Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release

                                   
For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, December 11, 2012    USDL-12-2405

Technical information:   (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


            Job Openings and Labor Turnover – October 2012

There were 3.7 million job openings on the last business day of
October, little changed from September, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. The hires rate (3.2 percent) and
separations rate (3.1 percent) were also little changed in October.
This release includes estimates of the number and rate of job
openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry
and by geographic region.

Job Openings

The number of job openings in October was 3.7 million, essentially
unchanged from September. (See table 1.) The number of openings was
little changed in all industries except construction, manufacturing,
and accommodation and food services, which increased. The number of
openings was also little changed in all four regions in October. The
level of total nonfarm job openings in October was up from 2.4 million
at the end of the recession in June 2009. (Recession dates are
determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research.)
_________________________________________________________________________
|                          Hurricane Sandy                              |
|Hurricane Sandy struck the Northeast Coast at the end of October.      |
|All possible efforts were made to contact survey respondents in the    |
|hurricane-affected areas. Special estimation procedures were used for  |
|selected nonresponding sample units as discussed in the note on page 4.|
|_______________________________________________________________________|

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry                  | Oct. | Sept.| Oct. | Oct. | Sept.| Oct. | Oct. | Sept.| Oct.
                               | 2011 | 2012 | 2012p| 2011 | 2012 | 2012p| 2011 | 2012 | 2012p
-------------------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                               |                     Levels (in thousands)
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..........................|3,408 |3,547 |3,675 |4,220 |4,204 |4,339 |4,065 |4,017 |4,084
                               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..............|3,062 |3,172 |3,293 |3,979 |3,922 |4,056 |3,781 |3,759 |3,776
  Construction.................|   80 |   82 |  130 |  333 |  327 |  321 |  325 |  332 |  299
  Manufacturing................|  240 |  241 |  279 |  240 |  235 |  252 |  227 |  235 |  234
  Trade, transportation,       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities(2)............|  594 |  592 |  594 |  840 |  819 |  884 |  813 |  805 |  832
   Retail trade................|  334 |  342 |  373 |  559 |  548 |  595 |  539 |  541 |  554
  Professional and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   business services...........|  644 |  622 |  646 |  893 |  848 |  888 |  831 |  821 |  785
  Education and health         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services(3).................|  622 |  725 |  660 |  484 |  499 |  499 |  450 |  438 |  471
   Health care and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    social assistance..........|  558 |  654 |  608 |  414 |  417 |  428 |  386 |  375 |  396
  Leisure and hospitality......|  404 |  366 |  431 |  719 |  708 |  754 |  663 |  672 |  704
   Arts, entertainment         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and recreation.............|   62 |   54 |   52 |  131 |  102 |  133 |  114 |  104 |  118
   Accommodation and           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    food services..............|  342 |  312 |  379 |  588 |  606 |  621 |  549 |  568 |  586
 Government(4).................|  345 |  375 |  382 |  241 |  283 |  283 |  285 |  258 |  308
  State and local..............|  279 |  306 |  321 |  215 |  251 |  255 |  253 |  226 |  269
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
                               |                       Rates (percent)
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..........................|  2.5 |  2.6 |  2.7 |  3.2 |  3.1 |  3.2 |  3.1 |  3.0 |  3.1
                               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..............|  2.7 |  2.8 |  2.9 |  3.6 |  3.5 |  3.6 |  3.4 |  3.4 |  3.4
  Construction.................|  1.4 |  1.5 |  2.3 |  6.0 |  5.9 |  5.8 |  5.9 |  6.0 |  5.4
  Manufacturing................|  2.0 |  2.0 |  2.3 |  2.0 |  2.0 |  2.1 |  1.9 |  2.0 |  2.0
  Trade, transportation,       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities(2)............|  2.3 |  2.3 |  2.3 |  3.3 |  3.2 |  3.5 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.3
   Retail trade................|  2.2 |  2.3 |  2.5 |  3.8 |  3.7 |  4.0 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  3.7
  Professional and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   business services...........|  3.6 |  3.3 |  3.5 |  5.1 |  4.7 |  4.9 |  4.8 |  4.6 |  4.4
  Education and health         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services(3).................|  3.0 |  3.4 |  3.1 |  2.4 |  2.4 |  2.4 |  2.2 |  2.1 |  2.3
   Health care and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    social assistance..........|  3.2 |  3.7 |  3.4 |  2.5 |  2.4 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.3
  Leisure and hospitality......|  2.9 |  2.6 |  3.0 |  5.4 |  5.2 |  5.5 |  5.0 |  4.9 |  5.1
   Arts, entertainment         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and recreation.............|  3.1 |  2.7 |  2.6 |  6.9 |  5.3 |  6.9 |  6.0 |  5.4 |  6.1
   Accommodation and           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    food services..............|  2.9 |  2.6 |  3.1 |  5.1 |  5.1 |  5.3 |  4.8 |  4.8 |  5.0
 Government(4).................|  1.5 |  1.7 |  1.7 |  1.1 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.2 |  1.4
  State and local..............|  1.4 |  1.6 |  1.6 |  1.1 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.2 |  1.4
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not
shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown
separately.
  3 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  4 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p Preliminary

The number of job openings in October (not seasonally adjusted) was up
over the year for total nonfarm and total private, but little changed
for government. Job openings increased over the year for construction,
nondurable goods manufacturing, other services, and state and local
government, but fell in wholesale trade. The Midwest and Northeast
regions experienced a rise in job openings over the year. (See table
7.)

Hires

In October, the hires rate was little changed at 3.2 percent. The
hires rate was also little changed in all industries and regions over
the month. (See table 2.) The number of hires in October was 4.3
million, up from 3.7 million at the end of the recession in June 2009.

Over the 12 months ending in October, the hires rate (not seasonally
adjusted) was unchanged for total nonfarm and total private, and was
little changed for government. The hires rate was little changed in
all industries and regions over the 12 months ending in October. (See
table 8.)

Separations

The total separations figure includes quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations. Total separations is also referred to as
turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the
employee. Therefore, the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’
willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and discharges are
involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations
include separations due to retirement, death, and disability, as well
as transfers to other locations of the same firm.

In October, the total separations rate was little changed for total
nonfarm, unchanged for total private, and rose for government. (See
table 3.) Over the 12 months ending in October, the total separations
rate (not seasonally adjusted) was unchanged for total nonfarm, and
little changed for total private and government. (See table 9.)

In October, the quits rate was unchanged for total nonfarm and total
private, and little changed for government. (See table 4.) The number
of quits was 2.1 million in October compared to 1.8 million at the end
of the recession in June 2009.

The number of quits (not seasonally adjusted) was little changed over
the 12 months ending in October for total nonfarm and total private,
and rose for government. Quits increased over the year in mining and
logging; transportation, warehousing, and utilities; and state and
local government. Quits levels rose in the South, but were essentially
unchanged over the year for the other three regions. (See table 10.)

The layoffs and discharges component of total separations is
seasonally adjusted at the total nonfarm, total private, and
government levels and for the four regions. The layoffs and discharges
rate was little changed in October for total nonfarm, total private,
government, and all four regions. (See table 5.) The number of layoffs
and discharges for total nonfarm was 1.7 million in October, down from
2.1 million at the end of the recession in June 2009.

The layoffs and discharges level (not seasonally adjusted) was little
changed for total nonfarm, total private, and government over the 12
months ending in October 2012. Over the year, the number of layoffs
and discharges rose in mining and logging; the number fell in the
Midwest region. (See table 11.)

In October, there were 357,000 other separations for total nonfarm,
little changed from the previous month. The number of other
separations was also little changed over the year. (See tables 6 and
12.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout
the business cycle. Net employment change results from the
relationship between hires and separations. When the number of hires
exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires
level is steady or declining. Conversely, when the number of hires is
less than the number of separations, employment declines, even if the
hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in October
2012, hires totaled 51.7 million and separations totaled 49.8 million,
yielding a net employment gain of 1.9 million. These figures include
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during
the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for November 2012
are scheduled to be released on Thursday, January 10, 2013 at 10:00
a.m. (EST). Scheduled release dates for 2013 are as follows:
     
               Dec.   —  Feb. 12      June   —  Aug. 6
               Jan.   —  March 12     July   —  Sept. 10
               Feb.   —  April 9      Aug.   —  Oct. 8
               March  —  May 7        Sept.  —  Nov. 8
               April  —  June 11      Oct.   —  Dec. 10
               May    —  July 9

_____________________________________________________________________________
|                            Hurricane Sandy                                |
|                                                                           |
|The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) sample is designed to   |
|produce estimates of job openings, hires, and separations for the nation   |
|as a whole, and for four geographic regions.  Industry detail is produced  |
|only for the national-level estimates. While JOLTS does not produce data   |
|at the detailed local level, some effect of the storm and ensuing flooding |
|may be reflected in the JOLTS estimates.                                   |
|                                                                           |
|All possible efforts were made to contact survey respondents in the areas  |
|affected by Hurricane Sandy, and special treatment procedures were used for|
|selected cases as described below. Nonresponding establishments that met   |
|the following criteria were given special treatment in the October         |
|estimation:  1.) The establishment exhibited a consistent pattern of       |
|reporting survey data in the months preceding the storm, 2.) The           |
|establishment was located in one of the most heavily damaged or flooded    |
|areas as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),        |
|3.) The establishment was identified as being in a hurricane zone or       |
|evacuation area by the US Army Corps of Engineers or as being in an        |
|evacuation area by the New York City Office of Emergency Management,       |
|4.) Research produced independent corroboration that the business location |
|was not operating, and 5.) Research produced no evidence that the          |
|establishment’s workforce was still being paid or was otherwise considered |
|employed. For such establishment, BLS assumed that they had no job openings|
|as of the last business day of the month, and that by the end of October   |
|the business was closed and their entire workforce was laid off. There were|
|very few establishments subject to the special procedures.                 |
|                                                                           |
|While the preliminary estimates in this release reflect this special       |
|treatment, it is not possible to quantify the effect of Hurricane Sandy on |
|the overall JOLTS estimates. Attempts to collect October data in the       |
|affected areas will continue, and final October estimates will be released |
|next month.                                                                |
|___________________________________________________________________________|


Technical Note


  The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)
are collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business
establishments by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

  In a monthly survey of business establishments, data are
collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs
and discharges, and other separations.  Data collection methods
include computer-assisted telephone interviewing, touchtone data
entry, web, fax, e-mail, and mail.

Coverage

  The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such
as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and
local government entities in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia.

Concepts

  Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this
release are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS).  In order to
ensure the highest possible quality of data, State Workforce
Agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry code, location, and ownership classification of all
establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establishment
characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for
the first month of the year.

  Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who
worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th
day of the reference month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-
term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave.  Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay
period, are not counted as employed.  Employees of temporary help
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and
consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

  Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for
the last business day of the reference month.  A job opening
requires that: 1) a specific position exists and there is work
available for that position, 2) work could start within 30 days
regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found, and 3) the
employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to
fill the position.  Included are full-time, part-time, permanent,
short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active recruiting means that
the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising
in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs,
accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions,
demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are
jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for
which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work,
and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants.
The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job
openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

  Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll
occurring at any time during the reference month, including both
new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the
location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or
intermittent employees who returned to work after having been
formally separated, and transfers from other locations.  The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting
site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help
agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or
consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

  Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations).  Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations
initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to
rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7
days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings;
firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or
short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees.
Other separations include retirements, transfers to other
locations, deaths, and separations due to disability.  Separations
do not include transfers within the same location or employees on
strike.

  The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of
separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are
computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

  Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total
separations are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are
computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying
that quotient by 100.  This figure will be approximately equal to
the sum of the 12 monthly rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES
annual levels are rounded to the nearest thousand before the annual
estimates are calculated.  Consistent with BLS practices, annual
estimates are published only for not seasonally adjusted data.

  Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last
business day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day
of the month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot
be cumulated throughout each month, annual figures for job openings
cannot be created by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and
separations are flow measures and are cumulated over the month with
a total reported for the month.  Therefore, the annual figures can
be created by summing the monthly estimates.

Special collection procedures

  An implied measure of employment change can be derived from the
JOLTS data by subtracting separations from hires for a given
month.  Aggregating these monthly changes historically produced
employment levels that overstated employment change as measured by
CES at the total nonfarm level.  Research into this problem showed
that a significant amount of the divergence between the CES
employment levels and the derived JOLTS employment levels was
traceable to the Employment Services industry and to the State
Government Education industry.  In the former industry, businesses
have a difficult time reporting hires and separations of temporary
help workers.  In the latter industry, employers have difficulty
reporting hires and separations of student workers.  BLS now
devotes additional resources to the collection, editing, and review
of data for these industries.  BLS analysts more closely examine
reported data that do not provide a consistent picture over time,
and re-contact the respondents as necessary.  Analysts work with
the respondents to adjust their reporting practices as possible.
Units that cannot be reconciled but are clearly incorrect on a
consistent basis are not used, they are replaced by imputed values
using standard techniques.

Sample and estimation methodology

  The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,400
nonfarm business establishments, including factories, offices, and
stores, as well as federal, state, and local governments in the 50
states and the District of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn
from a universe of over 9.1 million establishments compiled as part
of the operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW) program.  This program includes all employers subject to state
Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

  The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry
sector, and establishment size class. The JOLTS sample is constructed
from individual panels of sample units drawn on an annual basis. The
full annual sample consists of one certainty panel composed of only
large units selected with virtual certainty based on their size and
24 non-certainty panels.  Each month a new non-certainty panel is
rolled into collection, and the oldest non-certainty panel is
rolled out.  This means that at any given time the JOLTS sample is
constructed from panels from three different annual sampling
frames.  The entire sample of old plus new panels is post-
stratified and re-weighted annually to represent the most recent
sampling frame.  Additionally, the out-of-business establishments
are removed from the old panels.  The annual sample is supplemented
with a quarterly sample of birth establishments (i.e., new
establishments) to better reflect the impact of younger
establishments in the JOLTS sample.

  JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked or ratio adjusted
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the Current
Employment Statistics (CES) survey.  A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment
is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data elements.

  JOLTS business birth/death model

  As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as
current as its sampling frame.  The time lag from the birth of an
establishment until its appearance on the sampling frame is
approximately one year.  In addition, many of these new units may
fail within the first year.  Since these universe units cannot be
reflected on the sampling frame immediately, the JOLTS
sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and separations from
these units during their early existence.  BLS has developed a model
to estimate birth/death activity for current months by examining the
birth/death activity from previous years on the QCEW and projecting
forward using the ratio of over-the-year CES employment change. 
The birth/death model also uses historical JOLTS data to estimate the
amount of “churn” (hires and separations) that exists in establishments
of various sizes.  The model then combines the estimated churn with
the projected employment change to estimate the number of hires and
separations taking place in these units that cannot be measured
through sampling.

  The model-based estimate of total separations is distributed to
the three components–-quits; layoffs and discharges; and other
separations--in proportion to their contribution to the sample-
based estimate of total separations.  Additionally, job openings
for the modeled units are estimated by computing the ratio of
openings to hires in the collected data and applying that ratio to
the modeled hires.  The estimates of job openings, hires, and
separations produced by the birth/death model are then added to the
sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

  BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12 ARIMA
seasonal adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of
estimating and removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such
as weather, holidays, and the beginning and ending of the school
year.  Seasonal adjustment makes it easier to observe fundamental
changes in the level of the series, particularly those associated
with general economic expansions and contractions.  A concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal
adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.

  JOLTS uses moving averages as seasonal filters in seasonal
adjustment.  JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and
multiplicative seasonal adjustment models and REGARIMA (regression
with autocorrelated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal
adjustment factors at the beginning and end of the series and to
detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

  JOLTS hires minus separations should be comparable to the CES net
employment change.  However, definitional differences as well as
sampling and non-sampling errors between the two surveys
historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES over time. To limit
the divergence, and improve the quality of the JOLTS hires and
separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly Alignment Method.
The Monthly Alignment Method applies the CES employment trends to
the seasonally adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus
separations) forcing them to be approximately the same, while
preserving the seasonality of the JOLTS data.  First, the two
series are seasonally adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS
implied employment trend and the CES net employment change is
calculated. Next, the JOLTS implied employment trend is adjusted to
equal the CES net employment change through a proportional
adjustment. This proportional adjustment procedure adjusts the two
components (hires, separations) proportionally to their
contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations).  For
example, if hires are 40 percent of the churn for a given month,
they will receive 40 percent of the needed adjustment and
separations will receive 60 percent of the needed adjustment. The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors.  After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to
adjust the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the
adjusted levels.  The monthly alignment procedure assures a close
match of the JOLTS implied employment trend with the CES trend. The
CES series is considered a highly accurate measure of net
employment change owing to its very large sample size and annual
benchmarking to universe counts of employment from the QCEW
program.

Historical changes in JOLTS data

  The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are
relatively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one
panel enrolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the
original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002.  The supplemental panels of
establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until those points
are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units
were reporting data at that time.

  In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and
separations data were revised to address possible underreporting.
As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior
to March 2002 may not be comparable to estimates for March 2002 and
later.

  The federal government reorganization that involved transferring
approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland
Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations
estimates for the federal government.  The Office of Personnel
Management's record shows these transfers were completed in March
2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires
and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers
between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security
reorganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of
these intergovernmental transfers would distort the federal government
time series.

Reliability of the estimates

  JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample rather than the entire population is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the "true" population values they represent.  The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular
sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-
percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a
sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
"true" population value because of sampling error.  Estimates of
sampling errors are available upon request.

  The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain
data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by
respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the
data, and errors from the employment benchmark data used in
estimation.

Other information

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................  3,408  3,657  3,722  3,593  3,661  3,547  3,675    2.5   2.7   2.7   2.6   2.7   2.6   2.7

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,062  3,285  3,346  3,211  3,257  3,172  3,293    2.7   2.9   2.9   2.8   2.8   2.8   2.9
  Construction...........................     80     69     68     67     81     82    130    1.4   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.4   1.5   2.3
  Manufacturing..........................    240    297    296    273    257    241    279    2.0   2.4   2.4   2.2   2.1   2.0   2.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    594    591    588    585    592    592    594    2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3
   Retail trade..........................    334    348    348    334    350    342    373    2.2   2.3   2.3   2.2   2.3   2.3   2.5
  Professional and business services.....    644    718    693    641    761    622    646    3.6   3.9   3.7   3.5   4.1   3.3   3.5
  Education and health services(6).......    622    687    713    689    661    725    660    3.0   3.3   3.4   3.3   3.1   3.4   3.1
   Health care and social assistance.....    558    629    660    604    601    654    608    3.2   3.6   3.7   3.4   3.4   3.7   3.4
  Leisure and hospitality................    404    432    460    469    405    366    431    2.9   3.1   3.3   3.3   2.9   2.6   3.0
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     62     52     47     50     50     54     52    3.1   2.6   2.4   2.5   2.5   2.7   2.6
   Accommodation and food services.......    342    381    413    419    355    312    379    2.9   3.2   3.4   3.5   2.9   2.6   3.1
 Government(7)...........................    345    372    376    382    404    375    382    1.5   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.8   1.7   1.7
  State and local........................    279    302    304    329    327    306    321    1.4   1.6   1.6   1.7   1.7   1.6   1.6


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    573    675    664    671    681    659    667    2.2   2.6   2.6   2.6   2.6   2.5   2.5
  South..................................  1,310  1,474  1,490  1,399  1,431  1,325  1,404    2.7   3.0   3.0   2.8   2.9   2.7   2.8
  Midwest................................    715    755    777    759    790    817    842    2.3   2.4   2.5   2.4   2.5   2.6   2.7
  West...................................    811    754    792    763    758    747    763    2.7   2.5   2.6   2.5   2.5   2.5   2.5


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p Preliminary



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................  4,220  4,461  4,284  4,278  4,440  4,204  4,339    3.2   3.4   3.2   3.2   3.3   3.1   3.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,979  4,176  4,000  3,989  4,109  3,922  4,056    3.6   3.8   3.6   3.6   3.7   3.5   3.6
  Construction...........................    333    314    355    359    323    327    321    6.0   5.7   6.4   6.5   5.9   5.9   5.8
  Manufacturing..........................    240    262    270    244    230    235    252    2.0   2.2   2.3   2.0   1.9   2.0   2.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    840    872    821    848    892    819    884    3.3   3.4   3.2   3.3   3.5   3.2   3.5
   Retail trade..........................    559    577    556    570    577    548    595    3.8   3.9   3.8   3.9   3.9   3.7   4.0
  Professional and business services.....    893    982    931    871    915    848    888    5.1   5.5   5.2   4.9   5.1   4.7   4.9
  Education and health services(6).......    484    540    494    500    502    499    499    2.4   2.7   2.4   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.4
   Health care and social assistance.....    414    466    425    427    430    417    428    2.5   2.7   2.5   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.5
  Leisure and hospitality................    719    715    700    720    747    708    754    5.4   5.3   5.1   5.3   5.5   5.2   5.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    131    115    108    106    104    102    133    6.9   6.0   5.7   5.5   5.4   5.3   6.9
   Accommodation and food services.......    588    600    592    614    643    606    621    5.1   5.1   5.1   5.2   5.5   5.1   5.3
 Government(7)...........................    241    285    284    288    332    283    283    1.1   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.5   1.3   1.3
  State and local........................    215    254    256    268    300    251    255    1.1   1.3   1.3   1.4   1.6   1.3   1.3


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    684    696    701    675    676    745    644    2.7   2.7   2.8   2.7   2.7   2.9   2.5
  South..................................  1,656  1,781  1,691  1,674  1,758  1,722  1,751    3.5   3.7   3.5   3.5   3.6   3.6   3.6
  Midwest................................    960  1,030    985    993  1,056    893    965    3.2   3.4   3.3   3.3   3.5   2.9   3.2
  West...................................    919    953    908    935    951    844    979    3.2   3.3   3.1   3.2   3.3   2.9   3.3


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................  4,065  4,463  4,249  4,088  4,355  4,017  4,084    3.1   3.4   3.2   3.1   3.3   3.0   3.1

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,781  4,163  3,943  3,789  4,062  3,759  3,776    3.4   3.7   3.5   3.4   3.6   3.4   3.4
  Construction...........................    325    359    342    358    316    332    299    5.9   6.5   6.2   6.5   5.7   6.0   5.4
  Manufacturing..........................    227    248    263    228    250    235    234    1.9   2.1   2.2   1.9   2.1   2.0   2.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    813    835    827    815    883    805    832    3.2   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.5   3.2   3.3
   Retail trade..........................    539    586    558    556    587    541    554    3.7   4.0   3.8   3.8   4.0   3.7   3.7
  Professional and business services.....    831  1,035    921    807    911    821    785    4.8   5.8   5.1   4.5   5.1   4.6   4.4
  Education and health services(6).......    450    479    493    463    474    438    471    2.2   2.4   2.4   2.3   2.3   2.1   2.3
   Health care and social assistance.....    386    414    409    396    404    375    396    2.3   2.4   2.4   2.3   2.4   2.2   2.3
  Leisure and hospitality................    663    712    679    685    730    672    704    5.0   5.2   5.0   5.0   5.3   4.9   5.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    114    135    101    105     88    104    118    6.0   7.0   5.3   5.5   4.5   5.4   6.1
   Accommodation and food services.......    549    577    578    579    642    568    586    4.8   4.9   4.9   4.9   5.5   4.8   5.0
 Government(7)...........................    285    300    306    299    292    258    308    1.3   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.3   1.2   1.4
  State and local........................    253    270    276    271    262    226    269    1.3   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.2   1.4


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    702    690    668    711    671    704    676    2.8   2.7   2.6   2.8   2.6   2.8   2.7
  South..................................  1,537  1,772  1,690  1,579  1,696  1,646  1,625    3.2   3.7   3.5   3.3   3.5   3.4   3.3
  Midwest................................    949  1,038    912    894  1,056    868    846    3.2   3.4   3.0   3.0   3.5   2.9   2.8
  West...................................    877    963    979    905    931    801    937    3.0   3.3   3.4   3.1   3.2   2.7   3.2


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................  1,983  2,176  2,133  2,163  2,151  1,964  2,067    1.5   1.6   1.6   1.6   1.6   1.5   1.5

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  1,869  2,041  1,998  2,033  2,025  1,849  1,931    1.7   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.7   1.7
  Construction...........................     80     79     86     87     75     69     93    1.5   1.4   1.6   1.6   1.4   1.3   1.7
  Manufacturing..........................    105    117    108    107    113    109     98     .9   1.0    .9    .9    .9    .9    .8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    461    440    465    482    471    425    462    1.8   1.7   1.8   1.9   1.9   1.7   1.8
   Retail trade..........................    330    318    330    340    337    317    316    2.2   2.2   2.2   2.3   2.3   2.1   2.1
  Professional and business services.....    368    439    400    386    386    362    357    2.1   2.5   2.2   2.2   2.2   2.0   2.0
  Education and health services(6).......    242    269    269    279    277    243    263    1.2   1.3   1.3   1.4   1.4   1.2   1.3
   Health care and social assistance.....    215    239    229    248    234    206    228    1.3   1.4   1.3   1.5   1.4   1.2   1.3
  Leisure and hospitality................    374    448    440    432    430    411    430    2.8   3.3   3.2   3.2   3.2   3.0   3.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     41     52     49     47     44     33     43    2.1   2.7   2.6   2.5   2.3   1.7   2.2
   Accommodation and food services.......    334    396    391    385    386    377    387    2.9   3.4   3.3   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.3
 Government(7)...........................    114    136    135    130    125    115    136     .5    .6    .6    .6    .6    .5    .6
  State and local........................    102    124    126    119    115    105    121     .5    .6    .7    .6    .6    .5    .6


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    288    305    300    315    325    290    285    1.1   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.3   1.1   1.1
  South..................................    782    899    925    945    906    868    893    1.6   1.9   1.9   2.0   1.9   1.8   1.8
  Midwest................................    477    521    474    449    488    431    450    1.6   1.7   1.6   1.5   1.6   1.4   1.5
  West...................................    436    452    434    454    432    375    439    1.5   1.6   1.5   1.6   1.5   1.3   1.5


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary



Table 5.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................  1,740  1,956  1,761  1,582  1,848  1,728  1,660    1.3   1.5   1.3   1.2   1.4   1.3   1.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  1,630  1,852  1,655  1,482  1,745  1,643  1,557    1.5   1.7   1.5   1.3   1.6   1.5   1.4
  Construction...........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Manufacturing..........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Retail trade..........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Professional and business services.....     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Education and health services(6).......     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Health care and social assistance.....     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Leisure and hospitality................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Accommodation and food services.......     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
 Government(7)...........................    110    104    106    100    103     85    102     .5    .5    .5    .5    .5    .4    .5
  State and local........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    340    331    298    323    269    344    329    1.4   1.3   1.2   1.3   1.1   1.4   1.3
  South..................................    639    761    633    522    686    653    594    1.3   1.6   1.3   1.1   1.4   1.3   1.2
  Midwest................................    393    443    366    365    467    365    319    1.3   1.5   1.2   1.2   1.5   1.2   1.0
  West...................................    368    421    464    372    426    366    418    1.3   1.4   1.6   1.3   1.5   1.2   1.4


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary
  - Data not available.


Table 6.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................    342    331    355    343    356    326    357    0.3   0.2   0.3   0.3   0.3   0.2   0.3

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................    281    270    290    274    292    267    288     .3    .2    .3    .2    .3    .2    .3
  Construction...........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Manufacturing..........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Retail trade..........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Professional and business services.....     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Education and health services(6).......     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Health care and social assistance.....     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Leisure and hospitality................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Accommodation and food services.......     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
 Government(7)...........................     61     61     65     69     64     59     70     .3    .3    .3    .3    .3    .3    .3
  State and local........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  South..................................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Midwest................................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  West...................................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary
  - Data not available.


Table 7.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  3,659    3,584    3,928           2.7      2.6      2.8

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,310    3,217    3,546           2.9      2.8      3.1
  Mining and logging............................     22       18       16           2.7      2.1      1.9
  Construction..................................     76       86      132           1.3      1.5      2.2
  Manufacturing.................................    243      246      282           2.0      2.0      2.3
   Durable goods................................    162      144      176           2.2      1.9      2.3
   Nondurable goods.............................     81      102      107           1.8      2.2      2.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    684      664      696           2.6      2.6      2.7
   Wholesale trade..............................    155      129      108           2.7      2.2      1.9
   Retail trade.................................    423      403      483           2.8      2.7      3.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    106      131      104           2.1      2.6      2.0
  Information...................................    119      101      119           4.3      3.7      4.3
  Financial activities..........................    248      280      258           3.1      3.5      3.2
   Finance and insurance........................    185      218      198           3.1      3.6      3.3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     64       62       60           3.2      3.0      3.0
  Professional and business services............    702      618      695           3.8      3.3      3.7
  Education and health services.................    661      705      696           3.2      3.4      3.3
   Educational services.........................     68       64       56           2.0      1.9      1.6
   Health care and social assistance............    592      641      641           3.4      3.6      3.6
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    424      372      455           3.1      2.6      3.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     63       52       53           3.2      2.5      2.7
   Accommodation and food services..............    362      320      402           3.1      2.6      3.3
  Other services................................    129      129      196           2.4      2.3      3.5

 Government.....................................    349      368      383           1.5      1.7      1.7
  Federal.......................................     72       67       66           2.5      2.3      2.3
  State and local...............................    277      301      316           1.4      1.6      1.6

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    630      663      732           2.4      2.5      2.8
  South.........................................  1,402    1,320    1,491           2.8      2.6      3.0
  Midwest.......................................    740      849      871           2.4      2.7      2.8
  West..........................................    887      752      834           3.0      2.5      2.7


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Table 8.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  4,509    4,380    4,608           3.4      3.3      3.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,275    3,999    4,352           3.9      3.6      3.9
  Mining and logging............................     29       27       27           3.5      3.1      3.3
  Construction..................................    350      320      336           6.1      5.5      5.8
  Manufacturing.................................    244      230      255           2.1      1.9      2.1
   Durable goods................................    140      124      151           1.9      1.7      2.0
   Nondurable goods.............................    104      106      104           2.3      2.3      2.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    976      871    1,046           3.9      3.4      4.1
   Wholesale trade..............................    145      132      138           2.6      2.3      2.4
   Retail trade.................................    679      592      735           4.6      4.0      5.0
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    153      147      173           3.1      2.9      3.5
  Information...................................     62       56       68           2.3      2.2      2.6
  Financial activities..........................    193      192      207           2.5      2.5      2.7
   Finance and insurance........................    108      123      141           1.9      2.1      2.4
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     85       69       67           4.4      3.5      3.4
  Professional and business services............    952      788      937           5.4      4.4      5.2
  Education and health services.................    526      596      537           2.6      2.9      2.6
   Educational services.........................     76      154       75           2.2      4.7      2.2
   Health care and social assistance............    449      442      461           2.7      2.6      2.7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    689      718      719           5.2      5.2      5.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     99       94       99           5.3      4.7      5.2
   Accommodation and food services..............    590      624      620           5.1      5.2      5.3
  Other services................................    255      202      219           4.8      3.8      4.1

 Government.....................................    234      380      256           1.0      1.7      1.1
  Federal.......................................     27       35       27            .9      1.2      1.0
  State and local...............................    208      345      229           1.1      1.8      1.2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    720      839      663           2.8      3.3      2.6
  South.........................................  1,795    1,745    1,886           3.7      3.6      3.9
  Midwest.......................................  1,033      910    1,027           3.4      3.0      3.4
  West..........................................    960      887    1,032           3.3      3.0      3.5


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Table 9.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  4,286    4,291    4,267           3.2      3.2      3.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,062    3,971    4,022           3.7      3.5      3.6
  Mining and logging............................     23       30       35           2.9      3.5      4.2
  Construction..................................    354      338      327           6.2      5.9      5.7
  Manufacturing.................................    251      235      258           2.1      2.0      2.1
   Durable goods................................    138      144      158           1.9      1.9      2.1
   Nondurable goods.............................    113       91       99           2.5      2.0      2.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    817      820      838           3.2      3.2      3.3
   Wholesale trade..............................    130      134      136           2.3      2.4      2.4
   Retail trade.................................    538      549      546           3.7      3.7      3.7
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    148      137      157           3.0      2.7      3.1
  Information...................................     63       62       61           2.4      2.4      2.3
  Financial activities..........................    195      191      201           2.5      2.5      2.6
   Finance and insurance........................    102      123      123           1.8      2.1      2.1
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     94       68       79           4.8      3.5      4.0
  Professional and business services............    872      775      808           4.9      4.3      4.4
  Education and health services.................    422      456      438           2.1      2.2      2.1
   Educational services.........................     47       71       57           1.4      2.2      1.6
   Health care and social assistance............    375      384      381           2.2      2.3      2.2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    819      854      855           6.1      6.1      6.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    157      195      162           8.4      9.8      8.5
   Accommodation and food services..............    662      659      693           5.8      5.5      5.9
  Other services................................    245      211      201           4.6      3.9      3.7

 Government.....................................    224      320      245           1.0      1.5      1.1
  Federal.......................................     31       42       40           1.1      1.5      1.4
  State and local...............................    192      278      205           1.0      1.5      1.0

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    718      841      700           2.8      3.3      2.7
  South.........................................  1,619    1,644    1,675           3.4      3.4      3.4
  Midwest.......................................  1,016      944      880           3.4      3.1      2.9
  West..........................................    933      862    1,011           3.2      2.9      3.4


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Table 10.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  2,091    2,143    2,155           1.6      1.6      1.6

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,000    2,013    2,044           1.8      1.8      1.8
  Mining and logging............................     16       18       23           1.9      2.2      2.7
  Construction..................................     89       75      109           1.5      1.3      1.9
  Manufacturing.................................    114      114      104           1.0      1.0       .9
   Durable goods................................     62       61       65            .8       .8       .9
   Nondurable goods.............................     53       53       39           1.2      1.2       .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    470      469      477           1.9      1.9      1.9
   Wholesale trade..............................     74       54       75           1.3      1.0      1.3
   Retail trade.................................    335      351      318           2.3      2.4      2.1
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     61       64       84           1.2      1.3      1.7
  Information...................................     37       38       32           1.4      1.5      1.2
  Financial activities..........................    101      113       92           1.3      1.5      1.2
   Finance and insurance........................     65       68       58           1.1      1.2      1.0
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     36       45       33           1.9      2.3      1.7
  Professional and business services............    411      355      385           2.3      2.0      2.1
  Education and health services.................    248      267      264           1.2      1.3      1.3
   Educational services.........................     24       48       30            .7      1.4       .9
   Health care and social assistance............    225      219      234           1.3      1.3      1.4
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    408      485      464           3.1      3.5      3.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     41       52       42           2.2      2.6      2.2
   Accommodation and food services..............    367      434      421           3.2      3.6      3.6
  Other services................................    105       77       96           2.0      1.4      1.8

 Government.....................................     92      130      111            .4       .6       .5
  Federal.......................................     10       11       13            .3       .4       .5
  State and local...............................     82      119       98            .4       .6       .5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    301      355      295           1.2      1.4      1.1
  South.........................................    816      905      918           1.7      1.9      1.9
  Midwest.......................................    523      465      485           1.7      1.5      1.6
  West..........................................    450      417      457           1.5      1.4      1.5


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Table 11.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  1,861    1,833    1,765           1.4      1.4      1.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,770    1,698    1,684           1.6      1.5      1.5
  Mining and logging............................      5       10       11            .6      1.2      1.3
  Construction..................................    250      256      215           4.3      4.4      3.7
  Manufacturing.................................    106      103      138            .9       .9      1.1
   Durable goods................................     62       71       85            .8       .9      1.1
   Nondurable goods.............................     45       32       53           1.0       .7      1.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    261      275      283           1.0      1.1      1.1
   Wholesale trade..............................     42       74       47            .8      1.3       .8
   Retail trade.................................    151      142      183           1.0      1.0      1.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     68       59       52           1.4      1.2      1.0
  Information...................................     23       16       22            .9       .6       .8
  Financial activities..........................     75       36       74           1.0       .5      1.0
   Finance and insurance........................     25       22       33            .4       .4       .6
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     49       14       41           2.5       .7      2.1
  Professional and business services............    401      388      339           2.3      2.2      1.9
  Education and health services.................    134      143      139            .7       .7       .7
   Educational services.........................     20       19       22            .6       .6       .6
   Health care and social assistance............    114      124      117            .7       .7       .7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    387      342      361           2.9      2.5      2.6
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    114      140      116           6.1      7.0      6.1
   Accommodation and food services..............    273      202      245           2.4      1.7      2.1
  Other services................................    128      130      103           2.4      2.4      1.9

 Government.....................................     91      135       81            .4       .6       .4
  Federal.......................................     14       21       17            .5       .7       .6
  State and local...............................     77      114       65            .4       .6       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    340      414      340           1.3      1.6      1.3
  South.........................................    688      624      623           1.4      1.3      1.3
  Midwest.......................................    416      411      321           1.4      1.4      1.0
  West..........................................    417      383      481           1.4      1.3      1.6


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Table 12.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................    333      315      347           0.3      0.2      0.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    292      260      294            .3       .2       .3
  Mining and logging............................      3        2        2            .3       .2       .2
  Construction..................................     15        7        3            .3       .1       .1
  Manufacturing.................................     31       18       16            .3       .2       .1
   Durable goods................................     15       12        9            .2       .2       .1
   Nondurable goods.............................     16        6        7            .4       .1       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     86       76       79            .3       .3       .3
   Wholesale trade..............................     15        6       14            .3       .1       .2
   Retail trade.................................     52       57       45            .4       .4       .3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     19       13       21            .4       .3       .4
  Information...................................      3        7        7            .1       .3       .3
  Financial activities..........................     20       42       36            .3       .5       .5
   Finance and insurance........................     11       32       31            .2       .6       .5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      8       10        5            .4       .5       .2
  Professional and business services............     59       32       84            .3       .2       .5
  Education and health services.................     40       46       34            .2       .2       .2
   Educational services.........................      4        5        4            .1       .1       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     36       41       30            .2       .2       .2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     23       27       30            .2       .2       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      2        4        3            .1       .2       .2
   Accommodation and food services..............     22       24       27            .2       .2       .2
  Other services................................     12        4        3            .2       .1       .1

 Government.....................................     41       55       53            .2       .3       .2
  Federal.......................................      8       10       10            .3       .4       .4
  State and local...............................     33       45       42            .2       .2       .2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     76       72       65            .3       .3       .3
  South.........................................    114      115      135            .2       .2       .3
  Midwest.......................................     76       67       75            .3       .2       .2
  West..........................................     66       61       72            .2       .2       .2


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Last Modified Date: December 11, 2012