Productivity and Costs by Industry: Mining, Wholesale Trade, Retail Trade, and Food Services and Drinking Places News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, August 7, 2014	                             USDL-14-1430

Technical Information: 	(202) 691-5618  •  dipsweb@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/lpc 
Media Contact:		(202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


                     PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS BY INDUSTRY: MINING, WHOLESALE TRADE, 
                 RETAIL TRADE, AND FOOD SERVICES AND DRINKING PLACES INDUSTRIES, 2013

Labor productivity - defined as output per hour - rose 8.5 percent in mining, 2.3 percent in wholesale 
trade and 5.0 percent in retail trade, but fell 2.4 percent in food services and drinking places in 2013, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Unit labor costs, which reflect the total labor costs 
required to produce a unit of output, fell in mining, in wholesale trade and in retail trade, but rose in 
food services and drinking places in 2013. 

Productivity in mining and in retail trade rose faster in 2013 than in 2012. Output increased at the same 
rate as in the previous year for mining and more rapidly for retail trade, while hours in both sectors fell 
slightly after increasing in the previous year. In wholesale trade, output and hours grew more rapidly in 
2013 than in 2012, but the increase in hours outpaced the increase in output and productivity rose more 
slowly in 2013. The larger productivity decline in food services and drinking places in 2013 resulted 
from a slowdown in output that exceeded that of hours. 

The latest productivity measures for industries presented here and for those in other sectors are available 
on the BLS Labor Productivity and Costs website at www.bls.gov/lpc/tables.htm.

************************************************************************************************************
*                                   Industry Productivity Hours Series Changes                             *
*                                                                                                          *
* Beginning with this news release, labor hours for trade and food services and drinking places industries * 
* represent hours worked. See Technical Note in this news release for more information.                    *
************************************************************************************************************

Productivity increased in 39 of the 54 detailed 4-digit NAICS industries studied in 2013. Output grew in 
43 industries and hours increased in 34. Unit labor costs fell in 39 industries in 2013.

In mining, labor productivity increased 8.5 percent, while output grew 8.4 percent and hours fell 
slightly. Productivity increased in all four of the detailed mining industries for which data are available. 
Output rose in three industries and hours declined in four. The largest productivity increase was in the 
oil and gas extraction industry. Unit labor costs fell in three mining industries. 

In wholesale trade, labor productivity rose 2.3 percent as output grew 4.2 percent and hours increased 
1.9 percent. Productivity grew 2.8 percent in durable goods wholesalers and 1.9 percent in nondurable 
goods wholesalers. Productivity increased in 12 of the 19 detailed wholesale trade industries, while 
output rose in 16 industries and hours grew in 14. Productivity increased most rapidly in farm product 
raw materials wholesalers, electric goods wholesalers, and machinery and supplies wholesalers, as 
output rose substantially in each. Unit labor costs declined in 16 wholesale trade industries.

In retail trade, labor productivity grew 5.0 percent, while output rose 4.6 percent and hours fell 0.4 
percent. Productivity increased in 22 of the 27 detailed retail trade industries in 2013, as output grew in 
23 industries and hours rose in 17. The largest productivity increases were in used merchandise stores; 
jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores; clothing stores; and florists. In each of these industries output 
rose and hours fell. Unit labor costs fell in 19 retail trade industries.

In food services and drinking places, labor productivity declined 2.4 percent, as output grew 0.6 
percent and hours rose 3.0 percent. Productivity and output fell in three of the four detailed industries in 
this sector, while hours grew in three. Limited-service eating places was the only industry in this sector 
to record an increase in productivity, output, and hours. Unit labor costs rose in three of these industries.

Over the longer term (1987 to 2013), productivity performance in the wholesale trade and food services 
and drinking places sectors was more favorable than in 2013. From 1987 to 2013, productivity increased 
at an average annual rate of 3.1 percent in wholesale trade and 0.4 percent in food services and drinking 
places.	 In the mining and retail trade sectors, however, productivity growth in the current year outpaced 
the long-term rates of -0.2 percent and 2.9 percent per year, respectively. Unit labor costs rose in mining, 
in wholesale trade and in food services and drinking places, but fell in retail trade from 1987 to 2013. 

Productivity increased in more mining, trade, and food services and drinking places industries over the 
longer term than in 2013, with productivity rising in 51 of the 54 detailed industries from 1987 to 2013. 
Unit labor costs fell in 17 of the detailed industries over the period.

Revisions: The mining industries in this release incorporate data from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Mineral 
Commodity Summaries 2014 (February 2014) and the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s 
Monthly Energy Review (May 2014). These data were used to develop output estimates which allowed 
BLS to update the mining industries to 2013 earlier than usual. The trade and food services and drinking 
places measures in this release incorporate preliminary data from the Census Bureau’s Annual 
Wholesale Trade Report (March 2014), Monthly Wholesale Trade Survey (May 2014), Annual Retail 
Trade Survey (April 2014), and the Annual Revision of the Monthly Retail and Food Services: Sales and 
Inventories (May 2014), as well as data from the Census Bureau’s Nonemployer Statistics (April 2014). 
The labor productivity and output series for all industries have been revised for 2012 and earlier years as 
a result. This news release also incorporates the annual benchmark revision of the BLS Current 
Employment Statistics (CES) survey published in February 2014. For the first time, labor hours in this 
news release represent hours at work. Data on hours paid from the CES were adjusted using industry 
hours-worked to hours-paid ratios derived from National Compensation Survey (NCS) data. In addition, 
the unit labor cost measures incorporate preliminary data from the BLS Quarterly Census of 
Employment and Wages (June 2014). All of the measures for 2013 in this release are preliminary and 
subject to revision. 

Other: While the rates of change reported by BLS in this news release are rounded to one decimal place, 
all industry productivity percent changes are calculated using index numbers rounded to three decimal 
places. Year-to-year movements in industry productivity may be erratic, particularly in smaller 
industries. The annual measures based on sample data may differ from measures generated by a census 
of establishments in the industry. Annual changes in an industry’s output and use of labor may reflect 
cyclical changes in the economy as well as long-term trends. As a result, long-term productivity trends 
tend to be more reliable indicators of industry performance than year-to-year changes. The industries 
included in this release are classified according to the 2007 NAICS. 

More detailed data for industries covered in this release and for additional industries are available on the 
BLS Labor Productivity and Costs website at www.bls.gov/lpc/tables.htm. Data include productivity 
and related indexes; rates of change; and levels of industry employment, hours, nominal value of 
production, and labor compensation. Additional information can be obtained by calling the Division of 
Industry Productivity Studies (202-691-5618) or by sending a request by e-mail to dipsweb@bls.gov. 
Information in this report will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals upon request. Voice 
phone: 202-691-5618; TDD message referral phone number: 1-800-877-8339.

Customers can subscribe to the industry productivity program’s news releases on the BLS website at 
https://subscriptions.bls.gov/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new.


                                             Technical Note

Labor Productivity: The industry labor productivity measures describe the relationship between 
industry output and the labor time involved in its production. They show the changes from period to 
period in the amount of goods and services produced per hour. Although the labor productivity measures 
relate output to hours of all persons in an industry, they do not measure the specific contribution of labor 
or any other factor of production. Rather, they reflect the joint effects of many influences, including 
changes in technology; capital investment; utilization of capacity, energy, and materials; the use of 
purchased services inputs, including contract employment services; the organization of production; 
managerial skill; and the characteristics and effort of the workforce.
      
Output: Industry output is measured as an annual-weighted index of the changes in the various products 
or services (in real terms) provided for sale outside the industry. Real industry output is usually derived 
by deflating nominal sales or values of production using BLS price indexes, but for some industries it is 
measured by physical quantities of output. Industry output measures are constructed primarily using data 
from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, together with information on price changes primarily from BLS. Other data sources include 
the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy; and the U.S. Geological Survey, 
U.S. Department of Interior.
      
Labor Hours: Labor hours reflect annual hours worked by all employed persons in an industry.  Data 
on industry employment and hours come primarily from the BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) 
survey and the Current Population Survey (CPS). CES data on the number of total and nonsupervisory 
worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments are supplemented with CPS 
self-employed and unpaid family worker data to estimate industry employment. Hours worked estimates 
are derived using CES and CPS employment, CES data on average weekly hours paid of nonsupervisory 
workers, CPS data on hours of supervisory, self-employed, and unpaid family workers, and ratios of 
hours-worked to hours-paid based on data from the BLS National Compensation Survey (NCS). For 
some industries, employment and hours data are supplemented or further disaggregated using data from 
the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), the Census Bureau, or other sources. 
Hours worked are estimated separately for different types of workers and then are directly aggregated; 
no adjustments for labor composition are made. 

Unit Labor Costs: Unit labor costs represent the cost of labor required to produce one unit of output. 
The unit labor cost indexes are computed by dividing an index of nominal labor compensation by an 
index of real industry output. Unit labor costs also describe the relationship between compensation per 
hour and real output per hour (labor productivity). Increases in hourly compensation increase unit labor 
costs; increases in labor productivity offset hourly compensation increases and lower unit labor costs. 

Labor Compensation: Labor compensation, defined as payroll plus supplemental payments, is a 
measure of the cost to the employer of securing the services of labor. Payroll includes salaries, wages, 
commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation and sick leave pay, and compensation in kind. 
Supplemental payments include both legally required expenditures and payments for voluntary 
programs. The legally required portion consists primarily of Federal old age and survivors’ insurance, 
unemployment compensation, and workers’ compensation. Payments for voluntary programs include all 
programs not specifically required by legislation, such as the employer portion of private health 
insurance and pension plans. Industry compensation measures are constructed primarily using data from 
the BLS QCEW and the economic censuses of the Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce.



Table 1. Percent change in labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data, 2012-2013
Industry NAICS code 2013
Employment
(thousands)
Percent change, 2012-2013
Labor productivity Output Hours Labor compensation Unit labor costs

Mining Industries

Mining

21

831.4 8.5 8.4 -0.1 2.5 -5.4

Oil and gas extraction

211

199.8 11.2 11.1 -0.1 2.7 -7.5

Oil and gas extraction

2111

199.8 11.2 11.1 -0.1 2.7 -7.5

Mining, except oil and gas

212

211.4 4.7 -0.2 -4.6 -3.0 -2.9

Coal mining

2121

79.4 5.6 -3.2 -8.3 -8.3 -5.3

Metal ore mining

2122

44.7 6.9 0.5 -5.9 0.7 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

87.3 3.4 3.3 -0.1 1.6 -1.6

Wholesale Trade

Wholesale trade

42

5,906.9 2.3 4.2 1.9 2.1 -2.0

Durable goods

423

2,948.6 2.8 4.6 1.8 1.7 -2.8

Motor vehicles and parts

4231

330.7 -0.4 3.0 3.3 1.3 -1.6

Furniture and furnishings

4232

102.2 -0.1 5.7 5.8 1.8 -3.7

Lumber and construction supplies

4233

196.1 -1.6 5.3 7.0 10.8 5.2

Commercial equipment

4234

632.1 3.2 3.4 0.3 0.5 -2.8

Metals and minerals

4235

123.0 -0.6 1.1 1.7 -2.6 -3.7

Electric goods

4236

324.0 8.3 5.9 -2.3 0.3 -5.2

Hardware and plumbing

4237

232.7 -0.1 5.1 5.2 4.7 -0.4

Machinery and supplies

4238

680.6 6.6 10.2 3.4 3.5 -6.1

Miscellaneous durable goods

4239

327.2 0.7 -2.0 -2.7 -2.7 -0.8

Nondurable goods

424

2,059.1 1.9 3.7 1.8 1.8 -1.9

Paper and paper products

4241

122.3 1.1 2.7 1.6 0.5 -2.1

Druggists' goods

4242

189.4 2.3 1.6 -0.6 1.2 -0.4

Apparel and piece goods

4243

152.7 -4.6 -0.2 4.6 -5.5 -5.3

Grocery and related products

4244

753.8 1.7 3.1 1.3 3.1 0.0

Farm product raw materials

4245

79.7 18.6 10.1 -7.2 3.7 -5.7

Chemicals

4246

130.2 5.2 3.5 -1.6 0.4 -3.0

Petroleum

4247

98.1 0.8 6.3 5.5 4.0 -2.2

Alcoholic beverages

4248

182.3 -7.4 -0.1 7.9 5.9 6.0

Miscellaneous nondurable goods

4249

350.6 0.9 3.4 2.5 1.4 -2.0

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

425

899.2 2.2 4.6 2.4 4.1 -0.6

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

4251

899.2 2.2 4.6 2.4 4.1 -0.6

Retail Trade

Retail trade

44-45

15,876.9 5.0 4.6 -0.4 1.8 -2.7

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

441

1,858.2 7.2 8.9 1.6 5.0 -3.6

Automobile dealers

4411

1,173.8 9.3 10.1 0.8 5.5 -4.2

Other motor vehicle dealers

4412

137.1 7.7 8.9 1.1 4.6 -4.0

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

4413

547.3 -5.4 -1.8 3.7 3.7 5.6

Furniture and home furnishings stores

442

482.3 4.4 5.8 1.4 3.2 -2.4

Furniture stores

4421

227.1 3.6 2.2 -1.3 2.9 0.7

Home furnishings stores

4422

255.2 5.3 10.0 4.5 3.7 -5.7

Electronics and appliance stores

443

503.6 9.9 9.0 -0.8 -6.1 -13.9

Electronics and appliance stores

4431

503.6 9.9 9.0 -0.8 -6.1 -13.9

Building material and garden supply stores

444

1,254.8 2.7 3.8 1.1 4.5 0.7

Building material and supplies dealers

4441

1,094.3 2.4 2.6 0.2 4.5 1.9

Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

4442

160.5 2.5 10.3 7.6 4.3 -5.4

Food and beverage stores

445

3,012.3 1.6 1.8 0.3 0.7 -1.1

Grocery stores

4451

2,600.8 1.1 1.5 0.5 1.2 -0.3

Specialty food stores

4452

246.3 7.5 3.7 -3.5 -3.1 -6.6

Beer, wine and liquor stores

4453

165.2 1.9 4.7 2.8 -1.5 -6.0

Health and personal care stores

446

1,056.7 0.4 1.8 1.4 2.4 0.6

Health and personal care stores

4461

1,056.7 0.4 1.8 1.4 2.4 0.6

Gasoline stations

447

878.1 -1.2 1.2 2.4 1.4 0.2

Gasoline stations

4471

878.1 -1.2 1.2 2.4 1.4 0.2

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

448

1,480.3 8.0 2.2 -5.3 0.4 -1.8

Clothing stores

4481

1,103.6 10.3 1.3 -8.1 0.9 -0.5

Shoe stores

4482

199.9 -6.6 -0.7 6.3 0.9 1.7

Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

4483

176.8 12.2 9.6 -2.3 -1.3 -10.0

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

451

678.8 2.4 4.4 2.0 2.8 -1.6

Sporting goods and musical instrument stores

4511

561.0 2.0 6.2 4.1 6.9 0.7

Book, periodical, and music stores

4512

117.8 4.1 -3.2 -7.0 -12.8 -9.9

General merchandise stores

452

3,073.4 4.8 1.3 -3.4 0.3 -0.9

Department stores

4521

1,344.7 8.0 -3.8 -10.9 -12.5 -9.1

Other general merchandise stores

4529

1,728.7 -0.1 3.2 3.3 11.1 7.6

Miscellaneous store retailers

453

940.4 6.7 4.4 -2.2 -2.2 -6.3

Florists

4531

81.8 10.1 3.6 -5.9 0.4 -3.1

Office supplies, stationery and gift stores

4532

312.4 8.6 6.6 -1.8 -1.9 -8.0

Used merchandise stores

4533

209.1 17.5 10.2 -6.2 -4.7 -13.6

Other miscellaneous store retailers

4539

337.1 0.9 1.8 0.9 -1.7 -3.5

Nonstore retailers

454

658.0 7.8 11.5 3.4 4.3 -6.5

Electronic shopping and mail-order houses

4541

343.5 8.4 13.2 4.5 4.4 -7.8

Vending machine operators

4542

45.8 -0.9 3.8 4.7 -0.3 -3.9

Direct selling establishments

4543

268.7 3.5 4.9 1.3 4.7 -0.2

Food Services and Drinking Places

Food services and drinking places

722

10,570.2 -2.4 0.6 3.0 4.1 3.5

Full-service restaurants

7221

4,958.7 -3.8 -0.3 3.6 5.2 5.5

Limited-service eating places

7222

4,515.5 0.9 4.2 3.3 3.7 -0.4

Special food services

7223

726.4 -9.3 -10.5 -1.3 1.4 13.3

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

7224

369.6 -5.3 -2.5 3.0 0.3 2.9



Table 2. Average annual percent change in labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data, 1987-2013
Industry NAICS code Average annual percent change, 1987-2013
Labor productivity Output Hours Labor compensation Unit labor costs

Mining Industries

Mining

21

-0.2 0.7 0.9 5.4 4.6

Oil and gas extraction

211

0.5 0.7 0.2 5.7 5.0

Oil and gas extraction

2111

0.5 0.7 0.2 5.7 5.0

Mining, except oil and gas

212

1.4 0.2 -1.2 2.1 1.9

Coal mining

2121

1.5 -0.6 -2.0 0.8 1.4

Metal ore mining

2122

0.4 1.0 0.6 5.0 4.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

1.4 0.4 -1.0 2.5 2.1

Wholesale Trade

Wholesale trade

42

3.1 3.4 0.3 4.1 0.7

Durable goods

423

5.0 4.9 0.0 3.9 -1.0

Motor vehicles and parts

4231

3.9 3.5 -0.4 3.2 -0.3

Furniture and furnishings

4232

1.9 1.3 -0.6 3.6 2.2

Lumber and construction supplies

4233

1.7 1.7 0.0 2.7 0.9

Commercial equipment

4234

13.2 13.3 0.1 4.3 -8.0

Metals and minerals

4235

-0.6 -0.6 0.0 3.5 4.1

Electric goods

4236

8.1 7.4 -0.7 4.0 -3.2

Hardware and plumbing

4237

1.7 2.1 0.4 4.1 2.0

Machinery and supplies

4238

2.7 2.6 -0.1 4.0 1.4

Miscellaneous durable goods

4239

1.0 1.8 0.8 4.4 2.6

Nondurable goods

424

1.4 1.5 0.1 4.1 2.6

Paper and paper products

4241

1.5 0.7 -0.8 2.7 2.0

Druggists' goods

4242

3.7 4.8 1.1 8.0 3.0

Apparel and piece goods

4243

2.2 1.8 -0.4 3.3 1.4

Grocery and related products

4244

1.1 1.8 0.6 4.1 2.3

Farm product raw materials

4245

1.5 -0.4 -1.9 4.0 4.4

Chemicals

4246

0.8 1.1 0.3 4.1 2.9

Petroleum

4247

2.1 0.3 -1.8 2.7 2.4

Alcoholic beverages

4248

-0.2 1.8 2.0 5.0 3.1

Miscellaneous nondurable goods

4249

0.4 0.0 -0.4 3.0 3.0

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

425

1.4 3.8 2.4 4.7 0.9

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

4251

1.4 3.8 2.4 4.7 0.9

Retail Trade

Retail trade

44-45

2.9 3.3 0.4 3.2 -0.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

441

2.1 2.7 0.6 3.4 0.6

Automobile dealers

4411

2.2 2.8 0.6 3.4 0.5

Other motor vehicle dealers

4412

2.8 3.3 0.6 4.2 0.9

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

4413

1.0 1.7 0.7 3.2 1.4

Furniture and home furnishings stores

442

4.0 3.5 -0.5 2.4 -1.1

Furniture stores

4421

3.4 2.8 -0.5 2.2 -0.7

Home furnishings stores

4422

4.9 4.4 -0.5 2.6 -1.7

Electronics and appliance stores

443

12.4 13.5 0.9 3.7 -8.6

Electronics and appliance stores

4431

12.4 13.5 0.9 3.7 -8.6

Building material and garden supply stores

444

2.6 3.2 0.6 3.2 -0.1

Building material and supplies dealers

4441

2.3 3.1 0.8 3.3 0.2

Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

4442

4.4 4.1 -0.3 2.1 -2.0

Food and beverage stores

445

0.4 0.3 -0.1 2.8 2.5

Grocery stores

4451

0.2 0.2 0.0 3.0 2.7

Specialty food stores

4452

0.4 -0.2 -0.6 1.4 1.6

Beer, wine and liquor stores

4453

2.1 1.1 -0.9 1.9 0.8

Health and personal care stores

446

2.0 3.2 1.1 4.7 1.4

Health and personal care stores

4461

2.0 3.2 1.1 4.7 1.4

Gasoline stations

447

1.6 1.0 -0.6 2.2 1.2

Gasoline stations

4471

1.6 1.0 -0.6 2.2 1.2

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

448

4.3 4.0 -0.3 2.6 -1.3

Clothing stores

4481

4.6 4.4 -0.1 2.8 -1.6

Shoe stores

4482

3.0 2.2 -0.8 1.7 -0.5

Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

4483

3.9 3.2 -0.7 2.7 -0.5

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

451

4.0 3.9 0.0 3.0 -0.9

Sporting goods and musical instrument stores

4511

4.6 5.2 0.5 3.6 -1.5

Book, periodical, and music stores

4512

2.4 0.5 -1.9 1.1 0.6

General merchandise stores

452

3.2 4.6 1.4 3.5 -1.1

Department stores

4521

0.8 1.1 0.4 1.7 0.5

Other general merchandise stores

4529

5.6 8.2 2.5 5.4 -2.5

Miscellaneous store retailers

453

3.5 3.4 -0.2 2.0 -1.4

Florists

4531

2.7 -0.4 -3.0 -0.3 0.1

Office supplies, stationery and gift stores

4532

5.8 4.8 -0.9 1.6 -3.1

Used merchandise stores

4533

4.6 6.0 1.4 3.7 -2.2

Other miscellaneous store retailers

4539

1.4 2.3 1.0 2.2 -0.2

Nonstore retailers

454

8.5 8.9 0.3 3.8 -4.6

Electronic shopping and mail-order houses

4541

10.6 14.6 3.6 7.7 -6.1

Vending machine operators

4542

0.9 -1.9 -2.8 0.3 2.3

Direct selling establishments

4543

3.0 1.2 -1.7 1.1 -0.2

Food Services and Drinking Places

Food services and drinking places

722

0.4 2.0 1.6 5.1 3.1

Full-service restaurants

7221

0.4 2.0 1.6 6.0 3.8

Limited-service eating places

7222

0.5 2.3 1.8 4.9 2.6

Special food services

7223

0.9 1.9 1.0 3.7 1.8

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

7224

-0.3 -0.7 -0.4 2.5 3.3

Last Modified Date: August 07, 2014