Multifactor Productivity Trends in Manufacturing News Release

For release 10:00 a.m.(EDT)   Tuesday, July 28, 2015	     USDL-15-1483
Technical information:	(202) 691-5606 •  mfpweb@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/mfp
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902 •  PressOffice@bls.gov

MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS IN MANUFACTURING - 2013

Manufacturing sector multifactor productivity decreased at a 0.7 percent 
annual rate in 2013, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. 
It was the third consecutive decline in this measure. The 2013 decline 
reflected a 1.5-percent increase in output and a 2.1-percent increase in
combined inputs. (See table A, table 1.)

Multifactor productivity measures the change in output relative to the
change in capital, labor, and intermediate inputs (energy, materials,
purchased business services) used to produce that output. It is designed 
to measure the joint influences of technological change, efficiency 
improvements, returns to scale, reallocation of resources, and other
factors of economic growth, allowing for the effects of capital, labor, 
and intermediate inputs. Multifactor productivity annual measures 
differ from BLS quarterly labor productivity or output per hour 
measures because the former also include information on capital 
services, shifts in the composition of the workforce, and 
intermediate inputs. Additionally, much of the source data needed
to construct multifactor productivity measures are not available 
on a quarterly basis.

Durable manufacturing sector multifactor productivity decreased 
1.8 percent in 2013, following a 0.8-percent decrease in 2012. 
Nondurable manufacturing sector multifactor productivity 
increased 0.3 percent in 2013, following a 0.8-percent decrease
in 2012. (See table C, table 3.)

Historical trends in manufacturing

Multifactor productivity in manufacturing grew 1.2 percent annually
from 1987 to 2013 with sectoral output increasing at an annual rate of 2.2
percent, faster than the 1.0-percent annual increase in combined inputs. 
During the same period, labor productivity increased 3.5 percent annually.
(See table A.) Of the 3.5-percent growth rate in labor productivity, 
multifactor productivity contributed 1.2 percent, capital intensity
contributed 0.8 percent, materials intensity added 1.0 percent, and 
purchased business services intensity added 0.5 percent. The 
contributions of energy intensity and labor composition were 
unchanged. (See table B.)

For the 2007-2013 period, multifactor productivity declined at a 0.2 
percent annual rate compared to a 1.9-percent annual increase in the 
2000-2007 period. (See table A.) Sectoral output increased 0.1 percent
and combined inputs rose 0.3 percent over the 2007-2013 period.

In 2013, the number of NAICS three-digit manufacturing industries exhibiting
an increase in multifactor productivity growth remained steady compared
to 2012. In 2013, more manufacturing industries exhibited an increase in
sectoral output growth compared to 2012. Fewer manufacturing industries 
had an increase in combined inputs compared to 2012. Nine out of 18
manufacturing industries exhibited an increase in multifactor productivity.
Fourteen industries showed increasing sectoral output. Thirteen industries
showed an increase in combined inputs. (See chart 2, table 3.) 
 
Revised measures

Previous and revised productivity measures and related data for 2011 and 
2012 for the manufacturing, durable manufacturing, and nondurable 
manufacturing sectors are displayed in table C. In 2012, multifactor 
productivity in the manufacturing sector decreased 0.8 percent compared to
the previously reported 0.6-percent increase. Multifactor productivity in the
durable manufacturing sector decreased 0.8 percent compared to the
previously reported 1.4-percent increase. In the nondurable manufacturing 
sector, multifactor productivity decreased 0.8 percent. Previously, 
multifactor productivity was reported as unchanged. In 2011, multifactor 
productivity measures in the manufacturing, durable manufacturing, and 
nondurable manufacturing sectors were also revised. The revisions in both
years were due to the annual revision of the National Income and Product
Accounts (NIPA) released on January 30, 2015.

Table A.  Compound annual growth rates for productivity, sectoral output, and
inputs in the manufacturing sector for selected periods, 1987-2013

Percent
                        1987- 1987- 1990- 1995- 2000- 2007- 2012-
                        2013  1990  1995  2000  2007  2013  2013
Productivity
   Multifactor
   productivity1         1.2   0.4   1.3   2.1   1.9  -0.2  -0.7
   Labor          
   productivity2         3.5   1.9   3.2   4.9   4.6   2.3   0.7
   Output per unit
   of capital services  -0.1  -0.9   0.5   0.5   0.2  -1.2   0.5

Sectoral Output          2.2   1.8   3.2   4.7   1.5   0.1   1.5

Inputs

   Combined inputs3      1.0   1.4   1.9   2.6  -0.5   0.3   2.1
      Labor input4      -1.3   0.0   0.0  -0.2  -3.0  -2.1   0.8
         Hours5         -1.3   0.0   0.0  -0.2  -3.0  -2.1   0.8
         Labor
         composition6    0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Capital services   2.3   2.7   2.7   4.2   1.2   1.4   1.0
      Energy            -0.4   1.9   1.6   6.6  -3.9  -4.6  -0.1
      Materials          2.2   0.1   3.1   5.2   1.0   1.4   2.5
      Purchased business
      services           1.4   5.4   3.2   1.4  -0.6   0.5   5.3

1Output per combined units of labor input, capital services, energy,
 materials, and purchased business services.
2Output per hour worked.
3The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current dollar
 costs.
4Hours at work by age, education, and gender group are weighted by each
group's share of total wages.
5Hours at work.
6Ratio of labor input to hours.


Table B.  Compound annual growth rates in labor productivity and 
contributions of capital intensity, intermediate inputs intensity, and
multifactor productivity in the manufacturing sector for selected periods,
1987-2013

Percent
                            1987- 1987- 1990- 1995- 2000- 2007- 2012-
                            2013  1990  1995  2000  2007  2013  2013
Manufacturing

Labor productivity1          3.5   1.9   3.2   4.9   4.6   2.3   0.7

Contribution of
capital intensity2           0.8   0.6   0.6   1.0   1.0   0.8   0.0

      Information    
      processing     
      equipment      
      intensity3             0.1   0.1   0.1   0.2   0.1   0.0   0.0

      Research and
      Development 
      intensity4             0.3   0.2   0.1   0.2   0.4   0.4   0.1

      All other   
      intellectual
      property
      products
      intensity5             0.1   0.1   0.1   0.2   0.0   0.0   0.0

      All other
      capital services
      intensity              0.3   0.2   0.2   0.3   0.5   0.4  -0.1

Contribution of
intermediate inputs
intensity6                   1.5   0.8   1.4   1.8   1.6   1.6   1.3

      Energy
      intensity7             0.0   0.1   0.0   0.2   0.0  -0.1   0.0

      Materials
      intensity8             1.0   0.0   0.8   1.3   1.2   1.3   0.7

      Purchased
      business
      services
      intensity9             0.5   0.8   0.5   0.3   0.4   0.4   0.6

Contribution
of labor    
composition10                0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0

Multifactor
productivity11               1.2   0.4   1.3   2.1   1.9  -0.2  -0.7

1Output per hour worked.
2Capital services per hour multiplied by capital's share of current dollar
 costs.
3Information processing equipment per hour multiplied by its share of
 current dollar costs.
4Research and development per hour multiplied by its share of current
dollar costs.
5Software and artistic originals per hout multiplied by their share of
 current dollar costs
6Intermediate inputs per hour multiplied by intermediate inputs' share of
 current dollar costs.
7Energy per hour multiplied by energy’s share of current dollar costs.
8Materials per hour multiplied by materials’ share of current dollar costs.
9Purchased business services per hour multiplied by purchased business
 services' share of current dollar costs.
10Labor composition multiplied by labor's share of current dollar costs.
11Output per combined units of labor input, capital services, energy,
 materials, and purchased business services.

Table C.  Previous and revised productivity and related measures for the
2011-2012 and 2010-2011 periods
                                                  Inputs
                                                                       Purc-
                       Multi-   Sec-  Com-         Capi-               hased 
                       factor   toral bined        tal                 busi- 
                       produc-  out-  in-          ser-         Mate-  ness
Sector                 tivity1  put   puts2 Labor3 vices Energy rials  services
Annual percent change,
2011-2012
Manufacturing
Previous                  0.6   3.3    2.7    2.3   1.2    6.3    1.6    7.7
Revised                  -0.8   3.0    3.9    2.3   1.1   -0.4    5.8    6.3
Durable manufacturing
Previous                  1.4   6.0    4.6    2.9   1.0   14.2    5.5   10.7
Revised                  -0.8   5.9    6.8    3.1   1.0    4.5   12.2    9.6
Nondurable manufacturing
Previous                  0.0   1.3    1.2    1.3   1.4    2.0    0.3    4.3
Revised                  -0.8   0.7    1.5    0.9   1.2   -3.1    1.7    2.6

Annual percent change,
2010-2011
Manufacturing
Previous                 -0.5   2.9    3.4    2.1   1.0    6.5    7.0    1.1
Revised                  -1.4   7.8    9.3    2.2   1.1    8.6   23.5    1.4
Durable manufacturing
Previous                  1.9   6.2    4.2    3.8   0.4   -4.9   13.3    1.3
Revised                   0.9   8.9    7.9    3.9   0.5   -2.8   21.8    0.5
Nondurable manufacturing
Previous                 -2.3   0.3    2.7   -0.6   1.4   14.0    4.3    0.8
Revised                  -3.1   3.4    6.7   -0.4   1.5   16.3   11.9    2.4

1Output per combined units of labor, capital services, energy, materials, and
 purchased business services.
2The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current dollar 
 costs.
3Previous: Hours at work.
  Revised: Hours at work by age, education, and gender group, weighted by each
           group's share of total wages.


Technical Notes
Beginning with this release, BLS includes a measure of the effects of 
changes in the composition of the work force for manufacturing sectors
and industries. Labor input in manufacturing sectors and industries is
obtained by chained superlative Tornqvist aggregation of the hours at
work, classified by age, education, and gender with weights determined 
by each group’s share of total wages. The labor composition index 
estimates the effect of shifts in the age, education, and gender 
composition of the work force on the efficiency of hours worked. 

Additional information concerning data sources and methods of measuring 
labor composition can be found in Cindy Zoghi, 2007, 
“Measuring Labor Composition: A Comparison of Alternate Methodologies”
http://www.bls.gov/bls/fesacp1121407.pdf. 

Capital Services 

Capital services are the services derived from the stock of physical 
assets and intellectual property assets. There are 90 asset types for
fixed business equipment, structures, inventories, land, and intellectual
property products. The aggregate capital services measures are obtained 
by Tornqvist aggregation of the capital stocks for each asset type within
each of the eighteen manufacturing NAICS industry groupings using estimated
rental prices for each asset type. Each rental price reflects the nominal 
rate of return to all assets within the industry and rates of economic 
depreciation and revaluation for the specific asset; rental prices are 
adjusted for the effects of taxes. Data on investment for fixed assets 
are obtained from BEA. Data on inventories are estimated using data from 
BEA and additional information from IRS Corporation Income Returns. Data
for land in the farm sector are obtained from USDA. Nonfarm industry 
detail for land is based on IRS book value data. Current-dollar value-added
data, obtained from BEA, are used in estimating capital rental prices.

Labor Input 

Labor input in manufacturing sectors and industries is obtained by chained 
superlative Tornqvist aggregation of the hours at work, classified by age, 
education, and gender with weights determined by each group’s share of 
total wages. The labor composition index estimates the effect of shifts in
the age, education, and gender composition of the work force on the efficiency
of hours worked.  Hours at work data reflect Productivity and Costs data as
of the February 5, 2015 “Productivity and Costs” news release (USDL-15-0157).
The growth rate of labor composition is defined as the difference between 
the growth rate of weighted labor input and the growth rate of the hours.

The growth rate of labor composition in manufacturing may be underestimated
due to limitations in the source data. The education proxy does not include
training certifications and licensing. The proxy only includes number of
years of schooling.  

Intermediate Inputs 

In manufacturing, intermediate inputs consist of energy, materials, and 
purchased business services, and represent a large share of production
costs. Research has shown that substitution among inputs, including 
intermediate inputs, affects productivity change. Therefore, it is 
important to account for intermediate inputs in productivity measures
at the level of manufacturing. In contrast, the more aggregate 
productivity measures compare "value-added" output with two classes of
inputs, capital and labor. Because of these differences in concepts 
and methodology, productivity change in manufacturing cannot be directly
compared with changes in private business or private nonfarm business.  

Data on intermediate inputs are obtained from BEA based on BEA annual 
input-output tables. Tornqvist indexes of each of these three input 
classes are derived at the three-digit NAICS level and then aggregated 
to the manufacturing sectors. Materials inputs are adjusted to exclude
transactions between establishments within the same sector.

Combined Inputs 

The five input indexes (capital services, labor, energy, materials, 
and purchased business services) are combined using chained superlative
Tornqvist aggregation, applying weights that represent each component's 
share of total costs. Total costs are defined as the current dollar value
of manufacturing sectoral output. Most taxes on production and imports,
such as excise taxes, are excluded from costs; however, property and motor
vehicle taxes remain in total costs. 

Capital Intensity

Capital intensity is the ratio of capital services to hours worked in the
production process. The higher the capital to hours ratio, the more capital
intensive the production process is. 

In a production process, profit maximizing/cost-minimizing firms adjust the
factor proportions of capital and labor if the price of one factor falls 
relative to the price of the other factor; there would be a tendency for 
the firms to substitute the less expensive factor for the more expensive 
one. In the short run, changes in hours worked are more variable than 
changes in capital services. Changes in hours worked in business cycles 
can result in volatility of the capital intensity ratio over short periods
of time. In the long run an increase in wages relative to the price of 
capital will induce the firm to substitute capital for labor, resulting 
in an increase in capital intensity.

Rising labor costs are, in fact, an incentive for firms to introduce 
automated production processes. Industry estimates of capital to hours 
ratios can be obtained at http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm.  

Sectoral Output 

The output concept used for multifactor productivity in manufacturing
is “sectoral output”. Sectoral output equals gross output (sales,
receipts, and other operating income, plus commodity taxes plus 
changes in inventories), excluding transactions between establishments 
within the same sector. In contrast, the output concept used for private
business and private nonfarm business is “real value-added”. Real 
value-added output in private business equals gross domestic product less
general government, government enterprises, private households (including
the rental value of owner-occupied real estate), and non-profit 
institutions. Real value-added output excludes intermediate transactions
between businesses.

The output index for manufacturing is constructed using a chained 
superlative index (Tornqvist) of three-digit NAICS industry outputs. 
Industry output is measured as sectoral output, the total value of goods 
and services leaving the industry. The indexes of industry output are 
calculated with the Tornqvist index formula. This index formula aggregates
the growth rates of the various industry outputs between two periods, 
using their relative shares in industry value of production averaged over
the two periods as weights. BLS industry output measures for manufacturing
industries are constructed using data from the economic censuses and annual
surveys of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, together
with information on price changes, primarily from BLS. 

Multifactor Productivity 

The manufacturing multifactor productivity measures describe the relationship
between output in real terms and the inputs involved in its production. 
Multifactor productivity measures are not intended to measure the specific 
contributions of labor, capital, or intermediate inputs. Rather, they are
designed to measure the joint influences on economic growth of technological
change, efficiency improvements, returns to scale, reallocation of resources
and other factors of economic growth, allowing for the effects of capital, 
labor, and intermediate inputs. The multifactor productivity indexes are 
derived by dividing an output index by an index of the combined inputs of 
labor, capital services, energy, non-energy materials, and purchased business
services.

Other information 

Comprehensive tables containing more detailed data than that which is 
published in this press release are available upon request at 202-691-5606
or at http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm. More detailed information on 
methods, limitations, and data sources of capital and labor are provided
in BLS Bulletin 2178 (September 1983), Trends in Multifactor Productivity,
1948-81 and on the BLS Multifactor Productivity website under the title 
“Technical Information About the BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures”
for Major Sectors and 18 NAICS 3-digit Manufacturing Industries at
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprtech.pdf. General information is available on 
the BLS Multifactor Productivity website at 
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprover.htm. Additional data not contained in the
release can be obtained in print or at http://www.bls.gov/mfp. A number
of comprehensive tables set up as zip files can be obtained at 
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm. Methods for measuring manufacturing
multifactor productivity are discussed in the July 1995 issue of the
Monthly Labor Review, "Measurement of productivity growth in U.S.
manufacturing”. See http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprgul95.pdf.  


Table 1. Manufacturing sector: productivity and related measures for the 
         1987-2013 period

Annual percent change from previous year

      Productivity               Inputs

              Output  Multi-                                   Pur-     Com-
              per     factor Sec-         Capi-                chased   bined
      Labor   unit    Pro-   toral        tal                  busi-    units 
      produc- of      ducti- out-         Ser-   Ener-  Mate-  ness     of all
Year  tivity1 capital vity2  put   Labor3 vices  gy     rials  services inputs4
1988    2.0    1.6     2.7     4.0    2.0   2.4    4.2   -4.1    8.7      1.3
1989   -0.3   -1.7    -0.8     1.0    1.3   2.8   -0.4   -0.5    6.0      1.8
1990    3.9   -2.4    -0.6     0.5   -3.3   3.0    1.9    5.2    1.6      1.1
1991    2.2   -4.2    -0.6    -1.7   -3.8   2.6   -0.3   -0.5   -0.7     -1.1
1992    5.9    2.5    -0.6     5.1   -0.8   2.5   -1.0   17.8    7.5      5.7
1993    2.4    1.2     2.8     3.7    1.2   2.4    3.2   -0.9    0.5      0.9
1994    2.9    2.7     2.9     5.3    2.3   2.5    3.6    1.1    3.8      2.3
1995    2.8    0.4     2.0     3.9    1.1   3.5    2.8   -0.7    4.9      1.8
1996    4.9    0.0     0.3     4.2   -0.7   4.2   -2.7   13.3   -0.5      3.9
1997    4.4    1.9     2.7     6.8    2.3   4.8   -1.9    5.8    3.9      4.0
1998    2.6   -1.9     1.6     2.8    0.2   4.8    4.7   -3.6    4.9      1.2
1999    5.4    0.1     2.0     4.1   -1.3   4.0   23.7    3.9    0.7      2.0
2000    7.5    2.4     3.9     5.7   -1.6   3.3   11.5    7.3   -2.1      1.8
2001    0.4   -8.2    -1.5    -6.3   -6.6   2.1   14.5  -16.4    2.7     -4.8
2002    4.7   -3.6     2.8    -2.4   -6.8   1.3  -24.4   -8.5   -1.3     -5.1
2003    6.4    0.7     5.8     1.3   -4.7   0.6  -12.3   -6.4   -5.4     -4.2
2004    5.5    4.7     2.7     4.9   -0.6   0.2   -5.2   16.8   -6.2      2.1
2005    5.9    3.9     0.6     5.0   -0.8   1.0    7.0   11.4    6.8      4.3
2006    3.5    2.6     2.3     4.1    0.5   1.4   -7.6    6.8   -3.0      1.7
2007    6.0    2.2     1.1     4.4   -1.5   2.1    6.5    8.0    2.9      3.3
2008    3.9   -3.2     0.3    -0.3   -4.0   3.0   -1.0    3.2   -8.8     -0.5
2009   -6.5  -19.9    -1.9   -18.9  -13.2   1.2  -27.4  -35.3   -3.1    -17.3
2010   10.1    9.8     3.7    10.6    0.5   0.8   -2.7   21.5    2.9      6.7
2011    5.4    6.6    -1.4     7.8    2.2   1.1    8.6   23.5    1.4      9.3
2012    0.7    1.9    -0.8     3.0    2.3   1.1   -0.4    5.8    6.3      3.9
2013    0.7    0.5    -0.7     1.5    0.8   1.0   -0.1    2.5    5.3      2.1

1. Output per hour worked.
2. Output per combined units of labor, capital services, energy, materials,
   and purchased business services.
3. Hours at work by age, education, and gender, weighted by each group's
   share of total wages.
4. Combined units of labor, capital services, energy, materials, and
   purchased business services, chained superlative index.

Source:  The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) develops productivity measures
         using output data published by the Bureau of the Census, U.S.
         Department of Commerce, and modified by BLS. Compensation and hours 
         data are from the BLS. Capital measures are based on data supplied 
         by the BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. See also Technical Notes in 
         this release.

Table 2. Manufacturing sector: indexes of productivity and related 
         measures, 1987-2013 

Indexes 2009=100

      Productivity                Inputs

              Output  Multi-                                   Pur-     Com-
              per     factor Sec-         Capi-                chased   bined
      Labor   unit    Pro-   toral        tal                  busi-    units 
      produc- of      ducti- out-         Ser-   Ener-  Mate-  ness     of all
Year  tivity1 capital vity2  put   Labor3 vices  gy     rials  services inputs4
1987    47.6  124.0    74.1   71.6  150.2  57.8  116.1   92.4    80.7    96.6
1988    48.6  126.0    76.1   74.5  153.1  59.1  121.1   88.6    87.7    97.9
1989    48.4  123.8    75.5   75.2  155.2  60.8  120.6   88.1    93.0    99.6
1990    50.3  120.8    75.1   75.6  150.1  62.6  122.8   92.7    94.4   100.7
1991    51.4  115.8    74.6   74.3  144.4  64.2  122.5   92.3    93.8    99.7
1992    54.5  118.6    74.2   78.1  143.3  65.8  121.3  108.6   100.8   105.3
1993    55.8  120.1    76.2   81.0  145.0  67.4  125.2  107.6   101.3   106.2
1994    57.4  123.4    78.5   85.3  148.4  69.1  129.7  108.8   105.2   108.7
1995    59.0  123.8    80.0   88.6  150.0  71.5  133.3  108.1   110.4   110.7
1996    61.9  123.8    80.3   92.3  149.0  74.6  129.7  122.5   109.8   115.0
1997    64.6  126.2    82.5   98.6  152.5  78.1  127.1  129.6   114.2   119.5
1998    66.3  123.7    83.8  101.4  152.8  81.9  133.1  124.9   119.7   121.0
1999    69.9  123.8    85.5  105.5  150.8  85.2  164.6  129.8   120.5   123.4
2000    75.1  126.8    88.8  111.5  148.3  87.9  183.6  139.3   118.0   125.6
2001    75.4  116.4    87.5  104.5  138.5  89.8  210.2  116.5   121.3   119.5
2002    79.0  112.1    89.9  102.0  129.0  91.0  158.9  106.6   119.7   113.4
2003    84.0  112.9    95.1  103.3  122.9  91.5  139.3   99.8   113.2   108.6
2004    88.7  118.3    97.7  108.4  122.2  91.7  132.1  116.6   106.2   111.0
2005    93.9  122.9    98.3  113.8  121.2  92.6  141.3  129.9   113.4   115.8
2006    97.2  126.1   100.6  118.4  121.8  93.9  130.5  138.7   110.0   117.7
2007   103.0  128.9   101.6  123.6  120.0  95.9  139.1  149.8   113.2   121.6
2008   107.0  124.8   101.9  123.3  115.2  98.8  137.7  154.6   103.2   121.0
2009   100.0  100.0   100.0  100.0  100.0 100.0  100.0  100.0   100.0   100.0
2010   110.1  109.8   103.7  110.6  100.5 100.8   97.3  121.5   102.9   106.7
2011   116.1  117.0   102.2  119.2  102.7 101.9  105.7  150.1   104.4   116.6
2012   117.0  119.2   101.4  122.8  105.1 103.1  105.2  158.8   111.0   121.2
2013   117.7  119.7   100.7  124.6  105.9 104.1  105.1  162.7   116.8   123.8

1. Output per hour worked.
2. Output per combined units of labor, capital services, energy, materials,
   and purchased business services.
3. Hours at work by age, education, and gender, weighted by each group's
   share of total wages.
4. Combined units of labor, capital services, energy, materials, and
   purchased business services, chained superlative index.

Source:  The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) develops productivity measures 
         using output data published by the Bureau of the Census, U.S. 
         Department of Commerce, and modified by BLS. Compensation and hours 
         data are from the BLS. Capital measures are based on data supplied 
         by the BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. See also Technical Notes in 
         this release.

Table 3. Multifactor productivity measures for manufacturing industries
         in selected periods, 1987-2013

Compound annual growth rates


                        1987-  1987-  1990-   1995-  2000-  2007-  2012-
                        2013   1990   1995    2000   2007   2013   2013


Manufacturing            1.2    0.4    1.3     2.1    1.9   -0.2   -0.7

Nondurable
  manufacturing          0.2   -0.3    0.6    -0.1    0.7   -0.4    0.3
Food, beverage,
  and tobacco products  -0.2   -1.5    1.4    -1.7    0.6   -0.5   -0.1
Textile mills and
  textile product mills  0.8    1.3    0.7     1.6    1.0   -0.3    3.0
Apparel, leather,
  and allied products    0.0    0.1    3.0     0.8    2.5   -5.6    9.4
Paper products           0.2   -0.3    0.0     0.2    0.6    0.3    2.1
Printing and related
  support activities     1.2    0.9   -0.2     0.2    2.6    1.5    3.3
Petroleum and coal
  products               0.8    0.7    0.7     1.6    0.4    0.5    3.0
Chemical products       -0.6   -0.8   -1.0    -0.4    0.9   -1.9   -3.3
Plastics and
  rubber products        0.7    0.8    0.4     1.5    0.2    0.6   -0.2


Durable manufacturing    1.9    1.0    1.7     3.4    2.7    0.1   -1.8
Wood products            0.1    1.4   -1.5    -0.5    0.9    0.3   -5.1
Nonmetallic 
  mineral products       0.2    0.2    0.8     0.3    0.0    0.0    1.0
Primary metals           0.4    1.3    0.0     1.0    0.6   -0.6    1.7
Fabricated metal
  products               0.1    0.0    0.9    -0.2    0.6   -1.0   -0.6
Machinery               -0.3    1.2   -2.0    -1.1    1.5   -1.1   -5.9
Computer and
  electronic products    8.5    5.7   10.2    15.6    7.5    4.1   -1.1
Electrical equipment,
  appliances, and 
  components            -0.7   -1.7   -2.5    -2.6    1.9   -0.3   -0.8
Transportation
  equipment              0.2   -1.5   -0.1     0.4    1.9   -0.6   -1.7
Furniture and
  related products       0.2   -0.4    0.4     0.7    0.4   -0.2    0.7
Miscellaneous
  manufacturing          0.8    2.7   -0.1     1.2    1.1    0.0    2.7



Last Modified Date: July 28, 2015