Summer Youth Labor Force News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, August 20, 2013                         USDL-13-1698

Technical information:   (202) 691-6378  •  cpsinfo@bls.gov • www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


              EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG YOUTH — SUMMER 2013


From April to July 2013, the number of employed youth 16 to 24 years old increased by
2.1 million to 19.7 million, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This
year, the share of young people employed in July was 50.7 percent. (The month of July 
typically is the summertime peak in youth employment.) Unemployment among youth rose 
by 692,000 from April to July 2013, compared with an increase of 836,000 for the same 
period in 2012. (Because this analysis focuses on the seasonal changes in youth 
employment and unemployment that occur each spring and summer, the data are not
seasonally adjusted.)

Labor force

The youth labor force--16- to 24-year-olds working or actively looking for work—-grows
sharply between April and July each year. During these months, large numbers of high
school and college students search for or take summer jobs, and many graduates enter
the labor market to look for or begin permanent employment. This summer, the youth
labor force grew by 2.8 million, or 13.4 percent, to a total of 23.5 million in
July. (See table 1.)

The labor force participation rate for all youth—-the proportion of the population 16 to
24 years old working or looking for work--was 60.5 percent in July, the same as a year
earlier. Taking a longer-term perspective, the July 2013 participation rate was 17.0
percentage points below the peak rate for that month in 1989 (77.5 percent). (See
table 2.)

The July 2013 labor force participation rate for 16- to 24-year-old men was 62.7 percent,
and the rate for young women was 58.2 percent; both rates were about the same as a year
earlier. For several decades prior to 1989, the July labor force participation rate for
young men showed no clear trend, ranging from 81 to 86 percent. Since 1989, however,
their July participation rate has declined, falling by about 20 percentage points. The
July labor force participation rate for young women peaked in 1989 at 72.4 percent,
following a long-term upward trend; their rate has since fallen by about 14 percentage
points.

The youth labor force participation rate was highest for whites, at 63.1 percent in
July 2013. By contrast, the rate was 53.8 percent for blacks, 46.1 percent for Asians,
and 57.8 percent for Hispanics. For all four groups, labor force participation rates
were little different from last year.

Employment

In July 2013, 19.7 million 16- to 24-year-olds were employed, about the same as last
year. This summer’s increase in youth employment-—from April to July-—was 2.1 million.
The employment-population ratio for youth in July 2013—-the proportion of the 16- to
24-year-old civilian noninstitutional population with a job—-was 50.7 percent. (See
tables 1 and 2.)

In  July, the youth employment-population ratios were 51.7 percent for young men,
49.6 percent for young women, 54.3 percent for whites, 38.6 percent  for  blacks,
39.2 percent for Asians, and  47.4 percent for Hispanics.  For  all  major
demographic groups,  these  ratios showed little change from last year.

In July 2013, 26 percent of employed youth worked in the leisure and hospitality
industry (which includes food services), and 19 percent worked in the retail trade
industry. Both proportions were unchanged from a year earlier. (See table 3.)

Unemployment

The number of unemployed youth in July 2013 was 3.8 million, compared with 4.0 million
a year ago. The youth unemployment rate was 16.3 percent in July 2013. Among the major
demographic groups, unemployment rates were lower than a year earlier in July for young
women (14.8 percent) and whites (13.9 percent), while jobless rates changed little for
young men (17.6 percent), blacks (28.2 percent), Asians (15.0 percent), and Hispanics
(18.1 percent). (See table 2.)




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
a national sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted monthly for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau. The data in this release
relate to the employment status of youth (16- to 24-year-olds) during the months of
April-July. This period was selected as being the most representative time frame in
which to measure the full summertime transition from school to work. July is the peak
summer month of youth employment.

   Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in
the CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS
website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When
a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component
of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling
error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is
about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample
will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because
of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of
confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or 
processing of the data.

   More information on the reliability of data from the CPS and estimating standard errors
is available online at ww.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference week (which
is generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as
paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm;
(c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member’s business. Persons who
were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor
dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during the reference week,
were available for work at that time, and had made specific efforts to find employment
sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting
to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for
work to be classified as unemployed. Looking for full-time work refers to 35 hours or more
per week; part-time work refers to fewer than 35 hours per week.

   Civilian labor force. This group comprises all persons classified as employed or
unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed persons as a
percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population.

   Employment-population ratio. The employment-population ratio is the employed as a
percent of the population.

   Not in the labor force. Included in this group are all persons in the civilian
noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed.

   Industry and class of worker. This information applies to the job held during the
reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job at which they
worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using the 2007 Census
industry classification system. The class-of-worker breakdown assigns workers to the
following categories: Private and government wage and salary workers, unincorporated
self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers.

   Wage and salary workers. Included in this group are persons who receive wages, salary,
commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from a government entity.

   Self-employed workers. Included in this group are those who work for profit or fees
in their own unincorporated business, profession, trade, or farm. Only unincorporated
self-employed are included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons whose
businesses are incorporated are included with private wage and salary workers.

   Unpaid family workers. Included in this group are persons working without pay for
15 hours a week or more on a farm or in a business operated by a family member in their
household.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years of age by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, April-July 2013
[Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
April May June July April-July changes
Number Percent

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

38,857 38,858 38,858 38,861 4 0.0

Civilian labor force

20,721 21,181 23,322 23,506 2,785 13.4

Participation rate

53.3 54.5 60.0 60.5 7.2 13.5

Employed

17,593 17,704 19,125 19,684 2,091 11.9

Employment-population ratio

45.3 45.6 49.2 50.7 5.4 11.9

Unemployed

3,129 3,478 4,198 3,821 692 22.1

Looking for full-time work

2,157 2,524 3,173 2,819 662 30.7

Looking for part-time work

972 954 1,025 1,002 30 3.1

Unemployment rate

15.1 16.4 18.0 16.3 1.2 7.9

Not in labor force

18,136 17,677 15,536 15,355 -2,781 -15.3

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,584 19,584 19,585 19,587 3 0.0

Civilian labor force

10,596 11,023 12,179 12,283 1,687 15.9

Participation rate

54.1 56.3 62.2 62.7 8.6 15.9

Employed

8,863 9,051 9,752 10,127 1,264 14.3

Employment-population ratio

45.3 46.2 49.8 51.7 6.4 14.1

Unemployed

1,732 1,972 2,427 2,156 424 24.5

Looking for full-time work

1,263 1,486 1,902 1,665 402 31.8

Looking for part-time work

470 486 525 491 21 4.5

Unemployment rate

16.3 17.9 19.9 17.6 1.3 8.0

Not in labor force

8,988 8,561 7,405 7,303 -1,685 -18.7

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,274 19,273 19,273 19,274 0 0.0

Civilian labor force

10,126 10,158 11,143 11,223 1,097 10.8

Participation rate

52.5 52.7 57.8 58.2 5.7 10.9

Employed

8,729 8,652 9,372 9,557 828 9.5

Employment-population ratio

45.3 44.9 48.6 49.6 4.3 9.5

Unemployed

1,396 1,505 1,771 1,665 269 19.3

Looking for full-time work

894 1,038 1,271 1,154 260 29.1

Looking for part-time work

502 468 500 511 9 1.8

Unemployment rate

13.8 14.8 15.9 14.8 1.0 7.2

Not in labor force

9,148 9,116 8,130 8,052 -1,096 -12.0

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,879 28,874 28,869 28,866 -13 0.0

Civilian labor force

16,093 16,527 18,005 18,205 2,112 13.1

Participation rate

55.7 57.2 62.4 63.1 7.4 13.3

Employed

13,938 14,124 15,258 15,679 1,741 12.5

Employment-population ratio

48.3 48.9 52.9 54.3 6.0 12.4

Unemployed

2,155 2,403 2,747 2,525 370 17.2

Looking for full-time work

1,424 1,618 1,974 1,814 390 27.4

Looking for part-time work

732 785 773 711 -21 -2.9

Unemployment rate

13.4 14.5 15.3 13.9 0.5 3.7

Not in labor force

12,785 12,346 10,863 10,661 -2,124 -16.6

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,996 5,996 5,996 5,997 1 0.0

Civilian labor force

2,901 2,960 3,231 3,225 324 11.2

Participation rate

48.4 49.4 53.9 53.8 5.4 11.2

Employed

2,178 2,127 2,200 2,315 137 6.3

Employment-population ratio

36.3 35.5 36.7 38.6 2.3 6.3

Unemployed

722 834 1,031 910 188 26.0

Looking for full-time work

553 715 871 771 218 39.4

Looking for part-time work

170 119 159 139 -31 -18.2

Unemployment rate

24.9 28.2 31.9 28.2 3.3 13.3

Not in labor force

3,095 3,035 2,765 2,772 -323 -10.4

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,042 2,069 2,014 2,028 -14 -0.7

Civilian labor force

834 768 935 934 100 12.0

Participation rate

40.8 37.1 46.4 46.1 5.3 13.0

Employed

737 693 795 794 57 7.7

Employment-population ratio

36.1 33.5 39.5 39.2 3.1 8.6

Unemployed

97 75 140 140 43 44.3

Looking for full-time work

77 60 107 81 4 5.2

Looking for part-time work

19 15 33 59 40 210.5

Unemployment rate

11.6 9.8 14.9 15.0 3.4 29.3

Not in labor force

1,208 1,301 1,079 1,094 -114 -9.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,198 8,208 8,218 8,229 31 0.4

Civilian labor force

4,322 4,356 4,638 4,756 434 10.0

Participation rate

52.7 53.1 56.4 57.8 5.1 9.7

Employed

3,603 3,635 3,823 3,897 294 8.2

Employment-population ratio

43.9 44.3 46.5 47.4 3.5 8.0

Unemployed

719 721 815 859 140 19.5

Looking for full-time work

476 467 594 622 146 30.7

Looking for part-time work

243 254 221 238 -5 -2.1

Unemployment rate

16.6 16.6 17.6 18.1 1.5 9.0

Not in labor force

3,876 3,852 3,580 3,473 -403 -10.4

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years of age by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, July 2010-2013
[Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
July
2010
July
2011
July
2012
July
2013

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

37,944 38,196 38,799 38,861

Civilian labor force

22,938 22,742 23,472 23,506

Participation rate

60.5 59.5 60.5 60.5

Employed

18,564 18,632 19,461 19,684

Employment-population ratio

48.9 48.8 50.2 50.7

Unemployed

4,374 4,110 4,011 3,821

Looking for full-time work

3,374 3,238 3,074 2,819

Looking for part-time work

1,000 872 937 1,002

Unemployment rate

19.1 18.1 17.1 16.3

Not in labor force

15,006 15,454 15,327 15,355

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,126 19,425 19,554 19,587

Civilian labor force

11,997 11,930 12,355 12,283

Participation rate

62.7 61.4 63.2 62.7

Employed

9,537 9,746 10,140 10,127

Employment-population ratio

49.9 50.2 51.9 51.7

Unemployed

2,460 2,184 2,215 2,156

Looking for full-time work

1,949 1,809 1,785 1,665

Looking for part-time work

510 375 430 491

Unemployment rate

20.5 18.3 17.9 17.6

Not in labor force

7,129 7,494 7,199 7,303

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,819 18,772 19,245 19,274

Civilian labor force

10,942 10,812 11,117 11,223

Participation rate

58.1 57.6 57.8 58.2

Employed

9,027 8,886 9,321 9,557

Employment-population ratio

48.0 47.3 48.4 49.6

Unemployed

1,914 1,926 1,796 1,665

Looking for full-time work

1,425 1,428 1,289 1,154

Looking for part-time work

489 497 507 511

Unemployment rate

17.5 17.8 16.2 14.8

Not in labor force

7,877 7,960 8,128 8,052

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,164 29,377 28,956 28,866

Civilian labor force

18,441 18,266 18,213 18,205

Participation rate

63.2 62.2 62.9 63.1

Employed

15,455 15,367 15,498 15,679

Employment-population ratio

53.0 52.3 53.5 54.3

Unemployed

2,987 2,899 2,715 2,525

Looking for full-time work

2,253 2,203 2,019 1,814

Looking for part-time work

733 696 696 711

Unemployment rate

16.2 15.9 14.9 13.9

Not in labor force

10,722 11,111 10,743 10,661

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,756 5,763 5,971 5,997

Civilian labor force

2,972 2,893 3,256 3,225

Participation rate

51.6 50.2 54.5 53.8

Employed

1,980 1,996 2,323 2,315

Employment-population ratio

34.4 34.6 38.9 38.6

Unemployed

992 897 933 910

Looking for full-time work

843 778 783 771

Looking for part-time work

149 118 150 139

Unemployment rate

33.4 31.0 28.6 28.2

Not in labor force

2,783 2,870 2,715 2,772

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

1,576 1,573 1,922 2,028

Civilian labor force

762 753 839 934

Participation rate

48.3 47.9 43.7 46.1

Employed

597 638 718 794

Employment-population ratio

37.9 40.5 37.4 39.2

Unemployed

165 115 121 140

Looking for full-time work

122 97 83 81

Looking for part-time work

42 18 38 59

Unemployment rate

21.6 15.3 14.4 15.0

Not in labor force

814 820 1,083 1,094

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,128 7,605 8,164 8,229

Civilian labor force

3,995 4,080 4,658 4,756

Participation rate

56.1 53.6 57.1 57.8

Employed

3,111 3,260 3,799 3,897

Employment-population ratio

43.6 42.9 46.5 47.4

Unemployed

884 820 860 859

Looking for full-time work

703 646 698 622

Looking for part-time work

181 174 162 238

Unemployment rate

22.1 20.1 18.5 18.1

Not in labor force

3,133 3,525 3,506 3,473

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employed persons 16 to 24 years of age by industry, class of worker, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, July 2012-2013
[Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Industry and class of worker Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
July
2012
July
2013
July
2012
July
2013
July
2012
July
2013
July
2012
July
2013
July
2012
July
2013

Total employed

19,461 19,684 15,498 15,679 2,323 2,315 718 794 3,799 3,897

Agriculture and related industries

419 355 392 331 4 8 1 1 90 77

Nonagricultural industries

19,043 19,330 15,106 15,348 2,319 2,307 717 793 3,709 3,820

Private wage and salary workers(1)

17,318 17,740 13,724 14,062 2,129 2,134 663 742 3,421 3,580

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

128 137 119 130 3 0 2 1 25 39

Construction

771 868 697 799 30 36 13 7 265 268

Manufacturing

1,278 1,306 1,047 1,033 121 138 51 92 292 240

Durable goods

776 826 640 643 66 88 37 60 126 127

Nondurable goods

502 480 407 390 56 50 14 32 166 113

Wholesale trade

319 339 296 279 12 34 5 9 92 85

Retail trade

3,772 3,756 2,856 2,853 599 558 136 155 636 765

Transportation and utilities

440 486 362 336 41 90 19 11 102 125

Information

340 317 257 257 50 38 15 18 51 44

Financial activities

696 649 576 513 52 80 40 33 135 130

Professional and business services

1,380 1,566 1,077 1,281 186 148 56 75 329 295

Education and health services

2,231 2,235 1,658 1,705 318 328 134 117 376 419

Leisure and hospitality

5,092 5,078 4,053 4,032 627 599 177 194 995 967

Other services

870 1,003 726 844 89 84 15 29 124 204

Government wage and salary workers

1,298 1,254 1,028 1,005 150 149 46 43 216 154

Federal

166 151 131 107 27 22 7 8 32 9

State

370 473 270 371 30 55 26 23 45 50

Local

762 630 628 527 93 72 13 11 139 95

Self-employed, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

427 336 354 281 41 24 8 8 71 86

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: August 20, 2013