Multifactor Productivity Trends in Manufacturing News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, June 22, 2016	USDL-16-1249
Technical information:	(202) 691-5606 •  mfp@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/mfp
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902 •  PressOffice@bls.gov

MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS IN MANUFACTURING - 2014

Manufacturing sector multifactor productivity decreased at a 1.0-percent
annual rate in 2014, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
This decrease followed a 0.1-percent increase in 2013. The 2014 decline 
reflected a 1.7-percent increase in output and a 2.6-percent increase 
in combined inputs. (See table A, table 1.)

Multifactor productivity is calculated by dividing an index of real 
output by an index of combined units of labor input, capital services,
and intermediate inputs. It is designed to measure the joint influences 
of technological change, efficiency improvements, returns to scale, 
reallocation of resources, and other factors of economic growth, allowing
for the effects of capital, labor, and intermediate inputs. Multifactor 
productivity annual measures differ from BLS quarterly labor productivity 
or output per hour measures because the former also includes information
on capital services, shifts in the composition of the workforce, and 
intermediate inputs. Additionally, much of the source data needed to 
construct multifactor productivity measures are not available on a 
quarterly basis.

Durable manufacturing sector multifactor productivity decreased 2.5-percent
in 2014, following a 0.5-percent increase in 2013. Nondurable manufacturing
sector multifactor productivity increased 0.5 percent in 2014, following a 
0.2-percent decrease in 2013. (See table C, table 3.)

In 2014, the number of NAICS three-digit manufacturing industries exhibiting 
an increase in multifactor productivity growth decreased compared to 2013. 
Fewer manufacturing industries exhibited an increase in sectoral output growth 
compared to 2013, and more manufacturing industries had an increase in combined
inputs. Four out of 18 manufacturing industries exhibited an increase in 
multifactor productivity. Textile mills and textile product mills and 
petroleum and coal products showed the highest growth in multifactor 
productivity, while apparel, leather, and allied products and primary metals
showed the largest declines in multifactor productivity. In 2014, 10 
industries showed increasing sectoral output and 14 industries showed an 
increase in combined inputs. (See chart 2, table 3.) 

Historical trends in manufacturing

Multifactor productivity in manufacturing grew 0.9-percent annually from
1987 to 2014 with sectoral output increasing at an annual rate of 2.2 
percent, faster than the 1.3-percent annual increase in combined inputs.
During the same period, labor productivity increased 3.4 percent annually.
(See table A.) Of the 3.4-percent growth rate in labor productivity, 
multifactor productivity contributed 0.9 percent, capital intensity 
contributed 0.8 percent, intermediate inputs intensity contributed 1.5 
percent, and labor composition contributed 0.2 percent. (See table B.)

For the most recent 2007-2014 period, multifactor productivity declined 
at a 0.5-percent annual rate compared to a 1.7-percent annual increase 
in the 2000-2007 period. (See table A.) Sectoral output increased 0.4 
percent and combined inputs rose 0.9 percent over the 2007-2014 period.

Revised measures

Previous and revised productivity measures and related data for 2012 
and 2013 for the manufacturing, durable manufacturing, and nondurable 
manufacturing sectors are displayed in table C. In 2013, multifactor
productivity in the manufacturing sector increased 0.1 percent compared 
to the previously reported 0.7-percent decrease. Multifactor productivity
in the durable manufacturing sector increased 0.5 percent compared to the
previously reported 1.8-percent decrease. In the nondurable manufacturing 
sector, multifactor productivity decreased 0.2 percent; previously it was
reported as a 0.4-percent increase. In 2012, multifactor productivity 
measures in the manufacturing, durable manufacturing, and nondurable 
manufacturing sectors were also revised. The revisions in both years were
due to the annual revision of the National Income and Product Accounts 
(NIPA) released on January 29, 2016.

Table A. Productivity, sectoral output, and inputs in the manufacturing       
sector for selected periods, 1987-2014

                                                                               
Compound annual growth rates                                                   
                                                                               
                             1987-  1987-  1990-  1995-  2000-  2007-  2013-
                             2014   1990   1995   2000   2007   2014   2014 
                                                                               
  Productivity                                                                 
                                                                               
     Multifactor              0.9    0.2    1.1    1.9    1.7   -0.5   -1.0 
     productivity1                                                          
     Labor productivity2      3.4    1.9    3.3    4.9    4.6    2.0    0.0 
     Output per unit of      -0.2   -0.9    0.5    0.4    0.2   -1.2   -0.8 
     capital services                                                       
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                                                               
  Sectoral Output             2.2    1.8    3.2    4.7    1.5    0.4    1.7 
                                                                               
  Inputs                                                                       
                                                                               
     Combined Inputs3         1.3    1.6    2.1    2.7   -0.2    0.9    2.6 
      Labor input4           -0.7    0.5    0.6    0.3   -2.3   -1.2    0.6 
        Hours                -1.2    0.0    0.0   -0.2   -3.0   -1.5    1.7 
        Labor composition5    0.5    0.5    0.7    0.6    0.7    0.3   -1.0 
      Capital Services        2.4    2.7    2.7    4.2    1.3    1.7    2.5 
      Energy                 -0.2    1.9    1.6    6.6   -3.9   -3.4   -1.6 
      Materials               2.3    0.1    3.1    5.2    1.0    2.0    3.3 
      Purchased business      1.5    5.4    3.2    1.4   -0.6    1.1    4.6 
     services                                                               
                                                                               
 1. Output per combined units of labor input, capital services, energy,        
    materials, and purchased business services.                                
 2. Output per hour worked.                                                    
 3. The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current dollar   
    costs.                                                                     
 4. Hours at work by age, education, and gender group are weighted by each     
    group's share of total wages.                                              
 5. Ratio of labor input to hours.                                             
                                                                               
Table B. Labor productivity and contributions of capital intensity,           
intermediate inputs intensity, labor composition, and multifactor productivity 
to labor productivity in the manufacturing sector for selected periods
, 1987-2014 

                                                                               
 Compound annual growth rates                                                  
                                                                               
                           1987-  1987-  1990-  1995-  2000-  2007-  2013-
                           2014   1990   1995   2000   2007   2014   2014 
                                                                               
  Labor productivity1       3.4    1.9    3.3    4.9    4.6    2.0    0.0 
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
    Contribution of         0.8    0.6    0.6    1.0    1.0    0.7    0.2 
    Capital Intensity2                                                    
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
       Information          0.1    0.1    0.1    0.2    0.1    0.0    0.0 
       processing                                                         
       equipment                                                          
       intensity3                                                         
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
       Research and         0.3    0.2    0.1    0.2    0.4    0.3    0.1 
       Development                                                        
       intensity4                                                         
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
       All Other            0.1    0.1    0.1    0.2    0.0    0.0    0.0 
       intellectual                                                       
       property products                                                  
       intensity5                                                         
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
       All other capital    0.3    0.2    0.2    0.3    0.5    0.3    0.0 
       services intensity                                                 
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
    Contribution of         1.5    0.8    1.4    1.8    1.6    1.7    1.0 
    Intermediate Inputs                                                   
    Intensity6                                                            
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
       Energy intensity7    0.0    0.1    0.0    0.2    0.0   -0.1   -0.1 
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
       Materials            1.0    0.0    0.8    1.3    1.2    1.3    0.6 
       intensity8                                                         
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
       Purchased business   0.5    0.8    0.5    0.3    0.4    0.4    0.4 
       services                                                           
       intensity9                                                         
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
    Contribution of         0.2    0.2    0.2    0.2    0.2    0.1   -0.2 
    labor composition10                                                   
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
    Multifactor             0.9    0.2    1.1    1.9    1.7   -0.5   -1.0 
    productivity11                                                        
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
 1. Output per hour worked.                                                     
 2. Capital services per hour multiplied by capital's share of current dollar   
    costs.                                                                      
 3. Information processing equipment per hour multiplied by its share of        
    current dollar costs.                                                       
 4. Research and development per hour multiplied by its share of current        
    dollar costs.                                                              
 5. Software and artistic originals per hour multiplied by its share of         
    current dollar costs.                                                       
 6. Intermediate inputs per hour multiplied by intermediate inputs' share of    
    current dollar costs.                                                       
 7. Energy per hour multiplied by energy’s share of current dollar costs.       
 8. Materials per hour multiplied by materials’ share of current dollar costs.  
 9. Purchased business services per hour multiplied by purchased business'      
    services' share of current dollar costs.                                    
 10.Labor composition multiplied by labor’s share of current dollar costs.     
 11.Output per combined units of labor input, capital services, energy,        
    materials, and purchased business services.                                
                                                                               
Table C.  Previous and revised productivity and related measures for the  
2012-2013 and 2011-2012 periods                                          

                                                                               
                                       Inputs                                  
                                                                               
                          Multi-                                       Pur-    
                          factor Sec-  Com-         Capi-              chased  
                          pro-   toral bined        tal                busi-   
                          ducti- out-  in-          Ser-         Mate- ness    
  Sector                  vity1  put   puts2 Labor3 vices Energy rials services
                                                                               
Annual percent change,                                                         
2012-2013                                                                      
Manufacturing                                                                  
 Previous                  -0.7    1.5   2.1   0.8    1.0  -0.1    2.5   5.3   
 Revised                    0.1    1.0   0.8   1.6    1.9  -0.3   -1.0   3.6   
Durable manufacturing                                                          
 Previous                  -1.8    1.8   3.7   1.0    1.0  -0.7    6.1   6.7   
 Revised                    0.5    1.2   0.7   1.6    1.2  -3.9   -0.6   1.6   
Nondurable manufacturing                                                       
 Previous                   0.4    1.1   0.8   0.5    1.0   0.3    0.2   3.6   
 Revised                   -0.2    1.2   1.4   1.5    2.4   1.7    0.0   5.8   
                                                                               
Annual percent change,                                                         
2011-2012                                                                      
Manufacturing                                                                  
 Previous                  -0.8    3.0   3.9   2.3    1.1  -0.4    5.8   6.3   
 Revised                   -2.8    4.1   7.0   2.5    1.3   5.5   12.5   8.0   
Durable manufacturing                                                          
 Previous                  -0.8    5.9   6.8   3.1    1.0   4.5   12.2   9.6   
 Revised                   -1.2    5.5   6.7   3.5    1.1   4.4   13.0   6.0   
Nondurable manufacturing                                                       
 Previous                  -0.8    0.7   1.5   0.9    1.2  -3.1    1.7   2.6   
 Revised                   -3.7    1.8   5.8   0.8    1.4   6.1    8.0  10.3   
                                                                               
1. Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials,    
   and purchased business services.                                            
2. The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current           
   dollar costs.                                                               
3. Previous: Hours at work.  Revised: Hours at work by age, education,         
    and gender group, weighted by each group’s share of total wages.           

Technical Notes
Beginning with this release, BLS includes a measure of the effects of changes
in the composition of the work force for manufacturing sectors and 
industries. Labor input in manufacturing sectors and NAICS industry 
groups is obtained by chained superlative Tornqvist aggregation of the 
hours at work, classified by age, education, and gender with weights 
determined by each group’s share of total wages. The labor composition 
index estimates the effect of shifts in the age, education, and gender 
composition of the work force on hours worked. 

Capital Services 

Capital services are the services derived from the stock of physical assets 
and intellectual property assets. There are 90 asset types for fixed 
business equipment, structures, inventories, land, and intellectual 
property products. The aggregate capital services measures are obtained
by Tornqvist aggregation of the capital stocks for each asset type 
within each of the eighteen manufacturing NAICS industry groupings 
using estimated rental prices for each asset type. Each rental price 
reflects the nominal rate of return to all assets within the industry
and rates of economic depreciation and revaluation for the specific 
asset; rental prices are adjusted for the effects of taxes. Data on 
investment for fixed assets are obtained from BEA. Data on inventories
are estimated using data from BEA and additional information from IRS 
Corporation Income Returns. Data for land in the farm sector are obtained
from USDA. Nonfarm industry detail for land is based on IRS book value 
data. Current-dollar value-added data, obtained from BEA, are used in 
estimating capital rental prices.

Labor Input 

Labor input in manufacturing sectors and industries is obtained by 
chained superlative Tornqvist aggregation of the hours at work, 
classified by age, education, and gender with weights determined by
each group’s share of total wages. The labor composition index 
estimates the effect of shifts in the age, education, and gender 
composition of the work force on hours worked.  Hours at work data 
reflect Productivity and Costs data as of the February 4, 2016 
“Productivity and Costs” news release (USDL-16-0209). The growth 
rate of labor composition is defined as the difference between the
growth rate of weighted labor input and the growth rate of the hours.

The growth rate of labor composition in manufacturing may be
underestimated due to limitations in the source data. The education
proxy does not include training certifications and licensing. The
proxy only includes number of years of schooling.

Additional information concerning data sources and methods of 
measuring labor composition can be found in Cindy Zoghi, 2007,
“Measuring Labor Composition: A Comparison of Alternate Methodologies”
http://www.bls.gov/bls/fesacp1121407.pdf and in 
“Changes in the Composition of Labor for BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures”
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprlabor.pdf.

Intermediate Inputs 

In manufacturing, intermediate inputs consist of energy, materials, and 
purchased business services, and represent a large share of production 
costs. Research has shown that substitution among inputs, including 
intermediate inputs, affects productivity change. Therefore, it is 
important to account for intermediate inputs in productivity measures 
at the level of manufacturing. In contrast, the more aggregate 
productivity measures compare "value-added" output with two classes 
of inputs, capital and labor. Because of these differences in concepts
and methodology, productivity change in manufacturing cannot be 
directly compared with changes in private business or private nonfarm
business.  

Data on intermediate inputs are obtained from BEA based on BEA annual 
input-output tables. Tornqvist indexes of each of these three input 
classes are derived at the three-digit NAICS level and then aggregated
to the manufacturing sectors. Materials inputs are adjusted to exclude
transactions between establishments within the same sector.

Combined Inputs 

The five input indexes (capital services, labor, energy, materials, 
and purchased business services) are combined using chained superlative
Tornqvist aggregation, applying weights that represent each component's
share of total costs. Total costs are defined as the current dollar 
value of manufacturing sectoral output. Most taxes on production and 
imports, such as excise taxes, are excluded from costs; however, property
and motor vehicle taxes remain in total costs. 

Capital Intensity 

Capital intensity is the ratio of capital services to hours worked in the
production process. The higher the capital to hours ratio, the more 
capital intensive the production process is. 

In a production process, profit maximizing/cost-minimizing firms adjust
the factor proportions of capital and labor if the price of one factor 
falls relative to the price of the other factor; there would be a tendency
for the firms to substitute the less expensive factor for the more expensive 
one. In the short run, changes in hours worked are more variable than 
changes in capital services. Changes in hours worked in business cycles 
can result in volatility of the capital intensity ratio over short periods
of time. In the long run an increase in wages relative to the price of 
capital will induce the firm to substitute capital for labor, resulting 
in an increase in capital intensity.

Rising labor costs are, in fact, an incentive for firms to introduce automated
production processes.  Industry estimates of capital to hours ratios can be
obtained at http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm.   

Sectoral Output 

The output concept used for multifactor productivity in manufacturing is
“sectoral output”. Sectoral output equals gross output (sales, receipts, 
and other operating income, plus commodity taxes plus changes in inventories),
excluding transactions between establishments within the same sector. 
In contrast, the output concept used for private business and private 
nonfarm business is “real value-added”. Real value-added output in private
business equals gross domestic product less general government, government 
enterprises, private households (including the rental value of owner-occupied
real estate), and non-profit institutions. Real value-added output excludes 
intermediate transactions between businesses.

The output index for manufacturing is constructed using a chained superlative
index (Tornqvist) of three-digit NAICS industry outputs. Industry output 
is measured as sectoral output, the total value of goods and services 
leaving the industry. The indexes of industry output are calculated with the
Tornqvist index formula. This index formula aggregates the growth rates of 
the various industry outputs between two periods, using their relative shares
in industry value of production averaged over the two periods as weights. BLS 
industry output measures for manufacturing industries are constructed using
data from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the 
Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with information on price 
changes, primarily from BLS. 

Multifactor Productivity 

The manufacturing multifactor productivity measures describe the relationship
between output in real terms and the inputs involved in its production. 
Multifactor productivity measures are not intended to capture the specific 
contributions of labor, capital, or intermediate inputs. Rather, they are
designed to measure the joint influences on economic growth of technological
change, efficiency improvements, returns to scale, reallocation of resources 
and other factors of economic growth, allowing for the effects of capital, 
labor, and intermediate inputs. The multifactor productivity indexes are 
derived by dividing an output index by an index of the combined inputs of
labor, capital services, energy, non-energy materials, and purchased 
business services.

Other information 

Comprehensive tables containing more detailed data than that which is
published in this press release are available upon request at 202-691-5606 
or at http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm. More detailed information on 
methods, limitations, and data sources of capital and labor are provided
in BLS Bulletin 2178 (September 1983), Trends in Multifactor Productivity,
1948-81 and on the BLS Multifactor Productivity website under the title 
“Technical Information About the BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures” 
for Major Sectors and 18 NAICS 3-digit Manufacturing Industries at 
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprtech.pdf. General information is available on
the BLS Multifactor Productivity website at 
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprover.htm. Additional data not contained in the
release can be obtained in print or at http://www.bls.gov/mfp. A number
of comprehensive tables set up as zip files can be obtained at 
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm. Methods for measuring manufacturing 
multifactor productivity are discussed in the July 1995 issue of the
Monthly Labor Review, "Measurement of productivity growth in U.S.
manufacturing”. See http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprgul95.pdf.  

Table 1. Manufacturing sector: productivity and related measures for the       
  1987-2014 period                                           

Annual percent change from previous year                                       
                                                                               
     Productivity                Inputs                                        
                                                                               
              Output                                                           
              per      Multi-                                  Pur-     Com-   
              unit     factor Sec-          Capi-              chased   bined  
      Labor   of       pro-   toral         tal                busi-    units  
      produc- capital  ducti- out-          Ser-         Mate- ness     of all 
 Year tivity1 services vity2  put   Labor3  vices Energy rials services Inputs4
 1988   2.0     1.5      2.5    4.0   2.4     2.4   4.2   -4.1   8.7      1.5  
 1989  -0.3    -1.7     -0.9    1.0   1.9     2.8  -0.4   -0.5   6.0      2.0  
 1990   3.9    -2.4     -0.8    0.5  -2.7     3.0   1.9    5.2   1.6      1.3  
 1991   2.2    -4.2     -0.9   -1.7  -2.9     2.6  -0.3   -0.5  -0.7     -0.8  
 1992   5.9     2.4     -0.5    5.1  -1.0     2.6  -1.0   17.8   7.5      5.6  
 1993   2.4     1.2      2.4    3.7   2.2     2.5   3.2   -0.9   0.5      1.2  
 1994   2.9     2.7      2.8    5.3   2.6     2.5   3.6    1.1   3.8      2.4  
 1995   2.8     0.4      1.6    3.9   2.4     3.5   2.8   -0.7   4.9      2.3  
 1996   4.9    -0.1      0.2    4.2  -0.2     4.3  -2.7   13.3  -0.5      4.0  
 1997   4.4     1.9      2.5    6.8   3.1     4.8  -1.9    5.8   3.9      4.2  
 1998   2.6    -2.0      1.2    2.8   1.2     4.9   4.7   -3.6   4.9      1.5  
 1999   5.4     0.0      1.9    4.0  -1.0     4.0  23.7    3.9   0.7      2.1  
 2000   7.5     2.4      3.8    5.7  -1.3     3.3  11.5    7.3  -2.1      1.9  
 2001   0.4    -8.2     -1.8   -6.3  -5.6     2.1  14.5  -16.4   2.7     -4.5  
 2002   4.7    -3.6      2.5   -2.4  -5.9     1.3 -24.4   -8.5  -1.3     -4.8  
 2003   6.4     0.7      5.4    1.3  -3.7     0.6 -12.3   -6.4  -5.4     -3.9  
 2004   5.5     4.7      2.3    4.9   0.7     0.2  -5.2   16.8  -6.2      2.6  
 2005   5.9     3.9      0.8    5.0  -1.3     1.0   7.0   11.4   6.8      4.1  
 2006   3.5     2.6      2.0    4.0   1.4     1.4  -7.6    6.8  -3.0      2.0  
 2007   6.0     2.2      1.0    4.4  -1.3     2.2   6.5    8.0   2.9      3.4  
 2008   3.9    -3.1      0.1   -0.2  -3.2     3.0  -1.0    3.2  -8.8     -0.3  
 2009  -6.5   -19.9     -2.2  -18.9 -11.8     1.3 -27.4  -35.3  -3.1    -17.0  
 2010  10.2     9.8      3.8   10.7   0.2     0.8  -2.7   21.5   2.9      6.7  
 2011   5.5     6.6     -1.3    7.7   2.2     1.1   8.6   23.3   1.4      9.2  
 2012   1.7     2.8     -2.8    4.1   2.5     1.3   5.5   12.5   8.0      7.0  
 2013   0.0    -0.9      0.1    1.0   1.6     1.9  -0.3   -1.0   3.6      0.8  
 2014   0.0    -0.8     -1.0    1.7   0.6     2.5  -1.6    3.3   4.6      2.6  
                                                                               
1. Output per hour worked.                                                     
2. Output per combined units of labor input, capital services, energy, material
   and purchased business services.                                            
3. Hours at work by age, education, and gender group, weighted by each group’s 
   share of total wages.                                                       
4. Combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials, and           
   purchased business services, chained superlative index.                     
                                                                               
Source:  The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) develops productivity measures   
         using output data published by the Bureau of the Census, U.S.         
         Department of Commerce, and modified by BLS. Compensation and hours   
         data are from the BLS. Capital measures are based on data supplied    
         by the BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. See also Technical Notes in  
         this release.                                                         
                                                                               

Table 2. Manufacturing sector: indexes of productivity and related measures,   
1987-2014

Indexes 2009=100                                                               
                                                                               
      Productivity                  Inputs                                     
                                                                               
              Output                                                          
              per      Multi-                                 Pur-     Com-   
              unit     factor Sec-         Capi-              chased   bined  
      Labor   of       pro-   toral        tal                busi-    units  
      produc- capital  ducti- out-         Ser-         Mate- ness     of all 
 Year tivity1 services vity2  put   Labor3 vices Energy rials services Inputs4
 1987    47.6   124.4    77.7  71.6  129.3  57.6  116.1  92.4    80.7     92.2
 1988    48.5   126.3    79.6  74.5  132.4  59.0  121.1  88.6    87.7     93.5
 1989    48.4   124.1    78.9  75.2  134.9  60.6  120.6  88.2    93.0     95.4
 1990    50.3   121.1    78.2  75.6  131.2  62.4  122.8  92.8    94.4     96.6
 1991    51.4   116.0    77.5  74.3  127.5  64.0  122.5  92.3    93.8     95.9
 1992    54.4   118.9    77.1  78.1  126.1  65.7  121.3 108.7   100.8    101.2
 1993    55.7   120.3    79.0  80.9  129.0  67.3  125.2 107.7   101.3    102.4
 1994    57.4   123.6    81.2  85.2  132.3  69.0  129.7 108.9   105.2    104.9
 1995    59.0   124.0    82.5  88.6  135.5  71.4  133.3 108.1   110.4    107.3
 1996    61.9   123.9    82.7  92.3  135.2  74.4  129.7 122.5   109.8    111.6
 1997    64.6   126.3    84.7  98.5  139.3  78.0  127.1 129.6   114.2    116.3
 1998    66.3   123.8    85.8 101.3  141.0  81.8  133.1 125.0   119.7    118.1
 1999    69.8   123.9    87.4 105.4  139.6  85.1  164.6 129.9   120.5    120.6
 2000    75.1   126.8    90.7 111.4  137.7  87.9  183.6 139.4   118.0    122.8
 2001    75.4   116.4    89.1 104.5  129.9  89.8  210.2 116.6   121.3    117.3
 2002    78.9   112.2    91.3 101.9  122.3  90.9  158.9 106.7   119.7    111.7
 2003    84.0   113.0    96.2 103.3  117.7  91.4  139.3  99.8   113.2    107.4
 2004    88.6   118.3    98.4 108.4  118.6  91.6  132.1 116.7   106.2    110.2
 2005    93.8   123.0    99.1 113.7  117.0  92.5  141.3 129.9   113.4    114.7
 2006    97.1   126.1   101.2 118.3  118.6  93.8  130.5 138.8   110.0    117.0
 2007   102.9   128.9   102.2 123.5  117.1  95.9  139.1 149.9   113.2    120.9
 2008   107.0   124.8   102.3 123.2  113.4  98.7  137.7 154.7   103.2    120.5
 2009   100.0   100.0   100.0 100.0  100.0 100.0  100.0 100.0   100.0    100.0
 2010   110.2   109.8   103.8 110.7  100.2 100.8   97.3 121.5   102.9    106.7
 2011   116.2   117.0   102.4 119.2  102.4 101.9  105.7 149.7   104.4    116.5
 2012   118.2   120.2    99.5 124.1  104.9 103.2  111.4 168.5   112.7    124.7
 2013   118.2   119.1    99.7 125.3  106.6 105.2  111.1 166.9   116.8    125.7
 2014   118.2   118.1    98.7 127.4  107.3 107.8  109.4 172.3   122.2    129.0
                                                                               
1. Output per hour worked.                                                     
2. Output per combined units of labor input, capital services, energy, material
   and purchased business services.                                            
3. Hours at work by age, education, and gender group, weighted by each group’s 
    share of total wages.                                                      
4. Combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials, and           
   purchased business services, chained superlative index.                     
                                                                               
Source:  The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) develops productivity measures   
         using output data published by the Bureau of the Census, U.S.         
         Department of Commerce, and modified by BLS. Compensation and hours   
         data are from the BLS. Capital measures are based on data supplied    
         by the BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. See also Technical Notes in  
         this release.                                                         
                                                                               

Table 3. Multifactor productivity measures for manufacturing industries   
         in selected periods, 1987-2014                                 

                                                                          
Compound annual growth rates                                              
                                                                          
                         1987-  1987-  1990-  1995-  2000-  2007-  2013-
                         2014   1990   1995   2000   2007   2014   2014 
                                                                        
  Manufacturing           0.9    0.2    1.1    1.9    1.7   -0.5   -1.0 
                                                                        
                                                                        
  Nondurable             -0.1   -0.5    0.4   -0.2    0.6   -0.8    0.5 
    manufacturing                                                       
  Food, beverage, and    -0.3   -1.6    1.3   -1.7    0.6   -0.9   -1.8 
    tobacco products                                                    
  Textile mills and       0.8    1.3    0.5    1.4    0.9    0.1    4.3 
    textile product                                                     
    mills                                                               
  Apparel, leather, and  -1.5   -0.2    2.4    0.8    1.5   -8.9   -3.7 
    allied products                                                     
  Paper products         -0.3   -0.4   -0.1   -0.1    0.3   -1.0   -2.6 
  Printing and related    0.9    0.3   -0.7    0.6    2.4    0.8    0.2 
    support activities                                                  
  Petroleum and coal      1.0   -0.7    1.7    2.9    0.4    0.6    3.8 
    products                                                            
  Chemical products      -0.8   -0.8   -1.1   -0.5    0.7   -2.1   -0.2 
  Plastics and rubber     0.4    0.4    0.2    1.4    0.2    0.1    1.5 
    products                                                            
                                                                        
                                                                        
  Durable manufacturing   1.6    0.9    1.5    3.2    2.5   -0.1   -2.5 
  Wood products          -0.1    1.4   -1.7   -0.5    0.9   -0.4   -1.0 
  Nonmetallic mineral     0.1    0.3    0.7    0.3    0.0   -0.4   -3.1 
    products                                                            
  Primary metals          0.2    1.1    0.0    0.5    0.5   -0.5   -6.2 
  Fabricated metal       -0.2   -0.2    0.8   -0.4    0.5   -1.4   -0.2 
    products                                                            
  Machinery              -0.4    1.0   -2.2   -1.2    1.2   -0.6   -1.9 
  Computer and            7.6    5.4   10.0   15.5    6.8    2.2   -2.0 
    electronic products                                                 
  Electrical equipment,  -0.9   -2.0   -2.6   -2.8    2.0   -0.5   -0.3 
    appliances, and                                                     
    components                                                          
  Transportation          0.2   -1.6   -0.2    0.2    1.7   -0.2   -2.2 
    equipment                                                           
  Furniture and related  -0.2   -0.6    0.1    0.4    0.3   -1.2   -2.3 
    products                                                            
  Miscellaneous           0.6    2.6   -0.4    1.0    0.9   -0.2   -1.0 
    manufacturing                                                       
                                                                        
                                                                        

Last Modified Date: June 22, 2016