Employee Tenure News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, September 22, 2016                   		USDL-16-1867

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                                    EMPLOYEE TENURE IN 2016


The median number of years that wage and salary workers had been with their current employer
was 4.2 years in January 2016, down from 4.6 years in January 2014, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today.

Information on employee tenure has been obtained from supplemental questions in the Current 
Population Survey (CPS) every 2 years since 1996. The CPS is a monthly sample survey of about 
60,000 households that provides information on the labor force status of the civilian 
noninstitutional population age 16 and over. The questions about employee tenure measure how
long workers had been with their current employer at the time of the survey. A number of factors
can affect median tenure of workers, including changes in the age profile among workers, as well
as changes in the number of hires and separations. For further information about the CPS, see
the Technical Note in this news release.

Demographic Characteristics

In January 2016, median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure 
and half had less tenure) for men declined to 4.3 years from 4.7 years in January 2014. For women, 
median tenure also declined; it was 4.0 years in January 2016, compared with 4.5 years in January 
2014. Among men, 29 percent of wage and salary workers had 10 years or more of tenure with their 
current employer in January 2016, slightly higher than the figure of 28 percent for women. 
(See tables 1 and 3.)

Median employee tenure was generally higher among older workers than younger ones. For example, 
the median tenure of workers ages 55 to 64 (10.1 years) was more than three times that of workers 
ages 25 to 34 years (2.8 years). Also, a larger proportion of older workers than younger workers 
had 10 years or more of tenure. Among workers ages 60 to 64, 55 percent were employed for at least 
10 years with their current employer in January 2016, compared with only 13 percent of those ages 
30 to 34. (See tables 1 and 2.)

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, 22 percent of Hispanics had been with their current 
employer for 10 years or more in January 2016, compared with 30 percent of Whites and 25 percent 
of both Blacks and Asians. (See table 3.) The shorter tenure among Hispanic workers can be 
explained, in part, by their relative youth. Forty-four percent of Hispanic workers were between 
the ages of 16 and 34; by comparison, the proportions for Whites (36 percent), Blacks (40 percent), 
and Asians (36 percent) were smaller.  

In January 2016, the share of wage and salary workers with a year or less of tenure with their 
current employer was 23 percent, little changed from the proportion in January 2014 (21 percent). 
This short-tenured group includes new entrants and reentrants to the workforce, job losers who 
found new jobs during the previous year, and workers who had voluntarily changed employers during 
the year. Younger workers were more likely than older workers to be short-tenured employees. For 
example, in January 2016, 74 percent of 16- to 19-year-olds had tenure of 12 months or less with 
their current employer, compared with 10 percent of workers ages 55 to 64. (See table 3.)

Among workers age 25 and over, men and women with less than a high school diploma had lower 
median tenure in January 2016 than those with more education. The median tenure for men and 
women with less than a high school diploma was 4.8 years and 4.4 years, respectively. Men and
women with at least a college degree had median tenure of 5.2 years and 5.1 years, respectively.
(See table 4.)

Industry

In January 2016, wage and salary workers in the public sector had more than double the median 
tenure of private-sector employees, 7.7 years and 3.7 years, respectively. One factor behind 
this difference is age. About 3 in 4 government workers were age 35 and over, compared with
about 3 in 5 private wage and salary workers. Federal employees had a higher median tenure
(8.8 years) than state (5.8 years) or local government (8.3 years) employees. (See table 5.)

Within the private sector, workers in manufacturing had the highest tenure among major 
industries, at 5.3 years in January 2016. In contrast, workers in leisure and hospitality 
had the lowest median tenure (2.2 years). These differences in tenure reflect many factors, 
one of which is varying age distributions across industries; on average, workers in 
manufacturing tend to be older than those in leisure and hospitality.

Occupation

Among the major occupations, workers in management, professional, and related occupations had the 
highest median tenure (5.1 years) in January 2016. Within this group, employees with jobs in 
management occupations (6.3 years), architecture and engineering occupations (5.5 years), and 
legal occupations (5.5 years) had the longest tenure. Workers in service occupations, who are 
generally younger than persons employed in management, professional, and related occupations, 
had the lowest median tenure (2.9 years). Among employees working in service occupations, food 
service workers had the lowest median tenure, at 1.9 years. (See table 6.) 




Technical Note

The data in this release were collected through a supplement to the January 2016
Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. Census
Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of about
60,000 eligible households that provides information on the labor force status,
demographics, and other characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional
population age 16 and over.

The January 2016 CPS supplement, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of 
Labor, obtained information on worker displacement and workers' tenure with their 
current employer. The data on worker displacement are online at 
www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#displaced.

Updated population controls for the CPS are introduced annually with the release
of the January data. Additional information about population controls is available
on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200, Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent.
The component of this difference that occurs because sample differ by chance is
known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of
the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an
estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted
at the 90-percent level of confidence.

The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability
to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

A full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on estimating
standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Tenure concepts and questions

Employee tenure is a measure of how long wage and salary workers had been with their
current employer at the time of the survey. Many of the estimates shown in this report
are medians; the median is the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and
half had less tenure. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time
workers.

Wage and salary workers receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind,
or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors
but excludes all self-employed persons, both those with incorporated businesses and
those with unincorporated businesses.

In the CPS supplement, questions on tenure were asked of all employed persons. The
main question was: "How long has ... been working continuously for (fill in name of
present employer)?"

               _____ Days
               _____ Weeks
               _____ Months
               _____ Years

For responses of "1 year" or "2 years," a follow-up question was asked: "Could you
please give the exact number of months?"

The purpose of the follow-up question is to obtain more precise information on
workers who had been with their current employer for a relatively short time. This
follow-up question was included for the first time in the February 1996 CPS supplement
on worker displacement and tenure. CPS supplements that obtained information on tenure
in January of 1983, 1987, and 1991 did not include the follow-up question. In those
surveys, responses of 1 year or more could be coded only as the nearest full year, and
responses of less than a year were coded as the nearest full month. Currently, the 
2-year category includes 24 to 29 months and the 3-year category includes 2.5 to 
3.5 years.

Prior to January 1983, CPS supplements on tenure asked wage and salary workers, "When
did ... start working at (his/her) present job?" For wage and salary workers, the
meaning of the term "job" is ambiguous. For example, a worker who had been employed
at a particular company for 10 years and had been promoted to a managerial position
1 year prior to the survey may have been counted as having 10 years or 1 year of
tenure, depending on whether the respondent interpreted the question to mean tenure
with the current employer or tenure in the managerial position. To rectify this
ambiguity, the wording of the question was changed in January 1983 to specify the
length of time a worker had been with his or her current employer. The change
resulted in a break in historical comparability.

Interpreting tenure data

Data on tenure have been used as a gauge of employment security, with some observers
regarding increases in tenure as a sign of improving security and decreasing tenure
as a sign of deteriorating security. However, there are limitations to using the data
in this way. For example, during recessions or other periods of declining job security,
median tenure and the proportion of workers with long tenure could rise if less-senior
workers are more likely to lose their jobs than are workers with longer tenure. During
periods of economic growth, median tenure and the proportion of workers with long tenure
could fall if more job opportunities are available for new entrants to the workforce and
experienced workers have more opportunities to change employers and take better jobs.
Tenure also could rise under improving economic conditions, however, as fewer layoffs
occur and good job matches develop between workers and employers.

A changing age distribution among workers would also affect median tenure. Since older
workers are more likely to have long tenure with their current employer than younger
workers, aging baby boomers in the workforce would provide upward pressure on overall
median tenure.




Table 1. Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary  
workers by age and sex, selected years, 2006-16                                   
                                                                                    
                                                                                    
         Age and sex            January  January  January  January  January  January
                                 2006     2008     2010     2012     2014     2016  
                                                                                    
                                                                                    
            TOTAL                                                                   
                                                                                    
      16 years and over.......    4.0      4.1      4.4      4.6      4.6      4.2  
16 to 17 years................     .6       .7       .7       .7       .7       .6  
18 to 19 years................     .7       .8      1.0       .8       .8       .8  
20 to 24 years................    1.3      1.3      1.5      1.3      1.3      1.3  
25 years and over.............    4.9      5.1      5.2      5.4      5.5      5.1  
  25 to 34 years..............    2.9      2.7      3.1      3.2      3.0      2.8  
  35 to 44 years..............    4.9      4.9      5.1      5.3      5.2      4.9  
  45 to 54 years..............    7.3      7.6      7.8      7.8      7.9      7.9  
  55 to 64 years..............    9.3      9.9     10.0     10.3     10.4     10.1  
  65 years and over...........    8.8     10.2      9.9     10.3     10.3     10.3  
                                                                                    
             Men                                                                    
                                                                                    
      16 years and over.......    4.1      4.2      4.6      4.7      4.7      4.3  
16 to 17 years................     .7       .7       .7       .6       .7       .6  
18 to 19 years................     .7       .8      1.0       .8       .9       .8  
20 to 24 years................    1.4      1.4      1.6      1.4      1.4      1.3  
25 years and over.............    5.0      5.2      5.3      5.5      5.5      5.2  
  25 to 34 years..............    2.9      2.8      3.2      3.2      3.1      2.9  
  35 to 44 years..............    5.1      5.2      5.3      5.4      5.4      5.0  
  45 to 54 years..............    8.1      8.2      8.5      8.5      8.2      8.4  
  55 to 64 years..............    9.5     10.1     10.4     10.7     10.7     10.2  
  65 years and over...........    8.3     10.4      9.7     10.2     10.0     10.2  
                                                                                    
            Women                                                                   
                                                                                    
      16 years and over.......    3.9      3.9      4.2      4.6      4.5      4.0  
16 to 17 years................     .6       .6       .7       .7       .7       .6  
18 to 19 years................     .7       .8      1.0       .8       .8       .8  
20 to 24 years................    1.2      1.3      1.5      1.3      1.3      1.2  
25 years and over.............    4.8      4.9      5.1      5.4      5.4      5.0  
  25 to 34 years..............    2.8      2.6      3.0      3.1      2.9      2.6  
  35 to 44 years..............    4.6      4.7      4.9      5.2      5.1      4.8  
  45 to 54 years..............    6.7      7.0      7.1      7.3      7.6      7.5  
  55 to 64 years..............    9.2      9.8      9.7     10.0     10.2     10.0  
  65 years and over...........    9.5      9.9     10.1     10.5     10.5     10.4  
                                                                                    
  NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of     
  January data.




Table 2. Percent of employed wage and salary workers 25 years and over who had 10 years   
or more of tenure with their current employer by age and sex, selected years, 2006-16   
                                                                                          
                                                                                          
         Age and sex            January   January   January   January   January   January 
                                  2006      2008      2010      2012      2014      2016  
                                                                                          
                                                                                          
            TOTAL                                                                         
                                                                                          
      25 years and over.......    30.0      31.5      33.1      33.7      33.3      33.2  
25 to 29 years................     2.4       2.3       2.3       2.5       2.5       2.6  
30 to 34 years................    10.6      10.1      12.8      12.5      12.3      12.5  
35 to 39 years................    22.8      23.0      25.7      25.2      24.4      24.4  
40 to 44 years................    31.8      32.9      35.3      35.1      33.1      34.3  
45 to 49 years................    39.9      40.2      40.8      41.6      41.6      41.8  
50 to 54 years................    46.6      47.7      48.9      48.4      48.1      48.0  
55 to 59 years................    50.1      52.4      52.4      54.1      53.3      53.0  
60 to 64 years................    48.4      53.6      54.5      55.1      58.0      54.7  
65 years and over.............    48.5      56.3      53.1      55.5      55.0      55.3  
                                                                                          
             Men                                                                          
                                                                                          
      25 years and over.......    31.1      32.9      34.3      34.6      34.0      33.8  
25 to 29 years................     2.6       2.4       3.1       2.6       2.9       3.4  
30 to 34 years................    11.6      11.3      14.3      13.2      13.3      13.2  
35 to 39 years................    24.7      25.4      27.2      25.7      25.9      25.1  
40 to 44 years................    34.8      35.8      37.5      36.9      34.5      34.8  
45 to 49 years................    42.9      43.5      43.7      44.8      43.8      44.4  
50 to 54 years................    49.7      50.4      51.3      51.4      49.9      50.4  
55 to 59 years................    51.0      54.9      53.6      55.7      53.8      53.4  
60 to 64 years................    48.1      52.4      56.8      56.2      59.1      55.5  
65 years and over.............    47.2      58.9      51.9      55.5      53.1      54.6  
                                                                                          
            Women                                                                         
                                                                                          
      25 years and over.......    28.8      30.0      31.9      32.8      32.6      32.6  
25 to 29 years................     2.1       2.1       1.6       2.3       2.1       1.7  
30 to 34 years................     9.4       8.7      11.1      11.8      11.1      11.7  
35 to 39 years................    20.5      20.3      24.0      24.7      22.7      23.7  
40 to 44 years................    28.4      29.9      32.9      33.2      31.5      33.8  
45 to 49 years................    36.9      36.7      38.0      38.3      39.4      39.1  
50 to 54 years................    43.6      45.0      46.5      45.5      46.3      45.6  
55 to 59 years................    49.1      50.0      51.2      52.6      52.8      52.6  
60 to 64 years................    48.7      54.8      52.2      54.0      56.9      53.9  
65 years and over.............    49.9      53.8      54.3      55.6      56.9      55.9  
                                                                                          
  NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January
  data.




Table 3. Distribution of employed wage and salary workers by tenure with current employer, age, sex, race, and  
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, January 2016                                                                      
                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
                                                   Percent distribution by tenure with current employer         
  Age, sex, race, and         Number                                                                            
   Hispanic or Latino        employed                                                                           
        ethnicity         (in thousands)            12    13 to           3 to 4  5 to 9  10 to   15 to     20  
                                          Total   months    23   2 years  years   years     14      19    years 
                                                 or less  months                          years   years  or more
                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
          TOTAL                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                
      16 years and over..    134,167      100.0    22.6     7.0     5.5    17.1    19.0    11.5     7.1    10.3 
16 to 19 years...........      4,432      100.0    73.7    11.7     7.5     7.0      .1     -       -       -   
20 years and over........    129,735      100.0    20.9     6.9     5.4    17.4    19.6    11.9     7.3    10.6 
  20 to 24 years.........     13,396      100.0    50.8    14.2    10.8    19.1     5.0      .1     -       -   
  25 to 34 years.........     31,304      100.0    28.9     9.4     7.8    24.9    21.7     6.7      .7     -   
  35 to 44 years.........     28,272      100.0    17.1     6.1     4.8    18.4    24.4    16.5     9.4     3.4 
  45 to 54 years.........     28,737      100.0    12.4     5.0     3.4    13.7    20.6    15.7    11.9    17.3 
  55 to 64 years.........     21,601      100.0    10.2     3.5     2.9    11.7    18.1    14.4    11.3    28.0 
  65 years and over......      6,425      100.0     9.9     2.9     2.3     9.8    19.9    15.6    11.6    28.1 
                                                                                                                
           Men                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
      16 years and over..     69,068      100.0    22.0     7.0     5.3    17.0    19.3    11.4     7.0    11.0 
16 to 19 years...........      2,113      100.0    72.7    13.3     6.4     7.6      .1     -       -       -   
20 years and over........     66,955      100.0    20.4     6.8     5.3    17.3    19.9    11.7     7.3    11.4 
  20 to 24 years.........      6,754      100.0    49.7    14.1    11.8    18.4     5.9      .1     -       -   
  25 to 34 years.........     16,665      100.0    27.5     9.1     7.6    24.9    22.7     7.3      .9     -   
  35 to 44 years.........     14,922      100.0    17.1     5.8     4.5    18.1    24.8    16.3     9.6     3.8 
  45 to 54 years.........     14,626      100.0    11.7     5.1     3.2    13.0    19.6    15.4    12.5    19.4 
  55 to 64 years.........     10,809      100.0    10.6     3.5     2.7    11.7    17.4    13.7    10.1    30.3 
  65 years and over......      3,179      100.0     9.3     2.7     2.0     9.1    22.3    14.2    11.0    29.4 
                                                                                                                
          Women                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                
      16 years and over..     65,099      100.0    23.3     7.1     5.6    17.2    18.6    11.6     7.1     9.5 
16 to 19 years...........      2,319      100.0    74.6    10.3     8.6     6.4      .1     -       -       -   
20 years and over........     62,780      100.0    21.4     7.0     5.4    17.6    19.3    12.0     7.3     9.8 
  20 to 24 years.........      6,642      100.0    52.0    14.3     9.7    19.7     4.2      .1     -       -   
  25 to 34 years.........     14,640      100.0    30.4     9.8     7.9    24.8    20.5     6.0      .6     -   
  35 to 44 years.........     13,350      100.0    17.2     6.4     5.0    18.8    23.9    16.6     9.1     3.0 
  45 to 54 years.........     14,111      100.0    13.0     4.8     3.7    14.5    21.6    16.1    11.2    15.1 
  55 to 64 years.........     10,791      100.0     9.8     3.5     3.1    11.7    18.8    15.1    12.4    25.6 
  65 years and over......      3,246      100.0    10.5     3.0     2.7    10.4    17.5    17.0    12.1    26.8 
                                                                                                                
         White                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
    16 years and over....    105,057      100.0    21.7     7.0     5.2    16.9    19.0    11.7     7.4    11.1 
Men......................     54,917      100.0    21.1     6.9     5.2    16.4    19.6    11.5     7.4    12.0 
Women....................     50,140      100.0    22.4     7.2     5.3    17.4    18.4    12.0     7.4    10.0 
                                                                                                                
Black or African American                                                                                       
                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
    16 years and over....     16,509      100.0    25.8     6.7     6.5    17.8    18.3    10.3     6.4     8.2 
Men......................      7,522      100.0    26.8     6.7     6.0    18.3    17.2    10.2     6.6     8.2 
Women....................      8,987      100.0    25.0     6.8     6.8    17.4    19.3    10.4     6.2     8.2 
                                                                                                                
         Asian                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
    16 years and over....      7,843      100.0    21.4     7.5     6.4    18.1    21.5    12.4     5.7     7.0 
Men......................      4,170      100.0    18.9     8.3     6.7    19.2    21.2    13.5     5.5     6.9 
Women....................      3,673      100.0    24.3     6.7     6.1    16.8    21.8    11.2     5.9     7.2 
                                                                                                                
   Hispanic or Latino                                                                                           
       ethnicity                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
    16 years and over....     22,637      100.0    25.1     6.4     7.8    19.2    19.6    11.0     5.3     5.6 
Men......................     12,709      100.0    24.5     6.1     7.2    19.1    20.8    11.4     5.2     5.7 
Women....................      9,928      100.0    25.9     6.9     8.6    19.4    18.1    10.5     5.3     5.3 

  - Less than 0.05 percent.
  NOTE: Detail for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals
because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be
of any race. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Dash represents zero or rounds to zero. Updated
population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Table 4. Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary workers 25 years  
and over by educational attainment, sex, and age, January 2016                                       
                                                                                                     
                                                                                                     
                                                            25 years and over                        
                                                                                                     
  Educational attainment and sex                                                                     
                                       Total    25 to 34   35 to 44   45 to 54   55 to 64   65 years 
                                                  years      years      years      years    and over 
                                                                                                     
                                                                                                     
    Total..........................     5.1        2.8        4.9        7.9       10.1       10.3   
Less than a high school diploma....     4.7        2.8        4.3        5.3        8.3       10.2   
High school graduates, no college..     5.2        2.8        4.7        7.8       10.1       10.4   
Some college, no degree............     5.0        2.7        5.0        8.0        9.9        9.8   
Associate degree...................     5.2        2.8        4.6        7.7       10.2       10.6   
College graduates..................     5.2        2.8        5.2        8.3       10.4       10.6   
  Bachelor's degree................     4.9        2.7        5.1        8.2       10.0       10.2   
  Master's degree..................     5.9        3.0        5.6        8.5       11.6       10.3   
  Doctoral or professional degree..     5.6        2.4        5.2        9.4       12.8       15.0   
                                                                                                     
    Men............................     5.2        2.9        5.0        8.4       10.2       10.2   
Less than a high school diploma....     4.8        3.1        4.4        5.7        9.1       10.4   
High school graduates, no college..     5.2        2.9        4.8        8.9       10.1       10.1   
Some college, no degree............     5.1        2.9        5.3        8.5       10.2        9.8   
Associate degree...................     5.6        3.3        5.7        8.7       10.2       10.9   
College graduates..................     5.2        2.7        5.1        8.7       10.8       10.7   
  Bachelor's degree................     5.0        2.8        5.2        9.2       10.2       10.4   
  Master's degree..................     5.6        2.9        5.1        7.9       12.2        9.6   
  Doctoral or professional degree..     6.0        2.3        4.8        9.3       14.2       18.0   
                                                                                                     
    Women..........................     5.0        2.6        4.8        7.5       10.0       10.4   
Less than a high school diploma....     4.4        2.4        4.1        4.6        7.6       10.0   
High school graduates, no college..     5.3        2.6        4.6        6.5       10.1       11.0   
Some college, no degree............     4.9        2.5        4.7        7.5        9.6        9.8   
Associate degree...................     4.8        2.4        4.0        7.3       10.3       10.6   
College graduates..................     5.1        2.8        5.3        8.1       10.2       10.5   
  Bachelor's degree................     4.8        2.7        5.0        7.5        9.8       10.1   
  Master's degree..................     6.1        3.0        6.2        9.2       11.3       11.7   
  Doctoral or professional degree..     5.2        2.5        5.6        9.5       12.0       10.3   
                                                                                                     
  NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Table 5. Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary workers by industry, selected years, 2006-16 
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
                               Industry                                 January   January   January   January   January   January 
                                                                          2006      2008      2010      2012      2014      2016  
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
  Total, 16 years and over............................................     4.0       4.1       4.4       4.6       4.6       4.2  
                                                                                                                                  
Private sector........................................................     3.6       3.6       4.0       4.2       4.1       3.7  
  Agriculture and related industries..................................     3.8       4.3       4.8       4.1       3.6       4.5  
  Nonagricultural industries..........................................     3.6       3.6       4.0       4.2       4.1       3.7  
    Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction.....................     3.8       4.1       4.8       3.5       4.0       4.6  
    Construction......................................................     3.0       3.5       4.2       4.3       3.9       4.0  
    Manufacturing.....................................................     5.5       5.9       6.1       6.0       5.9       5.3  
      Durable goods manufacturing.....................................     5.6       6.1       6.6       6.1       6.0       5.4  
        Nonmetallic mineral products..................................     5.0       4.8       7.7       7.0       7.6       5.1  
        Primary metals and fabricated metal products..................     6.2       5.2       7.2       5.6       6.1       6.0  
        Machinery manufacturing.......................................     6.6       6.0       8.3       5.4       6.2       5.5  
        Computers and electronic products.............................     5.9       6.7       5.9       7.7       5.1       5.3  
        Electrical equipment and appliances...........................     6.2       6.2       5.0       5.9       5.8       4.7  
        Transportation equipment......................................     7.2       7.8       8.3       7.1       7.1       6.1  
        Wood products.................................................     4.7       6.2       4.7       5.3       4.6       4.7  
        Furniture and related product manufacturing...................     4.2       5.2       5.0       6.5       5.9       4.8  
        Miscellaneous manufacturing...................................     3.9       4.7       5.4       4.8       5.1       5.0  
      Nondurable goods manufacturing..................................     5.4       5.4       5.5       5.8       5.9       5.1  
        Food manufacturing............................................     5.2       4.3       4.7       4.9       4.7       4.5  
        Beverage and tobacco products.................................     5.4       6.9       8.1       6.4       4.8       4.3  
        Textiles, apparel, and leather................................     4.4       4.6       4.7       4.3       5.3       5.6  
        Paper and printing............................................     6.3       5.5       6.8       9.7       9.7       5.3  
        Petroleum and coal products...................................     5.0       4.3       5.1       6.4       6.1       6.6  
        Chemicals.....................................................     6.1       7.6       7.3       6.1       7.1       5.3  
        Plastics and rubber products..................................     5.0       5.3       7.4       6.1       6.5       5.3  
    Wholesale and retail trade........................................     3.1       3.2       3.6       3.7       3.6       3.3  
      Wholesale trade.................................................     4.6       5.0       5.2       5.5       5.8       5.2  
      Retail trade....................................................     2.8       2.9       3.3       3.3       3.3       3.0  
    Transportation and utilities......................................     4.9       5.1       5.3       5.6       5.1       4.6  
      Transportation and warehousing..................................     4.3       4.6       5.0       5.3       4.7       4.4  
      Utilities.......................................................    10.4      10.1       9.1       9.5       9.2       7.4  
    Information (1)...................................................     4.8       4.7       5.0       5.4       4.8       4.3  
      Publishing, except Internet.....................................     5.3       4.7       5.6       6.6       5.3       5.7  
      Motion pictures and sound recording industries..................     1.9       1.9       3.8       2.6       2.4       2.4  
      Radio and television broadcasting and cable                                                                                 
   subscriptions programming (2)......................................     4.6       3.4       4.3       4.9       4.1       3.6  
      Telecommunications (2)..........................................     5.3       6.9       6.6       7.4       7.8       6.0  
    Financial activities..............................................     4.0       4.5       4.6       4.9       5.0       4.8  
      Finance and insurance...........................................     4.1       4.7       4.8       5.0       5.3       5.0  
        Finance.......................................................     3.9       4.4       4.5       4.7       5.0       5.0  
        Insurance.....................................................     4.7       5.2       5.5       5.7       6.0       5.2  
      Real estate and rental and leasing..............................     3.4       3.7       3.9       4.5       4.4       3.8  
        Real estate...................................................     3.5       3.9       4.1       4.5       4.6       3.9  
        Rental and leasing services...................................     3.1       3.0       3.3       4.2       3.5       3.4  
    Professional and business services................................     3.2       3.1       3.4       3.8       3.6       3.4  
      Professional and technical services.............................     3.8       3.3       4.0       4.4       4.2       3.9  
      Management, administrative, and waste services (1)..............     2.5       2.5       2.9       3.1       3.1       2.8  
        Administrative and support services...........................     2.4       2.4       2.8       3.0       3.0       2.6  
        Waste management and remediation services.....................     4.1       4.1       2.9       4.4       4.7       4.6  
    Education and health services.....................................     4.0       4.1       4.1       4.4       4.5       3.9  
      Educational services............................................     4.0       4.3       4.4       4.3       4.8       4.0  
      Health care and social assistance...............................     4.1       4.1       4.1       4.4       4.4       3.9  
        Hospitals.....................................................     5.2       5.4       5.3       6.0       5.7       5.6  
        Health services, except hospitals.............................     3.6       3.6       3.6       3.8       3.9       3.4  
        Social assistance.............................................     3.1       3.0       3.1       3.1       3.2       2.6  
    Leisure and hospitality...........................................     1.9       2.1       2.5       2.4       2.3       2.2  
      Arts, entertainment, and recreation.............................     3.1       2.8       3.3       3.1       3.0       3.2  
      Accommodation and food services.................................     1.6       1.9       2.3       2.3       2.1       2.0  
        Accommodation.................................................     2.5       3.1       3.3       3.8       3.5       3.0  
        Food services and drinking places.............................     1.4       1.6       2.2       2.1       2.0       1.8  
    Other services....................................................     3.2       3.3       4.0       3.8       4.0       3.9  
      Other services, except private households.......................     3.3       3.4       4.1       3.8       4.2       4.1  
        Repair and maintenance........................................     2.9       3.0       4.0       3.7       4.0       3.5  
        Personal and laundry services.................................     2.8       3.2       3.5       3.5       3.7       3.8  
        Membership associations and organizations.....................     4.2       4.4       4.5       4.3       4.9       4.9  
      Other services, private households..............................     2.8       2.8       3.4       3.3       3.0       3.3  
                                                                                                                                  
Public sector.........................................................     6.9       7.2       7.2       7.8       7.8       7.7  
  Federal government..................................................     9.9       9.9       7.9       9.5       8.5       8.8  
  State government....................................................     6.3       6.5       6.4       6.4       7.4       5.8  
  Local government....................................................     6.6       7.1       7.5       8.1       7.9       8.3  
                                                                                                                                  
  1 Includes other industries, not shown separately.
  2 Data for these industries are not directly comparable over time due to industry classification changes in 2003 and 2009.
  NOTE: Beginning with data for January 2009, industries reflect the introduction of the 2007 census industry classification
system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2007 North American Industry
Classification System. No historical data have been revised. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release
of January data.




Table 6. Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary workers by occupation, selected years,   
2006-16                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                              Occupation                                January  January  January  January  January  January
                                                                         2006     2008     2010     2012     2014     2016  
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
    Total, 16 years and over..........................................    4.0      4.1      4.4      4.6      4.6      4.2  
                                                                                                                            
Management,  professional and related occupations.....................    5.2      5.1      5.2      5.5      5.7      5.1  
    Management, business, and financial operations occupations........    5.5      5.4      5.4      5.9      6.3      5.5  
        Management occupations........................................    6.0      6.0      6.1      6.3      6.9      6.3  
        Business and financial operations occupations.................    4.7      4.6      4.6      5.2      5.0      4.6  
    Professional and related occupations..............................    5.0      4.9      5.0      5.4      5.3      4.9  
        Computer and mathematical occupations.........................    4.8      4.5      4.8      4.8      5.0      4.4  
        Architecture and engineering occupations......................    6.5      6.4      5.7      7.0      6.4      5.5  
        Life, physical, and social science occupations................    4.7      4.0      4.6      5.3      5.0      4.9  
        Community and social service occupations......................    4.7      4.8      4.6      5.0      5.1      4.3  
        Legal occupations.............................................    5.0      4.3      4.6      5.4      5.4      5.5  
        Education, training, and library occupations..................    5.3      5.4      5.6      5.9      6.2      5.3  
        Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations....    3.6      3.4      3.9      4.2      3.4      3.8  
        Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations............    4.8      4.9      4.8      5.2      5.2      4.8  
                                                                                                                            
Service occupations...................................................    2.8      2.8      3.1      3.2      3.3      2.9  
        Healthcare support occupations................................    3.1      3.1      3.3      3.3      3.5      3.1  
        Protective service occupations................................    5.5      5.9      5.0      6.4      6.5      6.2  
        Food preparation and serving related occupations..............    1.8      2.0      2.3      2.3      2.2      1.9  
        Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations.....    3.7      3.6      4.1      4.0      4.3      3.8  
        Personal care and service occupations.........................    2.4      2.6      2.9      3.0      2.9      2.9  
                                                                                                                            
Sales and office occupations..........................................    3.4      3.5      4.1      4.2      4.0      3.5  
    Sales and related occupations.....................................    2.8      2.9      3.4      3.4      3.4      3.1  
    Office and administrative support occupations.....................    4.1      4.2      4.7      4.8      4.6      4.0  
                                                                                                                            
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations..........    3.5      4.0      4.7      4.7      4.4      4.5  
    Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations........................    3.6      3.1      4.2      3.9      3.2      4.1  
    Construction and extraction occupations...........................    3.0      3.5      4.1      4.3      3.7      4.2  
    Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations.................    4.6      5.0      5.7      5.3      5.4      5.2  
                                                                                                                            
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations...........    4.0      4.5      4.6      4.8      4.5      4.3  
    Production occupations............................................    4.8      5.0      5.3      5.3      5.2      4.7  
    Transportation and material moving occupations....................    3.3      3.8      4.0      4.3      3.8      3.9  
                                                                                                                            
  NOTE: Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupational
classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from
the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2011 and later years are
not strictly comparable with earlier years. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January
data.




Last Modified Date: September 22, 2016