200
    • Growth rate: –35 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Sewers, Hand

(O*NET 51-6051.00)

Sew, join, reinforce, or finish, usually with needle and thread, a variety of manufactured items. Includes weavers and stitchers. Excludes “Fabric Menders, Except Garment" (49-9093).

  • 2012 employment: 11,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $22,820
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –1,000
    • Growth rate: –9 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tailors, Dressmakers, and Custom Sewers

(O*NET 51-6052.00)

Design, make, alter, repair, or fit garments.

  • 2012 employment: 49,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $26,280
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: -900
    • Growth rate: –2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Textile Bleaching and Dyeing Machine Operators and Tenders

(O*NET 51-6061.00)

Operate or tend machines that bleach, shrink, wash, dye, or finish textiles or synthetic or glass fibers.

  • 2012 employment: 11,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $24,210
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –2,700
    • Growth rate: –24 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

(O*NET 51-6062.00)

Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut textiles.

  • 2012 employment: 15,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $24,050
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –4,200
    • Growth rate: –27 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Textile Knitting and Weaving Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

(O*NET 51-6063.00)

Set up, operate, or tend machines that knit, loop, weave, or draw in textiles. Excludes “Sewing Machine Operators" (51-6031).

  • 2012 employment: 21,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $26,540
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –5,400
    • Growth rate: –25 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Textile Winding, Twisting, and Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

(O*NET 51-6064.00)

Set up, operate, or tend machines that wind or twist textiles; or draw out and combine sliver, such as wool, hemp, or synthetic fibers. Includes slubber machine and drawing frame operators.

  • 2012 employment: 27,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $25,850
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –5,600
    • Growth rate: –21 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Extruding and Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Synthetic and Glass Fibers

(O*NET 51-6091.00)

Set up, operate, or tend machines that extrude and form continuous filaments from synthetic materials, such as liquid polymer, rayon, and fiberglass.

  • 2012 employment: 18,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $32,430
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: -2,200
    • Growth rate: –12 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers

(O*NET 51-6092.00)

Draw and construct sets of precision master fabric patterns or layouts. Also may mark and cut fabrics and apparel.

  • 2012 employment: 6,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $38,650
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –1,600
    • Growth rate: –25 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Upholsterers

(O*NET 51-6093.00)

Make, repair, or replace upholstery for household furniture or transportation vehicles.

  • 2012 employment: 40,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $29,930
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 300
    • Growth rate: 1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Model Makers, Wood

(O*NET 51-7031.00)

Construct full-size and scale wooden precision models of products. Includes wood jig builders and loft workers.

  • 2012 employment: 1,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $28,800
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 100
    • Growth rate: 6 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Patternmakers, Wood

(O*NET 51-7032.00)

Plan, lay out, and construct wooden unit or sectional patterns used in forming sand molds for castings.

  • 2012 employment: 800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $39,840
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 0
    • Growth rate: 0 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Chemical Plant and System Operators

(O*NET 51-8091.00)

Control or operate entire chemical processes or systems through the use of machines.

  • 2012 employment: 38,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $54,390
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –4,400
    • Growth rate: –11 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Gas Plant Operators

(O*NET 51-8092.00)

Distribute or process gas for utility companies and others by controlling compressors to maintain specified pressures on main pipelines.

  • 2012 employment: 12,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $61,140
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –1,100
    • Growth rate: –9 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers

(O*NET 51-8093.00)

Operate or control petroleum-refining or petroleum-processing units. May specialize in controlling manifold and pumping systems, gauging or testing oil in storage tanks, or regulating the flow of oil into pipelines.

  • 2012 employment: 41,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $61,850
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –2,100
    • Growth rate: –5 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9011.00)

Operate or tend equipment that controls chemical changes or reactions in the processing of industrial or consumer products. Equipment used includes devulcanizers, steam-jacketed kettles, and reactor vessels. Excludes “Chemical Plant and System Operators" (51-8091).

  • 2012 employment: 56,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $47,100
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –4,700
    • Growth rate: –8 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9012.00)

Set up, operate, or tend continuous-flow or vat-type equipment; filter presses; shaker screens; centrifuges; condenser tubes; precipitating, fermenting, or evaporating tanks; scrubbing towers; or batch stills. These machines extract, sort, or separate liquids, gases, or solids from other materials in order to recover a refined product. Includes dairy processing equipment operators. Excludes “Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders" (51-9011).

  • 2012 employment: 41,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $38,570
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –1,200
    • Growth rate:–3 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9021.00)

Set up, operate, or tend machines to crush, grind, or polish materials, such as coal, glass, grain, stone, food, or rubber.

  • 2012 employment: 30,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $31,830
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –700
    • Growth rate: –2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand

(O*NET 51-9022.00)

Grind, sand, or polish, using hand tools or hand-held power tools, a variety of metal, wood, stone, clay, plastic, or glass objects. Includes chippers, buffers, and finishers.

  • 2012 employment: 31,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $27,890
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –500
    • Growth rate: –2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Mixing and Blending Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9023.00)

Set up, operate, or tend machines that mix or blend materials, such as chemicals, tobacco, liquids, color pigments, or explosive ingredients. Excludes “Food Batchmakers" (51-3092).

  • 2012 employment: 120,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $33,840
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –3,700
    • Growth rate: –3 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cutters and Trimmers, Hand

(O*NET 51-9031.00)

Use hand tools or hand-held power tools to cut and trim a variety of manufactured items, such as carpet, fabric, stone, glass, or rubber.

  • 2012 employment: 14,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $24,530
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –2,200
    • Growth rate: –15 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9032.00)

Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut or slice materials, such as glass, stone, cork, rubber, tobacco, food, paper, or insulating material. Excludes “Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-7040), "Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic" (51-4031), and "Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-6062).

  • 2012 employment: 58,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $31,430
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –4,900
    • Growth rate: –8 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9041.00)

Set up, operate, or tend machines, such as glass-forming machines, plodder machines, and tuber machines, to shape and form products, such as glassware, food, rubber, soap, brick, tile, clay, wax, tobacco, or cosmetics. Excludes “Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-9196) and "Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders" (51-6042).

  • 2012 employment: 70,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $31,310
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –2,200
    • Growth rate: –3 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9051.00)

Operate or tend heating equipment other than basic metal-, plastic-, or food-processing equipment. Includes activities such as annealing glass, drying lumber, curing rubber, removing moisture from materials, and boiling soap.

  • 2012 employment: 20,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $35,530
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –900
    • Growth rate: –4 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9111.00)

Operate or tend machines that prepare industrial or consumer products for storage or shipment. Includes cannery workers who pack food products.

  • 2012 employment: 369,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $25,860
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 2,300
    • Growth rate: 1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators

(O*NET 51-9151.00)

Perform work to develop and process photographic images from film or from digital media. May perform precision tasks, such as editing photographic negatives and prints.

  • 2012 employment: 47,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $23,120
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 100
    • Growth rate: 0 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Adhesive Bonding Machine Operators and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9191.00)

Operate or tend bonding machines that use adhesives to join items for further processing or to form a completed product. Processes include joining veneer sheets into plywood; gluing paper; and joining rubber and rubberized fabric parts, plastic, simulated leather, or other materials. Excludes “Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders" (51-6042).

  • 2012 employment: 16,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $29,830
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 100
    • Growth rate: 1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9192.00)

Operate or tend machines that wash or clean products, such as barrels or kegs, glass items, tin plates, food, pulp, coal, plastic, or rubber, to remove impurities.

  • 2012 employment: 16,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $26,210
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –100
    • Growth rate: –1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9193.00)

Operate or tend equipment, such as cooling and freezing units, refrigerators, batch freezers, and freezing tunnels, that cools or freezes products, food, blood plasma, and chemicals.

  • 2012 employment: 8,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $28,200
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 100
    • Growth rate: 1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Etchers and Engravers

(O*NET 51-9194.00)

Engrave or etch metal, wood, rubber, or other materials. Includes such workers as etcher-circuit processors, pantograph engravers, and silk-screen etchers. Photoengravers are included in "Prepress Technicians and Workers" (51-5111).

  • 2012 employment: 9,700
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $28,390
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –400
    • Growth rate: –4 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Molders, Shapers, and Casters, except Metal and Plastic

(O*NET 51-9195.00, 51-9195.03, 51-9195.04, 51-9195.05, and 51-9195.07)

Mold, shape, form, cast, or carve products, such as food products, figurines, tile, pipes, and candles, consisting of clay, glass, plaster, concrete, stone, or combinations of materials.

  • 2012 employment: 42,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $29,300
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 3,100
    • Growth rate: 7 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

(O*NET 51-9196.00)

Set up, operate, or tend paper goods machines that perform a variety of functions, such as converting, sawing, corrugating, banding, wrapping, boxing, stitching, forming, or sealing paper or paperboard sheets into products.

  • 2012 employment: 95,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $34,690
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –7600
    • Growth rate: –8 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tire Builders

(O*NET 51-9197.00)

Operate machines that build tires.

  • 2012 employment: 17,400
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $41,210
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –1,500
    • Growth rate: –9 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Helpers—Production Workers

(O*NET 51-9198.00)

Help production workers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying or holding materials or tools and cleaning work areas and equipment. Apprentices are classified in the appropriate production occupations (51-0000).

  • 2012 employment: 419,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $22,810
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 29,800
    • Growth rate: 7 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

 

Transportation and Material Moving Occupations 

Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors

(O*NET 53-1011.00)

Supervise and coordinate the activities of ground crews in the loading, unloading, securing, and staging of aircraft cargo or baggage. May determine the quantity and orientation of cargo and compute aircraft center of gravity. May accompany flight crew in aircraft, monitor and handle cargo in flight, and assist and brief passengers on safety and emergency procedures. Includes loadmasters.

  • 2012 employment: 6,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $47,930
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 0
    • Growth rate: 1 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

First-Line Supervisors of Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand

(O*NET 53-1021.00 and 53-1021.01)

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of helpers, laborers, or material movers.

  • 2012 employment: 171,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $45,180
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 14,700
    • Growth rate: 9 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

First-Line Supervisors of Transportation and Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators

(O*NET 53-1031.00)

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators and helpers.

  • 2012 employment: 201,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $53,240
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 17,300
    • Growth rate: 9 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: None

Airfield Operations Specialists

(O*NET 53-2022.00)

Ensure the safe takeoff and landing of commercial and military aircraft. Duties include coordinating between air-traffic control and maintenance personnel, dispatching, using airfield landing and navigational aids, implementing airfield safety procedures, monitoring and maintaining flight records, and applying knowledge of weather information.

  • 2012 employment: 7,100
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $48,080
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 400
    • Growth rate: 5 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Long-term on-the-job training

Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians

(O*NET 53-3011.00)

Drive ambulance or assist ambulance driver in transporting sick, injured, or convalescent persons. Assist in lifting patients.

  • 2012 employment: 18,900
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $23,440
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 5,900
    • Growth rate: 31 percent (much faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Subway and Streetcar Operators

(O*NET 53-4041.00)

Operate and tend bridges, canal locks, and lighthouses to permit marine passage on inland waterways, near shores, and at danger points in waterway passages. May supervise such operations. Includes drawbridge operators, lock operators, and slip bridge operators.

  • 2012 employment: 9,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $62,730
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 600
    • Growth rate: 6 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Bridge and Lock Tenders

(O*NET 53-6011.00)

Operate and tend bridges, canal locks, and lighthouses to permit marine passage on inland waterways, near shores, and at danger points in waterway passages. May supervise such operations. Includes drawbridge operators, lock operators, and slip bridge operators.

  • 2012 employment: 3,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $45,940
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –100
    • Growth rate: –2 percent (little or no change)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Parking Lot Attendants

(O*NET 53-6021.00)

Park vehicles or issue tickets for customers in a parking lot or garage. May collect fee.

  • 2012 employment: 128,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $19,540
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 9,300
    • Growth rate: 7 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants

(O*NET 53-6031.00)

Service automobiles, buses, trucks, boats, and other automotive or marine vehicles with fuel, lubricants, and accessories. Collect payment for services and supplies. May lubricate vehicle, change motor oil, install antifreeze, or replace lights or other accessories, such as windshield wiper blades or fan belts. May repair or replace tires.

  • 2012 employment: 109,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $20,140
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 19,800
    • Growth rate: 18 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Traffic Technicians

(O*NET 53-6041.00)

Work under the direction of a traffic engineer to conduct field studies determining volume and speed of traffic, effectiveness of signals, adequacy of lighting, and other factors that influence traffic conditions.

  • 2012 employment: 6,600
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $38,380
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 800
    • Growth rate: 12 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Transportation Inspectors

(O*NET 53-6051.00, 53-6051.01, 53-6051.07, and 53-6051.08)

Inspect equipment or goods in connection with the safe transport of cargo or people. Includes rail transportation inspectors, such as freight inspectors; rail inspectors; and other inspectors of transportation vehicles, not elsewhere classified. Excludes “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093).

  • 2012 employment: 26,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $63,680
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 2,900
    • Growth rate: 11 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Transportation Attendants, Except Flight Attendants

(O*NET 53-6061.00)

Provide services to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers aboard ships, buses, and trains or within the station or terminal. Perform duties such as greeting passengers, explaining the use of safety equipment, serving meals or beverages, and answering questions related to travel. Excludes “Baggage Porters and Bellhops” (39-6011).

  • 2012 employment: 23,300
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $21,490
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 2,600
    • Growth rate: 11 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Gas Compressor and Gas Pumping Station Operators

(O*NET 53-7071.00)

Operate steam, gas, electric motor, or internal combustion engine-driven compressors. Transmit, compress, or recover gases, such as butane, nitrogen, hydrogen, and natural gas.

  • 2012 employment: 4,800
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $51,150
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –100
    • Growth rate: –3 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Pump Operators, Except Wellhead Pumpers

(O*NET 53-7072.00)

Tend, control, or operate power-driven, stationary, or portable pumps and manifold systems to transfer gases, oil, other liquids, slurries, or powdered materials to and from various vessels and processes.

  • 2012 employment: 13,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $44,610
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 1,400
    • Growth rate: 11 percent (about as fast as average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Wellhead Pumpers

(O*NET 53-7073.00)

Operate power pumps and auxiliary equipment to produce and maintain the flow of oil or gas from wells in oilfields.

  • 2012 employment: 16,200
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $45,690
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 2,400
    • Growth rate: 15 percent (faster than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Moderate-term on-the-job training

Mine Shuttle Car Operators

(O*NET 53-7111.00)

Operate diesel or electric-powered shuttle cars in underground mines to transport materials from the working face to mine cars or conveyors.

  • 2012 employment: 3,000
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $52,110
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: –100
    • Growth rate: –4 percent (decline)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training

Tank Car, Truck, and Ship Loaders

(O*NET 53-7121.00)

Use material-moving equipment to load and unload chemicals and bulk solids, such as coal, sand, and grain, into or from tank cars, trucks, or ships. May perform a variety of other tasks relating to the shipment of products. May gauge or sample shipping tanks and test them for leaks.

  • 2012 employment: 12,500
  • May 2012 median annual wage: $44,100
  • Projected employment change, 2012-22:
    • Number of new jobs: 300
    • Growth rate: 3 percent (slower than average)
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: Less than high school
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job-training: Short-term on-the-job training
Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition, Data for Occupations Not Covered in Detail,
on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/about/data-for-occupations-not-covered-in-detail.htm (visited September 01, 2014).

Publish Date: Wednesday, January 8, 2014