Employee Benefits in the United States News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, July 22, 2016                                  USDL-16-1493

Technical information:  (202) 691-6199    ncsinfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/ebs
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902    pressoffice@bls.gov

                        EMPLOYEE BENEFITS IN THE UNITED STATES - MARCH 2016

The participation rate for employer-sponsored medical care benefits for civilian workers was 52 percent 
in March 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The participation rate was 49 percent 
for private industry workers and 73 percent for state and local government workers. (See tables A and 2, 
and chart 1.) 

The participation rate for employer-sponsored retirement benefits, which include defined benefit and 
defined contribution plans, was 54 percent for civilian workers. The participation rate was 49 percent for 
private industry workers and 81 percent for state and local government workers. Differences in 
retirement plan participation are influenced by the type of plan offered. (See tables A and 1, chart 1, and 
the technical note.) 

Fifty-seven percent of civilian workers participated in employer-sponsored life insurance benefits.  The 
participation rate for private industry workers was 54 percent and 78 percent for state and local 
government workers. (See tables A and 5, and chart 1.)

The share of single coverage medical care premiums paid by employees averaged 19 percent for civilian 
workers, 21 percent for private industry workers, and 13 percent for state and local government workers. 
(See table 3 and chart 2.)  

These data are from the National Compensation Survey (NCS), which provides comprehensive 
measures of compensation cost levels and trends and also provides benefits incidence data on the 
percentage of workers with access to and participating in employer-provided benefit plans. The survey 
covers a broad range of benefits including holidays and vacations, sick leave, life insurance, and detailed 
provisions for health care and retirement plans. Archived NCS news releases are available at 
www.bls.gov/ncs/ncspubs.htm. 

Table A. Selected employer-sponsored benefits: Access, participation and take-up rates1, March 2016
(All workers = 100 percent)

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Benefit                     Civilian                      Private industry            State and local government   
                  Access  Participation  Take-up   Access  Participation  Take-up   Access  Participation  Take-up 
                                         rates                            rates                            rates   
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Retirement         69          54          78        66         49          75        90         81          90
Medical care       70          52          75        67         49          73        88         73          83
Life insurance     59          57          98        55         54          98        80         78          98
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1 For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at 
www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20152016.htm and the technical note. 

Highlights of employer-sponsored benefits for civilian workers by worker characteristics:
  *  Access to retirement benefits for major occupational groups ranged from 47 percent for service 
workers to 84 percent for management, professional, and related workers. (See table 1.)
  *  Access to medical care benefits was 88 percent of full-time workers and 19 percent for part-time 
workers. (See table 2.)
  *  Access to life insurance benefits was 85 percent for union workers and 54 percent for nonunion 
workers. (See table 5.)
  *  For workers with an average wage in the lowest 25 percent category, 41 percent had access to 
paid sick leave, 51 percent had access to paid vacations, and 53 percent had access to paid 
holidays. For workers with an average wage in the highest 25 percent category, 87 percent had 
access to paid sick leave, 79 percent had access to paid vacations, and 83 percent had access to 
paid holidays. (See table 6.)

Highlights of employer-sponsored benefits for civilian workers by establishment characteristics:
  *  Access to retirement benefits by establishment size ranged from 53 percent for workers in 
establishments with 1 to 99 workers to 86 percent for workers in establishments with 100 
workers or more. (See table 1.)
  *  Eighty-four percent of civilian workers in goods-producing industries had access to medical care 
benefits. For workers in service-providing industries, the access rate to medical care benefits was 
68 percent. (See table 2.)
  *  The access rate for life insurance for workers by Census region was 51 percent in the West, 59 
percent in the Northeast, 61 percent in the South, and 62 percent in the Midwest. (See table 5.) 
  *  For workers in establishments with 1 to 99 workers, the access rate was 56 percent for paid sick 
leave, 68 percent for paid vacations, and 69 percent for paid holidays. For workers in 
establishments with 100 or more workers, the access rate was 79 percent for paid sick leave, 79 
percent for paid vacations, and 82 percent for paid holidays. (See table 6.)

More information can be obtained by calling (202) 691-6199, sending e-mail to ncsinfo@bls.gov, or by 
visiting www.bls.gov/ebs.  

                                 Additional Data Available Fall 2016

More information will be published September 23, 2016 on the incidence and provisions of health care 
benefits, retirement benefits, life insurance, short-term and long-term disability benefits, paid holidays 
and vacations, and other selected benefits. For the latest benefit publications see www.bls.gov/ebs. 


                                          TECHNICAL NOTE

Data in this release are from the National Compensation Survey (NCS), conducted by the U.S. 
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). This release contains March 2016 data on 
employer-provided benefits offered to civilian, private industry, and state and local government workers 
in the United States. Excluded are federal government workers, the military, agricultural workers, 
private household workers, and the self-employed. This news release provides data on the incidence of 
(access to and participation in) selected benefits and the share of premiums paid by employers and 
employees for medical care. 

Comparing private and public sector data: Incidence of employee benefits in state and local 
government should not be directly compared to private industry. Differences between these sectors stem 
from factors such as variation in work activities and occupational structures. Manufacturing and sales, 
for example, make up a large part of private industry work activities but are rare in state and local 
government. Administrative support and professional occupations (including teachers) account for two-
thirds of the state and local government workforce, compared with one-half of private industry. 

Leave benefits for teachers: Primary, secondary, and special education teachers typically have a work 
schedule of 37 or 38 weeks per year. Because of this work schedule, they are generally not offered 
vacations or holidays. In many cases, the time off during winter and spring breaks during the school year 
are not considered vacation days for the purposes of this survey. 

Medical care premiums: The estimates for medical care premiums are not based on actual decisions 
regarding medical coverage made by employees; instead they are based on the assumption that all 
employees in the occupation can opt for single or family coverage.  In instances where annual premiums 
are collected, the values are converted to a monthly premium amount using the annual work 
schedule. Annual work schedules may be less than twelve months.  

Sample size: See appendix table 1 at the end of this release. 

Survey scope: See appendix table 2 at the end of this release. 

Obtaining information: For research articles on employee benefits, see the Monthly Labor Review 
benefits section at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/subject/b.htm and Beyond the Numbers: Pay and Benefits at 
www.bls.gov/opub/btn/archive/home.htm. For further technical information, see Chapter 8, "National 
Compensation Measures," BLS Handbook of Methods at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch8.pdf.

Definitions of major terms: 

Access: Employees are considered to have access to a benefit plan if it is available for their use. For 
example, if an employee is permitted to participate in a medical care plan offered by the employer, but 
the employee declines to do so, he or she is placed in a category with those having access to medical 
care.

Participation: Employees in contributory plans are considered participants in an insurance or retirement 
plan if they have paid required contributions and fulfilled any applicable service requirements. 
Employees in noncontributory plans are counted as participating regardless of whether they have 
fulfilled the service requirements. Note that the term "incidence" can refer to either rates of access or 
rates of participation in a benefit plan.

Take-up rate: The percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan.

Retirement benefits include defined benefit pension plans and defined contribution retirement plans. 
Workers are counted as having access or participating in retirement benefits if they have access or 
participate in at least one type of plan, defined benefit or defined contribution; some workers may have 
access to or participate in both. Differences in retirement plan participation are influenced by type of 
plan offered. Participation in defined benefit plans is often mandatory, subject to any applicable 
eligibility requirements, while participation in defined contribution plans is often voluntary. 

Medical care plans provide services or payments for services rendered in the hospital or by a qualified 
medical care provider. 

Calculation details:

Average hourly earnings from sampled occupations within an establishment were used to produce 
estimates for worker groups within six earnings categories: the lowest 10 percent, the lowest 25 percent, 
the second 25 percent, the third 25 percent, the highest 25 percent, and the highest 10 percent. The 
categories are based on unpublished March 2016 wages and salaries series from the Employer Costs for 
Employee Compensation at www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/ecec_06092016.pdf. 

The percentiles were computed using earnings and scheduled hours of work reported for individual 
workers in sampled establishment jobs. Establishments in the survey are asked to report only individual 
worker earnings for each sampled job. For the calculation of the hourly percentile values, the individual 
worker hourly earnings are weighted and arrayed from lowest to highest. The values corresponding to 
the percentiles are: 


________________________________________________________________________________________________
    Characteristics                                    Hourly wage percentiles
                                          10         25       50 (median)       75        90
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Civilian                                $9.54      $12.40       $18.52        $29.80    $45.36
Private industry                         9.37       12.00        17.73         28.60     44.33
State and local government              12.70       16.71        24.20         35.99     49.79
________________________________________________________________________________________________

The lowest 10-percent and 25-percent wage categories include those occupations with an average hourly 
wage less than the 10th percentile value and 25th percentile value, respectively. The second 25-percent 
category includes those occupations that earn at or above the 25th percentile value but less than the 50th 
percentile value. The third 25-percent category includes those occupations that earn at or above the 50th 
percentile value but less than the 75th percentile value. Finally, the highest 25- and 10 percent wage 
categories include those occupations with an average wage value greater than or equal to the 75th and 
90th percentile value, respectively. 

Individual workers can be in earnings category that is different from the occupation into which they are 
classified because average hourly earnings for the occupation are used to produce the benefit estimates.  
                                                                                    


 Table 1. Retirement benefits:(1) Access, participation, and take-up rates,(2) March 2016

 (All workers = 100 percent)
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
                                    Civilian(3)                 Private industry         State and local government 
                                                                                                                    
      Characteristics                                                                                               
                             Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up 
                                       ation      rate               ation      rate               ation      rate  
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
 All workers..............     69        54        78        66        49        75        90        81        90   
                                                                                                                    
  Worker characteristics                                                                                            
                                                                                                                    
 Management, professional,                                                                                          
 and related..............     84        72        86        81        69        85        92        81        89   
   Management, business,                                                                                            
   and financial..........     86        76        88        85        75        88        –         –         –    
   Professional and                                                                                                 
   related................     83        70        85        79        65        83        92        81        89   
     Teachers.............     84        73        87        –         –         –         91        80        88   
       Primary, secondary,                                                                                          
       and special                                                                                                  
       education school                                                                                             
       teachers...........     94        83        88        –         –         –         99        88        89   
     Registered nurses....     88        72        81        –         –         –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     47        31        65        41        23        56        86        78        90   
   Protective service.....     78        62        79        60        31        52        92        85        92   
 Sales and office.........     71        52        74        69        50        72        91        82        90   
   Sales and related......     66        41        61        66        41        61        –         –         –    
   Office and                                                                                                       
   administrative support      74        59        80        72        56        78        92        83        90   
 Natural resources,                                                                                                 
 construction, and                                                                                                  
 maintenance..............     65        53        81        62        49        79        97        91        94   
   Construction,                                                                                                    
   extraction, farming,                                                                                             
   fishing, and forestry..     62        50        82        57        45        79        –         –         –    
   Installation,                                                                                                    
   maintenance, and repair     69        55        80        67        52        78        –         –         –    
 Production,                                                                                                        
 transportation, and                                                                                                
 material moving..........     71        54        76        70        53        75        85        78        91   
   Production.............     74        56        76        74        56        75        –         –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                                               
   material moving........     68        52        76        67        50        74        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Full time................     80        65        81        77        60        78        99        89        90   
 Part time................     37        22        59        37        21        56        40        34        85   
                                                                                                                    
 Union....................     94        84        90        91        81        90        97        87        89   
 Nonunion.................     65        49        75        64        46        73        84        76        90   
                                                                                                                    
 Average wage within the                                                                                            
 following categories:(4)                                                                                           
   Lowest 25 percent......     44        24        56        42        22        52        76        68        89   
     Lowest 10 percent....     33        15        45        33        14        42        63        55        87   
   Second 25 percent......     71        52        74        65        45        69        93        84        90   
   Third 25 percent.......     81        68        84        78        64        82        95        86        91   
   Highest 25 perecent....     89        79        89        87        76        88        98        87        89   
     Highest 10 percent...     90        80        89        88        79        90        97        84        86   
                                                                                                                    
       Establishment                                                                                                
     characteristics                                                                                                
                                                                                                                    
 Goods-producing                                                                                                    
 industries...............     75        60        81        74        60        80        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Service-providing                                                                                                  
 industries...............     69        53        77        64        47        74        90        81        90   
   Education and health                                                                                             
   services...............     79        65        83        72        56        79        92        81        88   
     Educational services      87        77        88        72        64        88        92        81        88   
       Elementary and                                                                                               
       secondary schools..     89        80        89        –         –         –         92        82        89   
       Junior colleges,                                                                                             
       colleges, and                                                                                                
       universities.......     88        77        87        88        77        88        89        77        86   
     Health care and                                                                                                
     social assistance....     73        57        78        71        55        77        91        79        87   
       Hospitals..........     91        78        85        –         –         –         94        79        84   
   Public administration..     91        83        92        –         –         –         91        83        92   
                                                                                                                    
 1 to 99 workers..........     53        38        71        52        36        70        80        72        91   
   1 to 49 workers........     48        34        71        47        33        70        73        66        91   
   50 to 99 workers.......     67        48        72        65        46        70        90        81        90   
 100 workers or more......     86        70        82        83        66        79        92        82        90   
   100 to 499 workers.....     81        62        77        80        59        74        88        81        92   
   500 workers or more....     91        78        86        90        76        85        93        83        89   
                                                                                                                    
     Geographic areas                                                                                               
                                                                                                                    
 Northeast................     71        58        82        68        55        80        91        82        90   
   New England............     72        59        81        70        55        78        85        81        95   
   Middle Atlantic........     71        58        82        68        55        81        93        82        88   
 South....................     70        52        74        66        47        71        92        82        89   
   South Atlantic.........     70        54        76        67        49        73        90        81        89   
   East South Central.....     73        51        70        68        44        65        95        83        87   
   West South Central.....     68        50        74        64        45        70        92        83        91   
 Midwest..................     73        57        78        70        53        76        87        77        89   
   East North Central.....     72        56        78        70        53        76        85        78        91   
   West North Central.....     75        58        77        72        54        75        91        77        85   
 West.....................     63        50        80        59        45        77        91        83        91   
   Mountain...............     66        50        76        62        46        74        88        77        88   
   Pacific................     62        51        81        57        45        78        92        86        93   

   1 Includes defined benefit pension plans and defined contribution retirement plans. Workers are considered as
 having access or as participating if they have access to or are participating in at least one of these plan types.
   2 The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan,
 rounded for presentation. See Technical Note for more details.
   3 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
 sector, except the federal government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
   4 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which
 may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile
 estimates generated using wage data for March 2016.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of
 major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at
 www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20152016.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.



  Table 2. Medical care benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates,(1) March 2016
 
  (All workers = 100 percent)
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
                                     Civilian(2)                 Private industry         State and local government 
                                                                                                                     
       Characteristics                                                                                               
                              Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up 
                                        ation      rate               ation      rate               ation      rate  
                                                                                                                     
 
                                                                                                                     
  All workers..............     70        52        75        67        49        73        88        73        83   
                                                                                                                     
   Worker characteristics                                                                                            
                                                                                                                     
  Management, professional,                                                                                          
  and related..............     87        68        78        86        66        77        89        73        82   
    Management, business,                                                                                            
    and financial..........     94        73        78        94        73        77        –         –         –    
    Professional and                                                                                                 
    related................     84        66        78        82        62        76        89        72        82   
      Teachers.............     81        66        81        –         –         –         88        72        82   
        Primary, secondary,                                                                                          
        and special                                                                                                  
        education school                                                                                             
        teachers...........     94        76        81        –         –         –         98        80        82   
      Registered nurses....     88        63        72        –         –         –         –         –         –    
  Service..................     45        29        65        39        23        58        82        69        84   
    Protective service.....     68        52        77        40        20        51        90        76        85   
  Sales and office.........     68        49        73        66        47        71        89        75        83   
    Sales and related......     55        37        68        55        37        67        –         –         –    
    Office and                                                                                                       
    administrative support      76        57        75        74        54        73        90        75        83   
  Natural resources,                                                                                                 
  construction, and                                                                                                  
  maintenance..............     74        60        81        72        58        80        95        81        85   
    Construction,                                                                                                    
    extraction, farming,                                                                                             
    fishing, and forestry..     68        56        82        65        53        82        –         –         –    
    Installation,                                                                                                    
    maintenance, and repair     80        64        79        79        62        79        –         –         –    
  Production,                                                                                                        
  transportation, and                                                                                                
  material moving..........     74        55        75        74        55        74        81        68        85   
    Production.............     80        61        75        80        61        75        –         –         –    
    Transportation and                                                                                               
    material moving........     69        51        74        68        49        73        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                     
  Full time................     88        66        76        86        63        74        99        82        83   
  Part time................     19        12        61        19        11        59        24        17        71   
                                                                                                                     
  Union....................     94        79        84        93        78        85        95        79        84   
  Nonunion.................     66        48        72        65        46        71        81        67        82   
                                                                                                                     
  Average wage within the                                                                                            
  following categories:(3)                                                                                           
    Lowest 25 percent......     36        22        61        33        19        57        70        57        81   
      Lowest 10 percent....     22        11        49        22        11        48        56        45        80   
    Second 25 percent......     75        54        73        71        50        70        91        77        84   
    Third 25 percent.......     87        68        79        85        65        77        94        78        83   
    Highest 25 perecent....     93        74        79        92        72        78        97        80        82   
      Highest 10 percent...     94        74        79        93        72        78        96        80        83   
                                                                                                                     
        Establishment                                                                                                
      characteristics                                                                                                
                                                                                                                     
  Goods-producing                                                                                                    
  industries...............     84        66        79        84        66        79        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                     
  Service-providing                                                                                                  
  industries...............     68        50        74        64        46        71        88        72        83   
    Education and health                                                                                             
    services...............     79        59        75        74        52        70        88        72        81   
      Educational services      85        69        80        76        57        75        88        72        82   
        Elementary and                                                                                               
        secondary schools..     87        70        80        –         –         –         88        72        81   
        Junior colleges,                                                                                             
        colleges, and                                                                                                
        universities.......     88        71        80        90        68        76        87        72        83   
      Health care and                                                                                                
      social assistance....     75        53        70        73        51        70        90        70        77   
        Hospitals..........     91        69        76        –         –         –         94        73        78   
    Public administration..     88        76        86        –         –         –         88        76        86   
                                                                                                                     
  1 to 99 workers..........     56        40        71        55        39        70        76        63        83   
    1 to 49 workers........     52        37        70        52        36        69        69        57        84   
    50 to 99 workers.......     67        49        73        66        47        72        88        72        82   
  100 workers or more......     84        65        77        82        62        75        89        74        83   
    100 to 499 workers.....     79        59        75        79        58        74        85        70        82   
    500 workers or more....     89        71        79        88        68        77        91        75        83   
                                                                                                                     
      Geographic areas                                                                                               
                                                                                                                     
  Northeast................     71        53        75        68        50        73        88        74        84   
    New England............     69        50        73        66        46        71        87        70        81   
    Middle Atlantic........     71        54        76        69        51        74        88        75        85   
  South....................     71        53        74        68        48        71        91        76        84   
    South Atlantic.........     71        52        73        67        48        71        90        74        83   
    East South Central.....     75        56        74        71        49        69        95        85        90   
    West South Central.....     70        52        74        67        49        73        90        74        82   
  Midwest..................     71        51        72        69        49        71        82        63        78   
    East North Central.....     70        51        72        69        49        71        79        62        78   
    West North Central.....     71        52        73        69        49        72        86        66        77   
  West.....................     69        53        78        65        50        76        89        75        84   
    Mountain...............     68        51        75        65        48        74        87        73        85   
    Pacific................     69        55        79        66        51        78        90        75        84   
 
    1 The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan,
  rounded for presentation. See Technical Note for more details.
    2 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
  sector, except the federal government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
    3 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which
  may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile
  estimates generated using wage data for March 2016.
  
  Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of
  major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at
  www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20152016.htm.
  
  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Table 3. Medical plans: Share of premiums paid by employer and employee for single
 coverage,  March 2016

 (In percent)
                                                                                      
                                                                                      
                               Civilian(1)       Private industry    State and local  
                                                                        government    
                                                                                      
      Characteristics                                                                 
                            Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee
                            share of  share of  share of  share of  share of  share of
                            premium   premium   premium   premium   premium   premium 
                                                                                      

                                                                                      
 All workers participating                                                            
 in single coverage                                                                   
 medical plans............     81        19        79        21        87        13   
                                                                                      
  Worker characteristics                                                              
                                                                                      
 Management, professional,                                                            
 and related..............     82        18        80        20        87        13   
   Management, business,                                                              
   and financial..........     81        19        80        20        –         –    
   Professional and                                                                   
   related................     83        17        80        20        87        13   
     Teachers.............     86        14        –         –         87        13   
       Primary, secondary,                                                            
       and special                                                                    
       education school                                                               
       teachers...........     85        15        –         –         86        14   
     Registered nurses....     81        19        –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     82        18        80        20        88        12   
   Protective service.....     87        13        83        17        88        12   
 Sales and office.........     79        21        77        23        88        12   
   Sales and related......     75        25        75        25        –         –    
   Office and                                                                         
   administrative support      80        20        78        22        88        12   
 Natural resources,                                                                   
 construction, and                                                                    
 maintenance..............     81        19        80        20        86        14   
   Construction,                                                                      
   extraction, farming,                                                               
   fishing, and forestry..     82        18        81        19        –         –    
   Installation,                                                                      
   maintenance, and repair     80        20        79        21        –         –    
 Production,                                                                          
 transportation, and                                                                  
 material moving..........     80        20        80        20        84        16   
   Production.............     79        21        79        21        –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                 
   material moving........     81        19        81        19        –         –    
                                                                                      
 Full time................     81        19        79        21        87        13   
 Part time................     78        22        77        23        85        15   
                                                                                      
 Union....................     87        13        87        13        87        13   
 Nonunion.................     79        21        78        22        87        13   
                                                                                      
 Average wage within the                                                              
 following categories:(2)                                                             
   Lowest 25 percent......     77        23        76        24        87        13   
     Lowest 10 percent....     75        25        75        25        88        12   
   Second 25 percent......     80        20        78        22        88        12   
   Third 25 percent.......     82        18        80        20        88        12   
   Highest 25 perecent....     82        18        81        19        86        14   
     Highest 10 percent...     82        18        81        19        87        13   
                                                                                      
       Establishment                                                                  
     characteristics                                                                  
                                                                                      
 Goods-producing                                                                      
 industries...............     80        20        80        20        –         –    
                                                                                      
 Service-providing                                                                    
 industries...............     81        19        79        21        87        13   
   Education and health                                                               
   services...............     82        18        79        21        87        13   
     Educational services      85        15        80        20        86        14   
       Elementary and                                                                 
       secondary schools..     86        14        –         –         86        14   
       Junior colleges,                                                               
       colleges, and                                                                  
       universities.......     85        15        80        20        88        12   
     Health care and                                                                  
     social assistance....     80        20        79        21        88        12   
       Hospitals..........     81        19        –         –         88        12   
   Public administration..     87        13        –         –         87        13   
                                                                                      
 1 to 99 workers..........     80        20        79        21        91         9   
   1 to 49 workers........     81        19        80        20        91         9   
   50 to 99 workers.......     78        22        77        23        91         9   
 100 workers or more......     81        19        79        21        87        13   
   100 to 499 workers.....     79        21        78        22        86        14   
   500 workers or more....     83        17        80        20        87        13   
                                                                                      
     Geographic areas                                                                 
                                                                                      
 Northeast................     82        18        81        19        85        15   
   New England............     79        21        79        21        82        18   
   Middle Atlantic........     83        17        82        18        87        13   
 South....................     80        20        78        22        87        13   
   South Atlantic.........     79        21        77        23        88        12   
   East South Central.....     80        20        78        22        87        13   
   West South Central.....     79        21        78        22        85        15   
 Midwest..................     80        20        78        22        87        13   
   East North Central.....     79        21        78        22        86        14   
   West North Central.....     81        19        79        21        89        11   
 West.....................     83        17        82        18        88        12   
   Mountain...............     81        19        80        20        89        11   
   Pacific................     83        17        82        18        88        12   

   1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private
 households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government. See
 Technical Note for further explanation.
   2 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average
 wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below
 the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using
 wage data for March 2016.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication
 criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the
 "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20152016.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.



 
 Table 4. Medical plans: Share of premiums paid by employer and employee for family
 coverage,  March 2016

 (In percent)
                                                                                      
                                                                                      
                               Civilian(1)       Private industry    State and local  
                                                                        government    
                                                                                      
      Characteristics                                                                 
                            Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee
                            share of  share of  share of  share of  share of  share of
                            premium   premium   premium   premium   premium   premium 
                                                                                      

                                                                                      
 All workers participating                                                            
 in family coverage                                                                   
 medical plans............     68        32        68        32        71        29   
                                                                                      
  Worker characteristics                                                              
                                                                                      
 Management, professional,                                                            
 and related..............     69        31        69        31        69        31   
   Management, business,                                                              
   and financial..........     71        29        70        30        –         –    
   Professional and                                                                   
   related................     68        32        68        32        68        32   
     Teachers.............     66        34        –         –         67        33   
       Primary, secondary,                                                            
       and special                                                                    
       education school                                                               
       teachers...........     65        35        –         –         66        34   
     Registered nurses....     69        31        –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     67        33        64        36        74        26   
   Protective service.....     77        23        72        28        78        22   
 Sales and office.........     66        34        65        35        73        27   
   Sales and related......     63        37        63        37        –         –    
   Office and                                                                         
   administrative support      67        33        66        34        73        27   
 Natural resources,                                                                   
 construction, and                                                                    
 maintenance..............     69        31        69        31        74        26   
   Construction,                                                                      
   extraction, farming,                                                               
   fishing, and forestry..     69        31        68        32        –         –    
   Installation,                                                                      
   maintenance, and repair     70        30        69        31        –         –    
 Production,                                                                          
 transportation, and                                                                  
 material moving..........     71        29        71        29        67        33   
   Production.............     71        29        71        29        –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                 
   material moving........     70        30        71        29        –         –    
                                                                                      
 Full time................     69        31        68        32        71        29   
 Part time................     64        36        63        37        70        30   
                                                                                      
 Union....................     80        20        83        17        78        22   
 Nonunion.................     65        35        65        35        64        36   
                                                                                      
 Average wage within the                                                              
 following categories:(2)                                                             
   Lowest 25 percent......     61        39        62        38        65        35   
     Lowest 10 percent....     61        39        62        38        58        42   
   Second 25 percent......     66        34        64        36        73        27   
   Third 25 percent.......     70        30        68        32        71        29   
   Highest 25 perecent....     72        28        72        28        73        27   
     Highest 10 percent...     73        27        73        27        77        23   
                                                                                      
       Establishment                                                                  
     characteristics                                                                  
                                                                                      
 Goods-producing                                                                      
 industries...............     72        28        72        28        –         –    
                                                                                      
 Service-providing                                                                    
 industries...............     68        32        67        33        71        29   
   Education and health                                                               
   services...............     65        35        64        36        67        33   
     Educational services      66        34        66        34        66        34   
       Elementary and                                                                 
       secondary schools..     64        36        –         –         64        36   
       Junior colleges,                                                               
       colleges, and                                                                  
       universities.......     70        30        71        29        70        30   
     Health care and                                                                  
     social assistance....     65        35        64        36        74        26   
       Hospitals..........     72        28        –         –         73        27   
   Public administration..     77        23        –         –         77        23   
                                                                                      
 1 to 99 workers..........     64        36        64        36        73        27   
   1 to 49 workers........     65        35        64        36        74        26   
   50 to 99 workers.......     64        36        63        37        71        29   
 100 workers or more......     71        29        71        29        70        30   
   100 to 499 workers.....     68        32        67        33        70        30   
   500 workers or more....     73        27        75        25        71        29   
                                                                                      
     Geographic areas                                                                 
                                                                                      
 Northeast................     75        25        73        27        82        18   
   New England............     73        27        71        29        79        21   
   Middle Atlantic........     76        24        74        26        84        16   
 South....................     63        37        63        37        60        40   
   South Atlantic.........     66        34        65        35        68        32   
   East South Central.....     61        39        65        35        49        51   
   West South Central.....     59        41        60        40        55        45   
 Midwest..................     70        30        69        31        76        24   
   East North Central.....     71        29        70        30        78        22   
   West North Central.....     68        32        67        33        74        26   
 West.....................     70        30        69        31        75        25   
   Mountain...............     68        32        68        32        67        33   
   Pacific................     71        29        69        31        78        22   

   1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private
 households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government. See
 Technical Note for further explanation.
   2 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average
 wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below
 the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using
 wage data for March 2016.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication
 criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the
 "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20152016.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.




 Table 5. Life insurance benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates,(1) March 2016

 (All workers = 100 percent)
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
                                    Civilian(2)                 Private industry         State and local government 
                                                                                                                    
      Characteristics                                                                                               
                             Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up 
                                       ation      rate               ation      rate               ation      rate  
                                                                                                                    

                                                                                                                    
 All workers..............     59        57        98        55        54        98        80        78        98   
                                                                                                                    
  Worker characteristics                                                                                            
                                                                                                                    
 Management, professional,                                                                                          
 and related..............     77        76        99        75        75        99        80        78        98   
   Management, business,                                                                                            
   and financial..........     83        83        99        83        83        99        –         –         –    
   Professional and                                                                                                 
   related................     74        73        98        71        71        99        79        77        98   
     Teachers.............     73        71        98        –         –         –         79        77        98   
       Primary, secondary,                                                                                          
       and special                                                                                                  
       education school                                                                                             
       teachers...........     82        81        98        –         –         –         86        84        98   
     Registered nurses....     77        77        99        –         –         –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     34        32        95        27        25        94        77        76        98   
   Protective service.....     71        69        97        50        47        95        86        85        98   
 Sales and office.........     56        55        98        54        52        98        81        80        98   
   Sales and related......     42        40        96        41        40        96        –         –         –    
   Office and                                                                                                       
   administrative support      64        63        98        62        61        98        82        80        98   
 Natural resources,                                                                                                 
 construction, and                                                                                                  
 maintenance..............     58        56        97        54        53        97        93        91        99   
   Construction,                                                                                                    
   extraction, farming,                                                                                             
   fishing, and forestry..     51        49        97        46        44        97        –         –         –    
   Installation,                                                                                                    
   maintenance, and repair     65        63        97        62        61        97        –         –         –    
 Production,                                                                                                        
 transportation, and                                                                                                
 material moving..........     63        60        97        62        60        97        77        74        97   
   Production.............     68        66        98        68        66        98        –         –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                                               
   material moving........     58        55        96        56        54        95        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Full time................     74        73        98        71        70        98        90        88        98   
 Part time................     12        11        89        12        10        88        22        21        96   
                                                                                                                    
 Union....................     85        83        97        84        80        96        86        85        98   
 Nonunion.................     54        53        98        52        51        98        74        72        97   
                                                                                                                    
 Average wage within the                                                                                            
 following categories:(3)                                                                                           
   Lowest 25 percent......     24        22        92        21        19        91        64        62        98   
     Lowest 10 percent....     14        12        86        13        11        83        50        49        97   
   Second 25 percent......     61        60        98        57        55        97        84        83        98   
   Third 25 percent.......     75        74        98        71        70        98        84        83        98   
   Highest 25 perecent....     84        83        99        82        82        99        89        87        97   
     Highest 10 percent...     86        85        99        85        85        99        89        85        96   
                                                                                                                    
       Establishment                                                                                                
     characteristics                                                                                                
                                                                                                                    
 Goods-producing                                                                                                    
 industries...............     70        68        98        70        68        98        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Service-providing                                                                                                  
 industries...............     57        55        98        52        51        97        80        78        98   
   Education and health                                                                                             
   services...............     69        68        99        62        62        99        80        78        98   
     Educational services      77        75        98        67        66        98        79        78        98   
       Elementary and                                                                                               
       secondary schools..     76        74        98        –         –         –         78        76        98   
       Junior colleges,                                                                                             
       colleges, and                                                                                                
       universities.......     85        83        98        87        86        98        84        81        97   
     Health care and                                                                                                
     social assistance....     63        63        99        62        61        99        83        79        95   
       Hospitals..........     90        89        99        –         –         –         91        87        96   
   Public administration..     82        81        98        –         –         –         82        81        98   
                                                                                                                    
 1 to 99 workers..........     41        39        97        40        39        97        64        62        96   
   1 to 49 workers........     36        35        98        35        34        98        64        62        97   
   50 to 99 workers.......     55        52        95        54        52        95        64        62        96   
 100 workers or more......     76        74        98        74        72        98        82        80        98   
   100 to 499 workers.....     68        66        98        67        65        98        75        73        98   
   500 workers or more....     85        83        98        85        84        99        85        83        98   
                                                                                                                    
     Geographic areas                                                                                               
                                                                                                                    
 Northeast................     59        58        98        56        55        98        81        79        98   
   New England............     58        56        97        56        54        98        71        66        92   
   Middle Atlantic........     60        59        99        56        55        98        85        84        99   
 South....................     61        59        97        57        55        97        82        80        97   
   South Atlantic.........     60        59        98        56        55        98        83        81        98   
   East South Central.....     62        59        96        56        53        96        89        85        96   
   West South Central.....     62        60        96        60        57        96        76        75        98   
 Midwest..................     62        60        98        59        57        98        79        77        98   
   East North Central.....     61        59        97        58        56        98        79        76        97   
   West North Central.....     64        63        98        61        59        98        79        79       100   
 West.....................     51        50        98        48        47        98        76        75        99   
   Mountain...............     54        53        98        50        49        98        80        79        99   
   Pacific................     50        49        98        46        45        98        75        73        98   

   1 The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan,
 rounded for presentation. See Technical Note for more details.
   2 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
 sector, except the federal government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
   3 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which
 may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile
 estimates generated using wage data for March 2016.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of
 major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at
 www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20152016.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     


Table 6. Selected paid leave benefits: Access, March 2016

 (All workers = 100 percent)
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
                                    Civilian(1)                 Private industry         State and local government 
                                                                                                                    
      Characteristics                                                                                               
                           Paid sick    Paid      Paid   Paid sick    Paid      Paid   Paid sick    Paid      Paid  
                             leave    vacation  holidays   leave    vacation  holidays   leave    vacation  holidays
                                                                                                                    

                                                                                                                    
 All workers..............     68        73        75        64        76        77        90        59        67   
                                                                                                                    
  Worker characteristics                                                                                            
                                                                                                                    
 Management, professional,                                                                                          
 and related..............     84        76        81        82        88        89        91        42        55   
   Management, business,                                                                                            
   and financial..........     89        95        96        89        97        97        –         –         –    
   Professional and                                                                                                 
   related................     82        68        74        78        83        85        91        35        49   
     Teachers.............     83        16        35        –         –         –         89        10        30   
       Primary, secondary,                                                                                          
       and special                                                                                                  
       education school                                                                                             
       teachers...........     93        16        31        –         –         –         96         9        26   
     Registered nurses....     79        88        89        –         –         –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     48        55        54        42        52        50        86        76        78   
   Protective service.....     72        76        77        47        58        64        90        89        87   
 Sales and office.........     70        80        81        69        79        81        91        85        86   
   Sales and related......     60        72        73        60        72        73        –         –         –    
   Office and                                                                                                       
   administrative support      77        85        86        75        85        86        92        86        87   
 Natural resources,                                                                                                 
 construction, and                                                                                                  
 maintenance..............     60        79        81        56        77        79        96        97        96   
   Construction,                                                                                                    
   extraction, farming,                                                                                             
   fishing, and forestry..     48        67        69        42        63        66        –         –         –    
   Installation,                                                                                                    
   maintenance, and repair     72        90        92        69        90        91        –         –         –    
 Production,                                                                                                        
 transportation, and                                                                                                
 material moving..........     61        80        82        59        81        83        89        64        74   
   Production.............     58        87        90        57        87        89        –         –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                                               
   material moving........     63        74        76        61        75        76        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Full time................     80        87        88        76        91        90        98        66        74   
 Part time................     31        35        39        30        36        40        43        21        28   
                                                                                                                    
 Union....................     86        74        79        76        88        89        97        57        69   
 Nonunion.................     65        73        75        63        75        76        84        61        66   
                                                                                                                    
 Average wage within the                                                                                            
 following categories:(2)                                                                                           
   Lowest 25 percent......     41        51        53        39        50        52        77        57        64   
     Lowest 10 percent....     28        40        40        27        41        40        65        43        49   
   Second 25 percent......     70        82        83        65        81        82        94        84        87   
   Third 25 percent.......     79        87        88        75        88        89        93        65        74   
   Highest 25 perecent....     87        79        83        84        91        92        97        35        48   
     Highest 10 percent...     90        79        83        87        92        93        98        33        45   
                                                                                                                    
       Establishment                                                                                                
     characteristics                                                                                                
                                                                                                                    
 Goods-producing                                                                                                    
 industries...............     63        87        89        63        87        89        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Service-providing                                                                                                  
 industries...............     68        71        73        64        74        74        90        59        67   
   Education and health                                                                                             
   services...............     79        66        73        73        79        83        91        42        55   
     Educational services      87        40        53        75        56        65        91        35        49   
       Elementary and                                                                                               
       secondary schools..     90        28        42        –         –         –         91        26        41   
       Junior colleges,                                                                                             
       colleges, and                                                                                                
       universities.......     87        67        79        83        73        81        90        63        78   
     Health care and                                                                                                
     social assistance....     74        83        86        73        83        86        91        89        91   
       Hospitals..........     84        93        94        –         –         –         93        93        93   
   Public administration..     89        88        88        –         –         –         89        88        88   
                                                                                                                    
 1 to 99 workers..........     56        68        69        55        68        69        81        66        71   
   1 to 49 workers........     54        67        68        53        67        68        74        68        69   
   50 to 99 workers.......     62        72        73        60        72        73        90        65        73   
 100 workers or more......     79        79        82        75        85        87        91        58        67   
   100 to 499 workers.....     74        80        82        72        83        85        88        60        63   
   500 workers or more....     85        77        81        80        89        89        92        58        68   
                                                                                                                    
     Geographic areas                                                                                               
                                                                                                                    
 Northeast................     70        73        74        67        76        76        90        55        60   
   New England............     68        69        70        65        73        73        89        47        52   
   Middle Atlantic........     71        75        76        68        77        78        91        58        63   
 South....................     66        76        78        62        78        79        91        61        69   
   South Atlantic.........     66        76        79        61        78        79        92        65        77   
   East South Central.....     68        78        78        62        81        79        93        63        72   
   West South Central.....     66        74        75        63        78        79        88        52        53   
 Midwest..................     64        74        75        60        77        76        87        55        67   
   East North Central.....     63        74        75        60        77        76        86        53        66   
   West North Central.....     65        73        74        60        76        75        90        58        69   
 West.....................     71        70        74        68        71        74        91        64        70   
   Mountain...............     61        69        71        58        71        73        83        53        58   
   Pacific................     76        70        75        73        71        75        94        68        74   

   1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
 sector, except the federal government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
   2 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which
 may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile
 estimates generated using wage data for March 2016.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of
 major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at
 www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20152016.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


 Appendix table 1. Survey establishment response, March 2016
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
     Establishments             Civilian             Private industry          State and local    
                                                                                 governments      
                                                                                                  

                                                                                                  
 Total in sampling                                                                                
 frame(1)..............        6,173,978                5,946,179                  227,799        
                                                                                                  
   Total in sample.....           11,400                    9,811                    1,589        
     Responding(2).....            8,358                    6,886                    1,472        
     Refused(3)........            2,102                    2,009                       93        
     Out of business or                                                                           
 not in survey scope...              940                      916                       24        

   1 The list of establishments from which the survey sample was selected (sampling frame) was
 developed from State unemployment insurance reports and is based on the 2012 North American
 Industry Classification System (NAICS). For private industries, an establishment is usually a
 single physical location. For state and local governments, an establishment is defined as all
 locations of a government entity. 
   2 Establishments that provided data at the initial interview.
   3 Establishments that did not provide data at the initial interview. Data for establishments
 not responding at the time of update interviews are imputed. Detailed information on nonresponse
 adjustment and imputation can be found in BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 8, “National
 Compensation Measures,” Bureau of Labor Statistics, on the Internet at
 www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch8.pdf.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


     Appendix table 2. Number of workers represented,(1) March 2016
                                                                                             
                                                                                             
     Occupational group(2)     Civilian workers      Private industry      State and local   
                                                         workers          government workers 
                                                                                             

                                                                                             
     All workers...........      133,189,200           114,163,700            19,025,500     
       Management,                                                                           
       professional, and                                                                     
       related.............       41,161,500            30,594,900            10,566,700     
         Management,                                                                         
         business, and                                                                       
         financial.........       12,096,200            10,524,200                –          
         Professional and                                                                    
         related...........       29,065,400            20,070,700             8,994,700     
           Teachers........        6,698,400                –                  5,045,200     
             Primary,                                                                        
             secondary, and                                                                  
             special                                                                         
             education                                                                       
             school                                                                          
             teachers......        4,466,600                –                  3,738,900     
           Registered                                                                        
           nurses..........        3,029,800                –                     –          
       Service.............       28,598,200            24,593,500             4,004,600     
         Protective service        3,265,900             1,394,000             1,871,900     
       Sales and office....       33,202,200            30,552,300             2,649,900     
         Sales and related        12,487,200            12,372,400                –          
         Office and                                                                          
         administrative                                                                      
         support...........       20,715,000            18,179,900             2,535,100     
       Natural resources,                                                                    
       construction, and                                                                     
       maintenance.........       10,523,800             9,531,000               992,800     
         Construction,                                                                       
         extraction,                                                                         
         farming, fishing,                                                                   
         and forestry......        5,103,100             4,532,900                –          
         Installation,                                                                       
         maintenance, and                                                                    
         repair............        5,420,700             4,998,100                –          
       Production,                                                                           
       transportation, and                                                                   
       material moving.....       19,703,600            18,892,100               811,500     
         Production........        9,428,000             9,318,100                –          
         Transportation and                                                                  
         material moving...       10,275,600             9,574,000                –          

       1 The number of workers represented by the survey are rounded to the nearest 100.
     Estimates of the number of workers provide a description of the size and composition of
     the labor force included in the survey. Estimates are not intended, however, for
     comparison to other statistical series to measure employment trends or levels.
       2 The 2010 Standard Occupational Classification system is used to classify workers.
     
     Note: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes
     indicate that no estimates for this characteristic are provided in this publication.
     
     Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.
    

Last Modified Date: July 22, 2016