Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-born Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, May 19, 2016                         USDL-16-0989

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                      FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2015


The unemployment rate for foreign-born persons in the United States was 4.9 percent
in 2015, down from 5.6 percent in 2014, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. The jobless rate of native-born persons fell to 5.4 percent from 6.3 percent in
the prior year.

Data on nativity are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly
sample survey of approximately 60,000 households. The foreign born are persons who
reside in the United States but who were born outside the country or one of its outlying
areas to parents who were not U.S. citizens. The foreign born include legally-admitted
immigrants, refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary workers, and
undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not separately identify the
numbers of persons in these categories. For further information about the survey, see
the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2015 data:

   --In 2015, there were 26.3 million foreign-born persons in the U.S. labor force,
     comprising 16.7 percent of the total. (See table 1.)

   --Hispanics accounted for 48.8 percent of the foreign-born labor force in 2015
     and Asians accounted for 24.1 percent. (See table 1.) (Data in this news
     release for persons who are White, Black, or Asian do not include those of
     Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Data on persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
     are presented separately.)

   --Foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed
     in service occupations; natural resources, construction, and maintenance
     occupations; and production, transportation, and material moving occupations.
     Native-born workers were more likely than foreign-born workers to be employed
     in management, professional, and related occupations and sales and office
     occupations. (See table 4.)

   --The median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage and salary
     workers were $681 in 2015, compared with $837 for their native-born
     counterparts. (See table 5.) (Differences in earnings reflect a variety of
     factors, including variations in the distributions of foreign-born and
     native-born workers by educational attainment, occupation, industry, and
     geographic region.)

Demographic Characteristics

The demographic composition of the foreign-born labor force differs from that of the
native-born labor force. In 2015, men accounted for 58.3 percent of the foreign-born
labor force, compared with 52.2 percent of the native-born labor force. By age, the
proportion of the foreign-born labor force made up of 25- to 54-year-olds (73.7
percent) was higher than for the native-born labor force (62.5 percent). Labor force
participation is typically highest among persons in that age bracket. (See table 1.)

In 2015, nearly half (48.8 percent) of the foreign-born labor force was Hispanic, and
almost one-quarter (24.1 percent) was Asian, compared with 10.2 percent and 1.9 percent,
respectively, of the native-born labor force. About 16.8 percent of the foreign-born
labor force was White and 9.2 percent was Black, compared with 73.4 percent and 12.1
percent, respectively, of the native-born labor force.

In 2015, 23.9 percent of the foreign-born labor force age 25 and over had not completed
high school, compared with 4.6 percent of the native-born labor force. The foreign born
were less likely than the native born to have some college or an associate degree--16.9
percent versus 29.9 percent. The proportions for foreign-born and native-born persons
that had a bachelor's degree and higher were more similar, at 34.9 percent and 39.1
percent, respectively.

Labor Force

The share of the U.S. civilian labor force that was foreign born was 16.7 percent
in 2015; it was 16.5 percent in 2014. (See table 1.)

In 2015, the labor force participation rate of the foreign born was 65.2 percent, down
from 66.0 percent in the prior year. The participation rate for the native born edged
down to 62.2 percent in 2015.

The participation rate of foreign-born men was 78.2 percent in 2015, higher than the
rate of 67.3 percent for native-born men. In contrast, 52.9 percent of foreign-born
women were labor force participants, lower than the rate of 57.4 percent for native-born
women.

Among the major race and ethnicity groups in 2015, labor force participation rates
for foreign-born Asians and Hispanics declined to 62.6 percent and 68.2 percent,
respectively. The rates for foreign-born Whites (58.7 percent) and Blacks (70.8
percent) were little different from the prior year. In comparison, the participation
rate for native-born Whites (62.3 percent) declined in 2015, while the rates for
Blacks (60.0 percent), Asians (62.4 percent), and Hispanics (63.9 percent) showed
little change.

In 2015, foreign-born mothers with children under 18 years old were less likely to
be labor force participants than were native-born mothers--57.8 percent versus 73.4
percent. Labor force participation differences between foreign-born and native-born
mothers were greater among those with younger children than among those with older
children. The labor force participation rate of foreign-born mothers with children
under age 6 was 48.8 percent in 2015, much lower than that for native-born mothers
with children under age 6, at 68.6 percent. Among women with children under age 3, the
participation rate for the foreign born (45.0 percent) was 20.7 percentage points below
that for native-born mothers (65.7 percent). The labor force participation rates of
foreign-born and native-born fathers with children under age 18 were more similar, at
93.6 percent and 92.4 percent, respectively. (See table 2.)

By region, the foreign born made up a larger share of the labor force in the West
(24.0 percent) and in the Northeast (19.5 percent) than for the nation as a whole 
(16.7 percent) in 2015. In contrast, the foreign born made up a smaller share of the
labor force than for the nation as a whole in the South (15.5 percent) and Midwest
(8.7 percent). (See table 6.)

Unemployment

From 2014 to 2015, the unemployment rate of the foreign born declined from 5.6 percent
to 4.9 percent, and the jobless rate for the native born fell from 6.3 percent to
5.4 percent. The over-the-year decrease in the unemployment rates of the foreign born
and the native born reflected decreases in the rates for both men and women. The
unemployment rate for foreign-born men fell from 5.0 percent to 4.5 percent, and the
rate for foreign-born women declined from 6.5 percent to 5.6 percent. Among the native
born, the rate for men fell from 6.5 percent to 5.6 percent, while the rate for women
was down from 6.0 percent to 5.1 percent. (See table 1.)

For both the foreign born and the native born, jobless rates vary considerably by race
and ethnicity.  Among the foreign born, Blacks had the highest unemployment rate (7.4
percent) in 2015. The unemployment rates were 5.4 percent for Hispanics, 4.0 percent
for Whites, and 3.7 percent for Asians. Among the native born, Blacks also had the
highest jobless rate (9.9 percent) in 2015, followed by Hispanics (7.8 percent). The
unemployment rates were 4.3 percent for Asians and 4.2 percent for Whites.

Occupation

In 2015, foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed
in service occupations (23.4 percent versus 16.2 percent); production, transportation,
and material moving occupations (15.4 percent versus 11.1 percent); and natural
resources, construction, and maintenance occupations (13.8 percent versus 8.3 percent).
(See table 4.)

Native-born workers were more likely than foreign-born workers to be employed in
management, professional, and related occupations (40.6 percent versus 30.8 percent)
and sales and office occupations (23.8 percent versus 16.6 percent).

Foreign-born men were more likely than their native-born counterparts to work in natural
resources, construction, and maintenance occupations and in service occupations. Compared
with native-born women, foreign-born women were more likely to be in service occupations
and in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Among women, the
disparity was especially great in service occupations; 32.1 percent of foreign-born women
worked in service occupations in 2015, compared with 19.2 percent of native-born women.
Native-born men and women workers were more likely than their foreign-born counterparts
to be employed in management, professional, and related occupations and sales and office
occupations.

Earnings

In 2015, the median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born, full-time wage and salary
workers ($681) were 81.4 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts
($837). Among men, median weekly earnings for the foreign-born men ($712) were 76.2
percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts ($934). Median earnings for
foreign-born women ($626) were 84.6 percent of the earnings of their native-born
counterparts ($740). Differences in earnings reflect a variety of factors, including
variations in the distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers by educational
attainment, occupation, industry, and geographic region. (See table 5.)

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanic foreign-born full-time wage and
salary workers earned 80.7 percent as much as their native-born counterparts in 2015.
For White, Black, and Asian workers, earnings for the foreign born and the native born
were relatively close within each group. The earnings of both foreign-born and native-
born workers increase with education. In 2015, foreign-born workers age 25 and over with
less than a high school education earned $476 per week, while those with a bachelor's
degree and higher earned about 2.6 times as much--$1,259 per week. Among the native born,
those with a bachelor's degree and higher earned about 2.4 times as much as those with
less than a high school education--$1,225 per week versus $519 per week.

Native-born workers earn more than the foreign born at most educational attainment
levels. The gap between the earnings of foreign-born and native-born workers closes
at higher levels of education. For example, among high school graduates (no college),
full-time workers who were foreign born earned 86.1 percent as much in 2015 as their
native-born counterparts. Among those with a bachelor's degree and higher, the median
weekly earnings of foreign-born workers ($1,259) and native-born workers ($1,225) were
relatively close.




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a
monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides
information on the labor force status, demographics, and other
characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population
age 16 and over. In response to the increased demand for statistical
information about the foreign born, questions on nativity,
citizenship, year of entry into the United States, and the parental
nativity of respondents were added to the CPS beginning in January
1994. Prior to 1994, the primary sources of data on the foreign born
were the decennial census, two CPS supplements (conducted in April
1983 and November 1989), and, to some extent, information collected by
the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly known as the
Immigration and Naturalization Service).

   The foreign- and native-born data presented in this release are not
strictly comparable with data for earlier years due to the introduction
of updated population estimates, or controls, used in the CPS. The
population controls are updated each year in January to reflect the
latest information about population change. Additional information is
available from the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory 
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200,
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the true population values they represent. The component of this
difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as
sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error
of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of
sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a
segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS
and estimating standard errors is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are
presented below.

   Foreign born. The foreign born are persons residing in the United
States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born
outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto
Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The
foreign-born population includes legally-admitted immigrants,
refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary workers,
and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not
separately identify the number of persons in these categories.

   Native born. The native born are persons born in the United States
or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were
born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

   Race and ethnicity groups. In this release, the data are presented
for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians and for persons of
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. These four groups are mutually exclusive
but not exhaustive. Other race groups (including persons who selected
more than one race category) are included in the overall totals but
are not shown separately because the number of survey respondents is
too small to develop statistically reliable estimates. The presentation
of data on race and ethnicity in this release differs from that
which appears in most analyses of CPS labor force data because persons
of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are separated from the race groups.
Because persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity can be of any race,
they are usually included in the race groups as well as shown
separately in the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity group. The reason for
the difference in the data presentation in this release is because
about half of the foreign born are of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity and
they have somewhat different labor force characteristics than the non-
Hispanic foreign born.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey
reference week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked
in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked
15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member's business.
Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs because of
illness, bad weather, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also
are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during
the reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made
specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period
ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be
recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not be
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all
persons classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed
as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate
is the labor force as a percent of the population.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and
other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips
usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders).
Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a
weekly equivalent.

   Full-time wage and salary workers. These are workers who usually
work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job and
receive wages, salaries, and other types of compensation. The group
includes employees in both the private and public sectors but, for
purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-employed persons,
regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Median earnings. The median earnings is the amount which divides a
given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings
above the median and the other having earnings below the median.




Table 1. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2014-2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2014 2015
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

247,947 155,922 62.9 146,305 9,617 6.2 250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 8,296 5.3

Men

119,748 82,882 69.2 77,692 5,190 6.3 121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 4,490 5.4

Women

128,199 73,039 57.0 68,613 4,426 6.1 129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 3,807 5.2

FOREIGN BORN

Total, 16 years and over

38,997 25,735 66.0 24,282 1,453 5.6 40,257 26,258 65.2 24,963 1,295 4.9

Men

18,997 14,957 78.7 14,204 753 5.0 19,548 15,296 78.2 14,615 681 4.5

Women

20,000 10,779 53.9 10,078 700 6.5 20,709 10,961 52.9 10,348 613 5.6

Age

16 to 24 years

3,543 1,852 52.3 1,645 207 11.2 3,625 1,861 51.3 1,674 187 10.0

25 to 34 years

7,554 5,647 74.8 5,324 323 5.7 7,660 5,657 73.9 5,373 284 5.0

35 to 44 years

8,897 7,032 79.0 6,697 336 4.8 9,153 7,183 78.5 6,880 303 4.2

45 to 54 years

7,949 6,441 81.0 6,109 332 5.2 8,142 6,513 80.0 6,248 265 4.1

55 to 64 years

5,534 3,715 67.1 3,515 200 5.4 5,798 3,891 67.1 3,698 193 5.0

65 years and over

5,520 1,047 19.0 992 55 5.2 5,879 1,152 19.6 1,090 62 5.4

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

7,564 4,500 59.5 4,290 211 4.7 7,495 4,401 58.7 4,224 177 4.0

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

3,243 2,305 71.1 2,106 199 8.6 3,411 2,415 70.8 2,237 179 7.4

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

9,729 6,211 63.8 5,924 287 4.6 10,123 6,335 62.6 6,101 234 3.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

18,053 12,431 68.9 11,692 739 5.9 18,797 12,814 68.2 12,126 687 5.4

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

35,455 23,883 67.4 22,637 1,246 5.2 36,632 24,397 66.6 23,289 1,108 4.5

Less than a high school diploma

9,649 5,684 58.9 5,321 363 6.4 9,968 5,828 58.5 5,500 328 5.6

High school graduates, no college(2)

8,924 5,856 65.6 5,547 309 5.3 9,172 5,951 64.9 5,649 303 5.1

Some college or associate degree

5,816 4,168 71.7 3,932 236 5.7 5,896 4,111 69.7 3,917 193 4.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

11,065 8,176 73.9 7,838 338 4.1 11,595 8,507 73.4 8,223 284 3.3

NATIVE BORN

Total, 16 years and over

208,949 130,187 62.3 122,023 8,164 6.3 210,544 130,872 62.2 123,871 7,002 5.4

Men

100,751 67,926 67.4 63,488 4,437 6.5 101,553 68,324 67.3 64,516 3,808 5.6

Women

108,199 62,261 57.5 58,535 3,726 6.0 108,991 62,548 57.4 59,355 3,193 5.1

Age

16 to 24 years

35,170 19,443 55.3 16,797 2,646 13.6 34,965 19,362 55.4 17,082 2,280 11.8

25 to 34 years

34,577 28,551 82.6 26,651 1,901 6.7 35,111 28,989 82.6 27,369 1,620 5.6

35 to 44 years

30,668 25,473 83.1 24,270 1,203 4.7 30,548 25,420 83.2 24,373 1,048 4.1

45 to 54 years

34,866 27,621 79.2 26,446 1,175 4.3 34,495 27,389 79.4 26,395 994 3.6

55 to 64 years

34,230 21,787 63.6 20,880 907 4.2 34,796 22,063 63.4 21,278 785 3.6

65 years and over

39,439 7,311 18.5 6,979 332 4.5 40,630 7,649 18.8 7,374 275 3.6

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

153,630 96,161 62.6 91,456 4,705 4.9 154,058 96,007 62.3 92,010 3,997 4.2

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

25,844 15,437 59.7 13,608 1,829 11.8 26,306 15,780 60.0 14,219 1,561 9.9

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

3,738 2,325 62.2 2,195 130 5.6 3,908 2,437 62.4 2,333 104 4.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

20,347 12,939 63.6 11,800 1,139 8.8 20,821 13,313 63.9 12,273 1,039 7.8

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

173,780 110,744 63.7 105,226 5,518 5.0 175,579 111,510 63.5 106,788 4,722 4.2

Less than a high school diploma

14,493 5,144 35.5 4,531 613 11.9 14,206 5,143 36.2 4,598 545 10.6

High school graduates, no college(2)

53,136 30,177 56.8 28,319 1,858 6.2 52,540 29,371 55.9 27,753 1,617 5.5

Some college or associate degree

49,878 33,153 66.5 31,367 1,786 5.4 50,367 33,370 66.3 31,868 1,502 4.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

56,272 42,270 75.1 41,010 1,261 3.0 58,466 43,626 74.6 42,569 1,057 2.4

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of youngest child and sex, 2014-2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2014 2015
Total Men Women Total Men Women

FOREIGN BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,109 7,055 8,054 15,517 7,300 8,217

Civilian labor force

11,382 6,619 4,763 11,583 6,831 4,753

Participation rate

75.3 93.8 59.1 74.6 93.6 57.8

Employed

10,786 6,355 4,431 11,076 6,597 4,480

Employment-population ratio

71.4 90.1 55.0 71.4 90.4 54.5

Unemployed

596 265 332 507 234 273

Unemployment rate

5.2 4.0 7.0 4.4 3.4 5.7

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,197 3,719 4,478 8,603 3,961 4,642

Civilian labor force

6,420 3,447 2,972 6,680 3,674 3,006

Participation rate

78.3 92.7 66.4 77.6 92.7 64.8

Employed

6,082 3,297 2,785 6,397 3,548 2,849

Employment-population ratio

74.2 88.6 62.2 74.4 89.6 61.4

Unemployed

338 151 187 284 126 158

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.4 6.3 4.2 3.4 5.3

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,912 3,336 3,577 6,914 3,338 3,575

Civilian labor force

4,963 3,172 1,791 4,903 3,157 1,746

Participation rate

71.8 95.1 50.1 70.9 94.6 48.8

Employed

4,704 3,058 1,646 4,680 3,049 1,631

Employment-population ratio

68.1 91.7 46.0 67.7 91.3 45.6

Unemployed

259 114 145 223 108 115

Unemployment rate

5.2 3.6 8.1 4.6 3.4 6.6

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,742 1,816 1,926 3,810 1,878 1,932

Civilian labor force

2,607 1,733 874 2,639 1,770 869

Participation rate

69.7 95.4 45.4 69.3 94.2 45.0

Employed

2,468 1,665 802 2,517 1,711 806

Employment-population ratio

65.9 91.7 41.7 66.1 91.1 41.7

Unemployed

140 68 72 122 59 63

Unemployment rate

5.4 3.9 8.2 4.6 3.3 7.3

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

23,888 11,942 11,946 24,740 12,248 12,492

Civilian labor force

14,353 8,337 6,016 14,674 8,465 6,209

Participation rate

60.1 69.8 50.4 59.3 69.1 49.7

Employed

13,496 7,849 5,647 13,887 8,018 5,868

Employment-population ratio

56.5 65.7 47.3 56.1 65.5 47.0

Unemployed

857 488 368 787 447 340

Unemployment rate

6.0 5.9 6.1 5.4 5.3 5.5

NATIVE BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

50,534 21,986 28,548 50,047 21,795 28,252

Civilian labor force

41,198 20,320 20,878 40,893 20,147 20,746

Participation rate

81.5 92.4 73.1 81.7 92.4 73.4

Employed

39,162 19,544 19,618 39,162 19,482 19,680

Employment-population ratio

77.5 88.9 68.7 78.3 89.4 69.7

Unemployed

2,036 776 1,260 1,731 665 1,066

Unemployment rate

4.9 3.8 6.0 4.2 3.3 5.1

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,289 12,395 15,895 28,013 12,209 15,803

Civilian labor force

23,569 11,321 12,248 23,377 11,166 12,211

Participation rate

83.3 91.3 77.1 83.5 91.5 77.3

Employed

22,607 10,947 11,660 22,526 10,844 11,682

Employment-population ratio

79.9 88.3 73.4 80.4 88.8 73.9

Unemployed

962 374 588 851 322 529

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.3 4.8 3.6 2.9 4.3

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

22,244 9,591 12,653 22,034 9,586 12,449

Civilian labor force

17,628 8,999 8,629 17,516 8,981 8,535

Participation rate

79.2 93.8 68.2 79.5 93.7 68.6

Employed

16,555 8,597 7,958 16,636 8,638 7,997

Employment-population ratio

74.4 89.6 62.9 75.5 90.1 64.2

Unemployed

1,074 402 672 880 343 537

Unemployment rate

6.1 4.5 7.8 5.0 3.8 6.3

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

12,986 5,688 7,298 13,144 5,769 7,375

Civilian labor force

10,102 5,352 4,750 10,255 5,411 4,845

Participation rate

77.8 94.1 65.1 78.0 93.8 65.7

Employed

9,472 5,105 4,367 9,733 5,203 4,530

Employment-population ratio

72.9 89.8 59.8 74.0 90.2 61.4

Unemployed

631 247 384 522 208 314

Unemployment rate

6.2 4.6 8.1 5.1 3.8 6.5

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

158,415 78,765 79,651 160,497 79,757 80,739

Civilian labor force

88,989 47,606 41,383 89,980 48,177 41,803

Participation rate

56.2 60.4 52.0 56.1 60.4 51.8

Employed

82,861 43,944 38,917 84,709 45,034 39,675

Employment-population ratio

52.3 55.8 48.9 52.8 56.5 49.1

Unemployed

6,128 3,662 2,466 5,271 3,143 2,127

Unemployment rate

6.9 7.7 6.0 5.9 6.5 5.1

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2014-2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2014 2015
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

FOREIGN BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

736 1,671 1,413 3,184 661 1,658 1,372 3,246

Civilian labor force

258 856 890 2,234 227 837 801 2,269

Participation rate

35.0 51.2 63.0 70.2 34.3 50.5 58.4 69.9

Employed

245 822 844 2,146 220 804 760 2,200

Employment-population ratio

33.2 49.2 59.7 67.4 33.3 48.5 55.4 67.8

Unemployed

13 34 46 88 7 32 41 69

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.0 5.2 3.9 2.9 3.9 5.1 3.0

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

410 810 749 899 388 837 772 992

Civilian labor force

216 576 597 733 210 575 609 823

Participation rate

52.8 71.2 79.7 81.6 54.1 68.7 78.9 83.0

Employed

193 528 546 689 188 529 572 782

Employment-population ratio

46.9 65.2 72.8 76.7 48.5 63.2 74.1 78.9

Unemployed

24 48 52 44 22 46 37 41

Unemployment rate

11.1 8.4 8.6 6.1 10.4 8.0 6.1 5.0

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

1,041 1,758 1,296 4,825 1,036 1,854 1,277 5,135

Civilian labor force

407 1,043 877 3,568 409 1,065 854 3,702

Participation rate

39.1 59.3 67.7 74.0 39.5 57.4 66.9 72.1

Employed

379 1,001 835 3,435 389 1,023 825 3,591

Employment-population ratio

36.4 56.9 64.4 71.2 37.5 55.2 64.6 69.9

Unemployed

28 42 42 133 20 42 28 111

Unemployment rate

6.9 4.0 4.8 3.7 5.0 4.0 3.3 3.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,392 4,593 2,272 2,040 7,816 4,724 2,381 2,089

Civilian labor force

4,765 3,314 1,740 1,544 4,955 3,406 1,779 1,603

Participation rate

64.5 72.2 76.6 75.7 63.4 72.1 74.7 76.7

Employed

4,470 3,134 1,649 1,473 4,677 3,230 1,696 1,543

Employment-population ratio

60.5 68.2 72.6 72.2 59.8 68.4 71.2 73.9

Unemployed

295 180 91 70 277 176 83 60

Unemployment rate

6.2 5.4 5.2 4.5 5.6 5.2 4.7 3.7

NATIVE BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,941 39,783 37,386 46,674 8,769 39,059 37,445 48,179

Civilian labor force

3,012 22,023 24,287 34,576 3,033 21,173 24,197 35,522

Participation rate

33.7 55.4 65.0 74.1 34.6 54.2 64.6 73.7

Employed

2,733 20,932 23,188 33,647 2,793 20,250 23,282 34,735

Employment-population ratio

30.6 52.6 62.0 72.1 31.9 51.8 62.2 72.1

Unemployed

278 1,090 1,099 929 240 923 915 787

Unemployment rate

9.2 5.0 4.5 2.7 7.9 4.4 3.8 2.2

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,715 7,163 6,399 4,404 2,591 7,344 6,583 4,700

Civilian labor force

906 4,134 4,397 3,432 857 4,196 4,528 3,586

Participation rate

33.4 57.7 68.7 77.9 33.1 57.1 68.8 76.3

Employed

733 3,669 3,998 3,258 701 3,780 4,188 3,449

Employment-population ratio

27.0 51.2 62.5 74.0 27.1 51.5 63.6 73.4

Unemployed

173 465 398 174 156 416 340 137

Unemployment rate

19.1 11.3 9.1 5.1 18.2 9.9 7.5 3.8

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

141 449 566 1,416 138 443 576 1,541

Civilian labor force

61 253 392 1,135 57 273 402 1,213

Participation rate

43.0 56.4 69.3 80.2 41.4 61.7 69.8 78.7

Employed

56 236 373 1,097 52 260 388 1,187

Employment-population ratio

39.5 52.7 65.9 77.5 37.7 58.7 67.4 77.0

Unemployed

5 17 19 39 5 13 14 26

Unemployment rate

8.1 6.6 4.9 3.4 8.9 4.9 3.4 2.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,291 4,505 4,190 2,811 2,278 4,536 4,393 2,997

Civilian labor force

1,027 3,034 3,172 2,349 1,031 3,037 3,333 2,473

Participation rate

44.8 67.4 75.7 83.6 45.3 67.0 75.9 82.5

Employed

895 2,820 2,977 2,268 915 2,834 3,163 2,392

Employment-population ratio

39.1 62.6 71.0 80.7 40.1 62.5 72.0 79.8

Unemployed

132 215 194 81 117 203 170 81

Unemployment rate

12.9 7.1 6.1 3.5 11.3 6.7 5.1 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex, 2015 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Occupation Foreign born Native born
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

24,963 14,615 10,348 123,871 64,516 59,355

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

30.8 28.5 34.1 40.6 37.1 44.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

11.7 11.5 11.9 17.1 18.4 15.7

Management occupations

8.1 8.7 7.4 12.1 14.1 9.9

Business and financial operations occupations

3.5 2.9 4.5 5.0 4.4 5.7

Professional and related occupations

19.1 17.0 22.3 23.5 18.6 28.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

4.3 5.6 2.6 2.7 3.8 1.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.2 3.1 1.0 1.9 3.2 0.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.2 1.2 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.9

Community and social service occupations

0.9 0.7 1.2 1.9 1.2 2.6

Legal occupations

0.4 0.2 0.7 1.4 1.3 1.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.5 2.1 5.5 6.5 3.2 10.1

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.4 1.3 1.6 2.2 2.2 2.2

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

5.2 2.8 8.5 6.0 2.8 9.6

Service occupations

23.4 17.3 32.1 16.2 13.5 19.2

Healthcare support occupations

2.7 0.7 5.5 2.3 0.5 4.2

Protective service occupations

0.9 1.3 0.4 2.3 3.5 1.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7.1 6.6 7.8 5.1 4.2 6.1

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

8.4 7.1 10.3 2.9 3.6 2.2

Personal care and service occupations

4.3 1.6 8.1 3.5 1.6 5.6

Sales and office occupations

16.6 12.4 22.5 23.8 17.3 30.9

Sales and related occupations

8.6 7.7 9.8 10.9 10.6 11.3

Office and administrative support occupations

8.0 4.7 12.7 12.8 6.7 19.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13.8 22.4 1.8 8.3 15.2 0.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.8 2.3 1.1 0.5 0.8 0.2

Construction and extraction occupations

9.0 15.1 0.4 4.4 8.1 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.0 5.0 0.2 3.4 6.4 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15.4 19.5 9.6 11.1 17.0 4.8

Production occupations

7.9 8.6 6.9 5.3 7.5 2.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.5 10.9 2.7 5.9 9.5 1.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers for the foreign born and native born by selected characteristics, 2014-2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2014 2015
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings

Total, 16 years and over

18,094 $664 88,433 $820 81.0 18,792 $681 90,289 $837 81.4

Men

11,143 695 48,307 912 76.2 11,561 712 49,185 934 76.2

Women

6,951 613 40,126 734 83.5 7,231 626 41,103 740 84.6

AGE

16 to 24 years

1,020 423 8,563 482 87.8 995 464 8,795 490 94.7

25 to 34 years

4,214 609 21,508 744 81.9 4,247 622 22,364 751 82.8

35 to 44 years

5,176 715 19,414 919 77.8 5,378 721 19,538 940 76.7

45 to 54 years

4,600 708 20,759 939 75.4 4,745 724 20,832 965 75.0

55 to 64 years

2,505 734 15,103 940 78.1 2,744 731 15,364 961 76.1

65 years and over

580 689 3,086 856 80.5 683 731 3,395 895 81.7

RACE AND HISPANIC OR
LATINO ETHNICITY(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

2,906 931 65,572 880 105.8 2,888 999 66,208 900 111.0

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

1,638 661 10,498 640 103.3 1,734 674 11,055 643 104.8

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

4,549 969 1,591 924 104.9 4,706 1,010 1,755 973 103.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

8,792 523 8,683 662 79.0 9,246 548 9,065 679 80.7

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

17,074 687 79,869 871 78.9 17,797 702 81,494 891 78.8

Less than a high school diploma

3,952 463 2,974 517 89.6 4,217 476 3,073 519 91.7

High school graduates, no college(2)

4,105 581 21,425 689 84.3 4,218 599 21,003 696 86.1

Some college or associate degree

2,866 685 23,542 771 88.8 2,845 699 23,956 770 90.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

6,151 1,222 31,929 1,188 102.9 6,517 1,259 33,462 1,225 102.8

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census region and division, 2014-2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Census region and
division
2014 2015
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

FOREIGN BORN

Northeast

8,455 5,431 64.2 5,087 343 6.3 8,664 5,552 64.1 5,266 286 5.1

New England

1,739 1,155 66.4 1,086 69 6.0 1,786 1,169 65.5 1,106 63 5.4

Middle Atlantic

6,716 4,276 63.7 4,002 274 6.4 6,878 4,383 63.7 4,160 223 5.1

South

12,812 8,707 68.0 8,276 431 4.9 13,242 8,846 66.8 8,455 390 4.4

South Atlantic

7,551 5,122 67.8 4,848 274 5.3 7,725 5,159 66.8 4,906 253 4.9

East South Central

653 426 65.3 404 22 5.2 684 442 64.5 420 21 4.8

West South Central

4,608 3,159 68.6 3,024 135 4.3 4,833 3,245 67.2 3,129 116 3.6

Midwest

4,350 2,924 67.2 2,762 162 5.5 4,486 2,992 66.7 2,843 150 5.0

East North Central

3,260 2,142 65.7 2,022 120 5.6 3,375 2,198 65.1 2,086 111 5.1

West North Central

1,090 781 71.7 740 41 5.3 1,111 795 71.5 757 38 4.8

West

13,380 8,674 64.8 8,156 517 6.0 13,865 8,867 64.0 8,399 469 5.3

Mountain

2,503 1,638 65.4 1,560 78 4.7 2,633 1,709 64.9 1,614 95 5.6

Pacific

10,877 7,036 64.7 6,596 440 6.3 11,232 7,158 63.7 6,785 374 5.2

NATIVE BORN

Northeast

36,441 22,816 62.6 21,427 1,389 6.1 36,465 22,907 62.8 21,700 1,207 5.3

New England

10,103 6,630 65.6 6,242 388 5.9 10,137 6,637 65.5 6,318 320 4.8

Middle Atlantic

26,338 16,186 61.5 15,185 1,001 6.2 26,328 16,269 61.8 15,382 887 5.5

South

79,382 48,144 60.6 45,166 2,979 6.2 80,368 48,403 60.2 45,771 2,632 5.4

South Atlantic

41,285 25,048 60.7 23,441 1,607 6.4 41,866 25,241 60.3 23,829 1,412 5.6

East South Central

13,941 7,996 57.4 7,442 554 6.9 14,019 8,032 57.3 7,557 475 5.9

West South Central

24,156 15,101 62.5 14,283 818 5.4 24,483 15,130 61.8 14,385 745 4.9

Midwest

48,584 31,531 64.9 29,682 1,849 5.9 48,678 31,539 64.8 30,014 1,525 4.8

East North Central

33,404 21,184 63.4 19,815 1,369 6.5 33,417 21,140 63.3 20,030 1,110 5.2

West North Central

15,180 10,347 68.2 9,867 480 4.6 15,262 10,399 68.1 9,985 415 4.0

West

44,543 27,695 62.2 25,748 1,947 7.0 45,032 28,024 62.2 26,386 1,639 5.8

Mountain

15,145 9,589 63.3 9,011 578 6.0 15,337 9,685 63.1 9,200 485 5.0

Pacific

29,397 18,106 61.6 16,737 1,369 7.6 29,695 18,339 61.8 17,185 1,154 6.3

NOTE: The states (plus the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania); South Atlantic (Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia); East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee); West South Central (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas); East North Central (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin); West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota); Mountain (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming); Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: May 19, 2016