Summer Youth Labor Force News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, August 13, 2014                         USDL-14-1498

Technical information: (202) 691-6378    cpsinfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902    PressOffice@bls.gov


                    EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG YOUTH -- SUMMER 2014


From April to July 2014, the number of employed youth 16 to 24 years old increased by
2.1 million to 20.1 million, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This
year, 51.9 percent of young people were employed in July, up from 50.7 percent a year
earlier. (The month of July typically is the summertime peak in youth employment.)
Unemployment among youth rose by 913,000 from April to July 2014, compared with an
increase of 692,000 for the same period in 2013. (Because this analysis focuses on the
seasonal changes in youth employment and unemployment that occur each spring and summer,
the data are not seasonally adjusted.)

Labor force

The youth labor force--16- to 24-year-olds working or actively looking for work--grows
sharply between April and July each year. During these months, large numbers of high
school and college students search for or take summer jobs, and many graduates enter
the labor market to look for or begin permanent employment. This summer, the youth
labor force grew by 3.0 million, or 14.5 percent, to a total of 23.4 million in July.
(See table 1.)

The labor force participation rate for all youth was 60.5 percent in July, the same
as the July value in the prior two summers, but above the July low of 59.5 percent
in 2011. (The labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population that
is working or looking for work.) The summer labor force participation rate of youth had
been declining for many years. The July 2014 participation rate was 17.0 percentage
points below the peak rate for that month in 1989 (77.5 percent). (See table 2.)

The July 2014 labor force participation rate for 16- to 24-year-old men was 63.2 percent,
higher than the rate for young women at 57.8 percent. Both rates were about the same as
a year earlier. For several decades prior to 1989, the July labor force participation
rate for young men showed no clear trend, ranging from 81 to 86 percent. Since 1989,
however, their July participation rate has declined, falling by nearly 20 percentage
points. The July labor force participation rate for young women peaked in 1989 at
72.4 percent, following a long-term upward trend; their rate has since fallen by about
15 percentage points.

The youth labor force participation rate was highest for whites, at 63.2 percent in
July 2014. By contrast, the rate was 52.9 percent for blacks, 45.8 percent for Asians,
and 56.2 percent for Hispanics. For all four groups, labor force participation rates
were little different from last July.

Employment

In July 2014, there were 20.1 million employed 16- to 24-year-olds, not much different
from the summer before. Between April and July 2014, the number of employed youth
rose by 2.1 million. This 11.5 percent increase is typical for this time of year.
The employment-population ratio for youth in July 2014--the proportion of the 16- to
24-year-old civilian noninstitutional population with a job--was 51.9 percent, up from
50.7 percent the year before. (See tables 1 and 2.)

The employment-population ratios for young men (53.6 percent) and whites (55.4 percent)
were higher in July 2014 than a year earlier. The ratios for young women (50.1 percent),
blacks (39.8 percent), Asians (40.8 percent), and Hispanics (47.0 percent) showed little
change from last July.

In July 2014, 25 percent of employed youth worked in the leisure and hospitality industry
(which includes food services), and 19 percent worked in the retail trade industry. These
two industries typically account for large shares of summer youth employment. (See table 3.)

Unemployment

The number of unemployed youth was 3.4 million in July 2014, down from 3.8 million a year
earlier. The youth unemployment rate was 14.3 percent in July 2014, 2.0 percentage points
less than a year before. Among the major demographic groups, July unemployment rates were
lower than the prior year for young men (15.1 percent), young women (13.4 percent), whites
(12.2 percent), and blacks (24.8 percent), while youth jobless rates changed little for
Asians (10.9 percent), and Hispanics (16.5 percent). (See table 2.)




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
a national sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted monthly for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau. The data in this release
relate to the employment status of youth (16- to 24-year-olds) during the months of
April-July. This period was selected as being the most representative time frame in
which to measure the full summertime transition from school to work. July is the peak
summer month of youth employment.

   Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in
the CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS
website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When
a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component
of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling
error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is
about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample
will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because
of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of
confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   More information on the reliability of data from the CPS and estimating standard errors
is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference week (which
is generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as
paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm;
(c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member's business. Persons who
were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor
dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during the reference week,
were available for work at that time, and had made specific efforts to find employment
sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting
to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for
work to be classified as unemployed. Looking for full-time work refers to 35 hours or more
per week; part-time work refers to fewer than 35 hours per week.

   Civilian labor force. This group comprises all persons classified as employed or
unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed persons as a
percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population.

   Employment-population ratio. The employment-population ratio is the employed as a
percent of the population.

   Not in the labor force. Included in this group are all persons in the civilian
noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed.

   Industry and class of worker. This information applies to the job held during the
reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job at which they
worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using the 2012 Census
industry classification system. The class-of-worker breakdown assigns workers to the
following categories: Private and government wage and salary workers, unincorporated
self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers.

   Wage and salary workers. Included in this group are persons who receive wages, salary,
commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from a government entity.

   Self-employed workers. Included in this group are those who work for profit or fees
in their own unincorporated business, profession, trade, or farm. Only unincorporated
self-employed are included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons whose
businesses are incorporated are included with private wage and salary workers.

   Unpaid family workers. Included in this group are persons working without pay for
15 hours a week or more on a farm or in a business operated by a family member in their
household.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years of age by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, April-July 2014
[Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
April May June July April-July changes
Number Percent

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

38,759 38,749 38,740 38,735 -24 -0.1

Civilian labor force

20,461 21,160 22,851 23,437 2,976 14.5

Participation rate

52.8 54.6 59.0 60.5 7.7 14.6

Employed

18,021 18,329 19,421 20,085 2,064 11.5

Employment-population ratio

46.5 47.3 50.1 51.9 5.4 11.6

Unemployed

2,440 2,831 3,429 3,353 913 37.4

Looking for full-time work

1,736 2,084 2,558 2,460 724 41.7

Looking for part-time work

704 747 871 893 189 26.8

Unemployment rate

11.9 13.4 15.0 14.3 2.4 20.2

Not in labor force

18,298 17,589 15,890 15,298 -3,000 -16.4

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,539 19,534 19,529 19,527 -12 -0.1

Civilian labor force

10,532 10,850 11,915 12,335 1,803 17.1

Participation rate

53.9 55.5 61.0 63.2 9.3 17.3

Employed

9,127 9,316 9,983 10,470 1,343 14.7

Employment-population ratio

46.7 47.7 51.1 53.6 6.9 14.8

Unemployed

1,406 1,534 1,932 1,865 459 32.6

Looking for full-time work

1,058 1,173 1,487 1,437 379 35.8

Looking for part-time work

348 361 445 428 80 23.0

Unemployment rate

13.3 14.1 16.2 15.1 1.8 13.5

Not in labor force

9,007 8,684 7,615 7,191 -1,816 -20.2

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,220 19,215 19,211 19,208 -12 -0.1

Civilian labor force

9,929 10,310 10,936 11,102 1,173 11.8

Participation rate

51.7 53.7 56.9 57.8 6.1 11.8

Employed

8,894 9,013 9,439 9,614 720 8.1

Employment-population ratio

46.3 46.9 49.1 50.1 3.8 8.2

Unemployed

1,034 1,296 1,497 1,488 454 43.9

Looking for full-time work

678 911 1,071 1,023 345 50.9

Looking for part-time work

357 385 426 465 108 30.3

Unemployment rate

10.4 12.6 13.7 13.4 3.0 28.8

Not in labor force

9,291 8,906 8,275 8,106 -1,185 -12.8

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,747 28,736 28,726 28,718 -29 -0.1

Civilian labor force

15,754 16,233 17,666 18,137 2,383 15.1

Participation rate

54.8 56.5 61.5 63.2 8.4 15.3

Employed

14,223 14,384 15,358 15,917 1,694 11.9

Employment-population ratio

49.5 50.1 53.5 55.4 5.9 11.9

Unemployed

1,531 1,849 2,308 2,220 689 45.0

Looking for full-time work

1,067 1,324 1,675 1,612 545 51.1

Looking for part-time work

464 525 633 607 143 30.8

Unemployment rate

9.7 11.4 13.1 12.2 2.5 25.8

Not in labor force

12,993 12,502 11,060 10,581 -2,412 -18.6

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,983 5,979 5,976 5,973 -10 -0.2

Civilian labor force

2,903 3,015 3,068 3,160 257 8.9

Participation rate

48.5 50.4 51.3 52.9 4.4 9.1

Employed

2,281 2,299 2,352 2,376 95 4.2

Employment-population ratio

38.1 38.4 39.4 39.8 1.7 4.5

Unemployed

622 717 716 784 162 26.0

Looking for full-time work

474 580 579 591 117 24.7

Looking for part-time work

148 137 137 192 44 29.7

Unemployment rate

21.4 23.8 23.3 24.8 3.4 15.9

Not in labor force

3,080 2,964 2,908 2,813 -267 -8.7

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,095 2,062 2,065 2,044 -51 -2.4

Civilian labor force

799 856 948 936 137 17.1

Participation rate

38.2 41.5 45.9 45.8 7.6 19.9

Employed

701 778 805 834 133 19.0

Employment-population ratio

33.5 37.7 39.0 40.8 7.3 21.8

Unemployed

98 78 143 102 4 4.1

Looking for full-time work

62 45 108 70 8 12.9

Looking for part-time work

36 33 35 32 -4 -11.1

Unemployment rate

12.3 9.1 15.1 10.9 -1.4 -11.4

Not in labor force

1,295 1,206 1,118 1,109 -186 -14.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,286 8,294 8,303 8,313 27 0.3

Civilian labor force

4,209 4,302 4,627 4,675 466 11.1

Participation rate

50.8 51.9 55.7 56.2 5.4 10.6

Employed

3,721 3,774 3,841 3,903 182 4.9

Employment-population ratio

44.9 45.5 46.3 47.0 2.1 4.7

Unemployed

488 528 786 772 284 58.2

Looking for full-time work

334 379 612 560 226 67.7

Looking for part-time work

155 149 174 212 57 36.8

Unemployment rate

11.6 12.3 17.0 16.5 4.9 42.2

Not in labor force

4,077 3,992 3,676 3,637 -440 -10.8

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years of age by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, July 2011-2014
[Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
July
2011
July
2012
July
2013
July
2014

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

38,196 38,799 38,861 38,735

Civilian labor force

22,742 23,472 23,506 23,437

Participation rate

59.5 60.5 60.5 60.5

Employed

18,632 19,461 19,684 20,085

Employment-population ratio

48.8 50.2 50.7 51.9

Unemployed

4,110 4,011 3,821 3,353

Looking for full-time work

3,238 3,074 2,819 2,460

Looking for part-time work

872 937 1,002 893

Unemployment rate

18.1 17.1 16.3 14.3

Not in labor force

15,454 15,327 15,355 15,298

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,425 19,554 19,587 19,527

Civilian labor force

11,930 12,355 12,283 12,335

Participation rate

61.4 63.2 62.7 63.2

Employed

9,746 10,140 10,127 10,470

Employment-population ratio

50.2 51.9 51.7 53.6

Unemployed

2,184 2,215 2,156 1,865

Looking for full-time work

1,809 1,785 1,665 1,437

Looking for part-time work

375 430 491 428

Unemployment rate

18.3 17.9 17.6 15.1

Not in labor force

7,494 7,199 7,303 7,191

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,772 19,245 19,274 19,208

Civilian labor force

10,812 11,117 11,223 11,102

Participation rate

57.6 57.8 58.2 57.8

Employed

8,886 9,321 9,557 9,614

Employment-population ratio

47.3 48.4 49.6 50.1

Unemployed

1,926 1,796 1,665 1,488

Looking for full-time work

1,428 1,289 1,154 1,023

Looking for part-time work

497 507 511 465

Unemployment rate

17.8 16.2 14.8 13.4

Not in labor force

7,960 8,128 8,052 8,106

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,377 28,956 28,866 28,718

Civilian labor force

18,266 18,213 18,205 18,137

Participation rate

62.2 62.9 63.1 63.2

Employed

15,367 15,498 15,679 15,917

Employment-population ratio

52.3 53.5 54.3 55.4

Unemployed

2,899 2,715 2,525 2,220

Looking for full-time work

2,203 2,019 1,814 1,612

Looking for part-time work

696 696 711 607

Unemployment rate

15.9 14.9 13.9 12.2

Not in labor force

11,111 10,743 10,661 10,581

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,763 5,971 5,997 5,973

Civilian labor force

2,893 3,256 3,225 3,160

Participation rate

50.2 54.5 53.8 52.9

Employed

1,996 2,323 2,315 2,376

Employment-population ratio

34.6 38.9 38.6 39.8

Unemployed

897 933 910 784

Looking for full-time work

778 783 771 591

Looking for part-time work

118 150 139 192

Unemployment rate

31.0 28.6 28.2 24.8

Not in labor force

2,870 2,715 2,772 2,813

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

1,573 1,922 2,028 2,044

Civilian labor force

753 839 934 936

Participation rate

47.9 43.7 46.1 45.8

Employed

638 718 794 834

Employment-population ratio

40.5 37.4 39.2 40.8

Unemployed

115 121 140 102

Looking for full-time work

97 83 81 70

Looking for part-time work

18 38 59 32

Unemployment rate

15.3 14.4 15.0 10.9

Not in labor force

820 1,083 1,094 1,109

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,605 8,164 8,229 8,313

Civilian labor force

4,080 4,658 4,756 4,675

Participation rate

53.6 57.1 57.8 56.2

Employed

3,260 3,799 3,897 3,903

Employment-population ratio

42.9 46.5 47.4 47.0

Unemployed

820 860 859 772

Looking for full-time work

646 698 622 560

Looking for part-time work

174 162 238 212

Unemployment rate

20.1 18.5 18.1 16.5

Not in labor force

3,525 3,506 3,473 3,637

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employed persons 16 to 24 years of age by industry, class of worker, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, July 2013-2014
[Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Industry and class of worker Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
July
2013
July
2014
July
2013
July
2014
July
2013
July
2014
July
2013
July
2014
July
2013
July
2014

Total employed

19,684 20,085 15,679 15,917 2,315 2,376 794 834 3,897 3,903

Agriculture and related industries

355 353 331 340 8 7 1 0 77 86

Nonagricultural industries

19,330 19,732 15,348 15,577 2,307 2,369 793 834 3,820 3,817

Private wage and salary workers(1)

17,740 18,052 14,062 14,207 2,134 2,175 742 774 3,580 3,551

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

137 126 130 118 0 4 1 4 39 28

Construction

868 879 799 768 36 39 7 19 268 269

Manufacturing

1,306 1,328 1,033 1,094 138 120 92 69 240 277

Durable goods

826 813 643 692 88 51 60 42 127 140

Nondurable goods

480 516 390 402 50 69 32 27 113 137

Wholesale trade

339 338 279 287 34 22 9 20 85 82

Retail trade

3,756 3,843 2,853 2,872 558 577 155 175 765 763

Transportation and utilities

486 516 336 376 90 100 11 11 125 120

Information

317 341 257 278 38 25 18 16 44 74

Financial activities

649 760 513 617 80 73 33 35 130 134

Professional and business services

1,566 1,632 1,281 1,329 148 151 75 97 295 347

Education and health services

2,235 2,142 1,705 1,611 328 312 117 142 419 383

Leisure and hospitality

5,078 5,078 4,032 3,976 599 635 194 161 967 902

Other services

1,003 1,068 844 883 84 116 29 26 204 174

Government wage and salary workers

1,254 1,310 1,005 1,056 149 165 43 42 154 185

Federal

151 131 107 78 22 43 8 6 9 21

State

473 535 371 447 55 42 23 23 50 76

Local

630 644 527 532 72 80 11 13 95 88

Self-employed, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

336 369 281 314 24 30 8 18 86 81

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: August 13, 2014