Occupational Employment and Wages in Green Goods and Services News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, September 28, 2012                 USDL-12-1941

Technical information: (202) 691-6599  *  ggs-occinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ggsocc
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


           OCCUPATIONAL EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES IN GREEN GOODS
                    AND SERVICES -- NOVEMBER 2011


In November 2011, transportation and material moving occupations
accounted for 539,470 jobs, or approximately 28 percent of total
employment, in establishments that received all of their revenue from
green goods and services, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. The production (208,180) and office and administrative support
(194,440) occupational groups were the second- and third-largest in
all-green establishments, representing about 11 and 10 percent of 
employment, respectively. (See table 1.)

According to 2010 annual average data published by the Green Goods and
Services (GGS) survey, about three-fifths of the 3.1 million jobs
associated with green goods and services production were in establishments
that received all of their revenue from green goods and services. This
Occupational Employment and Wages in Green Goods and Services (GGS-OCC)
release presents November 2011 occupational employment and wage information
for 1.9 million jobs in these all-green establishments. (See Technical Note
for an explanation of the differences between the GGS and GGS-OCC data.)

The GGS-OCC data are based on a sample of approximately 93,000 business
establishments in 333 industries identified as potentially producing 
green goods or providing green services. The data consist of occupational
employment and wage information categorized by the percent of the
establishments' revenue received from green goods and services (GGS).
The establishments covered in this release received 100 percent of their
revenue from green goods and services. Occupational employment and wage
data for in-scope establishments with no green revenue and with mixed
green and nongreen revenue are available from the GGS-OCC web site at
www.bls.gov/ggsocc/. More information about the GGS-OCC data is provided
in the Technical Note.

Occupations

   --Five of the 6 largest detailed occupations in all-green establishments
     were in the transportation and material moving occupational group.
     These 5 occupations were school or special client bus drivers (174,450);
     transit and intercity bus drivers (111,760); refuse and recyclable
     materials collectors (56,930); hand laborers and freight, stock, and
     material movers (54,890); and heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers
     (39,060). (See table 2.)

   --The largest occupations in all-green establishments outside of
     the transportation and material moving group included forest and
     conservation technicians, with employment of 56,620; general and
     operations managers (32,030); secretaries and administrative
     assistants, except legal, medical, and executive (30,470); and bus 
     and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists (29,570). (See 
     table 2.)

   --Annual mean wages for the largest occupations in all-green
     establishments ranged from $26,270 for hand laborers and freight,
     stock, and material movers to $115,520 for general and operations
     managers. (See table 2.)

Occupational groups by industries

   --The transportation and warehousing industry had 454,710 jobs in
     all-green establishments, more than any other industry. About 73
     percent of these jobs were in transportation and material moving
     occupations. (See table 3.)
     
   --Other industries with large numbers of jobs in all-green
     establishments included public administration (276,020),
     administrative and waste services (274,700), and manufacturing
     (266,510). (See table 3.)

   --Nearly 41 percent of jobs in all-green public administration
     establishments were in life, physical, and social science occupations.
     Transportation and material moving occupations made up about 42
     percent of the jobs in all-green administrative and waste services
     establishments. Over half of the jobs in all-green manufacturing
     establishments were in production occupations. (See table 3.)
     
Detailed occupations in selected industries

Utilities, construction, and professional, scientific, and technical
services were among the industries with the highest percentage of
revenue from green goods and services in 2010, based on results from
the GGS survey. Selected data for these industries are shown in tables
4, 5, and 6 and highlighted below:

   --The utilities industry had 142,030 jobs in all-green establishments. 
     About a quarter of these jobs were in production occupations, 
     including water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators 
     (20,200), power plant operators (4,530), and nuclear power reactor  
     operators (4,380). Outside of the production group, the largest 
     occupations in all-green utilities establishments included nuclear 
     engineers (8,170), security guards (5,270), and industrial machinery 
     mechanics (5,100). (See table 4.)

   --With an annual mean wage of $96,270, nuclear engineers was among
     the highest paying of the largest occupations in all-green utilities
     establishments. The lowest paying of these occupations included
     security guards ($43,580) and water and wastewater treatment plant 
     and system operators ($44,560). (See table 4.)

   --The construction industry had 92,130 jobs in all-green establishments. 
     Fifty-eight percent of these jobs were in construction and extraction 
     occupations, including floor, ceiling, and wall insulation workers 
     (8,210); carpenters (7,860); and construction laborers (7,680). These 
     three occupations made up over one-quarter of employment in all-green 
     construction establishments. Heating, air conditioning, and 
     refrigeration mechanics and installers (5,190) was one of the largest 
     occupations outside of the construction and extraction occupational 
     group. (See table 5.)

   --Floor, ceiling, and wall insulation workers was one of the lowest
     paying occupations in all-green construction establishments, with 
     an annual mean wage of $30,390. The highest paying of the largest
     occupations in all-green construction establishments included
     construction managers ($86,130) and first-line supervisors of
     construction trades and extraction workers ($62,870). (See table 5.)

   --Professional, scientific, and technical services had 138,360 jobs
     in all-green establishments. More than half of these jobs were in
     life, physical, and social science occupations or in architecture 
     and engineering occupations. The largest occupation in all-green
     professional, scientific, and technical services establishments 
     was environmental scientists and specialists, including health, 
     with employment of 12,130. (See table 6.)

   --Several of the largest occupations in all-green professional,
     scientific, and technical services establishments had relatively 
     high annual mean wages, including general and operations managers
     ($132,580), mechanical engineers ($88,750), and architects, except
     landscape and naval ($83,560). (See table 6.)




Technical Note


Overview

   The Occupational Employment and Wages in Green Goods and Services
(GGS-OCC) program provides occupational employment and wage
information for businesses that produce green goods or provide green
services. The GGS-OCC data are based on a sample of approximately
93,000 business establishments classified in 333 industries in which
establishments potentially produce green goods or provide green
services as their primary activity.

   The GGS-OCC estimates are produced by linking data from two
different surveys at the establishment level: the percent of the
establishment's revenue received from green goods and services, from
the Green Goods and Services (GGS) survey; and occupational employment
and wage information, from the Occupational Employment Statistics
(OES) survey. These data are used to produce occupational employment
and wage estimates for three groups of establishments: those that
receive none of their revenue from green goods and services, those
that receive all of their revenue from green goods and services, and
those with revenue from a mix of green and nongreen goods and
services. This release covers only those establishments that receive
100 percent of their revenue from green goods and services. Data are
available at the national level by industry sector for in-scope 
industries and for all in-scope industries combined. These data 
represent all employment at establishments in a given revenue 
category; not all jobs in establishments with mixed green and nongreen
revenue are associated with production of green goods and services.

   The GGS-OCC estimates are based on the BLS output approach to
measuring green jobs: jobs in businesses that produce goods or provide
services that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources.
More information about the BLS green jobs initiative is available from
the green jobs homepage at www.bls.gov/green.

Concepts

Green goods and services are defined as goods and services that
benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. These goods and
services are sold to customers and include research and development,
installation, and maintenance services. Green goods and services fall
into one or more of the following five categories:

1.  Energy from renewable sources. Electricity, heat, or fuel
    generated from renewable sources. These energy sources include wind,
    biomass, geothermal, solar, ocean, hydropower, and landfill gas and
    municipal solid waste.

2.  Energy efficiency. Products and services that improve energy
    efficiency. Included in this group are energy-efficient equipment,
    appliances, buildings, and vehicles, as well as products and services 
    that improve the energy efficiency of buildings and the efficiency 
    of energy storage and distribution, such as Smart Grid technologies.

3.  Pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and
    recycling and reuse. These are products and services that:

    --Reduce or eliminate the creation or release of pollutants or
      toxic compounds, or remove pollutants or hazardous waste from the
      environment.

    --Reduce greenhouse gas emissions through methods other than renewable 
      energy generation and energy efficiency, such as electricity
      generated from nuclear sources.

    --Reduce or eliminate the creation of waste materials; collect, reuse, 
      remanufacture, recycle, or compost waste materials or wastewater.

4.  Natural resources conservation. Products and services that conserve 
    natural resources. Included in this group are products and services 
    related to organic agriculture and sustainable forestry; land management;  
    soil, water, or wildlife conservation; and storm water management.

5.  Environmental compliance, education and training, and public awareness. 
    These are products and services that:

    --Enforce environmental regulations.

    --Provide education and training related to green technologies and
      practices.

    --Increase public awareness of environmental issues.

An establishment is generally a single physical location at which
economic activity occurs (e.g., store, factory, restaurant, etc.).
When a single physical location encompasses two or more distinct
economic activities, it is treated as two or more separate
establishments if separate payroll records are available and certain
other criteria are met.

An industry is a group of establishments that produce similar products
or provide similar services. For example, all establishments that
manufacture automobiles are in the same industry. A given industry, or
even a particular establishment in that industry, might have employees
in dozens of occupations. In the GGS-OCC data, similar establishments
are grouped into industries based on the 2007 North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS). More information about the NAICS is
available from www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.

An occupation is a set of activities or tasks that employees are paid
to perform. Workers are classified into occupations based on their job
duties and, in some cases, on the skills, education, and/or training
required. Workers with similar job duties are classified in the same
occupation, regardless of the industry in which they are employed.

Employees are all part-time and full-time workers who are paid a wage
or  salary. The estimates do not cover the self-employed, owners and
partners in unincorporated firms, household workers, or unpaid family
workers.

Industry coverage

The  GGS-OCC estimates are based on data for 333 of the nearly 1,200
detailed (6-digit) 2007 NAICS industries. BLS identified these 333
industries as  those in which businesses potentially produced green
goods or provided green services as their primary activity, based on
the definition of green goods and services above. The GGS-OCC scope
contains 20 percent of employment covered by state or federal
unemployment insurance, or about 19 percent of total U.S. employment.
A list of GGS-OCC in-scope industries is available in PDF format at
www.bls.gov/green/final_green_def_8242010_pub.pdf or in Excel format
at www.bls.gov/green/final_green_def_8242010_pub.xls.

The occupational classification system

The GGS-OCC occupational classifications are based on the Office of
Management and Budgetís Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
system (www.bls.gov/soc/). The GGS-OCC estimates are based on data
collected under both the 2000 SOC and the revised 2010 SOC systems.
Almost all the occupations in this release are 2010 SOC occupations;
however, some are not. In some cases an occupation is a combination of
data reported for one or more occupations in the 2000 SOC and one or
more 2010 SOC occupations. Some of these combination occupations match
occupations in the 2000 SOC. In other cases, occupations from the two
structures were combined into a hybrid occupation that is not found in
either the 2000 or 2010 SOC. Some of these hybrid occupations have the
same title as a 2010 SOC occupation, but not the same content. These
occupations are marked with an asterisk (*) and given a temporary code
for the GGS-OCC data. For more information on how data collected under
the two structures were combined, including a downloadable concordance
between the SOC and GGS-OCC structures, see
www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm#Ques41.

Survey sample

The GGS-OCC estimates are based on a sample of approximately 93,000
private sector and federal, state, and local government establishments
in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The GGS-OCC sample is
restricted to the 333 in-scope NAICS industries, and is a subset of
units in both the GGS sample and either the regular OES sample or a
supplement to the OES sample. Both the GGS and OES samples are drawn
primarily from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), which consists of businesses reporting to state unemployment
insurance (UI) programs.

The full GGS  sample of 120,000 establishments was selected by
stratifying the sampling frame by industry and state, and sampling
larger employers with a higher probability than smaller employers. The
GGS sample also includes an "environmental allocation" of approximately 
6,500 units, selected from a list of 13,000 establishments that BLS 
had previously identified as being involved in green activity.

The full OES sample consists of approximately 1.2 million business
establishments, collected in 6 semiannual survey panels over a 3-year
period. The GGS-OCC estimates are based on OES microdata collected
with reference dates of November 2011, May 2011, November 2010, May
2010, November 2009, and May 2009. The OES sample is stratified by
metropolitan or nonmetropolitan area, industry, and size. To provide
the most occupational coverage, larger employers are more likely to be
selected than smaller employers.

Approximately 41,300 establishments in the initial GGS sample
overlapped naturally with units in the 2009-2011 OES sample. In order
to increase the overlap between the two surveys, a swapping algorithm
was used to replace 23,400 nonoverlapping GGS units with similar units
that were already part of the OES sample. The GGS-OCC sample also
included 3,300 federal government units and a 25,000-unit supplement
to the OES survey, designed to cover agricultural industries excluded
from OES and to provide additional coverage of certain other
industries.

Data collection

Establishments in the GGS-OCC sample received two mail survey forms,
one for the GGS survey and one for the OES survey. Among GGS-OCC
sample units, the overall national response rates for the GGS survey
were 66.4 percent based on establishments and 59.9 percent based  on
weighted  employment. Response rates for the OES survey were 66.7
percent based on establishments and 65.3 percent based on weighted
employment. About 48.6 percent of sampled establishments, representing
42.6 percent of weighted sample employment, responded to both surveys.

The GGS survey asked establishments to report the percent of their
previous fiscal yearís revenue received from green goods and services.
Survey forms listed examples of green goods and services meeting the
BLS definition. Establishments that did not generate revenue, such as
government  establishments, nonprofits, or startups without positive
revenue, were asked to provide the percent of employment associated
with the production of green goods or provision of green services.

The OES survey form asked respondents to provide total employment for
the sampled establishment, as well as the number of workers, by
occupation, in each of 12 specific wage intervals. The wage intervals
were defined in terms  of both hourly rates and the corresponding
annual rates, where the annual rate for an occupation is calculated by
multiplying  the hourly wage rate by a typical work year of 2,080
hours. Full-time workers could be reported by either hourly rates or
annual salaries, depending on how the worker was paid.

Estimation methodology

Wage updating

The OES survey is designed to produce estimates at detailed levels of
geography, industry, and occupation by combining 6 panels of data
collected over a 3-year period. Wages for the most recent panel need
no adjustment. Wages for earlier panels are updated to the reference
period based on movements in the BLS Employment Cost Index (ECI) for
the most closely corresponding occupational category.

Nonresponse

GGS-OCC nonrespondents fell into three categories: (1) units that
responded to neither GGS nor OES; (2) units that responded to OES, 
but not GS; and (3) units that responded to GGS, but not OES. To
compensate for nonrespondents in categories 1 and 2, the weights of
responding units were adjusted through the use of nonresponse
adjustment factors (NRAFs). For nonrespondents in category 3, a
nearest neighbor hot deck procedure was used to impute occupational
staffing patterns, and a variant of mean wage imputation was used to
impute missing occupational wages.

Weighting and benchmarking

Sampled establishments were weighted to represent all establishments
for the GGS-OCC scope and reference period. Each establishment was
initially assigned a weight based on the reciprocal of its probability
of selection into the GGS sample. For units in the OES supplemental
sample, the GGS sampling weight was adjusted to account for its
probability of being subsequently subsampled in the supplement.
Weights were also modified by NRAFs in order to adjust for units that
did not respond to the GGS survey. Finally, the GGS-OCC data were
benchmarked to the average of QCEW employment levels for May and
November 2011.

Employment and wage estimation

The share of green revenue from GGS was used to divide establishments
into groups of businesses reporting no revenue from green goods and
services, all revenue from green goods and services, and a mix of
green and nongreen revenue. Occupational employment estimates were
calculated by multiplying each establishment's reported employment in
an occupation by the establishment's final weight, and summing the
resulting weighted employment across all establishments reporting the
occupation.

Because GGS-OCC wage data were collected by wage range rather than by
wage rate, additional information was required to estimate mean  and
median wages. Data from the BLS National Compensation Survey (NCS)
were used to calculate interval means for employees in each of the 12
wage intervals; these interval means were used in combination with the
reported data on occupational employment by wage interval to calculate
the GGS-OCC wage estimates.

GGS-OCC and GGS estimates

Although the GGS-OCC data have some similarities to the green jobs
estimates from the GGS survey, the two datasets also have important
conceptual differences and are not designed to be compared. Both the
GGS-OCC and GGS estimates are based on the BLS output approach to
measuring green  jobs, have the same industry scope, and have
overlapping samples. Both datasets also use the percent of each
sampled establishmentís revenue received from green goods and
services, as reported to the GGS survey, to produce their estimates.
However, the two sets of estimates use the green revenue  percentage
differently. The GGS survey multiplies each establishment's employment
by its green revenue share in order to produce estimates of the total
number of green jobs. For example, if an establishment that produces
both green and nongreen products employs 100 people and obtains 40
percent of its revenue from the sale of its green products, the GGS
survey would count 40 of that establishment's employees as green.

Unlike the GGS survey, the GGS-OCC program does not provide explicit
estimates of the number of green jobs. In particular, the GGS-OCC data
do not represent occupational breakdowns of the  green employment
estimates from the GGS survey. Instead, the GGS-OCC program uses the
green revenue shares from GGS to group establishments into categories
based on the percent of their revenue received from green goods and
services. For each revenue category, the GGS-OCC program provides
occupational employment and wage estimates for all employees in
establishments in that category. The two datasets also have different
reference periods: the GGS data represent 2010 annual averages, and
the GGS-OCC data have a November 2011 reference date. For more
information about the GGS survey, see www.bls.gov/ggs/.

Data available

The GGS-OCC data consist of employment, mean wage, and median  wage
estimates by occupation, presented for three groups of establishments:
those with none, all, or some, but not all, of their revenue from
green goods and services. Estimates are available at the national
level for 2-digit NAICS industries and for all industries combined.

For more information

Answers to frequently asked questions about the GGS-OCC data are
available at www.bls.gov/ggsocc/faq.htm. Detailed technical information 
about the GGS-OCC estimates is available in our Survey Methods and 
Reliability Statement at www.bls.gov/ggsocc/survey_methods.pdf.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals  upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




Table 1. Employment, percent of employment, and annual mean wages for all-green
establishments, by occupational group, November 2011

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  |            |          |        
                                                  |            |Percent of|        
                                                  |            |employment|        
                                                  | Employment |  in all- | Annual 
               Occupational group                 |            |  green   |  mean   
                                                  |            |establish-| wage (1)
                                                  |            |   ments  |        
                                                  |            |          |        
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  |            |          |        
All occupations (2) ..............................|  1,949,520 |   100.0  | $48,210
  Management .....................................|     95,360 |     4.9  | 110,220
  Business and financial operations ..............|     83,740 |     4.3  |  71,250
  Computer and mathematical ......................|     25,540 |     1.3  |  77,270
  Architecture and engineering ...................|    105,670 |     5.4  |  77,130
  Life, physical, and social science .............|    174,930 |     9.0  |  57,660
  Community and social service ...................|      3,030 |     0.2  |  47,170
  Legal ..........................................|      6,670 |      .3  | 115,150
  Education, training, and library ...............|     13,090 |      .7  |  53,440
  Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media .|     22,200 |     1.1  |  50,750
  Healthcare practitioners and technical .........|      7,900 |      .4  |  66,640
  Healthcare support .............................|         70 |     (3)  |  35,260
  Protective service .............................|     26,320 |     1.4  |  44,090
  Food preparation and serving related ...........|      2,160 |      .1  |  27,190
  Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance ..|     35,620 |     1.8  |  29,080
  Personal care and service ......................|     18,780 |     1.0  |  24,320
  Sales and related  .............................|     84,560 |     4.3  |  38,020
  Office and administrative support ..............|    194,440 |    10.0  |  37,260
  Farming, fishing, and forestry .................|     29,260 |     1.5  |  25,670
  Construction and extraction ....................|    137,060 |     7.0  |  44,910
  Installation, maintenance, and repair ..........|    135,470 |     6.9  |  49,140
  Production  ....................................|    208,180 |    10.7  |  39,240
  Transportation and material moving .............|    539,470 |    27.7  |  35,390
                                                  |            |          |        
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   1 Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a
"year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations an 
hourly mean wage is not published, the annual wage has been directly calculated
from the reported survey data.

   2 Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.

   3 Less than 0.05 percent.

   NOTE: Data represent occupational employment and wages for establishments that
received all of their revenue from green goods and services. Establishments that
did not generate revenue, such as government establishments, nonprofits, or
startups without positive revenue, reported all of their employment associated
with the production of green goods or provision of green services.




Table 2. Employment, percent of employment, and annual mean wages for all-green
establishments, by selected occupational groups and detailed occupations,
November 2011

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    |            |          |        
                                                    |            |Percent of|        
                                                    |            |employment|        
                                                    | Employment |    in    | Annual 
                  Occupation (1)                    |            |all-green |  mean  
                                                    |            |establish-|wage (2)
                                                    |            |   ments  |        
                                                    |            |          |        
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    |            |          |        
All occupations ....................................| 1,949,520  |   100.0  | $48,210
Management occupations .............................|    95,360  |     4.9  | 110,220
 General and operations managers ...................|    32,030  |     1.6  | 115,520
 Administrative services managers ..................|     6,050  |     0.3  |  79,610
 Architectural and engineering managers ............|     7,720  |      .4  | 128,700
 Natural sciences managers .........................|     7,630  |      .4  |  98,820
 Managers, all other ...............................|     7,240  |      .4  | 104,860
Business and financial operations occupations ......|    83,740  |     4.3  |  71,250
 Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and   |            |          |        
  farm products ....................................|     8,950  |      .5  |  63,330
 Compliance officers ...............................|     6,580  |      .3  |  67,670
 Management analysts ...............................|     8,530  |      .4  |  87,420
 Business operations specialists, all other* .......|    22,720  |     1.2  |  73,000
 Accountants and auditors ..........................|    12,480  |      .6  |  71,380
Computer and mathematical occupations ..............|    25,540  |     1.3  |  77,270
 Software developers, applications .................|     6,260  |      .3  |  91,250
Architecture and engineering occupations ...........|   105,670  |     5.4  |  77,130
 Architects, except landscape and naval ............|     6,050  |      .3  |  83,390
 Civil engineers ...................................|     9,600  |      .5  |  80,550
 Electrical engineers ..............................|     7,250  |      .4  |  86,290
 Environmental engineers ...........................|    16,620  |      .9  |  87,030
 Mechanical engineers ..............................|     9,030  |      .5  |  86,340
 Nuclear engineers .................................|     9,050  |      .5  |  97,590
 Engineers, all other ..............................|     5,460  |      .3  |  87,590
Life, physical, and social science occupations .....|   174,930  |     9.0  |  57,660
 Zoologists and wildlife biologists ................|     5,810  |      .3  |  64,500
 Biological scientists, all other ..................|     8,840  |      .5  |  63,780
 Conservation scientists ...........................|    10,860  |      .6  |  65,280
 Foresters .........................................|     5,090  |      .3  |  57,100
 Chemists ..........................................|     7,990  |      .4  |  62,960
 Environmental scientists and specialists,          |            |          |        
  including health .................................|    25,540  |     1.3  |  78,070
 Geoscientists, except hydrologists and             |            |          |        
   geographers .....................................|     5,740  |      .3  |  68,850
 Physical scientists, all other ....................|     7,490  |      .4  | 101,550
 Biological technicians ............................|     6,070  |      .3  |  35,760
 Chemical technicians ..............................|     5,380  |      .3  |  41,500
 Environmental science and protection technicians,  |            |          |        
   including health.................................|    11,550  |      .6  |  45,860
 Forest and conservation technicians ...............|    56,620  |     2.9  |  40,110
Legal occupations ..................................|     6,670  |      .3  | 115,150
 Lawyers............................................|     5,600  |      .3  | 125,570
Education, training, and library occupations .......|    13,090  |      .7  |  53,440
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media      |            |          |        
   occupations .....................................|    22,200  |     1.1  |  50,750
 Public relations specialists ......................|     5,630  |      .3  |  65,180
Healthcare practitioners and technical              |            |          |        
   occupations .....................................|     7,900  |      .4  |  66,640
Protective service occupations .....................|    26,320  |     1.4  |  44,090
 Security guards ...................................|     7,810  |      .4  |  42,190
 Protective service workers, all other* ............|     9,370  |      .5  |  33,600
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance       |            |          |        
   occupations......................................|    35,620  |     1.8  |  29,080
 Janitors and cleaners, except maids and            |            |          |        
   housekeeping cleaners ...........................|     7,520  |      .4  |  30,260
 Landscaping and groundskeeping workers ............|    22,560  |     1.2  |  26,580
Personal care and service occupations ..............|    18,780  |     1.0  |  24,320
 Childcare workers .................................|    10,620  |      .5  |  20,780
Sales and related occupations ......................|    84,560  |     4.3  |  38,020
 First-line supervisors of retail sales workers ....|     5,660  |      .3  |  33,630
 Cashiers ..........................................|    20,900  |     1.1  |  24,530
 Retail salespersons ...............................|    27,650  |     1.4  |  20,440
 Sales representatives, services, all other ........|     8,000  |      .4  |  53,960
 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing,|            |          |        
   except technical scientific products ............|    10,600  |      .5  |  65,200
Office and administrative support occupations ......|   194,440  |    10.0  |  37,260
 First-line supervisors of office and administrative|            |          |        
   support workers .................................|    12,210  |      .6  |  54,920
 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks ......|    18,040  |      .9  |  38,630
 Customer service representatives ..................|    15,310  |      .8  |  36,240
 Receptionists and information clerks ..............|     5,250  |      .3  |  30,840
 Information and record clerks, all other ..........|     6,210  |      .3  |  44,820
 Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance ...|     9,610  |      .5  |  45,730
 Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks ...........|     7,800  |      .4  |  33,440
 Stock clerks and order fillers ....................|    12,990  |      .7  |  26,960
 Executive secretaries and executive administrative |            |          |        
   assistants ......................................|    10,980  |      .6  |  47,720
 Secretaries and administrative assistants, except  |            |          |        
   legal, medical, and executive ...................|    30,470  |     1.6  |  35,610
 Office clerks, general ............................|    29,090  |     1.5  |  30,740
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations .........|    29,260  |     1.5  |  25,670
 Farmworkers and laborers, crop, nursery, and       |            |          |        
   greenhouse ......................................|    14,350  |      .7  |  21,580
Construction and extraction occupations ............|   137,060  |     7.0  |  44,910
 First-line supervisors of construction trades and  |            |          |        
   extraction workers ..............................|    14,190  |      .7  |  61,960
 Carpenters.........................................|    10,340  |      .5  |  40,920
 Construction laborers .............................|    15,040  |      .8  |  38,030
 Operating engineers and other construction         |            |          |        
   equipment operators .............................|    15,760  |      .8  |  46,570
 Electricians ......................................|    11,600  |      .6  |  56,420
 Insulation workers, floor, ceiling, and wall ......|     8,210  |      .4  |  30,390
 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters ...........|     8,810  |      .5  |  44,850
 Hazardous materials removal workers ...............|    21,980  |     1.1  |  42,820
 Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners .....|     7,230  |      .4  |  35,500
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations ..|   135,470  |     6.9  |  49,140
 First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers,   |            |          |        
   and repairers ...................................|    13,550  |      .7  |  67,090
 Automotive service technicians and mechanics ......|     6,390  |      .3  |  35,610
 Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine          |            |          |        
   specialists .....................................|    29,570  |     1.5  |  46,130
 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration       |            |          |        
   mechanics and installers ........................|     6,710  |      .3  |  45,250
 Industrial machinery mechanics ....................|    13,140  |      .7  |  53,820
 Maintenance and repair workers, general ...........|    25,700  |     1.3  |  43,800
 Helpers-installation, maintenance, and repair      |            |          |        
   workers .........................................|     5,240  |      .3  |  32,930
Production occupations .............................|   208,180  |    10.7  |  39,240
 First-line supervisors of production and operating |            |          |        
   workers .........................................|    17,980  |      .9  |  60,700
 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers ....|     5,220  |      .3  |  32,090
 Team assemblers ...................................|    29,350  |     1.5  |  29,430
 Welders, cutters, soldiers, and brazers ...........|     9,240  |      .5  |  36,180
 Power plant operators .............................|     5,500  |      .3  |  56,440
 Water and wastewater treatment plant and system    |            |          |        
   operators........................................|    26,260  |     1.3  |  44,090
 Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and        |            |          |        
   weighers ........................................|    14,130  |      .7  |  35,510
 Helpers-production workers ........................|     7,320  |      .4  |  28,370
Transportation and material moving occupations .....|   539,470  |    27.7  |  35,390
 First-line supervisors of helpers, laborers, and   |            |          |        
   material  movers, hand...........................|     5,010  |      .3  |  50,910
 First-line supervisors of transportation and       |            |          |        
   material-moving machine and vehicle operators ...|    16,300  |      .8  |  57,090
 Bus drivers, transit and intercity ................|   111,760  |     5.7  |  41,580
 Bus drivers, school or special client .............|   174,450  |     8.9  |  30,460
 Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers ...........|    39,060  |     2.0  |  37,470
 Light truck or delivery services drivers ..........|     7,020  |      .4  |  30,910
 Taxi drivers and chauffeurs .......................|     6,640  |      .3  |  25,900
 Subway and streetcar operators ....................|     7,720  |      .4  |  58,920
 Transportation attendants, except flight           |            |          |        
   attendants ......................................|     8,770  |      .4  |  21,810
 Industrial truck and tractor operators ............|    11,780  |      .6  |  31,980
 Cleaners of vehicles and equipment ................|     9,420  |      .5  |  36,150
 Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers,  |            |          |        
   hand ............................................|    54,890  |     2.8  |  26,270
 Refuse and recyclable material collectors .........|    56,930  |     2.9  |  34,670
                                                    |            |          |        
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
   1 Includes only occupations and occupational groups with employment of more than
5,000 in establishments receiving all their revenue from green goods and services.
Occupational data will not sum to the major group and all-occupations totals because
totals include occupations for which data are not shown separately.

   2 Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a
"year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where an
hourly mean wage is not published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from
the reported survey data.

   * Occupation titles followed by an asterisk (*) have similar titles, but not
necessarily the same content, as 2010 SOC occupations.

   NOTE: Data represent occupational employment and wages for establishments that
received all of their revenue from green goods and services. Establishments that did
not generate revenue, such as government  establishments, nonprofits, or startups
without positive  revenue, reported all of their employment associated with the
production of green goods or provision of green services.




Table 3. Employment in all-green establishments, by occupational group and industry, November 2011

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        |                                 Industry (1)
                                        |----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        |          | Agricul- |         |          |          |         |        |               
                                        |    All   |  ture,   |         |          |          |         |        |               
         Occupational group             | in-scope | forestry,|         |          |          |  Whole- |        |Transportation 
                                        |  indus-  | fishing, |Utilities| Construc-| Manufac- |   sale  | Retail |      and      
                                        | tries (2)|   and    |         |   tion   |  turing  |  trade  | trade  | warehousing   
                                        |          | hunting  |         |          |          |         |        |               
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        |          |          |         |          |          |         |        |               
All occupations (3) ....................| 1,949,520|  41,840  | 142,030 |  92,130  |  266,510 |  80,640 | 66,570 |     454,710   
  Management ...........................|    95,360|   1,200  |   7,760 |   5,450  |   13,470 |   3,740 |    780 |       9,010   
  Business and financial operations ....|    83,740|     650  |   6,980 |   3,270  |    8,340 |   2,350 |    550 |       6,740   
  Computer and mathematical ............|    25,540|     120  |   2,150 |     380  |    3,810 |    (4)  |   (4)  |       1,190   
  Architecture and engineering .........|   105,670|     260  |  18,810 |   2,000  |   19,110 |    (4)  |   (4)  |       1,970   
  Life, physical, and social science ...|   174,930|   5,000  |   7,620 |      50  |    1,580 |    (4)  |   (4)  |         210   
  Community and social service .........|     3,030|     100  |    (4)  |    (4)   |     (4)  |    (4)  |     80 |          40   
  Legal ................................|     6,670|    (4)   |     160 |      30  |       40 |    (4)  |   (4)  |         240   
  Education, training, and library .....|    13,090|    (4)   |      40 |    (4)   |     (4)  |    (4)  |    120 |         290   
  Arts, design, entertainment, sports,  |          |          |         |          |          |         |        |               
    and media ......................... |    22,200|     100  |     610 |    (4)   |     (4)  |    (4)  |   (4)  |         230   
  Healthcare practitioners and          |          |          |         |          |          |         |        |               
    technical ..........................|     7,900|      50  |   1,140 |     140  |      470 |    (4)  |   (4)  |         290   
  Healthcare support ...................|        70|    (4)   |    (4)  |     (4)  |     (4)  |    (4)  |   (4)  |        (4)    
  Protective service ...................|    26,320|     990  |   6,300 |     (4)  |      460 |     180 |    550 |       5,260   
  Food preparation and serving related .|     2,160|      40  |    (4)  |     (4)  |     (4)  |    (4)  |   (4)  |       1,070   
  Building and grounds cleaning and     |          |          |         |          |          |         |        |               
    maintenance ........................|    35,620|     180  |   1,180 |      40  |      920 |     360 |    400 |       2,740   
  Personal care and service ............|    18,780|    (4)   |    (4)  |     (4)  |     (4)  |    (4)  |   (4)  |      12,250   
  Sales and related  ...................|    84,560|     450  |     440 |   2,770  |    7,440 |   5,550 | 47,040 |       4,840   
  Office and administrative support ....|   194,440|   2,340  |  17,530 |   8,650  |   23,500 |  11,060 | 10,350 |      28,310   
  Farming, fishing, and forestry .......|    29,260|  26,770  |    (4)  |    (4)   |      110 |    (4)  |   (4)  |        (4)    
  Construction and extraction ..........|   137,060|      70  |  12,260 |  53,100  |    5,990 |     960 |   (4)  |       8,150   
  Installation, maintenance, and        |          |          |         |          |          |         |        |               
    repair .............................|   135,470|     800  |  20,930 |  10,650  |   23,190 |   4,140 |   (4)  |      38,260   
  Production  ..........................|   208,180|     300  |  35,890 |   1,510  |  135,510 |  12,110 |  1,600 |       1,380   
  Transportation and material moving ...|   539,470|   2,360  |   2,120 |   3,830  |   21,340 |  39,360 |  4,820 |     332,250   
                                        |          |          |         |          |          |         |        |               
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   See footnotes at end of table.


Table 3. Employment in all-green establishments, by occupational group and industry, November 2011--Continued

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        |                                 Industry (1)
                                        |----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        |          |          | Manage- |         |           |          |  Other  |             
                                        |          | Profes-  | ment of |Adminis- |           |   Arts,  |services,|    Public   
         Occupational group             |          |  sional  |companies| trative |           |entertain-| except  | administra- 
                                        |  Inform- |   and    |   and   |and waste|Educational|ment, and | public  |     tion    
                                        |   ation  |technical |  enter- |services | services  |recreation|adminis- |             
                                        |          |services  |  prises |         |           |          |tration  |             
----------------------------------------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        |          |          |         |         |           |         |          |             
All occupations (3) ....................|  25,460  |  138,360 |   7,870 | 274,700 |   18,010  |  28,260 |   36,190 |   276,020   
  Management ...........................|   1,320  |   11,610 |   1,240 |  12,800 |    1,300  |   1,580 |    3,880 |    20,200   
  Business and financial operations ....|     330  |   10,630 |   1,560 |   5,340 |      770  |   1,360 |    3,040 |    31,840   
  Computer and mathematical ............|     930  |    7,930 |    (4)  |   1,260 |      720  |     310 |      420 |     6,140   
  Architecture and engineering .........|    (4)   |   34,400 |     730 |   4,820 |     (4)   |     200 |      160 |    23,110   
  Life, physical, and social science ...|    (4)   |   38,790 |    (4)  |   2,920 |     (4)   |   2,790 |    3,070 |   112,530   
  Community and social service .........|    (4)   |     (4)  |    (4)  |    (4)  |      610  |    (4)  |    1,590 |       500   
  Legal ................................|    (4)   |      510 |    (4)  |      70 |     (4)   |    (4)  |      330 |     5,270   
  Education, training, and library .....|   1,790  |      160 |    (4)  |    (4)  |    7,810  |   1,240 |      760 |       860   
  Arts, design, entertainment, sports,  |          |          |         |         |           |         |          |             
    and media ......................... |   8,970  |    3,670 |    (4)  |     210 |      130  |     740 |    2,350 |     3,560   
  Healthcare practitioners and          |          |          |         |         |           |         |          |             
    technical ..........................|    (4)   |      420 |    (4)  |   1,760 |    1,120  |     440 |     (4)  |     1,840   
  Healthcare support ...................|    (4)   |     (4)  |    (4)  |    (4)  |     (4)   |    (4)  |     (4)  |      (4)    
  Protective service ...................|    (4)   |      200 |    (4)  |     180 |      320  |   3,570 |     (4)  |     8,280   
  Food preparation and serving related .|    (4)   |     (4)  |    (4)  |    (4)  |      160  |     250 |      310 |      (4)    
  Building and grounds cleaning and     |          |          |         |         |           |         |          |             
    maintenance ........................|     210  |      820 |    (4)  |  21,390 |      730  |   2,500 |      620 |     3,510   
  Personal care and service ............|   (4)    |     (4)  |    (4)  |      40 |      170  |   4,320 |      870 |      (4)    
  Sales and related  ...................|   3,120  |    3,010 |      70 |   6,480 |     (4)   |   1,110 |    1,230 |       830   
  Office and administrative support ....|   4,750  |   15,980 |   2,270 |  32,670 |    3,190  |   3,130 |    5,350 |    25,320   
  Farming, fishing, and forestry .......|    (4)   |     (4)  |    (4)  |      30 |       50  |     260 |      120 |     1,890   
  Construction and extraction ..........|    (4)   |    3,060 |    (4)  |  43,910 |       70  |     470 |      800 |     8,200   
  Installation, maintenance, and        |          |          |         |         |           |         |          |             
    repair .............................|     250  |    1,800 |     810 |  15,340 |      360  |   2,480 |    9,480 |     6,910   
  Production  ..........................|   1,260  |    4,440 |    (4)  |  10,950 |     (4)   |     130 |      670 |     2,400   
  Transportation and material moving ...|   2,460  |      930 |    (4)  | 114,540 |       90  |   1,340 |      980 |    12,140   
                                        |          |          |         |         |           |         |          |             
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   1 Includes only industries that are in scope for GGS within each sector. For more information on the industry scope for the
GGS-OCC estimates, see the Technical Note.

   2 Data represent occupational employment and wages for establishments that received all of their revenue from green goods
and services. Establishments that did not generate revenue, such as government establishments, nonprofits, or startups without
positive revenue, reported all of their employment associated with the production of green goods or provision of green services.

   3 Occupations listed will not sum to all-occupations totals because the totals include occupational groups for which data
are not shown.

   4 Estimate not released.




Table 4. All-green utilities establishments: employment, percent of total employment, and annual mean 
wages for the largest occupations, November 2011

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                   |              |           |        
                            Occupation                             |              | Percent of|  Annual
                                                                   |Employment (1)|   total   |   mean 
                                                                   |              | employment| wage (2)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                   |              |           |        
All occupations (3) ............................................ ..|    142,030   |    100.0  | $62,500
  Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators .......|     20,200   |     14.2  |  44,560
  Nuclear engineers ...............................................|      8,170   |      5.8  |  96,270
  Security guards .................................................|      5,270   |      3.7  |  43,580
  Industrial machinery mechanics ..................................|      5,100   |      3.6  |  61,830
  Power plant operators ...........................................|      4,530   |      3.2  |  57,620
  Nuclear power reactor operators .................................|      4,380   |      3.1  |  77,660
  First-line supervisors of production and operating workers ......|      4,020   |      2.8  |  69,930
  Maintenance and repair workers, general .........................|      3,880   |      2.7  |  47,180
  Nuclear technicians .............................................|      3,630   |      2.6  |  75,370
  Office clerks, general ..........................................|      3,520   |      2.5  |  37,640
                                                                   |              |           |        
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   1 GGS-OCC data for utilities include the following North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS) industries: Hydroelectric power generation (NAICS 221111), Nuclear electric power
generation (NAICS 221113), Other electric power generation (NAICS 221119), Water supply and irrigation
systems (NAICS 221310), Sewage treatment facilities (NAICS 221320), and Steam and air-conditioning
supply (NAICS 221330). For more information on the industry scope for the GGS-OCC estimates, see the
Technical Note.

   2 Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round,
full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where an hourly mean wage is not
published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

   3 Occupations listed will not sum to all-occupations total because the total includes
occupations for which data are not shown.

   NOTE: Data represent occupational employment and wages for establishments that received 
all of their revenue from green goods and services. Establishments that did not generate
revenue, such as government establishments, nonprofits, or startups without positive revenue,
reported all of their employment associated with the production of green goods or provision
of green services.




Table 5. All-green construction establishments: employment, percent of total employment, and annual mean wages
for the largest occupations, November 2011

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           |              |           |        
                            Occupation                                     |              | Percent of| Annual 
                                                                           |Employment (1)|   total   |  mean  
                                                                           |              | employment|wage (2)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           |              |           |        
All occupations (3) .......................................................|     92,130   |    100.0  | $47,850
  Insulation workers, floor, ceiling, and wall ............................|      8,210   |      8.9  |  30,390
  Carpenters ..............................................................|      7,860   |      8.5  |  39,900
  Construction laborers ...................................................|      7,680   |      8.3  |  38,020
  First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers ....|      5,830   |      6.3  |  62,870
  Electricians ............................................................|      5,390   |      5.9  |  54,230
  Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers ...|      5,190   |      5.6  |  43,010
  Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters .................................|      4,730   |      5.1  |  41,330
  Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and    |              |           |        
    executive .............................................................|      2,810   |      3.1  |  35,200
  Construction managers ...................................................|      2,610   |      2.8  |  86,130
  Operating engineers and other construction equipment  operators..........|      2,440   |      2.6  |  53,510
                                                                           |              |           |        
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1 GGS-OCC data for construction include the following North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS) industries: Construction of buildings (NAICS 236); Water and sewer line and related structures
construction (NAICS 237110); Power and communication line and related structures construction (NAICS 237130);
Land subdivision (NAICS 237210); Other heavy and civil engineering construction (NAICS 237990); and Specialty
trade contractors (NAICS 238). For more information on the industry scope for the GGS-OCC estimates, see the
Technical Note.

  2 Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours
figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where  an hourly mean wage is not published, the annual wage has
been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

  3 Occupations listed will not sum to all-occupations total because the total includes occupations for which
data are not shown.

   NOTE: Data represent occupational employment and wages for establishments that received all of their
revenue from green goods and services. Establishments that did not generate revenue, such as government
establishments, nonprofits, or startups without positive revenue, reported all of their employment associated
with the production of green goods or provision of green services.




Table 6. All-green professional, scientific, and technical services establishments: employment, percent of total
employment, and annual mean wages for the largest occupations, November 2011

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           |              |           |        
                            Occupation                                     |              | Percent of| Annual 
                                                                           |Employment (1)|   total   |  mean  
                                                                           |              | employment|wage (2)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           |              |           |        
All occupations (3) .................................. ....................|     138,360  |    100.0  | $68,350
  Environmental scientists and specialists, including health ..............|      12,130  |      8.8  |  67,700
  Environmental engineers ............................                     |       7,990  |      5.8  |  82,060
  Environmental science and protection technicians, including health ......|       7,250  |      5.2  |  43,150
  Architects, except landscape and naval ....................... ..........|       5,770  |      4.2  |  83,560
  Chemists ................................................................|       4,710  |      3.4  |  55,660
  General and operations managers..........................................|       4,650  |      3.4  | 132,580
  Geoscientists, except hydrologists and geographers .                     |       4,280  |      3.1  |  66,700
  Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal medical, and     |              |           |        
    executive .............................................................|       3,980  |      2.9  |  36,210
  Mechanical engineers ....................................................|       3,970  |      2.9  |  88,750
  Chemical technicians .......................................... .........|       3,310  |      2.4  |  38,600
                                                                           |              |           |        
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   1 GGS-OCC data for professional, scientific, and technical services include the following North American
Industry Classification System (NAICS) industries: Offices of lawyers (NAICS 541110); Architectural services
(NAICS 541310); Landscape architectural services (NAICS 541320); Engineering services (NAICS 541330); Building
inspection services (NAICS 541350); Geophysical surveying and mapping services (NAICS 541360); Other surveying
and mapping services (NAICS 541370); Testing laboratories (NAICS 541380); Interior design services (NAICS
541410); Industrial design services (NAICS 541420); Graphic design services (NAICS 541430); Custom computer
programming services (NAICS 541511); Computer systems design services (NAICS 541512); Process and logistics
consulting services (NAICS 541614); Environmental consulting services (NAICS 541620); Other technical
consulting services (NAICS 541690); Research and development in biotechnology (NAICS 541711); Research and
development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences (except biotechnology) (NAICS 541712); Advertising
agencies (NAICS 541810); Public relations agencies (NAICS 541820); and Commercial photography (NAICS 541922).
For more information on the industry scope for the GGS-OCC estimates, see the Technical Note.

   2 Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours
figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where  an hourly mean wage is not published, the annual wage has
been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

   3 Occupations listed will not sum to all-occupations total because the total includes occupations for which
data are not shown.

   NOTE: Data represent occupational employment and wages for establishments that received all of their
revenue from green goods and services. Establishments that did not generate revenue, such as government
establishments, nonprofits, or startups without positive revenue, reported all of their employment associated
with the production of green goods or provision of green services.




Last Modified Date: September 28, 2012