Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-born Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, May 22, 2014                           USDL-14-0873

Technical information: (202) 691-6378    cpsinfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902    PressOffice@bls.gov


                   FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2013


The unemployment rate for the foreign born in the United States was 6.9 percent
in 2013, down from 8.1 percent in 2012, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. The jobless rate for the native born fell to 7.5 percent in 2013, also down
from 8.1 percent in the prior year.

Data on nativity are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a
monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 households. The foreign born are
those who reside in the United States but who were born outside the country or
one of its outlying areas to parents who were not U.S. citizens. The foreign born
include legally-admitted immigrants, refugees, temporary residents such as students
and temporary workers, and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do
not separately identify the numbers of persons in these categories. For further
information about the survey, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2013 data:

   --In 2013, there were 25.3 million foreign-born persons in the U.S. labor force,
     comprising 16.3 percent of the total. (See table 1.)

   --Hispanics accounted for 47.8 percent of the foreign-born labor force in 2013
     and Asians accounted for 24.3 percent. (See table 1.) (Data in this news release
     for persons who are white, black, or Asian do not include those of Hispanic or
     Latino ethnicity. Data on persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are presented
     separately.)

   --Foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed in
     service occupations and less likely to be employed in management, professional,
     and related occupations and in sales and office occupations. (See table 4.)

   --The median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage and salary
     workers were $643 in 2013, compared with $805 for their native-born counterparts.
     (See table 5.) (Differences in earnings reflect a variety of factors, including
     variations in the distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers by
     educational attainment, occupation, industry, and geographic region.)

Demographic Characteristics

The demographic composition of the foreign-born labor force differs from the native-born
labor force. In 2013, men accounted for 57.7 percent of the foreign-born labor force,
compared with 52.3 percent of the native-born labor force. By age, the proportion of the
foreign-born labor force made up of 25- to 54-year-olds (74.6 percent) was higher than
for the native-born labor force (63.0 percent). Labor force participation is typically
highest among persons in that age bracket. (See table 1.)

In 2013, nearly half (47.8 percent) of the foreign-born labor force was Hispanic, and
almost one-quarter (24.3 percent) was Asian, compared with 9.7 percent and 1.7 percent,
respectively, of the native-born labor force. About 17.7 percent of the foreign-born
labor force was white and 9.0 percent was black, compared with 74.4 percent and 11.7
percent, respectively, of the native-born labor force.

In 2013, 24.3 percent of the foreign-born labor force age 25 and over had not completed
high school, compared with 4.8 percent of the native-born labor force. The foreign born
were less likely than the native born to have some college or an associate degree--17.1
percent versus 30.1 percent. The proportions for foreign-born and native-born persons
that had a bachelor's degree or higher were more similar, at 33.8 percent and 37.5
percent, respectively.

Labor Force

The share of the U.S. civilian labor force that was foreign born was 16.3 percent in
2013, about the same as in 2012 but up from 13.3 percent in 2000. (See table 1.)

In 2013, the labor force participation rate of the foreign born was 66.4 percent,
compared with 62.7 percent for the native born. The participation rate for the foreign
born was about the same as in 2012, while that for the native born continued to trend
down. By gender, the participation rate of foreign-born men was 78.8 percent in 2013,
higher than the rate of 68.0 percent for native-born men. In contrast, 54.6 percent
of foreign-born women were labor force participants, compared with 57.7 percent of
native-born women.

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, the 2013 labor force participation rates for
foreign-born whites (60.0 percent), blacks (71.8 percent), Asians (65.1 percent), and
Hispanics (68.6 percent) were little different from the prior year. In comparison, the
participation rate for native-born whites (63.1 percent) declined in 2013, while the
rates for blacks (59.5 percent), Asians (62.4 percent), and Hispanics (63.7 percent)
showed little change.

In 2013, foreign-born mothers with children under 18 years old were less likely to be
labor force participants than were native-born mothers--59.7 percent versus 72.7 percent.
Labor force participation differences between foreign-born and native-born mothers were
greater among those with younger children than among those with older children. The
labor force participation rate of foreign-born mothers with children under age 6 was
51.2 percent in 2013, much lower than that for native-born mothers with children under
age 6, at 67.4 percent. Among women with children under age 3, the participation rate
for the foreign born (46.7 percent) was 18.2 percentage points below that for native-
born mothers (64.9 percent). The labor force participation rates of foreign-born and
native-born fathers with children under age 18 were similar, at 93.6 percent and 92.6
percent, respectively. (See table 2.)

By region, the foreign born made up a larger share of the labor force in the West
(23.8 percent) and in the Northeast (19.1 percent) than for the nation as a whole
(16.3 percent) in 2013. In contrast, the foreign born made up a smaller share of the
labor force than for the nation as a whole in the South (14.9 percent) and Midwest
(8.4 percent). (See table 6.)

Unemployment

From 2012 to 2013, the unemployment rate of foreign-born workers declined from 8.1
percent to 6.9 percent, and the jobless rate for the native born fell from 8.1 percent
to 7.5 percent. The over-the-year decrease in the unemployment rate of foreign-born
and native-born workers reflected decreases in the rates for both men and women. The
unemployment rate for foreign-born men fell from 7.5 percent to 6.4 percent, and the
rate for foreign-born women was down from 8.9 percent to 7.5 percent. Among the native
born, the rate for men fell from 8.4 percent to 7.9 percent, while the rate for women
was down from 7.7 percent to 7.0 percent. (See table 1.)

For both the foreign born and the native born, jobless rates vary considerably by race
and ethnicity. Among the foreign born, blacks had the highest unemployment rate (10.5
percent) in 2013, while Asians had the lowest (4.7 percent). The unemployment rates
were 6.6 percent for whites and 7.5 percent for Hispanics. Among the native born,
blacks also had the highest jobless rate (13.5 percent), followed by Hispanics (10.7
percent). The unemployment rates were 6.0 percent for whites and 6.5 percent for Asians.

Occupation

In 2013, foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed
in service occupations (24.8 percent versus 16.7 percent). Within service occupations,
about one-third of the foreign born were employed in building and grounds cleaning and
maintenance occupations, about twice the proportion for the native born. Foreign-born
workers also were more likely than native-born workers to be employed in production,
transportation, and material moving occupations (15.4 percent versus 11.1 percent) and
in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations (12.9 percent versus
8.3 percent). (See table 4.)

Native-born workers were more likely than foreign-born workers to be employed in
management, professional, and related occupations (39.5 percent versus 30.3 percent)
and in sales and office occupations (24.4 percent versus 16.5 percent).

Foreign-born men were more likely than native-born men to work in natural resources,
construction, and maintenance occupations and in service occupations. Compared with
native-born women, foreign-born women were more likely to be in service occupations
and in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Among women, the
disparity was especially great in service occupations: 32.9 percent of foreign-born
women worked in service occupations in 2013, compared with 19.8 percent of the 
native-born women. Native-born women were more likely than foreign-born women to be
in sales and office occupations, 31.8 percent versus 22.4 percent.

Earnings

In 2013, the median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born, full-time wage and salary
workers ($643) were 79.9 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts
($805). Among men, median weekly earnings for the foreign-born men ($671) were 74.6
percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts ($899). Among women, median
earnings for foreign-born women ($610) were 84.8 percent of the earnings of their
native-born counterparts ($719). Differences in earnings reflect a variety of factors,
including variations in the distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers
by educational attainment, occupation, industry, and geographic region. (See table 5.)

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanic foreign-born full-time wage and
salary workers earned 78.2 percent as much as their native-born counterparts in 2013.
For white, black, and Asian workers, earnings for the foreign born and the native born
were relatively close within each group.

The earnings of both foreign-born and native-born workers increase with education. In
2013, foreign-born workers age 25 and over with less than a high school education
earned $428 per week, while those with a bachelor's degree and higher earned about
2.9 times as much--$1,235 per week. Among the native born, those with a bachelor's
degree and higher earned about 2.3 times as much as those with less than a high school
education--$1,187 versus $511 per week.

Native-born workers earn more than the foreign born at most educational attainment
levels. The gap between the earnings of foreign-born and native-born workers closes
at higher levels of education. For example, among high school dropouts and graduates
in 2013, full-time workers who were foreign born earned 83.8 percent as much as their
native-born counterparts. Among those with a bachelor's degree and higher, the earnings
of foreign-born workers were essentially the same as the earnings of native-born workers.




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a
monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides
information on the labor force status, demographics, and other
characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population
age 16 and over. In response to the increased demand for statistical
information about the foreign born, questions on nativity,
citizenship, year of entry into the United States, and the parental
nativity of respondents were added to the CPS beginning in January
1994. Prior to 1994, the primary sources of data on the foreign born
were the decennial census, two CPS supplements (conducted in April
1983 and November 1989), and, to some extent, information collected by
the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly known as the
Immigration and Naturalization Service).

   The foreign- and native-born data presented in this release are not
strictly comparable with data for earlier years due to the introduction
of updated population estimates, or controls, used in the CPS. The
population controls are updated each year in January to reflect the
latest information about population change. Additional information is
available from the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory 
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200,
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the true population values they represent. The component of this
difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as
sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error
of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of
sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a
segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS
and estimating standard errors is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are
presented below.

   Foreign born. The foreign born are persons residing in the United
States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born
outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto
Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The
foreign-born population includes legally-admitted immigrants,
refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary workers,
and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not
separately identify the number of persons in these categories.

   Native born. The native born are persons born in the United States
or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were
born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

   Race and ethnicity groups. In this release, the data are presented
for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians and for persons of
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. These four groups are mutually exclusive
but not exhaustive. Other race groups (including persons who selected
more than one race category) are included in the overall totals but
are not shown separately because the number of survey respondents is
too small to develop statistically reliable estimates. The presentation
of data on race and ethnicity in this release differs from that
which appears in most analyses of CPS labor force data because persons
of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are separated from the race groups.
Because persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity can be of any race,
they are usually included in the race groups as well as shown
separately in the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity group. The reason for
the difference in the data presentation in this release is because
about half of the foreign born are of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity and
they have somewhat different labor force characteristics than the non-
Hispanic foreign born.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey
reference week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked
in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked
15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member's business.
Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs because of
illness, bad weather, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also
are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during
the reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made
specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period
ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be
recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not be
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all
persons classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed
as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate
is the labor force as a percent of the population.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and
other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips
usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders).
Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a
weekly equivalent.

   Full-time wage and salary workers. These are workers who usually
work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job and
receive wages, salaries, and other types of compensation. The group
includes employees in both the private and public sectors but, for
purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-employed persons,
regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Median earnings. The median earnings is the amount which divides a
given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings
above the median and the other having earnings below the median.




Table 1. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2012-2013 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2012 2013
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

243,284 154,975 63.7 142,469 12,506 8.1 245,679 155,389 63.2 143,929 11,460 7.4

Men

117,343 82,327 70.2 75,555 6,771 8.2 118,555 82,667 69.7 76,353 6,314 7.6

Women

125,941 72,648 57.7 66,914 5,734 7.9 127,124 72,722 57.2 67,577 5,146 7.1

FOREIGN BORN

Total, 16 years and over

37,727 25,026 66.3 23,006 2,021 8.1 38,162 25,328 66.4 23,582 1,746 6.9

Men

18,365 14,424 78.5 13,342 1,082 7.5 18,543 14,615 78.8 13,677 938 6.4

Women

19,362 10,602 54.8 9,663 939 8.9 19,620 10,713 54.6 9,905 809 7.5

Age

16 to 24 years

3,724 1,905 51.2 1,632 273 14.3 3,719 1,951 52.4 1,702 249 12.7

25 to 34 years

7,674 5,840 76.1 5,373 468 8.0 7,615 5,754 75.6 5,368 386 6.7

35 to 44 years

8,710 6,997 80.3 6,518 479 6.8 8,687 6,937 79.9 6,541 395 5.7

45 to 54 years

7,509 6,071 80.9 5,622 449 7.4 7,691 6,193 80.5 5,789 404 6.5

55 to 64 years

5,021 3,332 66.4 3,051 282 8.5 5,256 3,529 67.2 3,276 254 7.2

65 years and over

5,089 880 17.3 810 70 8.0 5,195 964 18.6 905 59 6.1

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

7,595 4,564 60.1 4,242 322 7.1 7,473 4,485 60.0 4,189 297 6.6

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

3,068 2,166 70.6 1,925 241 11.1 3,175 2,280 71.8 2,041 239 10.5

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

9,146 5,919 64.7 5,582 337 5.7 9,440 6,143 65.1 5,857 286 4.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

17,507 12,087 69.0 10,988 1,099 9.1 17,658 12,115 68.6 11,210 906 7.5

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

34,002 23,121 68.0 21,374 1,747 7.6 34,443 23,378 67.9 21,880 1,498 6.4

Less than a high school diploma

9,497 5,688 59.9 5,126 562 9.9 9,520 5,688 59.7 5,229 459 8.1

High school graduates, no college(2)

8,713 5,783 66.4 5,314 469 8.1 8,763 5,786 66.0 5,375 411 7.1

Some college or associate degree

5,670 4,028 71.0 3,713 315 7.8 5,654 4,004 70.8 3,743 262 6.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

10,122 7,621 75.3 7,221 401 5.3 10,507 7,899 75.2 7,533 366 4.6

NATIVE BORN

Total, 16 years and over

205,558 129,948 63.2 119,464 10,485 8.1 207,517 130,061 62.7 120,348 9,713 7.5

Men

98,979 67,903 68.6 62,213 5,690 8.4 100,013 68,052 68.0 62,675 5,376 7.9

Women

106,579 62,046 58.2 57,251 4,795 7.7 107,504 62,009 57.7 57,672 4,337 7.0

Age

16 to 24 years

35,059 19,379 55.3 16,202 3,177 16.4 35,120 19,430 55.3 16,355 3,075 15.8

25 to 34 years

33,301 27,625 83.0 25,328 2,297 8.3 33,933 27,992 82.5 25,874 2,118 7.6

35 to 44 years

30,932 25,737 83.2 24,058 1,679 6.5 30,926 25,626 82.9 24,109 1,517 5.9

45 to 54 years

36,188 28,983 80.1 27,252 1,731 6.0 35,555 28,274 79.5 26,733 1,541 5.4

55 to 64 years

33,297 21,377 64.2 20,189 1,189 5.6 33,766 21,587 63.9 20,501 1,086 5.0

65 years and over

36,780 6,847 18.6 6,435 412 6.0 38,217 7,152 18.7 6,776 376 5.3

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

152,742 97,328 63.7 90,949 6,379 6.6 153,335 96,826 63.1 91,058 5,768 6.0

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

25,137 15,089 60.0 12,925 2,164 14.3 25,508 15,186 59.5 13,135 2,051 13.5

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

3,277 2,014 61.5 1,880 134 6.7 3,538 2,207 62.4 2,065 142 6.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

19,252 12,304 63.9 10,890 1,414 11.5 19,860 12,656 63.7 11,305 1,351 10.7

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

170,499 110,569 64.9 103,261 7,308 6.6 172,397 110,631 64.2 103,993 6,638 6.0

Less than a high school diploma

15,384 5,640 36.7 4,797 843 14.9 14,905 5,317 35.7 4,569 748 14.1

High school graduates, no college(2)

53,099 30,988 58.4 28,404 2,584 8.3 53,186 30,573 57.5 28,244 2,329 7.6

Some college or associate degree

48,624 33,332 68.5 30,992 2,339 7.0 49,384 33,289 67.4 31,182 2,107 6.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

53,392 40,609 76.1 39,067 1,542 3.8 54,923 41,452 75.5 39,998 1,454 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of youngest child and sex, 2012-2013 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2012 2013
Total Men Women Total Men Women

FOREIGN BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,796 6,896 7,901 14,838 6,886 7,952

Civilian labor force

11,229 6,466 4,763 11,189 6,442 4,747

Participation rate

75.9 93.8 60.3 75.4 93.6 59.7

Employed

10,378 6,063 4,315 10,494 6,114 4,380

Employment-population ratio

70.1 87.9 54.6 70.7 88.8 55.1

Unemployed

851 403 448 695 328 367

Unemployment rate

7.6 6.2 9.4 6.2 5.1 7.7

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,896 3,576 4,319 8,003 3,622 4,381

Civilian labor force

6,223 3,326 2,897 6,265 3,347 2,918

Participation rate

78.8 93.0 67.1 78.3 92.4 66.6

Employed

5,753 3,115 2,638 5,870 3,167 2,703

Employment-population ratio

72.9 87.1 61.1 73.3 87.4 61.7

Unemployed

469 211 259 395 180 215

Unemployment rate

7.5 6.3 8.9 6.3 5.4 7.4

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,901 3,319 3,581 6,835 3,264 3,572

Civilian labor force

5,006 3,140 1,865 4,924 3,094 1,829

Participation rate

72.5 94.6 52.1 72.0 94.8 51.2

Employed

4,625 2,948 1,677 4,624 2,947 1,677

Employment-population ratio

67.0 88.8 46.8 67.7 90.3 47.0

Unemployed

381 192 189 299 147 152

Unemployment rate

7.6 6.1 10.1 6.1 4.8 8.3

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,828 1,864 1,964 3,736 1,809 1,927

Civilian labor force

2,697 1,772 925 2,614 1,715 899

Participation rate

70.5 95.1 47.1 70.0 94.8 46.7

Employed

2,497 1,671 827 2,464 1,638 826

Employment-population ratio

65.2 89.6 42.1 66.0 90.6 42.9

Unemployed

200 101 98 150 77 74

Unemployment rate

7.4 5.7 10.6 5.7 4.5 8.2

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

22,930 11,469 11,461 23,324 11,657 11,667

Civilian labor force

13,797 7,958 5,840 14,139 8,173 5,966

Participation rate

60.2 69.4 51.0 60.6 70.1 51.1

Employed

12,628 7,279 5,348 13,087 7,563 5,524

Employment-population ratio

55.1 63.5 46.7 56.1 64.9 47.4

Unemployed

1,170 679 491 1,052 610 442

Unemployment rate

8.5 8.5 8.4 7.4 7.5 7.4

NATIVE BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

50,823 22,048 28,776 50,546 22,061 28,486

Civilian labor force

41,525 20,488 21,037 41,145 20,427 20,719

Participation rate

81.7 92.9 73.1 81.4 92.6 72.7

Employed

38,723 19,397 19,326 38,651 19,426 19,226

Employment-population ratio

76.2 88.0 67.2 76.5 88.1 67.5

Unemployed

2,802 1,091 1,711 2,494 1,001 1,493

Unemployment rate

6.7 5.3 8.1 6.1 4.9 7.2

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,890 12,200 15,690 28,216 12,384 15,831

Civilian labor force

23,350 11,219 12,131 23,550 11,366 12,183

Participation rate

83.7 92.0 77.3 83.5 91.8 77.0

Employed

21,969 10,676 11,293 22,346 10,880 11,466

Employment-population ratio

78.8 87.5 72.0 79.2 87.9 72.4

Unemployed

1,382 544 838 1,204 486 718

Unemployment rate

5.9 4.8 6.9 5.1 4.3 5.9

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

22,933 9,847 13,086 22,331 9,676 12,655

Civilian labor force

18,175 9,268 8,907 17,596 9,060 8,535

Participation rate

79.3 94.1 68.1 78.8 93.6 67.4

Employed

16,754 8,721 8,034 16,306 8,546 7,760

Employment-population ratio

73.1 88.6 61.4 73.0 88.3 61.3

Unemployed

1,421 548 873 1,290 515 775

Unemployment rate

7.8 5.9 9.8 7.3 5.7 9.1

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

13,293 5,718 7,575 12,928 5,644 7,284

Civilian labor force

10,314 5,400 4,914 10,018 5,291 4,727

Participation rate

77.6 94.4 64.9 77.5 93.7 64.9

Employed

9,494 5,075 4,419 9,282 4,995 4,287

Employment-population ratio

71.4 88.8 58.3 71.8 88.5 58.9

Unemployed

821 325 496 736 296 440

Unemployment rate

8.0 6.0 10.1 7.3 5.6 9.3

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

154,734 76,931 77,803 156,971 77,952 79,019

Civilian labor force

88,423 47,415 41,008 88,916 47,625 41,290

Participation rate

57.1 61.6 52.7 56.6 61.1 52.3

Employed

80,741 42,817 37,924 81,696 43,250 38,446

Employment-population ratio

52.2 55.7 48.7 52.0 55.5 48.7

Unemployed

7,683 4,599 3,084 7,219 4,375 2,844

Unemployment rate

8.7 9.7 7.5 8.1 9.2 6.9

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2012-2013 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2012 2013
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

FOREIGN BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

789 1,778 1,434 3,019 770 1,708 1,412 3,004

Civilian labor force

256 932 879 2,200 256 897 880 2,172

Participation rate

32.4 52.4 61.3 72.9 33.2 52.5 62.4 72.3

Employed

233 864 818 2,078 235 838 826 2,045

Employment-population ratio

29.6 48.6 57.0 68.8 30.6 49.1 58.5 68.1

Unemployed

23 68 61 122 20 59 54 127

Unemployment rate

8.9 7.3 6.9 5.5 8.0 6.6 6.1 5.8

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

368 812 693 813 413 809 681 889

Civilian labor force

182 591 544 680 237 585 531 740

Participation rate

49.5 72.7 78.5 83.7 57.6 72.3 77.9 83.2

Employed

153 520 488 631 205 519 474 696

Employment-population ratio

41.6 64.0 70.4 77.7 49.7 64.2 69.6 78.3

Unemployed

29 71 56 49 32 66 57 43

Unemployment rate

16.0 12.0 10.3 7.2 13.6 11.3 10.7 5.8

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

978 1,658 1,306 4,364 988 1,669 1,325 4,600

Civilian labor force

438 1,011 894 3,251 403 1,036 925 3,433

Participation rate

44.8 61.0 68.5 74.5 40.8 62.1 69.8 74.6

Employed

407 949 837 3,104 377 978 873 3,316

Employment-population ratio

41.6 57.2 64.1 71.1 38.2 58.6 65.9 72.1

Unemployed

31 62 57 147 26 58 51 118

Unemployment rate

7.1 6.2 6.4 4.5 6.4 5.6 5.6 3.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,319 4,360 2,147 1,798 7,299 4,486 2,152 1,859

Civilian labor force

4,789 3,175 1,642 1,386 4,765 3,198 1,601 1,429

Participation rate

65.4 72.8 76.5 77.1 65.3 71.3 74.4 76.9

Employed

4,312 2,911 1,507 1,308 4,385 2,977 1,506 1,353

Employment-population ratio

58.9 66.8 70.2 72.8 60.1 66.4 70.0 72.8

Unemployed

476 263 134 78 379 221 95 76

Unemployment rate

9.9 8.3 8.2 5.6 8.0 6.9 5.9 5.3

NATIVE BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

9,533 40,294 36,922 44,806 9,283 39,947 37,317 45,779

Civilian labor force

3,372 22,863 24,868 33,777 3,129 22,460 24,635 34,201

Participation rate

35.4 56.7 67.4 75.4 33.7 56.2 66.0 74.7

Employed

2,946 21,234 23,363 32,596 2,781 21,032 23,305 33,116

Employment-population ratio

30.9 52.7 63.3 72.7 30.0 52.7 62.5 72.3

Unemployed

426 1,629 1,505 1,182 347 1,428 1,330 1,085

Unemployment rate

12.6 7.1 6.1 3.5 11.1 6.4 5.4 3.2

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,799 7,000 6,097 4,068 2,765 7,151 6,184 4,208

Civilian labor force

910 4,204 4,275 3,157 919 4,130 4,324 3,263

Participation rate

32.5 60.1 70.1 77.6 33.2 57.8 69.9 77.5

Employed

703 3,626 3,793 2,966 702 3,600 3,900 3,080

Employment-population ratio

25.1 51.8 62.2 72.9 25.4 50.3 63.1 73.2

Unemployed

207 578 482 191 217 530 424 182

Unemployment rate

22.7 13.7 11.3 6.1 23.7 12.8 9.8 5.6

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

135 397 474 1,237 132 437 534 1,329

Civilian labor force

52 222 350 979 64 253 381 1,050

Participation rate

38.6 56.0 73.8 79.1 48.6 57.8 71.3 79.0

Employed

49 210 323 944 59 243 360 1,009

Employment-population ratio

36.6 52.8 68.2 76.3 44.9 55.6 67.3 75.9

Unemployed

3 13 27 34 5 10 22 40

Unemployment rate

5.0 5.7 7.6 3.5 7.6 3.8 5.7 3.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,461 4,273 3,831 2,413 2,309 4,468 4,029 2,693

Civilian labor force

1,131 2,993 2,942 1,998 1,060 3,050 3,046 2,214

Participation rate

46.0 70.0 76.8 82.8 45.9 68.3 75.6 82.2

Employed

957 2,702 2,708 1,902 912 2,777 2,818 2,107

Employment-population ratio

38.9 63.2 70.7 78.8 39.5 62.2 69.9 78.2

Unemployed

174 291 234 96 148 272 228 107

Unemployment rate

15.4 9.7 8.0 4.8 13.9 8.9 7.5 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex, 2013 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Occupation Foreign born Native born
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

23,582 13,677 9,905 120,348 62,675 57,672

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

30.3 28.2 33.2 39.5 36.3 43.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

11.7 11.7 11.7 16.6 18.0 15.1

Management occupations

8.0 8.9 6.8 11.8 13.9 9.5

Business and financial operations occupations

3.7 2.8 4.9 4.9 4.2 5.7

Professional and related occupations

18.6 16.5 21.5 22.9 18.3 27.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

3.9 5.1 2.3 2.5 3.6 1.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.2 3.2 0.9 1.9 3.2 0.5

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.1 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.9 0.9

Community and social service occupations

0.8 0.6 1.1 1.8 1.3 2.3

Legal occupations

0.6 0.4 0.8 1.4 1.3 1.5

Education, training, and library occupations

3.4 2.0 5.4 6.5 3.2 10.1

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.3 1.2 1.5 2.1 2.2 2.1

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

5.2 2.9 8.5 5.8 2.7 9.1

Service occupations

24.8 19.0 32.9 16.7 13.8 19.8

Healthcare support occupations

2.7 0.7 5.6 2.4 0.5 4.5

Protective service occupations

1.0 1.4 0.5 2.4 3.6 1.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7.7 7.5 8.0 5.3 4.3 6.4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

8.6 7.7 9.8 3.0 3.9 2.1

Personal care and service occupations

4.8 1.8 8.9 3.5 1.5 5.7

Sales and office occupations

16.5 12.2 22.4 24.4 17.6 31.8

Sales and related occupations

8.5 7.5 9.9 11.2 11.0 11.3

Office and administrative support occupations

8.0 4.7 12.4 13.2 6.5 20.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12.9 21.2 1.5 8.3 15.2 0.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.6 2.1 0.9 0.5 0.7 0.2

Construction and extraction occupations

8.3 14.1 0.3 4.3 8.0 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.1 5.1 0.3 3.5 6.5 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15.4 19.4 10.0 11.1 17.1 4.6

Production occupations

8.3 9.1 7.4 5.2 7.6 2.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.1 10.3 2.7 5.8 9.5 1.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers for the foreign born and native born by selected characteristics, 2012-2013 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2012 2013
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings

Total, 16 years and over

17,089 $625 85,659 $797 78.4 17,551 $643 86,712 $805 79.9

Men

10,385 665 46,901 898 74.1 10,741 671 47,254 899 74.6

Women

6,704 589 38,758 710 83.0 6,810 610 39,458 719 84.8

AGE

16 to 24 years

994 403 8,036 452 89.2 1,001 415 8,246 459 90.4

25 to 34 years

4,275 591 20,310 729 81.1 4,257 593 20,824 730 81.2

35 to 44 years

4,972 692 19,112 897 77.1 5,065 705 19,238 911 77.4

45 to 54 years

4,267 683 21,079 913 74.8 4,341 699 20,759 916 76.3

55 to 64 years

2,142 667 14,376 929 71.8 2,376 706 14,691 932 75.8

65 years and over

439 628 2,747 778 80.7 510 665 2,954 831 80.0

RACE AND HISPANIC OR
LATINO ETHNICITY(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

2,906 898 64,284 857 104.8 2,867 952 64,767 864 110.2

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

1,459 640 10,002 623 102.7 1,547 649 10,139 634 102.4

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

4,213 922 1,385 937 98.4 4,383 951 1,524 936 101.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

8,316 501 7,986 641 78.2 8,529 509 8,330 651 78.2

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

16,095 652 77,623 851 76.6 16,550 670 78,465 860 77.9

Less than a high school diploma

3,879 428 3,131 510 83.9 3,931 428 3,025 511 83.8

High school graduates, no college(2)

3,899 550 21,339 675 81.5 4,047 565 20,997 674 83.8

Some college or associate degree

2,702 673 23,124 758 88.8 2,719 691 23,315 754 91.6

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

5,615 1,164 30,029 1,165 99.9 5,853 1,235 31,129 1,187 104.0

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census region and division, 2012-2013 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Census region and
division
2012 2013
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

FOREIGN BORN

Northeast

8,239 5,372 65.2 4,958 414 7.7 8,255 5,410 65.5 5,004 405 7.5

New England

1,602 1,094 68.3 1,017 78 7.1 1,609 1,098 68.2 1,019 79 7.2

Middle Atlantic

6,637 4,278 64.5 3,941 336 7.9 6,646 4,312 64.9 3,985 326 7.6

South

12,201 8,269 67.8 7,683 586 7.1 12,428 8,431 67.8 7,907 523 6.2

South Atlantic

7,166 4,839 67.5 4,476 363 7.5 7,273 4,919 67.6 4,600 319 6.5

East South Central

621 452 72.7 409 42 9.3 661 453 68.6 419 34 7.6

West South Central

4,414 2,979 67.5 2,798 181 6.1 4,495 3,059 68.1 2,889 170 5.6

Midwest

4,148 2,815 67.9 2,625 190 6.8 4,281 2,894 67.6 2,698 196 6.8

East North Central

3,097 2,071 66.9 1,923 148 7.2 3,183 2,117 66.5 1,965 152 7.2

West North Central

1,051 744 70.8 702 42 5.6 1,099 777 70.7 733 44 5.6

West

13,138 8,570 65.2 7,740 830 9.7 13,197 8,593 65.1 7,971 622 7.2

Mountain

2,296 1,523 66.3 1,384 139 9.2 2,319 1,498 64.6 1,399 98 6.6

Pacific

10,842 7,047 65.0 6,356 690 9.8 10,878 7,096 65.2 6,572 524 7.4

NATIVE BORN

Northeast

36,134 23,002 63.7 21,080 1,922 8.4 36,410 22,957 63.1 21,230 1,727 7.5

New England

10,066 6,619 65.8 6,134 485 7.3 10,154 6,598 65.0 6,136 461 7.0

Middle Atlantic

26,068 16,383 62.8 14,946 1,437 8.8 26,255 16,359 62.3 15,094 1,265 7.7

South

77,812 48,226 62.0 44,476 3,749 7.8 78,717 48,191 61.2 44,729 3,462 7.2

South Atlantic

40,468 25,090 62.0 23,002 2,088 8.3 41,003 25,076 61.2 23,238 1,838 7.3

East South Central

13,802 8,224 59.6 7,565 659 8.0 13,840 8,124 58.7 7,483 641 7.9

West South Central

23,541 14,912 63.3 13,909 1,003 6.7 23,875 14,992 62.8 14,009 983 6.6

Midwest

48,264 31,403 65.1 29,079 2,324 7.4 48,333 31,404 65.0 29,140 2,264 7.2

East North Central

33,277 21,191 63.7 19,443 1,748 8.2 33,291 21,151 63.5 19,417 1,734 8.2

West North Central

14,988 10,212 68.1 9,636 577 5.6 15,041 10,253 68.2 9,723 530 5.2

West

43,348 27,318 63.0 24,828 2,490 9.1 44,057 27,509 62.4 25,248 2,261 8.2

Mountain

14,824 9,476 63.9 8,749 727 7.7 15,070 9,577 63.5 8,895 682 7.1

Pacific

28,524 17,842 62.6 16,080 1,762 9.9 28,987 17,932 61.9 16,353 1,579 8.8

NOTE: The states (plus the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania); South Atlantic (Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia); East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee); West South Central (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas); East North Central (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin); West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota); Mountain (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming); Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: May 22, 2014