Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release

                                   
For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, February 7, 2012     USDL-12-0214

Technical information:   (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


            Job Openings and Labor Turnover – December 2011

There were 3.4 million job openings on the last business day of
December, up from 3.1 million in November, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. The hires rate (3.1 percent) and
separations rate (3.0 percent) were unchanged over the month. The job
openings rate has trended upward since the end of the recession in
June 2009. (Recession dates are determined by the National Bureau of
Economic Research.) This release includes estimates of the number and
rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by
industry and by geographic region.

Job Openings

The number of job openings in December was 3.4 million, up from 3.1
million in November. (See table 1.) Although the number of job
openings remained below the 4.4 million openings when the recession
began in December 2007, the number of job openings has increased 39
percent since the end of the recession in June 2009.

The number of job openings in December (not seasonally adjusted)
increased over the year for total nonfarm and total private; the level
was little changed for government. Several industries saw increases in
the number of job openings over the year, while the number of job
openings decreased for federal government. The South region
experienced an increase in the number of job openings over the year.
(See table 5.)

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Dec. | Nov. | Dec. | Dec. | Nov. | Dec. | Dec. | Nov. | Dec.
                   | 2010 | 2011 | 2011p| 2010 | 2011 | 2011p| 2010 | 2011 | 2011p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|2,921 |3,118 |3,376 |3,905 |4,132 |4,046 |3,836 |3,986 |3,909
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|2,500 |2,766 |3,009 |3,631 |3,853 |3,765 |3,539 |3,686 |3,593
  Construction.....|   44 |   74 |   71 |  356 |  304 |  289 |  393 |  307 |  280
  Manufacturing....|  184 |  242 |  264 |  264 |  236 |  261 |  252 |  217 |  226
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  463 |  541 |  571 |  756 |  800 |  803 |  718 |  730 |  731
   Retail trade....|  268 |  305 |  336 |  476 |  559 |  534 |  470 |  496 |  494
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  609 |  503 |  652 |  780 |  845 |  787 |  735 |  811 |  792
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  510 |  609 |  588 |  465 |  472 |  487 |  450 |  459 |  460
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  270 |  411 |  402 |  596 |  733 |  715 |  583 |  697 |  694
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|   41 |   57 |   44 |   98 |  146 |  137 |   98 |  147 |  145
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  229 |  354 |  358 |  498 |  587 |  578 |  485 |  549 |  549
 Government(3).....|  421 |  353 |  367 |  274 |  278 |  282 |  297 |  300 |  315
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  319 |  299 |  302 |  242 |  247 |  250 |  269 |  266 |  282
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|  2.2 |  2.3 |  2.5 |  3.0 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  2.9 |  3.0 |  3.0
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|  2.3 |  2.5 |  2.7 |  3.4 |  3.5 |  3.4 |  3.3 |  3.4 |  3.3
  Construction.....|  0.8 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  6.5 |  5.5 |  5.2 |  7.2 |  5.6 |  5.0
  Manufacturing....|  1.6 |  2.0 |  2.2 |  2.3 |  2.0 |  2.2 |  2.2 |  1.8 |  1.9
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  1.8 |  2.1 |  2.2 |  3.1 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  2.9 |  2.9 |  2.9
   Retail trade....|  1.8 |  2.0 |  2.2 |  3.3 |  3.8 |  3.6 |  3.3 |  3.4 |  3.4
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  3.5 |  2.8 |  3.6 |  4.6 |  4.9 |  4.5 |  4.3 |  4.7 |  4.6
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  2.5 |  2.9 |  2.8 |  2.4 |  2.3 |  2.4 |  2.3 |  2.3 |  2.3
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  2.0 |  3.0 |  2.9 |  4.6 |  5.5 |  5.4 |  4.5 |  5.2 |  5.2
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|  2.1 |  2.9 |  2.3 |  5.2 |  7.7 |  7.3 |  5.2 |  7.8 |  7.7
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  2.0 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  4.5 |  5.1 |  5.0 |  4.3 |  4.8 |  4.8
 Government(3).....|  1.9 |  1.6 |  1.6 |  1.2 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.4
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.6 |  1.2 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.5
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = Preliminary

Hires

In December, the hires rate was unchanged at 3.1 percent for total
nonfarm. The hires rate was little changed over the month in all
industries and regions. (See table 2.) The number of hires in December
was 4.0 million, an increase of 12 percent since the end of the
recession in June 2009.

Over the past 12 months, the hires rate (not seasonally adjusted) was
little changed for total nonfarm, total private, and government. The
hires rate was essentially unchanged over the year in all industries
and regions. (See table 6.)

Separations

The total separations figure includes voluntary quits, involuntary
layoffs and discharges, and other separations, including retirements.
Total separations is also referred to as turnover.

The seasonally adjusted total separations rate was unchanged in
December for total nonfarm and government and little changed for total
private. (See table 3.) Over the year, the total separations rate (not
seasonally adjusted) was little changed for total nonfarm, total
private, and government. (See table 7.)

The quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or
ability to change jobs. In December, the quits rate was little changed
for total nonfarm, total private, and government. (See table 4.) The
number of quits rose from 1.5 million in January 2010 (the most recent
trough) to 1.9 million in December, although it remained below the 2.8
million recorded when the recession began in December 2007.

The number of quits (not seasonally adjusted) in December 2011 was
little changed from December 2010 for total nonfarm and total private
but increased for government. The number of quits increased for state
and local government. No region experienced a significant change in
the number of quits over the year. (See table 8.)

The layoffs and discharges component of total separations is
seasonally adjusted only at the total nonfarm, total private, and
government levels. The layoffs and discharges rate was essentially
unchanged in December 2011 for total nonfarm, total private, and
government. The number of layoffs and discharges for total nonfarm was
1.6 million in December, down from a peak of 2.5 million in February
2009. For the 17 months ending in December 2011, the number of layoffs
and discharges has been at or below 1.8 million—the level at the start
of the recession in December 2007. (See table B.)

The layoffs and discharges level (not seasonally adjusted) for total
nonfarm, total private, and government was little changed over the
year. Over the year, the number of layoffs and discharges declined for
construction. The number of layoffs and discharges increased for other
services over the year. All four regions experienced little change in
the number of layoffs and discharges. (See table 9.)

Table B.  Layoffs and discharges by industry, seasonally adjusted
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                   | Levels (in thousands) |    Rates (percent)
                   |------------------------------------------------
     Industry      |  Dec. |  Nov. |  Dec. |  Dec. |  Nov. |  Dec.
                   |  2010 |  2011 |  2011p|  2010 |  2011 |  2011p
-------------------|------------------------------------------------
Total..............| 1,677 | 1,718 | 1,644 |  1.3  |  1.3  |  1.2
 Total private.....| 1,549 | 1,604 | 1,528 |  1.4  |  1.5  |  1.4
 Government........|   128 |   114 |   115 |  0.6  |  0.5  |  0.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = Preliminary

The other separations series is not seasonally adjusted. In December
2011, there were 330,000 other separations for total nonfarm, 259,000
for total private, and 72,000 for government. Compared to December
2010, the number of other separations was little changed for total
nonfarm, total private, and government. (See table 10.)

Relative Contributions to Separations

The total separations level is influenced by the relative contribution
of its three components—quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations. Other separations is historically a very small portion of
total separations; it has rarely been above 10 percent of total
separations. The percentage of total separations attributable to the
individual components has varied over time at the total nonfarm level,
but for the majority of the months since the series began in December
2000, the proportion of quits has exceeded the proportion of layoffs
and discharges. For most of the months between November 2008 and
November 2010, however, the proportion of layoffs and discharges was
equal to or greater than the proportion of quits. Since November 2010,
the series have returned to their historical pattern. In December
2011, the proportion of quits at the total nonfarm level was 49
percent, and the proportion of layoffs and discharges was 42 percent.
(See table C.)

Table C.  Quits and layoffs and discharges as a percentage of total separations, seasonally adjusted
(Levels in thousands)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Quits                      |             Layoffs and discharges
                   | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |      Dec.      |      Nov.      |      Dec.      |      Dec.      |      Nov.      |      Dec.
                   |      2010      |      2011      |      2011p     |      2010      |      2011      |      2011p
     Industry      | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion
                   | Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............| 1,838 |   48%  | 1,955 |   49%  | 1,926 |   49%  | 1,677 |   44%  | 1,718 |   43%  | 1,644 |   42%
 Total private.....| 1,731 |   49%  | 1,835 |   50%  | 1,790 |   50%  | 1,549 |   44%  | 1,604 |   44%  | 1,528 |   43%
 Government........|   107 |   36%  |   120 |   40%  |   135 |   43%  |   128 |   43%  |   114 |   38%  |   115 |   37%
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = Preliminary

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout
the business cycle. Net employment change results from the
relationship between hires and separations.  When the number of hires
exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires
level is steady or declining. Conversely, when the number of hires is
less than the number of separations, employment declines, even if the
hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in December
2011, hires totaled 48.4 million and separations totaled 47.0 million,
yielding a net employment gain of 1.4 million. These figures include
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during
the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for January 2012
are scheduled to be released on Tuesday, March 13, 2012 at 10:00 a.m.
(EDT).

__________________________________________________________________________
|                  Upcoming changes to the JOLTS Data                    |
|                                                                        |
|     With the release of January data on March 13, BLS will revise the  |
|     job openings, hires, and separations data to incorporate the       |
|     annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment     |
|     estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors. Unadjusted    |
|     data and seasonally adjusted data from December 2006 forward are   |
|     subject to revision. In addition, a revised/birth death model      |
|     will be implemented resulting in possible revisions to the full    |
|     data series. Also effective with the release of January data,      |
|     JOLTS will adopt the 2012 version of the North American            |
|     Industrial Classification System (NAICS). Changes in the 2012      |
|     NAICS structure are minor and will not impact the published JOLTS  |
|     data series.                                                       |
|________________________________________________________________________|


Technical Note


  The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)
are collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business
establishments by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

  In a monthly survey of business establishments, data are
collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs
and discharges, and other separations.  Data collection methods
include computer-assisted telephone interviewing, touchtone data
entry, web, fax, e-mail, and mail.

Coverage

  The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such
as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and
local government entities in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia.

Concepts

  Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this
release are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS).  In order to
ensure the highest possible quality of data, State Workforce
Agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry code, location, and ownership classification of all
establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establishment
characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for
the first month of the year.

  Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who
worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th
day of the reference month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-
term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave.  Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay
period, are not counted as employed.  Employees of temporary help
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and
consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

  Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for
the last business day of the reference month.  A job opening
requires that: 1) a specific position exists and there is work
available for that position, 2) work could start within 30 days
regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found, and 3) the
employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to
fill the position.  Included are full-time, part-time, permanent,
short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active recruiting means that
the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising
in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs,
accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions,
demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are
jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for
which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work,
and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants.
The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job
openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

  Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll
occurring at any time during the reference month, including both
new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the
location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or
intermittent employees who returned to work after having been
formally separated, and transfers from other locations.  The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting
site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help
agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or
consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

  Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations).  Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations
initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to
rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7
days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings;
firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or
short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees.
Other separations include retirements, transfers to other
locations, deaths, and separations due to disability.  Separations
do not include transfers within the same location or employees on
strike.

  The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of
separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are
computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

  Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total
separations are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are
computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying
that quotient by 100.  This figure will be approximately equal to
the sum of the 12 monthly rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES
annual levels are rounded to the nearest thousand before the annual
estimates are calculated.  Consistent with BLS practices, annual
estimates are published only for not seasonally adjusted data.

  Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last
business day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day
of the month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot
be cumulated throughout each month, annual figures for job openings
cannot be created by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and
separations are flow measures and are cumulated over the month with
a total reported for the month.  Therefore, the annual figures can
be created by summing the monthly estimates.

Special collection procedures

  An implied measure of employment change can be derived from the
JOLTS data by subtracting separations from hires for a given
month.  Aggregating these monthly changes historically produced
employment levels that overstated employment change as measured by
CES at the total nonfarm level.  Research into this problem showed
that a significant amount of the divergence between the CES
employment levels and the derived JOLTS employment levels was
traceable to the Employment Services industry and to the State
Government Education industry.  In the former industry, businesses
have a difficult time reporting hires and separations of temporary
help workers.  In the latter industry, employers have difficulty
reporting hires and separations of student workers.  BLS now
devotes additional resources to the collection, editing, and review
of data for these industries.  BLS analysts more closely examine
reported data that do not provide a consistent picture over time,
and re-contact the respondents as necessary.  Analysts work with
the respondents to adjust their reporting practices as possible.
Units that cannot be reconciled but are clearly incorrect on a
consistent basis are not used, they are replaced by imputed values
using standard techniques.

Sample and estimation methodology

  The JOLTS survey design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm
business establishments, including factories, offices, and stores,
as well as federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states
and the District of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a
universe of over 9.1 million establishments compiled as part of the
operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW)
program.  This program includes all employers subject to state
Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

  The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry
sector, and size class. The JOLTS sample is constructed from
individual panels of sample units drawn on an annual basis. The
full annual sample consists of one certainty panel composed of only
large units selected with virtual certainty based on their size and
24 non-certainty panels.  Each month a new non-certainty panel is
rolled into collection, and the oldest non-certainty panel is
rolled out.  This means that at any given time the JOLTS sample is
constructed from panels from three different annual sampling
frames.  The entire sample of old plus new panels is post-
stratified and re-weighted annually to represent the most recent
sampling frame.  Additionally, the out-of-business establishments
are removed from the old panels.  The annual sample is supplemented
with a quarterly sample of birth establishments (i.e., new
establishments) to better reflect the impact of younger
establishments in the JOLTS sample.

  JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked monthly to the
employment estimates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
survey.  A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the
levels for all other JOLTS data elements.

  JOLTS business birth/death model

  As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as
current as its sampling frame.  The time lag from the birth of an
establishment until its appearance on the sampling frame is
approximately one year.  In addition, many of these new units may
fail within the first year.  Since these universe units cannot be
reflected on the sampling frame immediately, the JOLTS
sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and separations from
these units during their early existence.  BLS has developed a model
to estimate birth/death activity for current months by examining the
birth/death activity from previous years on the QCEW and projecting
forward to the present using an econometric technique known as X-12
ARIMA modeling. The birth/death model also uses historical JOLTS data
to estimate the amount of “churn” (hires and separations) that
exists in establishments of various sizes.  The model then combines
the estimated churn with the projected employment change to
estimate the number of hires and separations taking place in these
units that cannot be measured through sampling.

  The model-based estimate of total separations is distributed to
the three components–-quits; layoffs and discharges; and other
separations--in proportion to their contribution to the sample-
based estimate of total separations.  Additionally, job openings
for the modeled units are estimated by computing the ratio of
openings to hires in the collected data and applying that ratio to
the modeled hires.  The estimates of job openings, hires, and
separations produced by the birth/death model are then added to the
sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

  BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12 ARIMA
seasonal adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of
estimating and removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such
as weather, holidays, and the beginning and ending of the school
year.  Seasonal adjustment makes it easier to observe fundamental
changes in the level of the series, particularly those associated
with general economic expansions and contractions.  A concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal
adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.

  JOLTS uses moving averages as seasonal filters in seasonal
adjustment.  JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and
multiplicative seasonal adjustment models and REGARIMA (regression
with autocorrelated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal
adjustment factors at the beginning and end of the series and to
detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

  JOLTS hires minus separations should be comparable to the CES net
employment change.  However, definitional differences as well as
sampling and non-sampling errors between the two surveys
historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES over time. To limit
the divergence, and improve the quality of the JOLTS hires and
separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly Alignment Method.
The Monthly Alignment Method applies the CES employment trends to
the seasonally adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus
separations) forcing them to be approximately the same, while
preserving the seasonality of the JOLTS data.  First, the two
series are seasonally adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS
implied employment trend and the CES net employment change is
calculated. Next, the JOLTS implied employment trend is adjusted to
equal the CES net employment change through a proportional
adjustment. This proportional adjustment procedure adjusts the two
components (hires, separations) proportionally to their
contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations).  For
example, if hires are 40 percent of the churn for a given month,
they will receive 40 percent of the needed adjustment and
separations will receive 60 percent of the needed adjustment. The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors.  After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to
adjust the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the
adjusted levels.  The monthly alignment procedure assures a close
match of the JOLTS implied employment trend with the CES trend. The
CES series is considered a highly accurate measure of net
employment change owing to its very large sample size and annual
benchmarking to universe counts of employment from the QCEW
program.

Using JOLTS data

  The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are
relatively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one
panel enrolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the
original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002.  The supplemental panels of
establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until those points
are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units
were reporting data at that time.

  In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and
separations data were revised to address possible underreporting.
As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior
to March 2002 may not be comparable to estimates for March 2002 and
later.

  The federal government reorganization that involved transferring
approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland
Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations
estimates for the federal government.  The Office of Personnel
Management's record shows these transfers were completed in March
2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires
and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers
between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security
reorganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of
these intergovernmental transfers would distort the federal government
time series.

Reliability of the estimates

  JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample rather than the entire population is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the "true" population values they represent.  The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular
sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-
percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a
sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
"true" population value because of sampling error.  Estimates of
sampling errors are available upon request.

  The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain
data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by
respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the
data, and errors from the employment benchmark data used in
estimation.

Other information

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2010   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     2,921  3,213  3,129  3,377  3,224  3,118  3,376    2.2   2.4   2.3   2.5   2.4   2.3   2.5

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,500  2,905  2,799  3,003  2,864  2,766  3,009    2.3   2.6   2.5   2.7   2.5   2.5   2.7
  Construction...........................     44     75    102     70     84     74     71     .8   1.3   1.8   1.3   1.5   1.3   1.3
  Manufacturing..........................    184    252    232    235    232    242    264    1.6   2.1   1.9   2.0   1.9   2.0   2.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    463    540    490    561    552    541    571    1.8   2.1   1.9   2.2   2.2   2.1   2.2
   Retail trade..........................    268    312    324    328    306    305    336    1.8   2.1   2.2   2.2   2.1   2.0   2.2
  Professional and business services.....    609    640    621    675    576    503    652    3.5   3.6   3.5   3.8   3.2   2.8   3.6
  Education and health services..........    510    604    609    616    593    609    588    2.5   2.9   2.9   3.0   2.9   2.9   2.8
  Leisure and hospitality................    270    338    351    383    374    411    402    2.0   2.5   2.6   2.8   2.7   3.0   2.9
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     41     62     44     62     47     57     44    2.1   3.2   2.3   3.1   2.4   2.9   2.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    229    276    307    321    328    354    358    2.0   2.4   2.6   2.8   2.8   3.0   3.0
 Government(6).........................      421    309    329    374    360    353    367    1.9   1.4   1.5   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.6
  State and local government.............    319    253    287    312    293    299    302    1.6   1.3   1.5   1.6   1.5   1.5   1.6


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       548    570    589    586    552    593    656    2.2   2.2   2.3   2.3   2.1   2.3   2.5
  South...............................     1,023  1,192  1,108  1,273  1,223  1,219  1,380    2.1   2.4   2.3   2.6   2.5   2.5   2.8
  Midwest.............................       617    714    732    704    725    698    766    2.0   2.3   2.4   2.3   2.4   2.3   2.5
  West................................       829    753    775    818    810    630    775    2.8   2.5   2.6   2.8   2.7   2.1   2.6


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = Preliminary


Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2010   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     3,905  3,976  4,060  4,150  4,042  4,132  4,046    3.0   3.0   3.1   3.2   3.1   3.1   3.1

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,631  3,733  3,785  3,885  3,785  3,853  3,765    3.4   3.4   3.5   3.6   3.5   3.5   3.4
  Construction...........................    356    334    309    367    339    304    289    6.5   6.0   5.6   6.6   6.1   5.5   5.2
  Manufacturing..........................    264    259    249    234    235    236    261    2.3   2.2   2.1   2.0   2.0   2.0   2.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    756    767    779    778    816    800    803    3.1   3.1   3.1   3.1   3.3   3.2   3.2
   Retail trade..........................    476    552    526    547    550    559    534    3.3   3.8   3.6   3.8   3.8   3.8   3.6
  Professional and business services.....    780    819    863    895    846    845    787    4.6   4.8   5.0   5.2   4.9   4.9   4.5
  Education and health services..........    465    472    481    482    471    472    487    2.4   2.4   2.4   2.4   2.3   2.3   2.4
  Leisure and hospitality................    596    682    679    698    666    733    715    4.6   5.2   5.1   5.3   5.0   5.5   5.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     98     96    110    126    121    146    137    5.2   5.1   5.8   6.6   6.4   7.7   7.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    498    586    569    572    545    587    578    4.5   5.2   5.0   5.0   4.8   5.1   5.0
 Government(6).........................      274    243    275    264    257    278    282    1.2   1.1   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.3   1.3
  State and local government.............    242    219    247    237    228    247    250    1.2   1.1   1.3   1.2   1.2   1.3   1.3


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       680    675    604    662    667    666    630    2.7   2.7   2.4   2.6   2.7   2.6   2.5
  South...............................     1,513  1,488  1,526  1,592  1,577  1,568  1,545    3.2   3.1   3.2   3.3   3.3   3.3   3.2
  Midwest.............................       878    910    919    987    949    994    960    3.0   3.1   3.1   3.3   3.2   3.3   3.2
  West................................       806    893    868    969    904    914    880    2.8   3.1   3.0   3.4   3.1   3.2   3.0


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2010   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     3,836  3,962  3,960  4,052  3,898  3,986  3,909    2.9   3.0   3.0   3.1   3.0   3.0   3.0

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,539  3,659  3,688  3,763  3,617  3,686  3,593    3.3   3.4   3.4   3.4   3.3   3.4   3.3
  Construction...........................    393    327    320    338    328    307    280    7.2   5.9   5.8   6.1   5.9   5.6   5.0
  Manufacturing..........................    252    239    250    238    216    217    226    2.2   2.0   2.1   2.0   1.8   1.8   1.9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    718    770    762    782    767    730    731    2.9   3.1   3.1   3.1   3.1   2.9   2.9
   Retail trade..........................    470    547    521    546    517    496    494    3.3   3.8   3.6   3.7   3.5   3.4   3.4
  Professional and business services.....    735    806    824    850    817    811    792    4.3   4.7   4.8   4.9   4.7   4.7   4.6
  Education and health services..........    450    431    444    414    440    459    460    2.3   2.2   2.2   2.1   2.2   2.3   2.3
  Leisure and hospitality................    583    670    689    693    634    697    694    4.5   5.1   5.2   5.2   4.8   5.2   5.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     98     97    113    137    105    147    145    5.2   5.1   6.0   7.2   5.5   7.8   7.7
   Accommodation and food services.......    485    573    576    557    529    549    549    4.3   5.1   5.1   4.9   4.6   4.8   4.8
 Government(6).........................      297    302    272    289    281    300    315    1.3   1.4   1.2   1.3   1.3   1.4   1.4
  State and local government.............    269    271    240    255    250    266    282    1.4   1.4   1.2   1.3   1.3   1.4   1.5


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       598    665    627    687    638    642    602    2.4   2.7   2.5   2.7   2.5   2.6   2.4
  South...............................     1,476  1,482  1,463  1,519  1,447  1,559  1,546    3.1   3.1   3.1   3.2   3.0   3.3   3.2
  Midwest.............................       841    905    903    877    846    853    833    2.8   3.0   3.0   2.9   2.8   2.9   2.8
  West................................       759    853    812    901    814    855    837    2.7   3.0   2.8   3.1   2.8   3.0   2.9


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2010   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     1,838  1,969  2,006  2,000  1,923  1,955  1,926    1.4   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  1,731  1,839  1,889  1,884  1,808  1,835  1,790    1.6   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.6
  Construction...........................     81     71     66     84     75    101     79    1.5   1.3   1.2   1.5   1.4   1.8   1.4
  Manufacturing..........................    107    101     98     97    102    117    109     .9    .9    .8    .8    .9   1.0    .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    373    412    422    437    439    402    412    1.5   1.7   1.7   1.8   1.8   1.6   1.6
   Retail trade..........................    274    316    319    327    313    291    310    1.9   2.2   2.2   2.2   2.1   2.0   2.1
  Professional and business services.....    335    391    383    391    341    375    359    2.0   2.3   2.2   2.3   2.0   2.2   2.1
  Education and health services..........    244    238    268    246    239    243    255    1.2   1.2   1.3   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.3
  Leisure and hospitality................    368    401    432    406    381    373    371    2.8   3.0   3.3   3.1   2.9   2.8   2.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     41     44     48     45     44     35     48    2.2   2.3   2.6   2.4   2.3   1.8   2.5
   Accommodation and food services.......    327    357    384    361    338    338    323    2.9   3.2   3.4   3.2   3.0   3.0   2.8
 Government(6).........................      107    130    117    116    114    120    135     .5    .6    .5    .5    .5    .5    .6
  State and local government.............     98    121    108    105    103    110    125     .5    .6    .6    .5    .5    .6    .7


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       251    264    285    275    259    258    250    1.0   1.1   1.1   1.1   1.0   1.0   1.0
  South...............................       761    782    821    836    764    798    779    1.6   1.6   1.7   1.8   1.6   1.7   1.6
  Midwest.............................       411    476    495    440    437    435    436    1.4   1.6   1.7   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5
  West................................       343    460    447    433    423    415    423    1.2   1.6   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.4   1.5


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  2,583    2,761    2,987           1.9      2.0      2.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,215    2,433    2,643           2.0      2.2      2.3
  Mining and Logging............................     21       23       34           2.8      2.8      3.9
  Construction..................................     33       52       49            .6       .9       .9
  Manufacturing.................................    159      203      229           1.3      1.7      1.9
   Durable goods................................    108      148      164           1.5      2.0      2.2
   Nondurable goods.............................     50       55       65           1.1      1.2      1.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    353      467      446           1.4      1.8      1.7
   Wholesale trade..............................     64       89       84           1.1      1.6      1.5
   Retail trade.................................    192      270      245           1.3      1.8      1.6
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     97      108      117           2.0      2.2      2.3
  Information...................................     73       89       96           2.6      3.2      3.5
  Financial activities..........................    181      148      171           2.3      1.9      2.2
   Finance and insurance........................    160      110      150           2.7      1.9      2.6
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     20       38       21           1.0      1.9      1.1
  Professional and business services............    594      452      640           3.4      2.5      3.5
  Education and health services.................    492      582      551           2.4      2.8      2.6
   Educational services.........................     41       51       44           1.2      1.5      1.3
   Health care and social assistance............    451      531      507           2.6      3.0      2.9
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    205      326      305           1.6      2.4      2.3
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     28       49       28           1.6      2.7      1.6
   Accommodation and food services.............     177      278      276           1.6      2.4      2.4
  Other services................................    105       91      123           1.9      1.6      2.2

 Government.....................................    367      328      344           1.6      1.4      1.5
  Federal.......................................     81       47       53           2.8      1.7      1.8
  State and local...............................    286      280      291           1.4      1.4      1.5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    451      524      525           1.8      2.0      2.0
  South.........................................    919    1,068    1,244           1.9      2.2      2.5
  Midwest.......................................    530      597      607           1.7      1.9      2.0
  West..........................................    683      571      611           2.3      1.9      2.1


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  2,841    3,687    2,919           2.2      2.8      2.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,680    3,488    2,747           2.5      3.2      2.5
  Mining and Logging............................     12       19       21           1.7      2.3      2.6
  Construction..................................    219      212      173           4.1      3.7      3.2
  Manufacturing.................................    157      185      157           1.4      1.6      1.3
   Durable goods................................     93      113       96           1.3      1.5      1.3
   Nondurable goods.............................     64       72       61           1.4      1.6      1.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    614      957      657           2.4      3.8      2.6
   Wholesale trade..............................     84       73       94           1.5      1.3      1.7
   Retail trade.................................    367      713      398           2.5      4.7      2.6
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    164      172      165           3.4      3.5      3.3
  Information...................................     55       60       57           2.0      2.3      2.1
  Financial activities..........................    137      143      118           1.8      1.9      1.5
   Finance and insurance........................     83       99       84           1.5      1.7      1.5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     54       44       34           2.8      2.3      1.7
  Professional and business services............    629      769      607           3.7      4.4      3.5
  Education and health services.................    328      396      342           1.6      1.9      1.7
   Educational services.........................     32       49       38           1.0      1.4      1.1
   Health care and social assistance............    296      347      304           1.8      2.0      1.8
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    417      602      490           3.3      4.6      3.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     70      120      100           4.0      6.9      5.8
   Accommodation and food services.............     348      482      390           3.2      4.3      3.5
  Other services................................    112      144      125           2.1      2.7      2.3

 Government.....................................    161      200      172            .7       .9       .8
  Federal.......................................     23       27       24            .8       .9       .9
  State and local...............................    138      173      148            .7       .9       .8

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    505      581      460           2.0      2.3      1.8
  South.........................................  1,125    1,445    1,154           2.4      3.0      2.4
  Midwest.......................................    613      834      663           2.1      2.8      2.2
  West..........................................    598      828      641           2.1      2.8      2.2


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  3,764    3,590    3,749           2.9      2.7      2.8

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,516    3,400    3,475           3.2      3.1      3.1
  Mining and Logging............................     23       19       28           3.1      2.3      3.4
  Construction..................................    445      318      306           8.3      5.6      5.6
  Manufacturing.................................    227      205      204           2.0      1.7      1.7
   Durable goods................................    126      114      116           1.8      1.6      1.6
   Nondurable goods.............................    102       91       89           2.3      2.0      2.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    794      641      779           3.1      2.5      3.0
   Wholesale trade..............................    105       84      101           1.9      1.5      1.8
   Retail trade.................................    506      438      498           3.4      2.9      3.3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    183      118      180           3.7      2.4      3.6
  Information...................................     70       60       63           2.6      2.3      2.4
  Financial activities..........................    145      138      131           1.9      1.8      1.7
   Finance and insurance........................     92       87       96           1.6      1.5      1.7
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     52       51       35           2.7      2.6      1.8
  Professional and business services............    808      785      832           4.7      4.5      4.8
  Education and health services.................    402      367      419           2.0      1.8      2.1
   Educational services.........................     52       38       49           1.6      1.1      1.5
   Health care and social assistance............    350      329      369           2.1      1.9      2.2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    489      696      577           3.8      5.3      4.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     75      177      117           4.3     10.2      6.8
   Accommodation and food services.............     414      519      460           3.8      4.6      4.1
  Other services................................    113      170      136           2.1      3.1      2.5

 Government.....................................    249      190      274           1.1       .8      1.2
  Federal.......................................     25       29       31            .9      1.0      1.1
  State and local...............................    224      161      243           1.1       .8      1.2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    646      613      596           2.6      2.4      2.4
  South.........................................  1,399    1,354    1,460           2.9      2.8      3.0
  Midwest.......................................    935      837      882           3.1      2.8      2.9
  West..........................................    784      785      811           2.7      2.7      2.8


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  1,518    1,597    1,547           1.2      1.2      1.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,437    1,517    1,443           1.3      1.4      1.3
  Mining and Logging............................      7       10       11           1.0      1.2      1.3
  Construction..................................     62       79       58           1.2      1.4      1.1
  Manufacturing.................................     71       92       74            .6       .8       .6
   Durable goods................................     37       45       40            .5       .6       .5
   Nondurable goods.............................     34       48       34            .8      1.1       .8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    331      332      360           1.3      1.3      1.4
   Wholesale trade..............................     32       37       33            .6       .7       .6
   Retail trade.................................    250      242      281           1.7      1.6      1.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     49       54       45           1.0      1.1       .9
  Information...................................     36       35       28           1.3      1.3      1.1
  Financial activities..........................     68       59       67            .9       .8       .9
   Finance and insurance........................     41       36       49            .7       .6       .9
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     27       24       18           1.4      1.2       .9
  Professional and business services............    289      336      288           1.7      1.9      1.6
  Education and health services.................    203      195      215           1.0      1.0      1.1
   Educational services.........................     22       16       20            .7       .5       .6
   Health care and social assistance............    181      179      195           1.1      1.1      1.1
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    298      301      289           2.3      2.3      2.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     28       24       33           1.6      1.4      1.9
   Accommodation and food services.............     270      277      257           2.4      2.4      2.3
  Other services................................     72       77       53           1.3      1.4      1.0

 Government.....................................     81       79      104            .4       .4       .5
  Federal.......................................      7        7        8            .2       .3       .3
  State and local...............................     75       72       96            .4       .4       .5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    219      221      203            .9       .9       .8
  South.........................................    641      675      636           1.4      1.4      1.3
  Midwest.......................................    367      370      371           1.2      1.2      1.2
  West..........................................    291      331      337           1.0      1.1      1.2


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  1,935    1,757    1,872           1.5      1.3      1.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,831    1,688    1,773           1.7      1.5      1.6
  Mining and Logging............................     13        9       11           1.8      1.0      1.4
  Construction..................................    380      232      240           7.0      4.1      4.4
  Manufacturing.................................    128      102      111           1.1       .9       .9
   Durable goods................................     68       62       65           1.0       .8       .9
   Nondurable goods.............................     60       40       46           1.4       .9      1.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    407      249      364           1.6      1.0      1.4
   Wholesale trade..............................     64       36       58           1.2       .6      1.0
   Retail trade.................................    222      161      185           1.5      1.1      1.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    121       52      121           2.5      1.1      2.4
  Information...................................     30       24       28           1.1       .9      1.1
  Financial activities..........................     60       67       38            .8       .9       .5
   Finance and insurance........................     36       43       22            .6       .8       .4
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     24       24       16           1.2      1.3       .8
  Professional and business services............    459      409      492           2.7      2.3      2.8
  Education and health services.................    157      145      141            .8       .7       .7
   Educational services.........................     24       18       25            .7       .5       .7
   Health care and social assistance............    133      127      116            .8       .7       .7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    168      364      270           1.3      2.8      2.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     44      151       81           2.5      8.6      4.7
   Accommodation and food services.............     124      214      189           1.1      1.9      1.7
  Other services................................     29       87       78            .5      1.6      1.4

 Government.....................................    105       69       98            .5       .3       .4
  Federal.......................................      9       11        9            .3       .4       .3
  State and local...............................     96       57       90            .5       .3       .5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    379      343      322           1.5      1.4      1.3
  South.........................................    656      588      713           1.4      1.2      1.5
  Midwest.......................................    491      426      439           1.6      1.4      1.5
  West..........................................    409      399      398           1.4      1.4      1.4


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................    311      237      330           0.2      0.2      0.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    248      194      259            .2       .2       .2
  Mining and Logging............................      3        1        5            .3       .1       .7
  Construction..................................      3        8        9            .1       .1       .2
  Manufacturing.................................     28       11       20            .2       .1       .2
   Durable goods................................     21        8       11            .3       .1       .1
   Nondurable goods.............................      7        4        9            .2       .1       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     56       59       55            .2       .2       .2
   Wholesale trade..............................     10       11       10            .2       .2       .2
   Retail trade.................................     33       36       31            .2       .2       .2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     13       12       14            .3       .2       .3
  Information...................................      5        1        7            .2       .1       .3
  Financial activities..........................     17       12       26            .2       .2       .3
   Finance and insurance........................     15        9       24            .3       .2       .4
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      2        3        2            .1       .1       .1
  Professional and business services............     60       40       53            .4       .2       .3
  Education and health services.................     42       27       63            .2       .1       .3
   Educational services.........................      6        4        4            .2       .1       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     36       23       59            .2       .1       .3
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     23       30       17            .2       .2       .1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      3        2        3            .1       .1       .2
   Accommodation and food services.............      20       28       14            .2       .2       .1
  Other services................................     13        5        5            .2       .1       .1

 Government.....................................     62       42       72            .3       .2       .3
  Federal.......................................      9       11       15            .3       .4       .5
  State and local...............................     53       32       57            .3       .2       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     49       49       71            .2       .2       .3
  South.........................................    102       92      112            .2       .2       .2
  Midwest.......................................     76       41       72            .3       .1       .2
  West..........................................     83       55       76            .3       .2       .3


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Last Modified Date: February 07, 2012