Productivity and Costs by Industry: Manufacturing Industries News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, April 28, 2015                                 USDL-15-0754

Technical information: 	(202) 691-5618  •  dipsweb@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/lpc 
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                                   PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS BY INDUSTRY:
                                MANUFACTURING AND MINING INDUSTRIES, 2014

Labor productivity - defined as output per hour - rose in about three-quarters of detailed manufacturing 
and mining industries covered in 2014, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This was higher 
than 2013, when labor productivity rose in about 60 percent of the covered industries. Output and hours 
also increased in more industries in 2014 than in the previous year. Unit labor costs, which reflect 
the total labor costs required to produce a unit of output, declined in 53 percent of manufacturing 
industries and three out of four mining industries in 2014. Almost two-thirds of industries with 
productivity increases posted declines in unit labor costs. 

Oil and gas extraction recorded the largest increase in labor productivity in 2014, followed by textile and 
fabric finishing and coating mills, and semiconductors and electronic components. The largest decline in 
productivity was in glass and glass products.

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*                             2014 measures available for selected industries                              *
*                                                                                                          *
* Labor productivity and related measures are being released through 2014 for a group of 57 detailed       *
* manufacturing industries and four detailed mining industries. These measures are based on trends in      *
* production and wages. Labor productivity measures for all other detailed manufacturing and mining        *
* industries are being released through 2013.                                                              *
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Labor Productivity and Unit Labor Costs, 2014

Manufacturing: Labor productivity increased in 19 of the 21 NAICS 3-digit manufacturing industries in 
2014, as output increased in 19 industries and hours fell in 8 industries. Productivity rose fastest in 
leather and allied product manufacturing, where output increased slightly while hours declined. 
Of the 21 industries, 14 registered greater productivity growth or smaller productivity declines than in 
the previous year.

Mining: Labor productivity increased in three of the four NAICS 4-digit mining industries covered in 
2014. Oil and gas extraction experienced the largest gain in productivity, spurred by output growth of 
13 percent. Only nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying recorded an increase in hours that was 
greater than that of output, causing productivity to decline. Productivity growth was less in 2014 than 
2013 for each of these four mining industries.

Productivity Trends in Selected Time Periods

During the 1987-2013 period, productivity rose in all but four manufacturing and mining industries, 
with median productivity growth of approximately 2 percent per year. Productivity growth in this 
period was associated with rising output in many manufacturing and mining industries, while hours 
increased in relatively few. In most industries, productivity advanced as output was produced with 
fewer hours.

Productivity also increased in a majority of industries between 2007 and 2013, despite the fact that the 
period encompassed a severe recession. However, only one quarter of manufacturing and mining 
industries saw increases in output, while even fewer experienced growth in hours.

In 2013, productivity rose in about 57 percent of manufacturing and mining industries. Output increased 
in about two-thirds of the industries, while hours rose in fewer than half the industries.

Additional Information

This release updates productivity measures to 2014 for all 21 NAICS 3-digit and for 57 of the 
86 NAICS 4-digit manufacturing industries. Additionally, productivity measures for all 86 
NAICS 4-digit manufacturing industries have been updated through 2013. Output estimates 
for 2014 are based on trends in industrial production from the Federal Reserve Board and on 
trends from the manufacturers’ shipments, inventories, and orders (M3) survey from the U.S. 
Census Bureau, along with data on price changes from BLS. Labor compensation in 2014 is 
based on trends in industry wages from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW). Data in this release for 2013 and 2014 are preliminary and subject to revision. 

For the first time, the industries included in this news release are classified according to the 2012 
NAICS. Indexes have been rebased from 2002=100 to 2007=100 starting with this release. 
While the rates of change reported by BLS in this release are rounded to one decimal place, all 
percent changes are calculated using index numbers rounded to three decimal places.

Year-to-year movements in industry productivity may be erratic, particularly in smaller 
industries. The annual measures based on sample data may differ from measures generated by a 
census of establishments in the industry. Annual changes in an industry’s output and use of labor 
may reflect cyclical changes in the economy as well as long-term trends. As a result, long-term 
productivity trends tend to be more reliable indicators of industry performance than year-to-year 
changes.

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*           -Additional years and long term data                                                           *
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* Additional information can be obtained by calling the Division of Industry Productivity Studies          *
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Technical Note

Labor Productivity: Labor productivity describes the relationship between real output and the 
labor hours involved in its production. These measures show the changes from period to period in 
the amount of goods and services produced per hour worked. Although the labor productivity 
measures relate output in an industry to hours worked of all persons in that industry, they do not 
measure the specific contribution of labor to growth in output. Rather, they reflect the joint 
effects of many influences, including changes in technology; capital investment; utilization of 
capacity, energy, and materials; the use of purchased services inputs, including contract 
employment services; the organization of production; managerial skill; in addition to the 
characteristics and effort of the workforce.

Unit Labor Costs:  Unit labor costs represent the cost of labor required to produce one unit of 
output. The unit labor cost indexes are computed by dividing an index of nominal industry labor 
compensation by an index of real industry output. Unit labor costs also describe the relationship 
between compensation per hour and real output per hour (labor productivity). Increases in hourly 
compensation increase unit labor costs; increases in labor productivity offset compensation 
increases and lower unit labor costs.

Output:  Industry output is measured as an annual-weighted index of the changes in the various 
products (in real terms) provided for sale outside the industry. Real industry output is usually 
derived by deflating nominal sales or values of production using BLS price indexes, but for some 
industries it is measured by physical quantities of output. Industry output reflects sectoral value of 
production, derived by adjusting shipments for changes in inventories and removing intra-industry 
transactions. Industry output measures are constructed primarily using data from the economic 
censuses and annual surveys of the Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with 
data on price changes primarily from BLS. New with this update, data from the Bureau of 
Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce, is utilized in part to construct intra-industry 
transactions. Advance industry output for 2014 is constructed with data on industrial production 
from the Federal Reserve and manufacturers’ shipments, inventories, and orders from the Census 
Bureau. Other data sources include the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of 
Energy; and the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Interior.

Labor Hours:  Labor hours reflect annual hours worked by all employed persons in an industry. 
Data on industry employment and hours come primarily from the BLS Current Employment 
Statistics (CES) survey and Current Population Survey (CPS). CES data on the number of total 
and production worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments are 
supplemented with CPS self-employed and unpaid family worker data to estimate industry 
employment. Hours worked estimates are derived using CES and CPS employment, CES data on 
the average weekly hours paid of production workers, CPS data on hours of nonproduction, self-
employed, and unpaid family workers, and ratios of hours worked to hours paid based on data 
from the National Compensation Survey (NCS). For some industries, employment and hours data 
are supplemented or further disaggregated using data from the BLS Quarterly Census of 
Employment and Wages (QCEW), the Census Bureau, or other sources. Hours worked are 
estimated separately for different types of workers and then are directly aggregated; no 
adjustments for labor composition are made.

Labor Compensation:  Labor compensation, defined as payroll plus supplemental payments, is a 
measure of the cost to the employer of securing the services of labor. Payroll includes salaries, 
wages, commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation and sick leave pay, and compensation in 
kind. Supplemental payments include both legally required expenditures and payments for 
voluntary programs. The legally required portion consists primarily of Federal old age and 
survivors’ insurance, unemployment compensation, and workers’ compensation. Payments for 
voluntary programs include all programs not specifically required by legislation, such as the 
employer portion of private health insurance and pension plans. Industry compensation measures 
are constructed primarily using data from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the 
Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce. The estimates for 2014 are constructed using 
data from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW).



Table 1. Percent change in output per hour, unit labor costs, and related data, 2013-2014
Industry NAICS code 2014
Employment
(thousands)
Percent change, 2013-2014
Output per hour Output Hours Labor compensation Unit labor costs

Mining

Mining

21

866.6 3.9 11.6 7.5 8.1 -3.1

Oil and gas extraction

211

201.9 11.5 13.4 1.7 6.4 -6.1

Oil and gas extraction

2111

201.9 11.5 13.4 1.7 6.4 -6.1

Mining, except oil and gas

212

212.0 1.2 4.7 3.5 1.4 -3.2

Coal mining

2121

76.7 5.4 6.7 1.2 -2.0 -8.2

Metal ore mining

2122

44.2 0.5 1.5 1.0 -0.7 -2.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

91.1 -1.3 5.5 6.9 7.7 2.1

Manufacturing

Food

311

1,505.9 3.0 1.9 -1.0 2.5 0.6

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

58.4 6.9 0.3 -6.1 -0.2 -0.5

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

169.6 2.4 3.0 0.5 0.5 -2.4

Dairy products

3115

133.8 5.5 3.0 -2.4 1.3 -1.6

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

480.9 -0.8 -1.4 -0.6 2.0 3.5

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing

3118

311.9 4.7 3.3 -1.4 1.7 -1.5

Other food products

3119

189.4 1.5 -0.5 -1.9 6.4 6.9

Beverages and tobacco products

312

215.5 0.1 1.2 1.1 7.7 6.4

Beverages

3121

201.9 3.2 4.8 1.6 9.2 4.2

Tobacco and tobacco products

3122

13.6 0.9 -4.8 -5.7 -2.8 2.1

Textile mills

313

123.7 1.6 1.5 0.0 2.8 1.2

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

29.2 -2.1 0.9 3.0 3.1 2.2

Fabric mills

3132

61.2 -1.9 2.3 4.3 3.9 1.6

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

3133

33.3 10.8 0.4 -9.4 0.6 0.2

Textile product mills

314

120.4 4.1 1.6 -2.4 2.7 1.0

Textile furnishings mills

3141

54.1 0.5 0.1 -0.4 2.5 2.4

Other textile product mills

3149

66.3 7.6 3.2 -4.1 2.8 -0.4

Apparel

315

160.1 1.5 1.2 -0.3 -1.0 -2.1

Leather and allied products

316

30.2 18.0 3.5 -12.3 -4.0 -7.3

Wood products

321

392.5 1.0 4.2 3.1 6.4 2.2

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

98.3 2.0 3.8 1.7 7.0 3.1

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

72.3 -5.7 1.9 8.0 7.8 5.8

Other wood products

3219

221.9 2.9 5.1 2.2 5.7 0.5

Paper and paper products

322

373.4 -1.8 -2.5 -0.7 1.5 4.1

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

105.1 -1.7 -3.4 -1.7 1.4 4.9

Converted paper products

3222

268.3 -1.4 -1.6 -0.2 1.6 3.3

Printing and related support activities

323

482.9 -1.2 -0.3 0.9 0.8 1.2

Printing and related support activities

3231

482.9 -1.2 -0.3 0.9 0.8 1.2

Petroleum and coal products

324

111.6 2.7 2.3 -0.4 1.6 -0.6

Petroleum and coal products

3241

111.6 2.7 2.3 -0.4 1.6 -0.6

Chemicals

325

815.4 0.9 2.1 1.2 4.4 2.2

Basic chemicals

3251

147.5 -4.1 0.3 4.5 3.9 3.6

Agricultural chemicals

3253

37.2 -4.6 0.7 5.5 4.7 4.0

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

282.4 4.5 1.0 -3.4 6.3 5.2

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

60.3 -4.8 -0.2 4.9 6.4 6.6

Plastics and rubber products

326

678.6 2.5 6.9 4.3 3.7 -3.1

Plastics products

3261

544.5 2.7 6.9 4.0 3.4 -3.3

Rubber products

3262

134.1 1.6 7.2 5.5 4.8 -2.3

Nonmetallic mineral products

327

400.5 1.6 5.7 4.1 4.2 -1.5

Clay products and refractories

3271

47.6 4.7 1.6 -2.9 1.7 0.1

Glass and glass products

3272

91.7 -7.0 8.7 16.8 2.7 -5.5

Cement and concrete products

3273

173.8 4.3 4.4 0.1 4.1 -0.3

Lime and gypsum products

3274

14.5 3.6 9.5 5.7 13.6 3.7

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

72.9 2.1 5.9 3.7 5.2 -0.6

Primary metals

331

404.7 1.4 4.4 3.0 2.2 -2.1

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

59.8 -0.8 2.0 2.9 4.6 2.5

Foundries

3315

127.3 3.0 9.9 6.7 2.1 -7.0

Fabricated metal products

332

1,496.9 1.3 4.0 2.6 3.2 -0.8

Forging and stamping

3321

100.7 6.8 9.1 2.1 4.8 -3.9

Cutlery and hand tools

3322

38.8 5.0 -4.4 -9.0 2.9 7.7

Architectural and structural metals

3323

373.6 0.9 3.9 3.0 5.3 1.3

Spring and wire products

3326

44.6 1.6 9.5 7.8 1.2 -7.6

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

387.0 1.6 4.8 3.1 3.1 -1.6

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

143.3 1.6 0.7 -0.8 2.2 1.4

Other fabricated metal products

3329

284.7 1.9 4.9 3.0 0.2 -4.5

Machinery

333

1,134.6 3.7 7.0 3.1 3.2 -3.5

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

255.8 7.7 9.2 1.3 2.2 -6.4

Industrial machinery

3332

109.2 5.6 8.5 2.7 3.2 -4.9

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

128.7 0.8 5.2 4.4 2.9 -2.1

Metalworking machinery

3335

184.0 4.5 7.3 2.7 1.9 -5.0

Computer and electronic products

334

1,055.6 4.2 3.8 -0.4 0.8 -2.9

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

368.6 9.8 8.0 -1.6 2.2 -5.4

Electronic instruments

3345

390.5 8.2 5.9 -2.1 -0.7 -6.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

335

376.7 3.2 1.6 -1.6 1.5 -0.1

Electric lighting equipment

3351

46.8 4.4 1.0 -3.2 1.5 0.6

Household appliances

3352

59.6 9.4 7.1 -2.0 2.1 -4.7

Electrical equipment

3353

144.6 1.1 0.3 -0.9 0.1 -0.1

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

125.7 2.9 1.2 -1.7 2.5 1.3

Transportation equipment

336

1,576.5 2.4 5.9 3.4 4.5 -1.3

Motor vehicles

3361

199.5 -3.3 8.5 12.3 7.8 -0.7

Motor vehicle parts

3363

539.2 1.9 6.1 4.0 6.7 0.6

Aerospace products and parts

3364

496.3 3.3 2.1 -1.2 1.9 -0.2

Ship and boat building

3366

139.8 6.7 11.4 4.4 3.6 -7.0

Other transportation equipment

3369

34.2 5.4 8.8 3.2 -2.0 -9.9

Furniture and related products

337

402.8 1.4 7.0 5.5 4.6 -2.2

Household and institutional furniture

3371

259.7 2.8 11.4 8.4 5.9 -4.9

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

640.9 3.3 4.5 1.1 3.7 -0.8

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

318.4 4.2 6.2 1.9 4.7 -1.3



Table 2. Percent change in output per hour, unit labor costs, and related data, 2012-2013
Industry NAICS code 2013
Employment
(thousands)
Percent change, 2012-2013
Output per hour Output Hours Labor compensation Unit labor costs

Mining

Mining

21

827.3 9.0 8.7 -0.3 2.5 -5.6

Oil and gas extraction

211

195.6 14.0 11.2 -2.4 2.7 -7.6

Oil and gas extraction

2111

195.6 14.0 11.2 -2.4 2.7 -7.6

Mining, except oil and gas

212

209.9 6.4 0.6 -5.5 -3.0 -3.6

Coal mining

2121

78.1 7.7 -3.0 -9.9 -8.3 -5.4

Metal ore mining

2122

44.5 8.3 1.4 -6.4 0.7 -0.7

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

87.3 4.8 4.5 -0.3 1.8 -2.6

Support activities for mining

213

421.8 -1.8 1.3 3.2 5.3 3.9

Support activities for mining

2131

421.8 -1.8 1.3 3.2 5.3 3.9

Manufacturing

Food

311

1,522.9 1.7 1.7 0.0 2.1 0.4

Animal food

3111

59.2 0.9 1.7 0.8 3.0 1.2

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

60.3 3.9 3.2 -0.7 0.9 -2.2

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

73.2 -1.5 4.9 6.6 3.9 -1.0

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

170.5 7.1 2.3 -4.4 0.4 -1.9

Dairy products

3115

135.0 0.7 -0.4 -1.1 1.5 1.9

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

483.4 1.6 1.4 -0.1 2.5 1.0

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

38.8 7.4 5.2 -2.1 2.1 -2.9

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing

3118

318.4 0.1 0.7 0.6 0.1 -0.6

Other food products

3119

184.1 -0.8 2.1 3.0 5.3 3.1

Beverages and tobacco products

312

204.9 -7.6 1.7 10.1 6.4 4.6

Beverages

3121

190.7 -7.8 2.0 10.7 8.2 6.0

Tobacco and tobacco products

3122

14.2 -1.3 0.7 2.0 -4.5 -5.1

Textile mills

313

123.6 8.2 3.5 -4.3 3.6 0.1

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

28.2 7.8 5.1 -2.4 4.4 -0.7

Fabric mills

3132

58.2 6.6 1.8 -4.5 4.2 2.3

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

3133

37.2 10.6 4.4 -5.6 2.1 -2.2

Textile product mills

314

128.1 6.5 2.8 -3.4 3.1 0.2

Textile furnishings mills

3141

56.2 3.7 1.6 -2.1 3.5 1.9

Other textile product mills

3149

71.9 9.6 4.6 -4.5 2.7 -1.8

Apparel

315

163.0 -0.7 -3.2 -2.6 -1.9 1.4

Apparel knitting mills

3151

16.3 30.5 6.5 -18.4 -2.9 -8.8

Cut and sew apparel

3152

136.8 -4.6 -4.9 -0.4 -2.3 2.8

Accessories and other apparel

3159

9.9 -3.3 -1.9 1.5 2.9 4.9

Leather and allied products

316

34.1 4.3 -2.4 -6.4 2.4 4.9

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

5.0 25.2 9.9 -12.2 1.4 -7.7

Footwear

3162

13.9 -12.7 -12.7 0.0 3.7 18.8

Other leather products

3169

15.2 10.4 -0.4 -9.9 1.1 1.6

Wood products

321

375.7 -1.1 4.5 5.6 7.2 2.6

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

93.3 -3.4 3.3 6.9 7.6 4.1

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

68.0 2.8 7.3 4.3 11.3 3.8

Other wood products

3219

214.4 -0.4 4.9 5.4 5.5 0.6

Paper and paper products

322

380.2 0.9 1.4 0.4 2.0 0.6

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

108.8 -0.1 0.4 0.5 1.5 1.1

Converted paper products

3222

271.4 0.4 0.8 0.4 2.3 1.5

Printing and related support activities

323

473.9 1.7 0.6 -1.2 0.2 -0.3

Printing and related support activities

3231

473.9 1.7 0.6 -1.2 0.2 -0.3

Petroleum and coal products

324

110.7 5.9 2.7 -3.0 3.4 0.7

Petroleum and coal products

3241

110.7 5.9 2.7 -3.0 3.4 0.7

Chemicals

325

797.3 -1.1 0.2 1.3 3.3 3.1

Basic chemicals

3251

142.6 2.5 2.1 -0.5 0.5 -1.5

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

92.3 -1.1 -0.8 0.2 1.5 2.4

Agricultural chemicals

3253

38.8 3.4 16.1 12.2 7.1 -7.8

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

276.7 -6.1 -4.2 2.1 7.1 11.7

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

58.5 -4.2 4.4 9.0 4.2 -0.2

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

104.9 3.4 -1.4 -4.6 2.9 4.4

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

83.5 -3.8 -3.4 0.3 -3.4 0.1

Plastics and rubber products

326

660.9 -0.6 1.6 2.3 3.3 1.7

Plastics products

3261

530.0 -0.5 2.6 3.2 3.1 0.5

Rubber products

3262

130.9 -1.5 -2.5 -1.1 4.0 6.6

Nonmetallic mineral products

327

391.4 3.9 3.6 -0.3 4.0 0.4

Clay products and refractories

3271

46.5 11.4 1.4 -9.0 2.5 1.1

Glass and glass products

3272

89.1 1.2 0.1 -1.1 2.3 2.1

Cement and concrete products

3273

169.8 3.5 3.2 -0.2 3.9 0.6

Lime and gypsum products

3274

13.9 6.6 4.0 -2.4 7.3 3.2

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

72.1 1.6 9.3 7.5 6.7 -2.3

Primary metals

331

399.7 5.6 3.6 -1.8 0.5 -3.0

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production

3311

92.7 7.3 3.5 -3.5 0.1 -3.3

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

60.3 -0.9 -0.2 0.7 -1.3 -1.1

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

58.5 10.0 7.1 -2.7 5.2 -1.8

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

62.5 3.1 4.1 1.0 -1.2 -5.1

Foundries

3315

125.7 3.4 0.4 -2.8 0.2 -0.3

Fabricated metal products

332

1,462.8 -1.5 0.8 2.4 2.8 2.0

Forging and stamping

3321

98.9 1.7 1.1 -0.6 2.1 0.9

Cutlery and hand tools

3322

42.2 -1.8 -2.3 -0.5 -0.4 2.0

Architectural and structural metals

3323

353.6 -0.5 2.4 3.0 5.0 2.5

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

97.8 -3.9 -0.6 3.5 3.3 3.9

Hardware

3325

23.6 6.7 6.7 0.0 6.5 -0.1

Spring and wire products

3326

43.1 -8.9 -4.3 5.0 -0.5 4.0

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

380.3 0.0 1.3 1.3 2.9 1.5

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

142.0 -3.1 1.3 4.6 2.2 0.9

Other fabricated metal products

3329

281.3 -3.2 -0.6 2.8 1.1 1.6

Machinery

333

1,114.6 -4.2 -4.9 -0.7 2.0 7.2

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

252.4 -9.6 -9.6 -0.1 0.6 11.3

Industrial machinery

3332

108.1 -1.1 0.0 1.1 3.4 3.4

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

86.9 1.4 -2.1 -3.4 1.9 4.0

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

127.6 3.6 0.5 -3.1 1.9 1.4

Metalworking machinery

3335

183.8 0.9 -1.1 -2.0 2.0 3.1

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

98.5 -12.3 -9.6 3.0 -3.0 7.3

Other general purpose machinery

3339

257.3 -2.0 -2.4 -0.5 4.3 6.9

Computer and electronic products

334

1,071.2 -1.9 -4.1 -2.2 -1.2 3.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

158.8 -6.5 -4.1 2.6 -20.2 -16.8

Communications equipment

3342

101.1 24.3 11.3 -10.4 14.0 2.4

Audio and video equipment

3343

19.4 7.0 4.8 -2.1 1.8 -2.8

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

376.7 -6.8 -9.9 -3.3 1.0 12.1

Electronic instruments

3345

395.8 -3.8 -3.9 -0.2 -3.7 0.2

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction

3346

19.4 -0.2 -11.2 -11.0 -4.7 7.4

Electrical equipment and appliances

335

377.7 -2.2 -0.1 2.2 1.7 1.8

Electric lighting equipment

3351

48.0 -1.8 -0.1 1.7 -1.3 -1.2

Household appliances

3352

57.7 3.1 3.5 0.3 1.3 -2.1

Electrical equipment

3353

145.1 -2.4 -1.5 1.0 1.9 3.4

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

126.9 -4.9 -0.4 4.7 2.6 3.0

Transportation equipment

336

1,516.2 1.8 4.2 2.4 4.9 0.7

Motor vehicles

3361

181.7 1.6 6.5 4.8 7.3 0.8

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

135.5 4.1 8.3 4.1 9.1 0.7

Motor vehicle parts

3363

511.5 0.3 5.0 4.7 7.0 1.9

Aerospace products and parts

3364

498.0 3.8 2.3 -1.5 3.9 1.6

Railroad rolling stock

3365

25.1 6.1 14.1 7.6 0.6 -11.8

Ship and boat building

3366

132.1 0.5 4.5 4.1 1.0 -3.4

Other transportation equipment

3369

32.3 -1.6 -4.4 -2.9 -6.3 -1.9

Furniture and related products

337

386.5 1.0 3.4 2.4 5.1 1.6

Household and institutional furniture

3371

246.1 3.0 5.0 2.0 6.9 1.8

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

105.2 -0.8 1.2 2.0 2.3 1.0

Other furniture-related products

3379

35.2 -3.3 3.4 6.9 5.4 1.9

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

635.9 1.7 2.9 1.2 4.0 1.1

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

316.6 3.1 2.5 -0.6 3.5 0.9

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

319.3 0.3 3.5 3.1 4.9 1.4



Table 3. Average annual percent change in output per hour, unit labor costs, and related data, 1987-2013
Industry NAICS code Average annual percent change, 1987-2013
Output per hour Output Hours Labor compensation Unit labor costs

Mining

Mining

21

-0.2 0.7 0.9 5.2 4.5

Oil and gas extraction

211

0.6 0.6 0.1 5.6 5.0

Oil and gas extraction

2111

0.6 0.6 0.1 5.6 5.0

Mining, except oil and gas

212

1.4 0.2 -1.2 2.0 1.8

Coal mining

2121

1.6 -0.6 -2.1 0.8 1.3

Metal ore mining

2122

0.4 1.0 0.6 4.8 3.7

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

1.4 0.4 -0.9 2.4 2.0

Support activities for mining

213

2.3 5.5 3.1 8.3 2.6

Support activities for mining

2131

2.3 5.5 3.1 8.3 2.6

Manufacturing

Food

311

1.2 1.5 0.2 2.9 1.4

Animal food

3111

2.1 1.8 -0.4 3.1 1.3

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

2.0 1.4 -0.6 2.1 0.7

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

1.4 0.5 -0.8 2.1 1.6

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

1.4 1.2 -0.3 2.7 1.5

Dairy products

3115

1.8 1.5 -0.4 3.1 1.6

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

1.0 1.9 0.9 3.3 1.4

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

0.9 0.0 -0.9 2.8 2.8

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing

3118

0.4 0.3 -0.1 2.0 1.7

Other food products

3119

0.4 2.0 1.5 4.1 2.1

Beverages and tobacco products

312

0.3 -0.2 -0.5 1.6 1.8

Beverages

3121

1.2 1.3 0.1 2.3 1.0

Tobacco and tobacco products

3122

2.1 -2.7 -4.7 -1.2 1.6

Textile mills

313

3.4 -2.2 -5.5 -2.7 -0.5

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

3.3 -1.9 -5.0 -2.6 -0.8

Fabric mills

3132

3.9 -2.5 -6.2 -2.7 -0.2

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

3133

1.4 -3.1 -4.5 -2.6 0.5

Textile product mills

314

0.9 -1.8 -2.7 0.4 2.2

Textile furnishings mills

3141

0.6 -2.5 -3.1 -0.5 2.0

Other textile product mills

3149

1.8 -0.6 -2.4 1.5 2.1

Apparel

315

-0.7 -7.1 -6.4 -5.5 1.7

Apparel knitting mills

3151

0.6 -6.7 -7.3 -6.2 0.6

Cut and sew apparel

3152

-0.8 -7.1 -6.4 -5.5 1.7

Accessories and other apparel

3159

-1.5 -6.8 -5.4 -4.4 2.6

Leather and allied products

316

1.1 -4.1 -5.1 -2.9 1.3

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

0.9 -2.9 -3.7 -2.9 0.0

Footwear

3162

1.6 -5.1 -6.6 -3.5 1.7

Other leather products

3169

-0.5 -3.9 -3.5 -2.0 2.0

Wood products

321

1.5 -0.1 -1.6 1.3 1.5

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

1.9 0.0 -1.9 0.9 0.9

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

1.4 -0.1 -1.5 1.2 1.3

Other wood products

3219

1.1 -0.4 -1.6 1.6 2.1

Paper and paper products

322

2.3 0.2 -2.0 1.2 1.0

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

2.8 -0.4 -3.1 0.5 0.8

Converted paper products

3222

1.7 0.3 -1.4 1.8 1.5

Printing and related support activities

323

1.4 -0.6 -2.0 0.5 1.1

Printing and related support activities

3231

1.4 -0.6 -2.0 0.5 1.1

Petroleum and coal products

324

2.3 1.2 -1.1 3.8 2.6

Petroleum and coal products

3241

2.3 1.2 -1.1 3.8 2.6

Chemicals

325

1.7 1.1 -0.7 2.9 1.8

Basic chemicals

3251

2.7 0.8 -1.9 2.1 1.3

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

2.6 0.7 -1.8 2.0 1.3

Agricultural chemicals

3253

2.4 1.5 -0.9 2.5 1.0

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

-0.3 1.6 1.9 5.3 3.7

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

0.8 -0.4 -1.2 2.1 2.5

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

2.2 1.6 -0.6 2.4 0.8

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

2.3 0.1 -2.1 0.9 0.8

Plastics and rubber products

326

2.0 1.4 -0.6 2.5 1.1

Plastics products

3261

1.9 1.7 -0.2 2.9 1.2

Rubber products

3262

2.2 0.4 -1.8 1.2 0.8

Nonmetallic mineral products

327

1.3 0.1 -1.2 1.5 1.4

Clay products and refractories

3271

0.9 -1.6 -2.4 -0.3 1.3

Glass and glass products

3272

2.6 0.5 -2.1 0.9 0.4

Cement and concrete products

3273

0.3 -0.1 -0.4 1.9 2.0

Lime and gypsum products

3274

1.2 -0.6 -1.8 2.1 2.8

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

1.7 1.1 -0.5 2.5 1.4

Primary metals

331

2.9 0.9 -2.0 1.1 0.2

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production

3311

4.0 1.5 -2.4 0.7 -0.8

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

0.5 0.3 -0.3 2.2 1.9

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

3.0 0.6 -2.3 1.2 0.5

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

2.4 0.4 -2.0 2.2 1.8

Foundries

3315

2.1 -0.1 -2.1 0.7 0.8

Fabricated metal products

332

1.2 1.0 -0.2 2.5 1.5

Forging and stamping

3321

2.7 1.6 -1.1 2.0 0.5

Cutlery and hand tools

3322

1.2 -1.0 -2.2 0.3 1.4

Architectural and structural metals

3323

0.6 0.7 0.2 2.9 2.2

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

0.9 0.7 -0.2 2.1 1.4

Hardware

3325

1.1 -2.6 -3.6 -1.5 1.1

Spring and wire products

3326

2.2 -0.2 -2.4 1.1 1.3

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

1.9 2.7 0.9 4.0 1.2

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

2.2 2.4 0.2 3.1 0.6

Other fabricated metal products

3329

0.8 0.2 -0.6 2.0 1.7

Machinery

333

2.4 1.6 -0.7 2.3 0.6

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

2.5 3.2 0.7 3.5 0.4

Industrial machinery

3332

1.9 0.8 -1.1 1.7 0.9

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

2.1 -0.2 -2.2 0.9 1.1

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

2.3 1.2 -1.0 2.2 0.9

Metalworking machinery

3335

2.0 0.6 -1.4 1.3 0.7

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

1.9 1.8 -0.1 1.8 0.0

Other general purpose machinery

3339

2.4 1.6 -0.8 3.0 1.3

Computer and electronic products

334

10.6 8.0 -2.4 0.8 -6.6

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

18.1 13.5 -3.9 -3.6 -15.0

Communications equipment

3342

6.4 3.0 -3.2 1.3 -1.6

Audio and video equipment

3343

3.0 -1.4 -4.3 -0.5 1.0

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

15.0 13.1 -1.6 1.0 -10.7

Electronic instruments

3345

3.7 1.6 -1.9 1.8 0.1

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction

3346

0.8 -2.0 -2.8 -1.1 0.9

Electrical equipment and appliances

335

2.2 0.0 -2.2 1.0 1.0

Electric lighting equipment

3351

1.7 -0.5 -2.2 0.9 1.5

Household appliances

3352

3.3 0.0 -3.2 -0.8 -0.8

Electrical equipment

3353

1.7 -0.4 -2.0 1.0 1.4

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

2.0 0.2 -1.7 1.8 1.6

Transportation equipment

336

3.1 1.9 -1.2 1.4 -0.5

Motor vehicles

3361

3.8 1.8 -1.9 0.9 -0.9

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

1.5 1.5 0.1 3.5 1.9

Motor vehicle parts

3363

3.3 2.7 -0.6 0.9 -1.7

Aerospace products and parts

3364

2.7 0.8 -1.9 1.3 0.5

Railroad rolling stock

3365

5.7 5.7 0.1 3.7 -1.9

Ship and boat building

3366

2.0 0.9 -1.0 2.6 1.7

Other transportation equipment

3369

4.0 3.7 -0.3 3.0 -0.7

Furniture and related products

337

1.7 -0.2 -1.9 1.2 1.4

Household and institutional furniture

3371

1.4 -0.9 -2.2 0.8 1.7

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

1.6 0.2 -1.3 1.6 1.3

Other furniture-related products

3379

2.5 1.4 -1.0 1.9 0.4

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

2.5 2.1 -0.4 3.5 1.4

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

3.1 4.0 0.8 5.0 0.9

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

1.6 0.3 -1.3 2.0 1.7

Last Modified Date: April 28, 2015