Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) 				USDL-15-0112
Wednesday, January 28, 2015	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  SECOND QUARTER 2014

From March 2014 to June 2014, gross job gains from opening and 
expanding private sector establishments were 7.4 million, an increase
of 582,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from 
closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.5 million,
an increase of 63,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 916,000 jobs in the 
private sector during the second quarter of 2014. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 6.1 million in 
the second quarter of 2014, an increase of 485,000 jobs from the 
previous quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.) 

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in the 
second quarter of 2014, an increase of 97,000 jobs from the previous 
quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Contracting establishments lost 5.3 million jobs in the second quarter 
of 2014. This was an increase of 10,000 jobs from the prior quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

In the second quarter of 2014, closing establishments lost 1.2 million 
jobs, an increase of 53,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.5 percent of private sector employment 
in the second quarter of 2014, while gross job losses represented 5.6
percent of private sector employment. (See tables A, 2, and 3.)

In the second quarter of 2014, the number of establishment births 
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more 
information) increased by 7,000 to 220,000. These new establishments
accounted for 803,000 jobs, an increase of 40,000 from the previous
quarter. (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through the third quarter of 2013, when 683,000 jobs were
lost at 195,000 establishments. In the prior quarter, 706,000 jobs were
lost at 219,000 establishments.  (See table 8.)

During the second quarter of 2014, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in every industry sector except utilities. The utilities sector
experienced a net employment loss of 1,000 jobs. The service-providing
sector experienced a net increase of 739,000 jobs. The professional and
business services sector, which includes temporary help services, 
experienced a net increase of 202,000 jobs. The construction sector 
experienced its largest net change since first quarter 2006, a gain of
95,000 jobs.  (See table 3.)

Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June
                                2013    2013    2013    2014    2014

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,174   7,051   7,296   6,856  7,438
 At expanding establishments... 5,849   5,708   5,956   5,624  6,109
 At opening establishments..... 1,325   1,343   1,340   1,232  1,329

Gross job losses............... 6,496   6,583   6,553   6,459  6,522
 At contracting establishments. 5,284   5,435   5,335   5,330  5,340
 At closing establishments..... 1,212   1,148   1,218   1,129  1,182

Net employment change(1).......   678     468     743     397    916
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.4     6.3     6.4     6.0    6.5
 At expanding establishments...   5.2     5.1     5.2     4.9    5.3
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.2     1.2     1.1    1.2

Gross job losses...............   5.8     5.8     5.8     5.7    5.6
 At contracting establishments.   4.7     4.8     4.7     4.7    4.6
 At closing establishments.....   1.1     1.0     1.1     1.0    1.0

Net employment change(1).......    .6      .5      .6      .3     .9

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    

In the second quarter of 2014, firms with 1-49 employees accounted for 
35 percent of total net job growth. Firms with 50-249 employees 
accounted for 25 percent of net job growth. Firms with 250 or more 
employees accounted for 40 percent of net job growth. This quarter is
the seventeenth consecutive quarter of positive net employment change
for all three major firm size categories. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Of the 2.5 million net jobs created over the last year, firms with 1-49
employees contributed 36 percent of net job growth, while firms with 
50-249 employees contributed 22 percent, and firms with 250 or more 
employees contributed 42 percent. (See table 4.)

In the second quarter of 2014, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in 46 states and the District of Columbia. Texas experienced
571,566 gross job gains and 465,260 gross job losses resulting in a
net employment gain of 106,306. This is the largest net employment
gain of any state this quarter and the largest net employment gain
for Texas in the history of the series since it began in September 
1992. (See table 6.) Alaska had the largest rate of gross job gains
as a percent of employment at 10.9 percent, above the U.S. rate of 
6.5 percent. Pennsylvania and Connecticut share the lowest rate of 
gross job losses as a percent of employment at 4.8 percent, below the
U.S. rate of 5.6 percent. (See table 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



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| The Business Employment Dynamics for Third Quarter 2014 are scheduled  |
| to be released on Wednesday, April 29, 2015 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).       |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------





                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required 
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by 
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs). These UI reports are 
supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative
data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW  and 
form the basis of the Bureauís establishment universe sampling frame.
   
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysisís Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  554,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.4   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.5    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.5 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.4 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2014.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands are also excluded from the national data. As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of 
establishments excluded from the national gross job gains and gross job losses 
data in the first quarter 2014:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.4

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.2
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.5

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firmís employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firmsí sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                549      7,727       6,297         1,430       7,178       5,881           1,297
      June                 149      7,632       6,222         1,410       7,483       6,079           1,404
      September           -252      7,318       5,847         1,471       7,570       6,215           1,355
      December             299      7,658       6,196         1,462       7,359       6,012           1,347

2008  March               -225      7,246       5,834         1,412       7,471       6,102           1,369
      June                -578      7,254       5,846         1,408       7,832       6,352           1,480
      September           -944      6,886       5,523         1,363       7,830       6,448           1,382
      December          -1,809      6,706       5,354         1,352       8,515       7,034           1,481

2009  March             -2,716      5,850       4,659         1,191       8,566       7,141           1,425
      June              -1,667      6,386       5,084         1,302       8,053       6,671           1,382
      September           -878      6,342       5,131         1,211       7,220       5,856           1,364
      December            -234      6,640       5,315         1,325       6,874       5,596           1,278

2010  March               -263      6,264       5,090         1,174       6,527       5,320           1,207
      June                 709      6,958       5,679         1,279       6,249       5,087           1,162
      September            215      6,678       5,428         1,250       6,463       5,234           1,229
      December             585      7,010       5,638         1,372       6,425       5,206           1,219

2011  March                301      6,458       5,286         1,172       6,157       5,021           1,136
      June                 600      6,936       5,640         1,296       6,336       5,109           1,227
      September            824      7,148       5,790         1,358       6,324       5,174           1,150
      December             364      6,894       5,546         1,348       6,530       5,253           1,277

2012  March                851      6,953       5,706         1,247       6,102       4,997           1,105
      June                 607      7,020       5,732         1,288       6,413       5,260           1,153
      September            241      6,851       5,559         1,292       6,610       5,430           1,180
      December             698      7,107       5,766         1,341       6,409       5,209           1,200

2013  March                926      7,272       5,648         1,624       6,346       5,187           1,159
      June                 678      7,174       5,849         1,325       6,496       5,284           1,212
      September            468      7,051       5,708         1,343       6,583       5,435           1,148
      December             743      7,296       5,956         1,340       6,553       5,335           1,218

2014  March                397      6,856       5,624         1,232       6,459       5,330           1,129
      June                 916      7,438       6,109         1,329       6,522       5,340           1,182

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.6          5.4            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.6       5.9         4.7           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.3       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.2          5.1            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .6       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.0          4.9            1.1

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .7       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                1.0       6.6         5.1           1.5         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2014  March                 .3       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .9       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.6          4.6            1.0

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2013    2013    2013    2014    2014   2013   2013   2013   2014   2014
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,174   7,051   7,296   6,856   7,438    6.4    6.3    6.4    6.0    6.5
 At expanding establishments      5,849   5,708   5,956   5,624   6,109    5.2    5.1    5.2    4.9    5.3
 At opening establishments        1,325   1,343   1,340   1,232   1,329    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,496   6,583   6,553   6,459   6,522    5.8    5.8    5.8    5.7    5.6
 At contracting establishments    5,284   5,435   5,335   5,330   5,340    4.7    4.8    4.7    4.7    4.6
 At closing establishments        1,212   1,148   1,218   1,129   1,182    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.0
Net employment change               678     468     743     397     916     .6     .5     .6     .3     .9

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,377   1,333   1,357   1,355   1,410    7.0    6.7    6.8    6.8    7.0
 At expanding establishments      1,168   1,120   1,155   1,163   1,211    5.9    5.6    5.8    5.8    6.0
 At opening establishments          209     213     202     192     199    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,282   1,261   1,312   1,208   1,233    6.4    6.4    6.6    6.0    6.0
 At contracting establishments    1,074   1,064   1,102   1,017   1,042    5.4    5.4    5.5    5.1    5.1
 At closing establishments          208     197     210     191     191    1.0    1.0    1.1     .9     .9
Net employment change                95      72      45     147     177     .6     .3     .2     .8    1.0

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     288     263     280     288     281   14.2   13.1   13.8   14.0   13.7
 At expanding establishments        249     223     243     253     246   12.3   11.1   12.0   12.3   12.0
 At opening establishments           39      40      37      35      35    1.9    2.0    1.8    1.7    1.7
Gross job losses                    274     265     280     253     271   13.5   13.2   13.8   12.4   13.2
 At contracting establishments      237     231     243     219     237   11.7   11.5   12.0   10.7   11.5
 At closing establishments           37      34      37      34      34    1.8    1.7    1.8    1.7    1.7
Net employment change                14      -2       0      35      10     .7    -.1     .0    1.6     .5

Construction

Gross job gains                     668     665     653     673     692   11.6   11.4   11.1   11.2   11.4
 At expanding establishments        537     531     526     551     564    9.3    9.1    8.9    9.2    9.3
 At opening establishments          131     134     127     122     128    2.3    2.3    2.2    2.0    2.1
Gross job losses                    621     593     638     585     597   10.7   10.2   10.9    9.8    9.9
 At contracting establishments      498     477     511     468     483    8.6    8.2    8.7    7.8    8.0
 At closing establishments          123     116     127     117     114    2.1    2.0    2.2    2.0    1.9
Net employment change                47      72      15      88      95     .9    1.2     .2    1.4    1.5

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     421     405     424     394     437    3.5    3.3    3.5    3.3    3.6
 At expanding establishments        382     366     386     359     401    3.2    3.0    3.2    3.0    3.3
 At opening establishments           39      39      38      35      36     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    387     403     394     370     365    3.2    3.4    3.3    3.0    3.0
 At contracting establishments      339     356     348     330     322    2.8    3.0    2.9    2.7    2.6
 At closing establishments           48      47      46      40      43     .4     .4     .4     .3     .4
Net employment change                34       2      30      24      72     .3    -.1     .2     .3     .6

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,797   5,718   5,939   5,501   6,028    6.2    6.1    6.3    5.8    6.4
 At expanding establishments      4,681   4,588   4,801   4,461   4,898    5.0    4.9    5.1    4.7    5.2
 At opening establishments        1,116   1,130   1,138   1,040   1,130    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,214   5,322   5,241   5,251   5,289    5.6    5.7    5.6    5.6    5.5
 At contracting establishments    4,210   4,371   4,233   4,313   4,298    4.5    4.7    4.5    4.6    4.5
 At closing establishments        1,004     951   1,008     938     991    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.0
Net employment change               583     396     698     250     739     .6     .4     .7     .2     .9

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     289     279     286     272     284    5.0    4.9    4.9    4.7    4.9
 At expanding establishments        237     228     237     225     240    4.1    4.0    4.1    3.9    4.1
 At opening establishments           52      51      49      47      44     .9     .9     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    256     260     251     251     248    4.5    4.5    4.3    4.4    4.3
 At contracting establishments      201     206     192     196     191    3.5    3.6    3.3    3.4    3.3
 At closing establishments           55      54      59      55      57    1.0     .9    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                33      19      35      21      36     .5     .4     .6     .3     .6

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     948     899     944     877     969    6.3    5.9    6.2    5.7    6.3
 At expanding establishments        816     764     818     757     837    5.4    5.0    5.4    4.9    5.4
 At opening establishments          132     135     126     120     132     .9     .9     .8     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    777     856     835     879     827    5.1    5.7    5.5    5.8    5.3
 At contracting establishments      668     755     720     775     716    4.4    5.0    4.7    5.1    4.6
 At closing establishments          109     101     115     104     111     .7     .7     .8     .7     .7
Net employment change               171      43     109      -2     142    1.2     .2     .7    -.1    1.0

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     223     231     283     232     244    5.2    5.4    6.5    5.4    5.6
 At expanding establishments        187     197     252     199     210    4.4    4.6    5.8    4.6    4.8
 At opening establishments           36      34      31      33      34     .8     .8     .7     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    212     210     206     244     206    5.0    4.9    4.8    5.6    4.7
 At contracting establishments      178     174     168     210     172    4.2    4.1    3.9    4.8    3.9
 At closing establishments           34      36      38      34      34     .8     .8     .9     .8     .8
Net employment change                11      21      77     -12      38     .2     .5    1.7    -.2     .9

Utilities

Gross job gains                      14      11      12      14      12    2.6    2.0    2.2    2.6    2.2
 At expanding establishments         12      10      11      12      11    2.2    1.8    2.0    2.2    2.0
 At opening establishments            2       1       1       2       1     .4     .2     .2     .4     .2
Gross job losses                     13      13      16      11      13    2.4    2.4    3.0    2.0    2.4
 At contracting establishments       12      12      14      10      12    2.2    2.2    2.6    1.8    2.2
 At closing establishments            1       1       2       1       1     .2     .2     .4     .2     .2
Net employment change                 1      -2      -4       3      -1     .2    -.4    -.8     .6    -.2

Information

Gross job gains                     135     130     136     122     141    5.0    4.8    5.0    4.5    5.2
 At expanding establishments        114     108     113     101     119    4.2    4.0    4.2    3.7    4.4
 At opening establishments           21      22      23      21      22     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    127     136     123     127     133    4.7    5.0    4.5    4.6    4.9
 At contracting establishments      102     114     101     107     111    3.8    4.2    3.7    3.9    4.1
 At closing establishments           25      22      22      20      22     .9     .8     .8     .7     .8
Net employment change                 8      -6      13      -5       8     .3    -.2     .5    -.1     .3

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     368     356     368     324     374    4.8    4.7    4.8    4.2    4.9
 At expanding establishments        297     283     288     262     305    3.9    3.7    3.8    3.4    4.0
 At opening establishments           71      73      80      62      69     .9    1.0    1.0     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    329     347     356     343     333    4.4    4.5    4.6    4.5    4.3
 At contracting establishments      256     277     278     269     262    3.4    3.6    3.6    3.5    3.4
 At closing establishments           73      70      78      74      71    1.0     .9    1.0    1.0     .9
Net employment change                39       9      12     -19      41     .4     .2     .2    -.3     .6

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,367   1,379   1,455   1,258   1,438    7.4    7.4    7.7    6.7    7.6
 At expanding establishments      1,114   1,119   1,187   1,034   1,187    6.0    6.0    6.3    5.5    6.3
 At opening establishments          253     260     268     224     251    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.2    1.3
Gross job losses                  1,254   1,240   1,256   1,263   1,236    6.8    6.7    6.7    6.7    6.5
 At contracting establishments      989     998   1,000   1,026     983    5.4    5.4    5.3    5.4    5.2
 At closing establishments          265     242     256     237     253    1.4    1.3    1.4    1.3    1.3
Net employment change               113     139     199      -5     202     .6     .7    1.0     .0    1.1

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     842     896     886     827     882    4.2    4.4    4.4    4.1    4.3
 At expanding establishments        690     738     725     694     731    3.4    3.6    3.6    3.4    3.6
 At opening establishments          152     158     161     133     151     .8     .8     .8     .7     .7
Gross job losses                    845     782     781     779     836    4.1    3.8    3.9    3.8    4.1
 At contracting establishments      674     634     626     640     671    3.3    3.1    3.1    3.1    3.3
 At closing establishments          171     148     155     139     165     .8     .7     .8     .7     .8
Net employment change                -3     114     105      48      46     .1     .6     .5     .3     .2

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,255   1,195   1,209   1,197   1,275    8.8    8.4    8.4    8.3    8.8
 At expanding establishments        979     915     945     942   1,003    6.9    6.4    6.6    6.5    6.9
 At opening establishments          276     280     264     255     272    1.9    2.0    1.8    1.8    1.9
Gross job losses                  1,112   1,184   1,121   1,075   1,162    7.9    8.3    7.8    7.4    8.0
 At contracting establishments      916     983     914     876     961    6.5    6.9    6.4    6.0    6.6
 At closing establishments          196     201     207     199     201    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.4
Net employment change               143      11      88     122     113     .9     .1     .6     .9     .8

Other services

Gross job gains                     289     280     272     280     302    7.5    7.2    7.0    7.1    7.6
 At expanding establishments        228     219     214     224     241    5.9    5.6    5.5    5.7    6.1
 At opening establishments           61      61      58      56      61    1.6    1.6    1.5    1.4    1.5
Gross job losses                    266     271     273     252     268    6.9    7.0    7.0    6.4    6.7
 At contracting establishments      209     213     214     197     211    5.4    5.5    5.5    5.0    5.3
 At closing establishments           57      58      59      55      57    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.4    1.4
Net employment change                23       9      -1      28      34     .6     .2     .0     .7     .9

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            466      6,300    5,834         189       3,451    3,262         99        1,153    1,054         178        1,696    1,518
      June             174      6,256    6,082         -31       3,337    3,368        108        1,180    1,072          97        1,739    1,642
      September       -269      5,891    6,160        -132       3,252    3,384        -53        1,073    1,126         -84        1,566    1,650
      December         298      6,254    5,956           8       3,315    3,307         63        1,140    1,077         227        1,799    1,572

2008  March           -290      5,806    6,096        -154       3,228    3,382        -14        1,073    1,087        -122        1,505    1,627
      June            -548      5,855    6,403        -284       3,179    3,463        -41        1,095    1,136        -223        1,581    1,804
      September       -999      5,498    6,497        -346       3,047    3,393       -151        1,015    1,166        -502        1,436    1,938
      December      -1,869      5,338    7,207        -695       2,907    3,602       -374          948    1,322        -800        1,483    2,283

2009  March         -2,673      4,584    7,257        -991       2,714    3,705       -620          806    1,426      -1,062        1,064    2,126
      June          -1,767      5,165    6,932        -472       2,948    3,420       -277          953    1,230      -1,018        1,264    2,282
      September       -933      5,138    6,071        -375       2,822    3,197       -114          930    1,044        -444        1,386    1,830
      December        -288      5,405    5,693        -155       2,942    3,097        -43          964    1,007         -90        1,499    1,589

2010  March           -247      5,097    5,344        -207       2,851    3,058         -6          910      916         -34        1,336    1,370
      June             687      5,809    5,122         238       3,096    2,858        207        1,074      867         242        1,639    1,397
      September        200      5,497    5,297          24       2,940    2,916         83          996      913          93        1,561    1,468
      December         518      5,781    5,263          91       3,048    2,957         95        1,035      940         332        1,698    1,366

2011  March            316      5,344    5,028          87       2,966    2,879        118          965      847         111        1,413    1,302
      June             546      5,753    5,207         198       3,077    2,879        175        1,067      892         173        1,609    1,436
      September        834      5,948    5,114         260       3,123    2,863        164        1,062      898         410        1,763    1,353
      December         320      5,613    5,293          46       2,973    2,927         45          987      942         229        1,653    1,424

2012  March            840      5,767    4,927         373       3,153    2,780        214        1,047      833         253        1,567    1,314
      June             602      5,819    5,217         179       3,041    2,862        167        1,080      913         256        1,698    1,442
      September        219      5,569    5,350          48       2,951    2,903         47        1,003      956         124        1,615    1,491
      December         637      5,766    5,129         176       3,018    2,842         91        1,013      922         370        1,735    1,365

2013  March          1,209      6,350    5,141         294       3,138    2,844        153        1,022      869         762        2,190    1,428
      June             656      5,929    5,273         226       3,093    2,867        146        1,081      935         284        1,755    1,471
      September        433      5,746    5,313         203       3,050    2,847         55        1,014      959         175        1,682    1,507
      December         658      5,897    5,239         130       3,028    2,898        104        1,034      930         424        1,835    1,411

2014  March            445      5,621    5,176         236       3,044    2,808        151        1,026      875          58        1,551    1,493
      June             915      6,134    5,219         322       3,160    2,838        227        1,129      902         366        1,845    1,479


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2013    2013    2013    2014    2014   2013   2013   2013   2014   2014
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,929   5,746   5,897   5,621   6,134    5.3    5.1    5.2    4.9    5.4
 At expanding firms               5,032   4,826   4,988   4,738   5,240    4.5    4.3    4.4    4.1    4.6
 At opening firms                   897     920     909     883     894     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  5,273   5,313   5,239   5,176   5,219    4.6    4.7    4.6    4.5    4.5
 At contracting firms             4,448   4,507   4,394   4,349   4,410    3.9    4.0    3.9    3.8    3.8
 At closing firms                   825     806     845     827     809     .7     .7     .7     .7     .7

Net employment change               656     433     658     445     915     .7     .4     .6     .4     .9


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,093   3,050   3,028   3,044   3,160    9.7    9.4    9.4    9.4    9.7
 At expanding firms               2,239   2,168   2,158   2,196   2,305    7.0    6.7    6.7    6.8    7.1
 At opening firms                   854     882     870     848     855    2.7    2.7    2.7    2.6    2.6

Gross job losses                  2,867   2,847   2,898   2,808   2,838    9.0    8.8    9.0    8.6    8.7
 At contracting firms             2,077   2,074   2,089   2,015   2,065    6.5    6.4    6.5    6.2    6.3
 At closing firms                   790     773     809     793     773    2.5    2.4    2.5    2.4    2.4

Net employment change               226     203     130     236     322     .7     .6     .4     .8    1.0


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,081   1,014   1,034   1,026   1,129    5.3    4.9    4.9    4.9    5.4
 At expanding firms               1,044     980   1,003     996   1,094    5.1    4.7    4.8    4.8    5.2
 At opening firms                    37      34      31      30      35     .2     .2     .1     .1     .2

Gross job losses                    935     959     930     875     902    4.5    4.6    4.4    4.1    4.3
 At contracting firms               907     931     899     845     874    4.4    4.5    4.3    4.0    4.2
 At closing firms                    28      28      31      30      28     .1     .1     .1     .1     .1

Net employment change               146      55     104     151     227     .8     .3     .5     .8    1.1


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,755   1,682   1,835   1,551   1,845    2.9    2.8    3.0    2.5    3.0
 At expanding firms               1,749   1,678   1,827   1,546   1,841    2.9    2.8    3.0    2.5    3.0
 At opening firms                     6       4       8       5       4     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,471   1,507   1,411   1,493   1,479    2.4    2.5    2.3    2.4    2.4
 At contracting firms             1,464   1,502   1,406   1,489   1,471    2.4    2.5    2.3    2.4    2.4
 At closing firms                     7       5       5       4       8     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               284     175     424      58     366     .5     .3     .7     .1     .6


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        June       Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June       June         Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June 
                        2013       2013       2013        2014      2014       2013         2013       2013        2014      2014

United States(1)...  7,174,000  7,051,000  7,296,000   6,856,000  7,438,000  6,496,000   6,583,000   6,553,000  6,459,000  6,522,000

Alabama.....            88,757     82,579     88,974      84,701     87,364     82,901      85,001      80,202     84,878     81,574
Alaska.....             26,898     24,727     25,599      27,111     27,613     24,928      25,387      26,151     24,286     27,672
Arizona.....           129,657    136,257    142,862     122,710    128,550    123,506     115,847     114,990    127,049    126,814
Arkansas.....           50,289     54,835     56,317      55,241     52,907     56,485      53,002      52,575     48,156     46,722
California.....        919,714    898,198    970,775     908,148    934,892    841,331     811,587     826,149    819,458    863,561
Colorado.....          137,234    136,576    138,088     134,852    147,457    120,154     123,433     120,042    117,084    122,734
Connecticut.....        78,837     74,212     72,962      71,412     78,491     67,569      75,904      75,714     70,265     68,091
Delaware.....           22,635     23,073     23,382      22,392     23,550     20,538      21,141      20,578     21,103     18,717
District of Columbia    29,648     28,686     27,767      28,507     31,217     27,357      24,431      26,410     26,428     27,883
Florida.....           460,810    456,824    459,908     429,242    478,152    409,638     399,647     396,853    379,039    412,796

Georgia.....           215,308    218,936    223,857     218,553    229,447    198,514     193,605     191,558    187,662    201,150
Hawaii.....             26,001     27,482     27,361      24,229     24,507     25,229      23,731      22,530     25,768     25,728
Idaho.....              41,423     40,288     43,528      44,986     40,993     38,245      37,011      38,182     38,401     42,522
Illinois.....          284,501    281,978    287,742     282,582    301,654    262,528     276,028     262,299    273,676    271,324
Indiana.....           141,157    137,321    151,123     130,738    146,372    128,881     131,335     126,070    137,774    125,025
Iowa.....               75,519     74,723     75,848      73,265     78,695     67,432      68,754      69,858     69,123     72,090
Kansas.....             67,728     67,027     68,947      62,686     67,594     60,421      62,992      58,995     61,041     62,628
Kentucky.....           86,979     88,456     97,171      91,202     91,806     83,776      81,995      80,834     87,753     82,312
Louisiana.....          99,144    107,860    106,092     106,380    105,324    103,423      94,599      96,483     92,250    102,933
Maine.....              39,323     36,387     34,549      32,803     38,308     31,413      36,208      36,734     34,830     31,772

Maryland.....          127,153    125,548    129,342     120,701    136,035    124,872     123,521     129,324    119,730    119,062
Massachusetts.....     174,667    158,095    155,212     153,255    182,525    143,668     158,148     152,909    146,767    151,926
Michigan.....          216,782    206,945    210,828     193,208    226,224    195,673     200,593     193,392    179,299    192,512
Minnesota.....         139,832    131,274    132,158     122,559    152,857    120,732     127,618     131,154    131,329    118,560
Mississippi.....        50,515     53,106     56,504      49,034     52,831     52,070      49,713      48,189     50,683     57,818
Missouri.....          131,898    128,987    133,406     124,363    134,112    118,164     125,906     123,901    123,281    117,942
Montana.....            28,495     27,406     29,553      25,940     29,275     27,682      26,967      26,617     28,165     27,435
Nebraska.....           46,052     48,324     49,098      46,627     47,067     41,829      43,905      44,342     43,926     46,594
Nevada.....             67,468     61,343     63,969      68,371     69,971     56,571      58,707      53,928     54,147     58,601
New Hampshire.....      36,301     32,195     35,941      30,782     36,567     31,720      34,455      31,262     31,894     32,625

New Jersey.....        212,089    204,129    208,002     191,577    224,863    184,534     201,050     207,528    201,873    189,895
New Mexico.....         42,006     40,743     42,014      38,773     40,569     41,061      40,982      38,594     39,417     37,554
New York.....          473,735    470,406    488,832     453,091    494,472    423,013     443,888     440,138    439,127    429,972
North Carolina.....    207,472    207,989    213,112     196,483    215,534    190,982     189,970     189,004    186,412    182,481
North Dakota.....       25,999     29,955     29,881      31,989     28,240     27,475      24,693      24,992     24,936     26,117
Ohio.....              273,934    247,306    265,643     250,208    270,113    236,207     246,422     236,612    245,509    234,618
Oklahoma.....           78,547     78,989     77,204      76,411     77,458     72,791      70,356      77,423     74,634     76,244
Oregon.....            100,219    100,209     97,663      99,610     98,987     87,322      88,268      92,599     87,208     91,579
Pennsylvania.....      262,626    256,618    267,301     253,643    273,659    253,920     257,811     253,489    242,728    240,437
Rhode Island.....       25,842     24,986     24,474      22,816     26,158     22,624      24,222      22,933     22,863     22,333

South Carolina.....     95,727     93,633    102,061      95,713     99,522     81,179      84,442      82,586     88,987     89,050
South Dakota.....       21,589     20,459     22,932      21,356     21,583     19,037      20,881      20,102     20,435     20,238
Tennessee.....         127,783    125,251    144,253     125,985    130,918    122,329     119,399     110,071    121,089    117,551
Texas.....             535,691    552,753    566,604     553,296    571,566    469,198     485,228     487,463    479,767    465,260
Utah.....               72,975     71,558     77,520      69,642     75,546     67,772      65,955      64,131     63,801     70,146
Vermont.....            18,371     17,608     18,911      16,846     18,513     19,294      18,362      16,542     16,944     17,331
Virginia.....          165,676    173,917    169,315     157,945    183,313    164,885     173,680     165,862    161,816    164,858
Washington.....        178,068    172,308    171,855     165,916    183,724    149,541     159,889     156,542    147,848    138,526
West Virginia.....      34,801     33,802     36,600      35,778     37,208     37,467      35,722      35,915     37,449     36,067
Wisconsin.....         135,981    129,748    131,886     124,346    139,665    123,721     126,892     122,147    121,292    119,588

Wyoming.....            18,299     17,677     20,206      18,391     18,848     19,486      17,452      17,263     17,376     17,883
Puerto Rico.....        41,559     42,140     45,339      35,354     38,012     41,945      45,363      36,188     44,386     42,472
Virgin Islands.....      1,367      1,575      1,497       1,354      1,647      1,878       1,809       1,668      1,662      1,719

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        June    Sept.    Dec.     Mar.    June        June     Sept.     Dec.    Mar.     June 
                        2013    2013     2013     2014    2014        2013     2013      2013    2014     2014

United States(1)...      6.4     6.3      6.4      6.0     6.5         5.8      5.8       5.8      5.7     5.6

Alabama.....             6.0     5.5      6.0      5.6     5.9         5.6      5.7       5.3      5.7     5.5
Alaska.....             10.7     9.8     10.1     10.8    10.9         9.9     10.1      10.4      9.6    10.9
Arizona.....             6.2     6.4      6.7      5.7     6.0         5.9      5.5       5.4      6.0     6.0
Arkansas.....            5.3     5.8      6.0      5.8     5.6         6.0      5.7       5.5      5.0     4.9
California.....          7.0     6.9      7.3      6.8     7.0         6.5      6.2       6.3      6.1     6.4
Colorado.....            7.0     7.0      6.9      6.7     7.3         6.1      6.3       6.1      5.9     6.1
Connecticut.....         5.6     5.3      5.3      5.1     5.6         4.8      5.4       5.4      5.0     4.8
Delaware.....            6.5     6.6      6.6      6.3     6.5         5.8      6.0       5.8      5.9     5.2
District of Columbia..   6.2     6.0      5.8      5.9     6.4         5.7      5.1       5.4      5.5     5.7
Florida.....             7.1     7.0      7.0      6.5     7.2         6.4      6.2       6.0      5.8     6.2

Georgia.....             6.6     6.6      6.8      6.5     6.8         6.1      6.0       5.8      5.6     5.9
Hawaii.....              5.2     5.6      5.4      4.8     4.9         5.1      4.7       4.5      5.1     5.1
Idaho.....               8.0     7.7      8.3      8.4     7.7         7.4      7.2       7.3      7.2     8.0
Illinois.....            5.8     5.7      5.8      5.8     6.1         5.3      5.7       5.3      5.5     5.5
Indiana.....             5.7     5.6      6.1      5.3     5.9         5.3      5.4       5.1      5.5     5.0
Iowa.....                6.0     5.9      6.0      5.8     6.2         5.4      5.5       5.5      5.5     5.7
Kansas.....              6.2     6.1      6.2      5.7     6.1         5.6      5.7       5.3      5.5     5.7
Kentucky.....            5.9     6.0      6.5      6.1     6.2         5.7      5.5       5.4      5.9     5.5
Louisiana.....           6.3     6.9      6.7      6.7     6.6         6.6      6.0       6.1      5.8     6.4
Maine.....               8.1     7.4      7.0      6.7     7.8         6.4      7.3       7.5      7.0     6.5

Maryland.....            6.2     6.1      6.4      5.9     6.6         6.1      6.1       6.3      5.8     5.8
Massachusetts.....       6.1     5.5      5.4      5.3     6.3         5.0      5.5       5.3      5.0     5.3
Michigan.....            6.3     5.9      6.0      5.5     6.4         5.7      5.8       5.6      5.1     5.4
Minnesota.....           6.1     5.6      5.6      5.3     6.5         5.2      5.5       5.6      5.7     5.1
Mississippi.....         5.9     6.2      6.6      5.7     6.1         6.1      5.8       5.6      5.9     6.7
Missouri.....            5.9     5.8      6.0      5.6     6.0         5.3      5.7       5.5      5.5     5.3
Montana.....             8.0     7.7      8.2      7.2     8.2         7.9      7.6       7.5      7.9     7.7
Nebraska.....            6.0     6.3      6.3      5.9     6.0         5.4      5.7       5.7      5.6     6.0
Nevada.....              6.7     6.0      6.3      6.6     6.7         5.6      5.8       5.3      5.2     5.6
New Hampshire.....       6.8     6.0      6.8      5.7     6.7         5.9      6.5       5.8      5.9     6.1

New Jersey.....          6.5     6.2      6.4      5.9     6.9         5.7      6.2       6.4      6.2     5.8
New Mexico.....          6.9     6.7      6.9      6.3     6.6         6.7      6.7       6.4      6.4     6.1
New York.....            6.5     6.4      6.6      6.2     6.6         5.8      6.1       6.0      6.0     5.7
North Carolina.....      6.3     6.3      6.4      5.9     6.4         5.8      5.8       5.7      5.6     5.5
North Dakota.....        7.3     8.3      8.2      8.6     7.6         7.6      6.9       6.9      6.8     7.0
Ohio.....                6.2     5.6      6.0      5.6     6.1         5.3      5.6       5.3      5.6     5.3
Oklahoma.....            6.4     6.4      6.2      6.1     6.2         5.9      5.7       6.2      6.0     6.1
Oregon.....              7.2     7.1      6.9      7.0     6.9         6.3      6.3       6.6      6.1     6.4
Pennsylvania.....        5.3     5.2      5.4      5.2     5.6         5.2      5.2       5.2      4.9     4.8
Rhode Island.....        6.5     6.2      6.2      5.7     6.5         5.7      6.1       5.7      5.7     5.5

South Carolina.....      6.3     6.2      6.7      6.2     6.5         5.4      5.6       5.5      5.8     5.7
South Dakota.....        6.5     6.2      6.9      6.3     6.4         5.7      6.3       6.0      6.1     6.0
Tennessee.....           5.6     5.5      6.3      5.4     5.6         5.3      5.3       4.7      5.3     5.0
Texas.....               5.8     6.0      6.1      5.9     6.0         5.1      5.2       5.3      5.1     4.9
Utah.....                7.0     6.9      7.4      6.5     7.0         6.5      6.4       6.1      6.0     6.6
Vermont.....             7.4     7.1      7.6      6.7     7.4         7.7      7.4       6.6      6.8     6.9
Virginia.....            5.6     5.9      5.7      5.3     6.2         5.6      5.9       5.6      5.5     5.5
Washington.....          7.3     7.0      6.9      6.6     7.3         6.1      6.6       6.3      5.9     5.5
West Virginia.....       6.2     6.0      6.5      6.3     6.6         6.6      6.4       6.4      6.7     6.4
Wisconsin.....           5.8     5.5      5.7      5.3     5.9         5.3      5.4       5.2      5.1     5.0

Wyoming.....             8.6     8.4      9.4      8.4     8.7         9.1      8.2       8.1      8.0     8.2
Puerto Rico.....         6.0     6.1      6.6      5.1     5.6         6.0      6.6       5.2      6.4     6.3
Virgin Islands.....      4.9     5.7      5.5      4.9     6.1         6.8      6.5       6.0      6.1     6.4

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          897        .8      771        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          884        .8      850        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          941        .8      836        .7
      December            208      3.0       206     2.9          902        .8      825        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          900        .8      817        .7
      June                202      2.9       228     3.3          873        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          826        .7      877        .8
      December            187      2.7       238     3.4          798        .7      941        .8
  
2009  March               172      2.5       236     3.4          707        .6      853        .8
      June                177      2.6       225     3.3          742        .7      830        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          691        .7      783        .7
      December            183      2.7       200     3.0          711        .7      731        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       195     2.9          687        .7      671        .6
      June                180      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      649        .6
      September           188      2.8       189     2.8          738        .7      693        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          788        .7      685        .6
  
2011  March               189      2.8       184     2.7          697        .7      615        .6
      June                192      2.8       190     2.8          747        .7      678        .6
      September           199      2.9       187     2.7          786        .7      672        .6
      December            202      2.9       191     2.8          801        .7      750        .7
  
2012  March               201      2.9       181     2.6          750        .7      607        .6
      June                197      2.9       185     2.7          777        .7      664        .6
      September           201      2.9       185     2.7          794        .7      684        .6
      December            201      2.9       182     2.6          793        .7      675        .6
  
2013  March               584      8.1       185     2.6        1,092       1.0      633        .6
      June                229      3.1       219     3.0          796        .7      706        .6
      September           224      3.0       195     2.6          831        .7      683        .6
      December            215      2.9       N/A     N/A          811        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2014  March               213      2.8       N/A     N/A          763        .7      N/A       N/A
      June                220      2.9       N/A     N/A          803        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: February 12, 2015