Unpaid eldercare in the United States News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, September 23, 2015                         USDL-15-1851

Technical information:   (202) 691-6339  •  atusinfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/tus
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


                   UNPAID ELDERCARE IN THE UNITED STATES--2013-14
                       DATA FROM THE AMERICAN TIME USE SURVEY


Sixteen percent (40.4 million) of the civilian noninstitutional population age 15 and over 
provide unpaid eldercare, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Of the 40.4 
million eldercare providers, a majority are employed (61 percent) and nearly one-half are 
employed full time (47 percent). These estimates are averages for the 2-year period of 
2013-14; combining the 2 years of data facilitates a more in-depth analysis of eldercare.

Eldercare providers are defined as individuals who provide unpaid care to someone age 65 or 
older who needs help because of a condition related to aging. This care can be provided to 
household or nonhousehold members, as well as persons living in retirement homes or assisted 
care facilities. Eldercare can involve a range of care activities, such as assisting with 
grooming, preparing meals, and providing transportation. Eldercare also can involve providing 
companionship or being available to assist when help is needed, and thus it can be associated 
with nearly any activity.

Information about eldercare providers and the time they spend providing care were collected 
as part of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS is a continuous household survey 
that provides estimates on how people spend their time. For a description of ATUS data, 
concepts, and methodology, see the Technical Note.

Eldercare providers in 2013-14

•  Of the 40.4 million eldercare providers in the civilian noninstitutional population age 
   15 and over, the majority (57 percent) were women. (See table 1.)

•  Individuals whose ages were 45 to 64 were the most likely to provide eldercare (23 percent),
   followed by those age 65 and over (17 percent). (See table 1.)

•  Nearly one-half of eldercare providers had provided care for 2 years or less, while 15 
   percent had provided care for 10 years or more. (See table 2.)

•  The majority (70 percent) of eldercare providers cared for only one person. Twenty-two 
   percent of eldercare providers cared for two persons, and 7 percent cared for three or 
   more persons. (See table 2.)

•  Eighty-three percent of eldercare providers cared only for persons with whom they did not 
   live. (See table 2.)

•  Twenty-two percent of all eldercare providers were parents with children under age 18 living 
   with them. (See table 2.)

•  Over half of eldercare providers ages 15 to 34 cared for a grandparent, while the majority 
   of providers ages 35 to 64 cared for a parent. Providers ages 65 and over were more likely 
   than those in other age groups to care for a friend or neighbor. (See table 3.) 

Time spent providing eldercare in 2013-14

•  On a given day, nearly one-fourth (24 percent) of eldercare providers engaged in eldercare. 
   Eldercare providers who were ages 65 and older were the most likely to provide care on a 
   given day. (See table 4.)

•  There were 6.3 million eldercare providers who cared solely for someone with whom they lived. 
   On average over all days--including days they did and did not provide care--these providers 
   spent 2.8 hours per day providing care. (See table 4.)

•  Eldercare providers who cared for a spouse or unmarried partner spent an average of 4.0 
   hours per day providing eldercare (includes days they did and did not provide care). 
   (See table 4.)

•  On days they provided eldercare, persons spent an average of 3.2 hours in caregiving 
   activities. Providers ages 65 and over spent the most time providing eldercare (4.4 hours), 
   and providers ages 15 to 24 spent the least amount of time (1.1 hours). (See table 4.)

•  On weekend days they provided care, eldercare providers spent an average of 3.6 hours 
   doing so. This compares to an average of 3.0 hours for those who provided care on weekdays. 
   (See table 4.)

•  On days they provided eldercare, women spent more time providing this care than did men 
   (3.5 hours compared with 2.7 hours). (See table 5.)

Eldercare activities in 2013-14

•  On days they provided care, 39 percent of eldercare providers engaged in caregiving associated 
   with household activities, spending on average 40 minutes per day in these activities. This 
   includes 28 percent of providers who engaged in eldercare associated with food preparation and 
   cleanup and 12 percent who provided eldercare associated with housework. (See table 5.) 

•  Thirty-two percent of eldercare providers engaged in caregiving associated with leisure and 
   sports on days they provided care, spending 1.1 hours per day in these activities. This includes 
   20 percent of eldercare providers who engaged in eldercare associated with socializing and 
   communicating and 13 percent who provided care while watching TV. (See table 5.)

•  Women were more likely than men to provide eldercare associated with household activities on 
   days they provided care (41 percent compared with 35 percent), whereas women and men were about 
   equally likely to provide eldercare associated with leisure and sports (33 percent and 30 percent, 
   respectively). (See table 5.)

Eldercare providers who were parents of household children under age 18 in 2013-14

•  There were 8.7 million eldercare providers whose children lived with them. Of these parents, 
   nearly one-third (32 percent) had a child under age 6, and the remainder (69 percent) were 
   parents whose youngest child was between the ages of 6 and 17. (See table 9.) 

•  One-half (50 percent) of eldercare providers who were parents of children under the age of 18 
   provided care for their own parent. These persons sometimes are described as members of the 
   “sandwich generation” because they are in between two generations that require care. (See 
   table 9.)

•  Most (78 percent) eldercare providers who were parents were employed, and 63 percent were 
   employed full time. Eighty-five percent of fathers were employed full time, compared with 45 
   percent of mothers. (See table 9.)  

•  Sixteen percent of eldercare providers who were parents had no spouse or unmarried partner 
   present in the household. (See table 9.) 

•  Eldercare providers who were parents were less likely to provide daily care than the overall 
   population of eldercare providers (12 percent compared with 21 percent). (See tables 2 and 9.)




Technical Note

The estimates in this release are from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS, which is 
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a continuous 
survey about how individuals age 15 and over spend their time. In the 2-year period of 2013–2014, 
nearly 23,000 individuals were interviewed for the ATUS; of these, approximately 3,700 individuals 
were identified as eldercare providers. Data for the combined years of 2013–2014 were used to 
facilitate a more in-depth analysis of eldercare.
   
Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon 
request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:  (800) 877-8339.

Survey methodology 
   
ATUS sample households are chosen from the households that completed their eighth (final) interview 
for the Current Population Survey (CPS), the nation’s monthly labor force survey. ATUS sample 
households are selected to ensure that estimates will be nationally representative of the civilian 
noninstitutional population. One individual age 15 or over is randomly chosen from each sampled 
household. This person is interviewed by telephone once about his or her activities on the day 
before the interview.
   
All ATUS interviews are conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Procedures are in 
place to collect information from the small number of households that did not provide a telephone 
number during the CPS interview.
   
ATUS designated persons are preassigned a day of the week about which to report. Preassignment is 
designed to reduce variability in response rates across the week and to allow oversampling of 
weekend days so that accurate weekend day measures can be developed. Interviews occur on the day 
following the assigned day. For example, a person assigned to report about a Monday would be 
contacted on the following Tuesday. Ten percent of designated persons are assigned to report 
about each of the five weekdays. Twenty-five percent are assigned to report about each weekend 
day. Households are called for up to 8 consecutive weeks (for example, 8 Tuesdays) in order to 
secure an interview.

About the questionnaire

In the time diary portion of the ATUS interview, survey respondents sequentially report activities 
they did between 4 a.m. on the day before the interview until 4 a.m. on the day of the interview. 
For each activity, respondents are asked how long the activity lasted. For activities other than 
personal care activities (such as sleeping and grooming), interviewers also ask respondents where 
they were and who was in the room with them (if at home) or who accompanied them (if away from home). 
If respondents report doing more than one activity at a time, they are asked to identify which one 
was their main activity. If none can be identified, the interviewer records the first activity 
mentioned. After completing the time diary, interviewers ask additional questions, including 
questions to identify eldercare providers and activities done as eldercare. Questions on eldercare 
were added to the survey in 2011.

After completing the interview, activity descriptions are assigned a single 6-digit code using the 
ATUS Coding Lexicon. The 3-tier coding system consists of 17 major activity categories, each with 
multiple second- and third-tier subcategories. These coding lexicon categories are then combined 
into composite categories for publication. Descriptions of categories shown in this release can be 
found in the Activity definitions section of this Technical Note. The ATUS Coding Lexicons can be 
accessed at www.bls.gov/tus/lexicons.htm.

Concepts and definitions

Average day. The average day measure reflects an average distribution across all persons in the 
reference population and all days of the week.

Average hours per day. The average number of hours spent in a 24-hour day (between 4 a.m. on the 
diary day and 4 a.m. on the interview day) doing a specified activity.

  •	Average hours per day, population. The average number of hours per day is computed using 
  	all responses from a given population, including those of respondents who did not do a 
  	particular activity on their diary day. These estimates reflect how many population 
  	members engaged in an activity and the amount of time they spent doing it.

  •	Average hours per day, persons who did the activity. The average number of hours per day 
  	is computed using only responses from those who engaged in a particular activity on their 
  	diary day.

Condition related to aging. An ongoing ailment or physical or emotional limitation that typically 
affects older people, such as becoming more frail; having difficulty seeing, hearing, or physically 
moving; becoming more forgetful; tiring more quickly; or having specific medical ailments that are 
more common among older adults. It also refers to existing conditions that become progressively 
worse as one ages.
   
Diary day. The diary day is the day about which the respondent reports. For example, the diary day 
of a respondent interviewed on Tuesday is Monday.

Eldercare. Eldercare is providing unpaid care or assistance to an individual who needed help because 
of a condition related to aging. This care can be provided by a family member or non-family member. 
Care can be provided in the recipient’s home, the provider’s home, or a care facility such as a 
nursing home.

Eldercare can involve a range of care activities, such as assisting with grooming and feeding, 
preparing meals, arranging medical care, and providing transportation. Eldercare also can involve 
providing companionship or being available to assist when help is needed, and thus it can be 
associated with nearly any activity.

Estimates of the time spent providing eldercare are derived by summing the durations of activities 
during which respondents provided care or assistance for an adult who needed help because of a 
condition related to aging. These estimates never include times the respondent reported sleeping, 
grooming, or engaging in personal care services.

Eldercare provider. An individual who provided eldercare more than one time in the 3 to 4 months 
prior to the interview day. The time frame varies slightly by respondent because the question asks 
about care provided between the first day of a given reference month and the interview day. 
Estimates are restricted to eldercare providers caring for at least one person age 65 or older.

Employment status

• Employed. All persons who: 
   
	1) At any time during the 7 days prior to the interview did any work at all as paid 
	employees, or worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or 

	2) Were not working during the 7 days prior to the interview but had jobs or businesses 
	from which they were temporarily absent because of illness, bad weather, vacation, 
	childcare problems, labor-management disputes, maternity or paternity leave, job training, 
	or other family or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time off or 
	were seeking other jobs; or

	3) Usually worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise.


• Employed full time. Full-time workers are those who usually worked 35 or more hours per week 
  at all jobs combined.

• Employed part time. Part-time workers are those who usually worked fewer than 35 hours per 
  week at all jobs combined.

• Not employed. Persons are not employed if they do not meet the conditions for employment. 
  People who are not employed include those classified as unemployed as well as those classified 
  as not in the labor force (using CPS definitions).

Household children. Household children are children under age 18 residing in the household of the 
ATUS respondent. The children may be related to the respondent (such as his or her own children, 
grandchildren, nieces or nephews, or brothers or sisters) or not related (such as foster children 
or children of roommates or boarders).

Primary activity. A primary activity is the main activity a respondent was doing at a specified time. 

Weekday, weekend, and holiday estimates. Estimates for weekdays are an average of reports about 
Monday through Friday. Estimates for weekend days and holidays are an average of reports about 
Saturdays, Sundays, and the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Easter, Memorial Day, the Fourth 
of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. Data were not collected about Christmas 
Day in 2014.

Activity definitions

The following definitions describe the activities associated with eldercare appearing in this 
release. These are diary activities that survey respondents identified as ones during which they 
had provided care or assistance for an adult who needed help because of a condition related to 
aging. 

Eating and drinking. All time spent eating or drinking (except eating and drinking done as part 
of a work or volunteer activity) is classified here.

Household activities. Household activities are activities done by people to maintain their 
households. These include housework; cooking; lawn and garden care; pet care; vehicle maintenance 
and repair; home maintenance, repair, decoration, and renovation; and household management and 
organizational activities (such as filling out paperwork or planning a party). Food preparation, 
whether or not reported as done specifically for another household member, is always classified 
as a household activity unless it was done as a volunteer, work, or income-generating activity. 

Purchasing goods and services. This category includes time spent obtaining, receiving, and 
purchasing consumer goods, professional services, household services, and government services. 
Consumer purchases include most purchases and rentals of consumer goods. Professional services 
refer to financial services and banking, legal services, medical and adult care services, real 
estate services, and veterinary services. Household services include housecleaning; cooking; 
lawn care and landscaping; pet care; tailoring, laundering, and dry cleaning; vehicle maintenance 
and repairs; and home repairs, maintenance, and construction. This category also captures the time 
spent obtaining government services--such as applying for food stamps--and purchasing government-
required licenses or paying fines or fees.

Caring for and helping household members. Time spent doing activities to care for members of 
the household, regardless of relationship to the respondent or the physical or mental health 
status of the person being helped, is classified here. This category includes a range of 
activities done to benefit members of households, such as providing physical and medical care 
or obtaining medical services.

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members. This category includes time spent in activities 
done to care for or help individuals who do not live in the household. When done for or through 
an organization, time spent helping nonhousehold members is classified as volunteering, rather 
than as helping nonhousehold members.

Working and work-related activities. This category includes time spent working, doing activities 
as part of one's job, engaging in income-generating activities not as part of one's job, and 
job search activities. "Working" includes hours spent doing the specific tasks required of one's 
main or other job, regardless of location or time of day. "Work-related activities" include 
activities that are not obviously work but are done as part of one's job, such as having a 
business lunch and playing golf with clients. "Other income-generating activities" are those 
done "on the side" or under informal arrangement and are not part of a regular job. Such activities 
might include selling homemade crafts, babysitting, maintaining a rental property, or having a yard 
sale. These activities are those for which people are paid or will be paid.

Organizational, civic, and religious activities. This category captures time spent volunteering 
for or through an organization, performing civic obligations, and participating in religious and 
spiritual activities. 

Leisure and sports. The leisure and sports category includes time spent in sports, exercise, and 
recreation; socializing and communicating; and other leisure activities. Sports, exercise, and 
recreation activities include participating in--as well as attending or watching--sports, exercise, 
and recreational activities. Recreational activities include yard games like croquet or horseshoes, 
as well as activities like billiards and dancing. Socializing and communicating includes face-to-face 
social communication and hosting or attending social functions. Leisure activities include watching 
television; reading; relaxing or thinking; playing computer, board, or card games; using a computer 
or the Internet for personal interest; playing or listening to music; and other activities, such as 
attending arts, cultural, and entertainment events.

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail. This category captures time spent in telephone communication 
and handling household or personal mail or e-mail. This category also includes texting and Internet 
voice and video calling.

Traveling. This category includes all travel, regardless of mode or purpose, as well as security 
procedures related to traveling.

Other activities, not elsewhere classified. This is a residual category intended to capture 
activities not elsewhere classified in each table. These might be ambiguous activities that could 
not be coded, missing activities, or activities that occurred very infrequently. Missing activities 
result when respondents do not remember what they did for a period of time, or when they consider 
an activity too private or personal to report. This category includes a small amount of time that 
was spent in educational activities, as no educational activities category appears in the tables.

Processing and estimation

After ATUS data are collected, they go through an editing and imputation procedure. Responses 
to CPS questions that are re-asked in the ATUS go through the regular CPS edit and imputation 
procedures. Some item nonresponses for questions unique to the ATUS also are imputed.

ATUS records are weighted quarterly to reduce bias in the estimates due to differences in 
sampling and response rates across subpopulations and days of the week. Specifically, the 
data are weighted to ensure the following:

• Weekdays represent about 5/7 of the weighted data, and weekend days represent about 2/7 
  of the weighted data for the population as a whole. The actual proportions depend on the number 
  of weekdays and weekend days in a given quarter.

• The sum of the weights is equal to the number of person-days in the quarter for the population 
  as a whole and for selected subpopulations (the population times the number of days in the quarter).

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the ATUS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, 
rather than the entire population, is surveyed, estimates differ from the true population values 
they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is 
known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate.

Sample estimates from a given survey design are unbiased when an average of the estimates from 
all possible samples would yield, hypothetically, the true population value. In this case, the 
sample estimate and its standard error can be used to construct approximate confidence intervals, 
or ranges of values that include the true population value with known probabilities. If the 
process of selecting a sample from the population were repeated many times, an estimate made 
from each sample, and a suitable estimate of its standard error calculated for each sample, 
then approximately 90 percent of the intervals from 1.645 standard errors below the estimate to 
1.645 standard errors above the estimate would include the true population value. BLS analyses 
are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

The ATUS data also are affected by nonsampling error, which is the average difference between 
population and sample values for samples generated by a given process. Nonsampling error can 
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to 
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to 
provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data. Errors 
also could occur if non-response is correlated with time use.

Nonsampling error and eldercare. Eldercare done for a spouse or partner may be underreported, 
especially when the care provided has only recently become necessary. For example, a survey 
respondent who has always prepared the family dinner may not view cooking as an eldercare 
activity; if her husband is no longer capable of preparing his own meals, though, he depends 
on this assistance and it meets the definition of eldercare.

Additionally, nonsampling error affects data on the frequency of care. Survey respondents were 
asked how often they provided eldercare in recent months and whether they provided eldercare on 
the diary day. Information about care provided on the diary day was used to calculate daily 
participation rates. There are some inconsistencies between the reported frequency of care and 
the actual provision of eldercare on an average day. For example, in 2013–2014, only 64 percent 
of eldercare providers who self-reported providing care "daily" actually provided eldercare on 
an average day. This discrepancy reflects some respondents’ choice of "daily" rather than 
"several times a week" or another option to best describe their eldercare frequency, even while 
acknowledging they had not provided care on the diary day.

ATUS publication standards

Estimates of average hours per day and participation rates are not published unless there are a 
minimum number of respondents representing the given population. Additional publication criteria 
are applied that include the number of respondents who reported doing a specified activity and 
the standard error or coefficient of variation for the estimate. Estimates that are considered 
"close to zero" or that round to 0.00, are published as approximately zero. For a detailed 
description of the statistical reliability criteria necessary for publication, please contact 
ATUS staff at ATUSinfo@bls.gov.

Table 1. Number and percent of the U.S. population who were eldercare providers by sex and selected characteristics, averages for the combined years 2013-14
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total Men Women
Civilian noninstitutional population Eldercare providers Civilian noninstitutional population Eldercare providers Civilian noninstitutional population Eldercare providers
Number Percent of population Number Percent of population Number Percent of population

Age

Total, 15 years and over

250,949 40,419 16.1 121,316 17,216 14.2 129,633 23,202 17.9

15 to 24 years

42,907 4,908 11.4 21,647 2,136 9.9 21,260 2,772 13.0

25 to 34 years

41,792 3,770 9.0 20,650 1,681 8.1 21,141 2,089 9.9

35 to 44 years

39,589 5,051 12.8 19,409 2,300 11.9 20,180 2,750 13.6

45 to 54 years

43,072 9,877 22.9 21,077 4,398 20.9 21,996 5,479 24.9

55 to 64 years

39,400 9,194 23.3 18,952 3,994 21.1 20,448 5,200 25.4

65 years and over

44,189 7,618 17.2 19,581 2,707 13.8 24,608 4,911 20.0

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(1)

White

203,645 34,372 16.9 99,472 14,813 14.9 104,173 19,560 18.8

Black or African American

30,485 4,355 14.3 13,875 1,619 11.7 16,610 2,737 16.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

38,856 3,730 9.6 19,482 1,352 6.9 19,373 2,378 12.3

Employment status

Employed

152,673 24,693 16.2 81,364 11,989 14.7 71,309 12,704 17.8

Full-time workers

118,569 19,012 16.0 68,843 10,278 14.9 49,726 8,733 17.6

Part-time workers

34,105 5,681 16.7 12,522 1,710 13.7 21,583 3,971 18.4

Not employed

98,276 15,726 16.0 39,951 5,228 13.1 58,324 10,498 18.0

Educational attainment, 25 years and over

Less than a high school diploma

22,108 2,022 9.1 10,933 896 8.2 11,175 1,125 10.1

High school graduates, no college

63,729 10,424 16.4 31,539 4,753 15.1 32,190 5,671 17.6

Some college or associate degree

51,260 9,674 18.9 23,236 3,895 16.8 28,024 5,779 20.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

70,946 13,390 18.9 33,961 5,535 16.3 36,985 7,855 21.2

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

69,600 8,721 12.5 31,416 3,869 12.3 38,184 4,853 12.7

Parent of household children age 6 to 17, none younger

36,858 5,977 16.2 16,433 2,520 15.3 20,425 3,458 16.9

Parent of a household child under age 6

32,742 2,744 8.4 14,983 1,349 9.0 17,759 1,395 7.9

Not a parent of a household child

181,349 31,697 17.5 89,900 13,348 14.8 91,449 18,350 20.1

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

108,675 15,788 14.5 49,839 6,194 12.4 58,836 9,594 16.3

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

142,274 24,630 17.3 71,477 11,022 15.4 70,797 13,608 19.2

Footnotes
(1) Not all race categories are shown. Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 2. Eldercare providers by sex and selected characteristics related to care provided, averages for the combined years 2013-14
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Eldercare providers
Total Men Women
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

Total, 15 years and over

40,419 100.0 17,216 100.0 23,202 100.0

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

8,721 21.6 3,869 22.5 4,853 20.9

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,977 14.8 2,520 14.6 3,458 14.9

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,744 6.8 1,349 7.8 1,395 6.0

Not a parent of a household child

31,697 78.4 13,348 77.5 18,350 79.1

Number of care recipients

Caring for one person

28,427 70.3 11,755 68.3 16,672 71.9

Caring for two persons

8,996 22.3 3,984 23.1 5,011 21.6

Caring for three or more persons

2,996 7.4 1,477 8.6 1,519 6.5

Relationship to care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

40,419 (1)- 17,216 (1)- 23,202 (1)-

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(2)

2,699 6.7 1,021 5.9 1,678 7.2

Caring for a parent

17,722 43.8 7,473 43.4 10,249 44.2

Caring for a grandparent(3)

6,593 16.3 2,788 16.2 3,805 16.4

Caring for another related person(4)

8,946 22.1 4,198 24.4 4,747 20.5

Caring for a friend or neighbor

7,329 18.1 3,250 18.9 4,078 17.6

Caring for someone else(4)

2,212 5.5 868 5.0 1,344 5.8

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

28,427 100.0 11,755 100.0 16,672 100.0

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(2)

2,426 8.5 964 8.2 1,462 8.8

Caring for a parent

11,943 42.0 4,764 40.5 7,179 43.1

Caring for a grandparent(3)

4,274 15.0 1,792 15.2 2,482 14.9

Caring for another related person(4)

5,126 18.0 2,278 19.4 2,848 17.1

Caring for a friend or neighbor

3,783 13.3 1,582 13.5 2,201 13.2

Caring for someone else(4)

875 3.1 374 3.2 501 3.0

Age of care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

40,419 (1)- 17,216 (1)- 23,202 (1)-

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

5,913 14.6 3,048 17.7 2,865 12.3

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

7,791 19.3 3,674 21.3 4,117 17.7

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

8,571 21.2 3,877 22.5 4,694 20.2

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

10,559 26.1 4,393 25.5 6,166 26.6

Caring for someone age 85 or older

15,120 37.4 5,744 33.4 9,376 40.4

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

28,427 100.0 11,755 100.0 16,672 100.0

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

3,033 10.7 1,589 13.5 1,445 8.7

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

4,143 14.6 1,918 16.3 2,224 13.3

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

5,061 17.8 2,127 18.1 2,934 17.6

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

6,217 21.9 2,526 21.5 3,691 22.1

Caring for someone age 85 or older

9,973 35.1 3,596 30.6 6,377 38.3

Care of household or nonhousehold members

Provided eldercare to household member(s) only

6,309 15.6 2,653 15.4 3,656 15.8

Provided eldercare to nonhousehold member(s) only

33,457 82.8 14,216 82.6 19,241 82.9

Provided eldercare to both household and nonhousehold person(s)

653 1.6 348 2.0 306 1.3

Frequency of care(5)

Provided care daily

8,315 20.6 2,931 17.0 5,384 23.2

Provided care several times a week

9,730 24.1 4,119 23.9 5,610 24.2

Provided care once a week

7,242 17.9 3,149 18.3 4,093 17.6

Provided care several times a month

8,181 20.2 3,730 21.7 4,451 19.2

Provided care once a month

4,746 11.7 2,199 12.8 2,548 11.0

Other

2,205 5.5 1,088 6.3 1,116 4.8

Duration of care(6)

Provided care for less than 1 year

8,557 21.2 3,186 18.5 5,370 23.1

Provided care for 1 to 2 years

10,530 26.1 4,253 24.7 6,277 27.1

Provided care for 3 to 4 years

6,955 17.2 3,246 18.9 3,709 16.0

Provided care for 5 to 9 years

8,224 20.3 3,512 20.4 4,712 20.3

Provided care for 10 years or more

6,153 15.2 3,019 17.5 3,134 13.5

Footnotes
(1) Categories sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers cared for more than one person.
(2) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(3) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Caring for another related person."
(4) The composition of this category changed starting in 2013. Estimates are not strictly comparable to those from previous years.
(5) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care.
(6) For persons who provided eldercare to more than 1 person, the duration of care is calculated based on the person for whom they had cared the longest.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 3. Eldercare providers by relationship to care recipient and selected characteristics of eldercare providers, averages for the combined years 2013-14
Characteristic Number of eldercare providers (in thousands) Percent of eldercare providers caring for(1)
A spouse or unmarried partner(2) A parent A grandparent(3) Another related
person(4)
A friend or neighbor Someone else(4)

Age

Total, 15 years and over

40,419 6.7 43.8 16.3 22.1 18.1 5.5

15 to 24 years

4,908 (5)- 7.7 66.2 20.5 10.4 7.2

25 to 34 years

3,770 (5)- 19.3 57.2 16.9 14.3 5.8

35 to 44 years

5,051 0.8 54.3 16.5 23.4 15.7 5.9

45 to 54 years

9,877 0.9 67.6 3.1 24.3 14.9 5.2

55 to 64 years

9,194 3.6 62.6 0.4 25.3 16.3 4.3

65 years and over

7,618 29.3 19.0 0.2 18.2 33.0 5.6

Sex

Men

17,216 5.9 43.4 16.2 24.4 18.9 5.0

Women

23,202 7.2 44.2 16.4 20.5 17.6 5.8

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(6)

White

34,372 7.4 44.7 15.0 22.5 17.3 5.5

Black or African American

4,355 2.0 38.3 24.2 21.1 23.5 5.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,730 3.9 41.5 17.9 20.9 16.4 9.0

Employment status

Employed

24,693 2.0 51.7 17.9 23.5 14.9 4.9

Full-time workers

19,012 1.4 55.9 16.2 23.4 14.5 4.1

Part-time workers

5,681 4.0 37.7 23.7 24.0 16.3 7.4

Not employed

15,726 14.1 31.5 13.8 19.9 23.2 6.4

Educational attainment, 25 years and over

Less than a high school diploma

2,022 20.5 40.9 5.2 17.0 21.1 5.4

High school graduates, no college

10,424 8.6 47.1 7.9 22.3 19.9 5.9

Some college or associate degree

9,674 6.6 50.7 10.0 23.2 19.6 4.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

13,390 5.6 50.0 10.9 22.6 18.1 5.2

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

8,721 0.6 50.4 20.2 23.2 13.8 5.8

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,977 0.8 59.8 11.9 25.0 11.9 6.4

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,744 (5)- 30.0 38.2 19.1 18.1 4.6

Not a parent of a household child

31,697 8.4 42.0 15.3 21.9 19.3 5.4

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

15,788 0.9 40.8 26.4 15.6 21.6 6.5

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

24,630 10.4 45.8 9.8 26.3 15.9 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Categories sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers cared for multiple persons with whom they had different relationships.
(2) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(3) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Another related person."
(4) The composition of this category changed starting in 2013. Estimates are not strictly comparable to those from previous years.
(5) Estimate is approximately zero.
(6) Not all race categories are shown. Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 4. Percent of eldercare providers who provided care on an average day and time spent providing this care by day of week and selected characteristics, averages for the combined years 2013-14
Characteristic Number of eldercare providers (in thousands) Percent of eldercare providers who provided care on an average day Average hours per day eldercare providers spent providing care Average hours per day eldercare providers spent providing care on days they engaged in eldercare
Total, all days Weekdays Weekends and holidays Total, all days Weekdays Weekends and holidays Total, all days Weekdays Weekends and holidays

Age

Total, 15 years and over

40,419 24.4 23.6 26.1 0.78 0.71 0.93 3.19 3.00 3.58

15 to 24 years

4,908 14.7 13.5 17.5 0.16 0.13 0.23 1.11 0.98 1.34

25 to 34 years

3,770 12.8 11.7 14.9 0.38 (1)- (1)- 2.97 2.59 3.54

35 to 44 years

5,051 21.8 23.4 18.4 0.49 0.51 0.47 2.27 2.16 2.56

45 to 54 years

9,877 23.9 22.8 26.3 0.68 0.57 0.90 2.82 2.50 3.44

55 to 64 years

9,194 24.7 22.1 31.4 0.78 0.63 1.18 3.17 2.85 3.75

65 years and over

7,618 38.2 39.0 36.6 1.68 1.70 1.66 4.41 4.35 4.55

Sex

Men

17,216 22.7 22.2 23.7 0.62 0.51 0.87 2.73 2.30 3.65

Women

23,202 25.6 24.6 27.8 0.90 0.85 0.98 3.49 3.47 3.54

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

White

34,372 24.5 23.4 26.7 0.81 0.73 0.99 3.31 3.12 3.69

Black or African American

4,355 22.1 21.9 22.7 0.52 0.53 0.52 2.37 2.41 2.29

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,730 23.4 21.5 27.5 0.88 0.76 1.15 3.76 3.51 4.19

Employment status

Employed

24,693 18.6 17.0 22.3 0.47 0.35 0.74 2.53 2.07 3.33

Full-time workers

19,012 17.3 15.6 21.3 0.47 0.34 0.77 2.73 2.19 3.64

Part-time workers

5,681 22.9 21.7 25.5 0.47 0.38 0.65 2.03 1.75 2.53

Not employed

15,726 33.4 34.2 31.8 1.26 1.28 1.22 3.77 3.74 3.85

Educational attainment, 25 years and over

Less than a high school diploma

2,022 37.0 (1)- (1)- 1.47 1.41 1.63 3.96 4.04 3.78

High school graduates, no college

10,424 29.8 30.2 29.0 0.98 0.90 1.18 3.27 2.97 4.06

Some college or associate degree

9,674 21.9 20.1 25.5 0.86 0.78 1.02 3.94 3.90 3.99

Bachelor's degree and higher

13,390 23.5 22.5 25.5 0.68 0.60 0.87 2.90 2.65 3.39

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

8,721 16.8 16.1 18.6 0.39 0.31 0.56 2.31 1.96 3.02

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,977 18.0 17.2 19.8 0.44 0.35 0.66 2.46 2.03 3.32

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,744 14.3 13.7 15.8 0.27 0.24 (1)- 1.90 1.75 2.19

Not a parent of a household child

31,697 26.4 25.7 28.1 0.88 0.82 1.03 3.35 3.18 3.68

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

15,788 25.6 25.6 25.5 0.73 0.70 0.81 2.86 2.71 3.18

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

24,630 23.6 22.3 26.5 0.81 0.71 1.01 3.43 3.21 3.83

Number of care recipients

Caring for one person

28,427 26.6 25.5 29.1 0.90 0.82 1.09 3.40 3.23 3.73

Caring for two persons

8,996 18.1 17.9 18.6 0.47 0.44 0.53 2.58 2.47 2.84

Caring for three or more persons

2,996 21.9 23.0 19.6 0.51 0.42 0.69 2.31 1.83 3.53

Relationship to care recipient(3)

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

28,427 26.6 25.5 29.1 0.90 0.82 1.09 3.40 3.23 3.73

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(4)

2,426 74.4 76.0 71.9 4.03 4.22 3.73 5.42 5.56 5.20

Caring for a parent

11,943 29.0 28.1 31.4 0.88 0.77 1.15 3.03 2.74 3.66

Caring for a grandparent(5)

4,274 12.7 10.9 16.6 0.19 0.08 (1)- 1.50 (1)- 2.58

Caring for another related person(6)

5,126 19.9 17.2 25.1 0.58 0.54 0.66 2.92 3.13 2.64

Caring for a friend or neighbor

3,783 14.4 16.3 10.0 0.23 0.27 0.15 1.61 1.64 1.52

Age of care recipient

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

28,427 26.6 25.5 29.1 0.90 0.82 1.09 3.40 3.23 3.73

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

3,033 25.0 22.6 29.4 0.58 0.40 0.91 2.32 1.77 3.09

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

4,143 25.2 24.9 25.7 0.88 0.78 1.08 3.51 3.15 4.18

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

5,061 30.1 26.6 37.1 1.00 0.80 1.39 3.31 3.00 3.74

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

6,217 27.2 27.0 27.7 1.05 1.09 0.97 3.87 4.03 3.50

Caring for someone age 85 or older

9,973 25.5 25.0 26.8 0.87 0.80 1.05 3.42 3.21 3.91

Care of household or nonhousehold members(3)

Provided eldercare to household member(s) only

6,309 63.4 62.5 65.1 2.75 2.64 2.96 4.34 4.23 4.54

Provided eldercare to nonhousehold member(s) only

33,457 16.5 15.8 18.2 0.40 0.34 0.53 2.41 2.16 2.90

Frequency of care(7)

Provided care daily

8,315 63.7 62.5 65.9 2.62 2.46 2.92 4.11 3.94 4.43

Provided care several times a week

9,730 24.9 25.1 24.4 0.53 0.55 0.47 2.13 2.21 1.92

Provided care once a week

7,242 14.6 15.5 12.3 0.27 0.26 0.27 1.81 1.69 2.22

Provided care several times a month

8,181 8.1 7.0 10.5 0.20 0.13 0.36 2.46 1.80 3.46

Provided care once a month

4,746 5.5 4.3 8.2 0.15 0.06 (1)- 2.79 1.50 4.21

Duration of care(8)

Provided care for less than 1 year

8,557 17.5 17.6 17.3 0.65 0.61 0.72 3.71 3.48 4.15

Provided care for 1 to 2 years

10,530 21.9 20.6 24.8 0.67 0.55 0.91 3.04 2.69 3.69

Provided care for 3 to 4 years

6,955 28.7 29.2 27.4 1.10 1.12 1.06 3.85 3.84 3.86

Provided care for 5 to 9 years

8,224 26.7 25.3 30.1 0.81 0.70 1.06 3.02 2.76 3.53

Provided care for 10 years or more

6,153 30.2 27.7 35.9 0.74 0.63 1.01 2.46 2.27 2.82

Footnotes
(1) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
(2) Not all race categories are shown. Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Not all categories are shown.
(4) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(5) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Caring for another related person."
(6) The composition of this category changed starting in 2013. Estimates are not strictly comparable to those from previous years.
(7) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care. Corresponding time and percent estimates were measured using information about care provided on the diary day. Not all categories are shown.
(8) For persons who provided eldercare to more than one person, the duration of care is calculated based on the person for whom they had cared the longest.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 5. Time spent providing eldercare and percent of eldercare providers engaging in caregiving, by sex and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2013-14
Caregiving activity Eldercare providers
Percent distribution of time spent in selected eldercare activities On days they provided care
Total Men Women Percent who engaged in
caregiving activity(1)
Average hours spent providing care
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

100.0 100.0 100.0 (1)- (1)- (1)- 3.19 2.73 3.49

Eating and drinking

8.2 7.4 8.6 25.0 22.5 26.7 0.26 0.20 0.30

Household activities

21.0 16.9 23.2 38.7 35.1 41.1 0.67 0.46 0.81

Housework

6.3 2.4 8.3 12.1 5.8 16.2 0.20 0.06 0.29

Food preparation and cleanup

10.3 8.1 11.3 28.3 22.8 31.9 0.33 0.22 0.40

Lawn and garden care

1.8 3.3 1.0 2.6 3.4 2.1 0.06 (2)- 0.03

Household management

1.4 0.8 1.8 6.0 5.2 6.6 0.05 0.02 0.06

Purchasing goods and services

4.4 4.0 4.6 16.2 17.8 15.1 0.14 0.11 0.16

Caring for and helping household members

9.1 6.6 10.4 20.6 15.1 24.2 0.29 0.18 0.36

Caring for household adults

8.4 5.6 9.8 18.3 12.6 22.1 0.27 0.15 0.34

Physical care for household adults

5.6 4.6 6.2 11.9 7.0 15.2 0.18 0.12 0.22

Providing medical care to household adults

1.1 0.7 1.3 7.0 5.2 8.2 0.03 0.02 0.05

Helping household adults

0.5 1.0 0.2 2.4 2.7 2.2 0.02 (2)- 0.01

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

10.7 13.7 9.1 24.6 22.1 26.2 0.34 0.37 0.32

Caring for nonhousehold adults

4.1 3.1 4.6 8.2 3.7 11.1 0.13 0.08 0.16

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

1.7 1.1 2.0 4.0 1.8 5.5 0.05 0.03 0.07

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

0.4 0.2 0.5 2.6 0.4 4.0 0.01 (2)- 0.02

Helping nonhousehold adults

6.2 10.5 4.0 19.5 19.8 19.3 0.20 0.29 0.14

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.7 1.4 1.8 6.9 6.9 6.8 0.05 0.04 0.06

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

0.9 2.4 0.1 2.1 4.6 0.4 0.03 0.07 (2)-

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

0.4 0.2 0.4 6.1 4.0 7.5 0.01 0.01 0.01

Working and work-related activities

3.8 3.8 3.9 2.7 1.6 3.4 0.12 (2)- 0.14

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

2.2 1.5 2.6 4.2 2.0 5.6 0.07 (2)- 0.09

Leisure and sports

32.9 40.8 28.8 31.5 29.8 32.6 1.05 1.12 1.01

Socializing and communicating

13.3 15.1 12.4 19.9 18.6 20.8 0.42 0.41 0.43

Watching TV

13.5 19.4 10.4 12.8 13.1 12.6 0.43 0.53 0.36

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

0.9 1.4 0.7 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.03 (2)- 0.03

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

1.1 0.4 1.5 5.5 1.3 8.2 0.03 (2)- 0.05

Traveling

4.8 3.6 5.4 24.3 20.7 26.8 0.15 0.10 0.19

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

1.7 1.5 1.9 4.7 3.9 5.2 0.06 0.04 0.07

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 6. Time spent providing eldercare and percent of eldercare providers engaging in caregiving by day of week and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2013-14
Caregiving activity Eldercare providers
Percent distribution of time spent in selected
eldercare activities
On days they provided care
Total Weekdays Weekends and holidays Percent who engaged in
caregiving activity(1)
Average hours spent providing care
Total Weekdays Weekends and holidays Total Weekdays Weekends and holidays

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

100.0 100.0 100.0 (1)- (1)- (1)- 3.19 3.00 3.58

Eating and drinking

8.2 6.9 10.3 25.0 22.1 30.8 0.26 0.21 0.37

Household activities

21.0 21.0 21.2 38.7 38.3 39.5 0.67 0.63 0.76

Housework

6.3 6.4 6.1 12.1 12.2 11.9 0.20 0.19 0.22

Food preparation and cleanup

10.3 10.0 10.7 28.3 27.8 29.3 0.33 0.30 0.38

Lawn and garden care

1.8 1.5 2.2 2.6 2.4 3.1 0.06 (2)- 0.08

Household management

1.4 1.7 1.0 6.0 6.4 5.4 0.05 0.05 0.04

Purchasing goods and services

4.4 4.3 4.6 16.2 17.4 13.6 0.14 0.13 0.16

Caring for and helping household members

9.1 9.7 8.1 20.6 23.0 15.9 0.29 0.29 0.29

Caring for household adults

8.4 9.2 7.1 18.3 20.5 14.0 0.27 0.28 0.25

Physical care for household adults

5.6 6.0 5.0 11.9 13.5 8.7 0.18 0.18 0.18

Providing medical care to household adults

1.1 0.8 1.5 7.0 6.6 7.8 0.03 0.03 0.05

Helping household adults

0.5 0.4 0.6 2.4 2.4 2.3 0.02 0.01 0.02

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

10.7 12.9 7.0 24.6 25.5 22.8 0.34 0.39 0.25

Caring for nonhousehold adults

4.1 5.6 1.5 8.2 9.1 6.3 0.13 0.17 0.05

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

1.7 2.1 1.1 4.0 3.9 4.3 0.05 0.06 0.04

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

0.4 0.5 0.2 2.6 3.0 1.8 0.01 0.02 0.01

Helping nonhousehold adults

6.2 7.0 5.0 19.5 20.2 18.2 0.20 0.21 0.18

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.7 1.6 1.8 6.9 7.2 6.1 0.05 0.05 0.06

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

0.9 0.9 0.9 2.1 2.0 2.2 0.03 (2)- 0.03

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

0.4 0.3 0.4 6.1 5.6 7.0 0.01 0.01 0.01

Working and work-related activities

3.8 5.7 0.7 2.7 3.4 1.4 0.12 0.17 (2)-

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

2.2 1.7 3.1 4.2 3.5 5.5 0.07 0.05 0.11

Leisure and sports

32.9 30.2 37.3 31.5 28.7 37.0 1.05 0.91 1.34

Socializing and communicating

13.3 11.5 16.4 19.9 18.4 22.9 0.42 0.34 0.59

Watching TV

13.5 12.2 15.6 12.8 11.8 14.7 0.43 0.37 0.56

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

0.9 1.2 0.5 1.9 2.0 1.7 0.03 (2)- (2)-

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

1.1 1.4 0.6 5.5 6.5 3.5 0.03 0.04 0.02

Traveling

4.8 4.9 4.6 24.3 24.5 24.0 0.15 0.15 0.16

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

1.7 1.3 2.6 4.7 4.7 4.6 0.06 0.04 0.09

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 7. Percent of eldercare providers and time spent in caregiving on days they provided care by frequency of care and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2013-14
Caregiving activity Percent of eldercare providers who engaged in caregiving activities, on days they provided care(1) Average hours per day eldercare providers spent providing care on days they engaged in eldercare
Total Frequency of care(2) Total Frequency of care(2)
Daily Several times per week Once a week or less Daily Several times per week Once a week or less

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

(1)- (1)- (1)- (1)- 3.19 4.11 2.13 2.16

Eating and drinking

25.0 32.9 17.9 14.6 0.26 0.38 0.12 0.15

Household activities

38.7 52.6 23.2 20.7 0.67 1.01 0.25 (3)-

Housework

12.1 18.2 6.9 3.0 0.20 0.32 0.09 (3)-

Food preparation and cleanup

28.3 43.4 9.7 11.3 0.33 0.51 0.07 (3)-

Lawn and garden care

2.6 4.0 0.9 0.7 0.06 0.08 (3)- (3)-

Household management

6.0 6.2 6.2 6.0 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.06

Purchasing goods and services

16.2 16.0 14.1 19.7 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.17

Caring for and helping household members

20.6 35.9 1.9 3.1 0.29 0.52 (3)- (3)-

Caring for household adults

18.3 32.3 0.9 2.7 0.27 0.48 (3)- (3)-

Physical care for household adults

11.9 21.0 0.3 2.7 0.18 0.32 (3)- (3)-

Providing medical care to household adults

7.0 12.3 0.5 1.5 0.03 0.06 (3)- (3)-

Helping household adults

2.4 3.9 1.0 0.4 0.02 0.03 (3)- (3)-

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

24.6 13.3 38.9 37.7 0.34 0.19 0.63 0.40

Caring for nonhousehold adults

8.2 6.4 11.6 9.0 0.13 0.08 (3)- 0.14

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

4.0 3.4 6.7 2.7 0.05 0.05 0.09 (3)-

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

2.6 2.8 3.3 0.8 0.01 0.01 (3)- (3)-

Helping nonhousehold adults

19.5 9.4 31.4 32.7 0.20 0.10 (3)- 0.26

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

6.9 4.1 10.1 9.8 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.10

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

2.1 1.1 5.2 1.0 0.03 (3)- 0.04 (3)-

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

6.1 2.0 10.4 12.1 0.01 (4)- 0.01 0.03

Working and work-related activities

2.7 2.8 2.7 2.5 0.12 0.17 (3)- (3)-

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

4.2 4.5 2.7 5.2 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.14

Leisure and sports

31.5 32.3 30.9 30.8 1.05 1.37 0.68 0.71

Socializing and communicating

19.9 17.5 25.5 20.5 0.42 0.38 0.51 0.45

Watching TV

12.8 18.7 4.4 7.3 0.43 0.66 0.11 0.21

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

1.9 3.2 0.5 0.1 0.03 0.05 (3)- (3)-

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

5.5 7.3 3.2 3.2 0.03 0.05 (3)- (3)-

Traveling

24.3 22.8 24.7 27.3 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.14

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

4.7 5.5 3.2 4.4 0.06 0.07 (3)- (3)-

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care.
(3) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
(4) Estimate is approximately zero.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 8. Percent of eldercare providers who cared for one person only by age of eldercare recipient and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2013-14
Caregiving activity Percent of eldercare providers who cared for one person only,
on days they provided care(1)
Total Age of care recipient
65 to 74 75 to 84 85 or older

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

(1)- (1)- (1)- (1)-

Eating and drinking

27.1 (2)- 27.2 26.4

Household activities

42.6 38.5 42.7 45.3

Housework

13.8 12.4 15.3 12.8

Food preparation and cleanup

31.9 27.3 34.1 32.5

Lawn and garden care

3.1 3.0 3.3 2.9

Household management

6.0 5.4 4.6 8.2

Purchasing goods and services

15.9 9.4 17.9 17.9

Caring for and helping household members

23.2 19.0 24.7 24.3

Caring for household adults

21.0 15.0 22.8 23.1

Physical care for household adults

14.1 5.6 14.7 19.5

Providing medical care to household adults

8.0 8.2 8.7 7.0

Helping household adults

2.4 3.2 2.7 1.4

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

21.5 14.1 22.3 25.6

Caring for nonhousehold adults

8.0 2.0 9.6 10.2

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

4.1 0.3 6.4 3.9

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

2.2 1.0 2.7 2.4

Helping nonhousehold adults

17.5 12.6 17.2 21.2

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

6.8 2.2 8.0 8.5

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.6 2.9 1.1 1.2

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

6.0 1.0 6.3 9.0

Working and work-related activities

3.1 3.6 3.6 2.1

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

3.2 4.2 2.4 3.5

Leisure and sports

32.4 31.8 30.6 35.0

Socializing and communicating

19.3 17.6 16.9 23.7

Watching TV

15.0 17.8 16.0 11.9

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

2.4 1.1 1.5 4.4

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

5.1 3.9 5.3 5.6

Traveling

22.6 18.6 23.2 24.6

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

4.8 4.5 7.1 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 9. Number and percent of eldercare providers who were parents of household children under age 18 by sex and selected characteristics, averages for the combined years 2013-14
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Eldercare providers with children under age 18 living at home
Total Men Women
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

Parent of household children under 18 years

Total, parent of one or more household children

8,721 100.0 3,869 100.0 4,853 100.0

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,977 68.5 2,520 65.1 3,458 71.3

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,744 31.5 1,349 34.9 1,395 28.7

Employment status

Employed

6,800 78.0 3,465 89.6 3,335 68.7

Full-time workers

5,479 62.8 3,277 84.7 2,202 45.4

Part-time workers

1,321 15.1 187 4.8 1,133 23.4

Not employed

1,921 22.0 404 10.4 1,517 31.3

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

1,384 15.9 177 4.6 1,207 24.9

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

7,338 84.1 3,692 95.4 3,646 75.1

Number of care recipients

Caring for one person

5,743 65.8 2,454 63.4 3,288 67.8

Caring for two persons

2,223 25.5 1,006 26.0 1,216 25.1

Caring for three or more persons

756 8.7 408 10.5 348 7.2

Relationship to care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

8,721 (1)- 3,869 (1)- 4,853 (1)-

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(2)

49 0.6 (3)- (4)- 49 1.0

Caring for a parent

4,396 50.4 2,031 52.5 2,365 48.7

Caring for a grandparent(5)

1,759 20.2 569 14.7 1,190 24.5

Caring for another related person(6)

2,019 23.2 1,048 27.1 971 20.0

Caring for a friend or neighbor

1,207 13.8 587 15.2 620 12.8

Caring for someone else(6)

508 5.8 222 5.7 286 5.9

Age of care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

8,721 (1)- 3,869 (1)- 4,853 (1)-

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

1,862 21.3 860 22.2 1,002 20.6

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

2,146 24.6 999 25.8 1,147 23.6

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

2,140 24.5 949 24.5 1,191 24.5

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

2,109 24.2 938 24.2 1,171 24.1

Caring for someone age 85 or older

2,254 25.8 955 24.7 1,299 26.8

Care of household or nonhousehold members(7)

Provided eldercare to household member(s) only

587 6.7 217 5.6 369 7.6

Provided eldercare to nonhousehold member(s) only

8,061 92.4 3,618 93.5 4,444 91.6

Frequency of care(8)

Provided care daily

1,010 11.6 333 8.6 677 14.0

Provided care several times a week

2,207 25.3 815 21.1 1,392 28.7

Provided care once a week

1,670 19.2 775 20.0 895 18.4

Provided care several times a month

1,956 22.4 973 25.1 983 20.3

Provided care once a month

1,320 15.1 659 17.0 661 13.6

Other

558 6.4 313 8.1 245 5.0

Duration of care(9)

Provided care for less than 1 year

1,973 22.6 888 23.0 1,084 22.3

Provided care for 1 to 2 years

2,046 23.5 678 17.5 1,367 28.2

Provided care for 3 to 4 years

1,502 17.2 692 17.9 810 16.7

Provided care for 5 to 9 years

1,796 20.6 830 21.4 966 19.9

Provided care for 10 years or more

1,406 16.1 781 20.2 625 12.9

Footnotes
(1) Categories sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers cared for more than one person.
(2) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(3) Estimate is less than 0.05 percent of the population.
(4) Estimate is approximately zero.
(5) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Caring for another related person."
(6) The composition of this category changed starting in 2013. Estimates are not strictly comparable to those from previous years.
(7) Not all categories are shown.
(8) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care.
(9) For persons who provided eldercare to more than 1 person, the duration of care is calculated based on the person for whom they had cared the longest.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Last Modified Date: July 15, 2016