Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed                   USDL-13-0785
until 8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 3, 2013

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2013


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 165,000 in April, and the unemployment 
rate was little changed at 7.5 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. Employment increased in professional and business services, 
food services and drinking places, retail trade, and health care.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate, at 7.5 percent, changed little in April but has 
declined by 0.4 percentage point since January. The number of unemployed 
persons, at 11.7 million, was also little changed over the month; however, 
unemployment has decreased by 673,000 since January. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for adult women
(6.7 percent) declined in April, while the rates for adult men (7.1
percent), teenagers (24.1 percent), whites (6.7 percent), blacks (13.2
percent), and Hispanics (9.0 percent) showed little or no change. The
jobless rate for Asians was 5.1 percent (not seasonally adjusted),
little changed from a year earlier. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

In April, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27
weeks or more) declined by 258,000 to 4.4 million; their share of the
unemployed declined by 2.2 percentage points to 37.4 percent. Over the
past 12 months, the number of long-term unemployed has decreased by
687,000, and their share has declined by 3.1 percentage points. (See
table A-12.)

The civilian labor force participation rate was 63.3 percent in April,
unchanged over the month but down from 63.6 percent in January. The
employment-population ratio, 58.6 percent, was about unchanged over
the month and has shown little movement, on net, over the past year.
(See table A-1.)

In April, the number of persons employed part time for economic
reasons (sometimes referred to as involuntary part-time workers)
increased by 278,000 to 7.9 million, largely offsetting a decrease in
March. These individuals were working part time because their hours
had been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time job.
(See table A-8.)

In April, 2.3 million persons were marginally attached to the labor
force, essentially unchanged from a year earlier. (The data are not
seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force,
wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime
in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because
they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.
(See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 835,000 discouraged workers
in April, down by 133,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not
seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not currently
looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for them.
The remaining 1.5 million persons marginally attached to the labor
force in April had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the
survey for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. 
(See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 165,000 in April, with
job gains in professional and business services, food services and
drinking places, retail trade, and health care. Over the prior 12
months, employment growth averaged 169,000 per month. (See table B-1.)

Professional and business services added 73,000 jobs in April and has
added 587,000 jobs over the past year. In April, employment rose in
temporary help services (+31,000), professional and technical services
(+23,000), and management of companies (+7,000).

Within leisure and hospitality, employment in food services and
drinking places rose by 38,000 over the month. Job growth in the food
services industry averaged 25,000 per month over the prior 12 months.

Retail trade employment increased by 29,000 in April. The industry
added an average of 21,000 jobs per month over the prior 12 months. In
April, job growth occurred in general merchandise stores (+15,000) and
in health and personal care stores (+5,000).

Health care added 19,000 jobs in April. Within the industry, employment 
rose in ambulatory health care services (+14,000). Over the prior 12 
months, job growth in health care averaged 24,000 per month. In April, 
employment also continued its upward trend in social assistance (+7,000).

Employment changed little over the month in construction, with small
offsetting movements in the residential and nonresidential components.
Construction gained an average of 27,000 jobs per month over the prior 
6 months. Manufacturing employment was unchanged in April.

Employment in other major industries, including mining and logging,
wholesale trade, transportation and warehousing, financial activities,
and government, showed little change over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
decreased by 0.2 hour in April to 34.4 hours. Within manufacturing, 
the workweek decreased by 0.1 hour to 40.7 hours, and overtime declined 
by 0.1 hour to 3.3 hours. The average workweek for production and
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by 0.1
hour to 33.7 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm
payrolls rose by 4 cents to $23.87. Over the year, average hourly
earnings have risen by 45 cents, or 1.9 percent. In April, average
hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory
employees edged up by 2 cents to $20.06. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was
revised from +268,000 to +332,000, and the change for March was
revised from +88,000 to +138,000. With these revisions, employment
gains in February and March combined were 114,000 higher than
previously reported.

____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on
Friday, June 7, 2013, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Change from:
Mar.
2013-
Apr.
2013

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

242,784 244,828 244,995 245,175 180

Civilian labor force

154,451 155,524 155,028 155,238 210

Participation rate

63.6 63.5 63.3 63.3 0.0

Employed

141,934 143,492 143,286 143,579 293

Employment-population ratio

58.5 58.6 58.5 58.6 0.1

Unemployed

12,518 12,032 11,742 11,659 -83

Unemployment rate

8.1 7.7 7.6 7.5 -0.1

Not in labor force

88,332 89,304 89,967 89,936 -31

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

8.1 7.7 7.6 7.5 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

7.5 7.1 6.9 7.1 0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

7.4 7.0 7.0 6.7 -0.3

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

24.9 25.1 24.2 24.1 -0.1

White

7.4 6.8 6.7 6.7 0.0

Black or African American

13.1 13.8 13.3 13.2 -0.1

Asian (not seasonally adjusted)

5.2 6.1 5.0 5.1 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

10.3 9.6 9.2 9.0 -0.2

Total, 25 years and over

6.8 6.3 6.2 6.1 -0.1

Less than a high school diploma

12.5 11.2 11.1 11.6 0.5

High school graduates, no college

7.9 7.9 7.6 7.4 -0.2

Some college or associate degree

7.5 6.7 6.4 6.4 0.0

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.0 3.8 3.8 3.9 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

6,880 6,522 6,329 6,410 81

Job leavers

989 956 986 864 -122

Reentrants

3,336 3,340 3,176 3,151 -25

New entrants

1,362 1,279 1,316 1,280 -36

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,567 2,667 2,464 2,474 10

5 to 14 weeks

2,841 2,782 2,838 2,848 10

15 to 26 weeks

1,984 1,695 1,737 1,967 230

27 weeks and over

5,040 4,797 4,611 4,353 -258

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

7,896 7,988 7,638 7,916 278

Slack work or business conditions

5,210 5,136 4,906 5,129 223

Could only find part-time work

2,393 2,578 2,576 2,527 -49

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,868 18,908 18,745 18,908 163

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,363 2,588 2,326 2,347 -

Discouraged workers

968 885 803 835 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

112 332 138 165

Total private

120 319 154 176

Goods-producing

6 75 15 -9

Mining and logging

0 4 0 -3

Construction

-4 48 13 -6

Manufacturing

10 23 2 0

Durable goods(1)

8 12 7 1

Motor vehicles and parts

1.0 6.4 4.1 2.4

Nondurable goods

2 11 -5 -1

Private service-providing(1)

114 244 139 185

Wholesale trade

13.2 4.7 2.9 4.1

Retail trade

30.4 25.8 -3.9 29.3

Transportation and warehousing

-15.1 -5.3 -6.7 4.2

Information

0 18 2 -9

Financial activities

5 15 5 9

Professional and business services(1)

45 93 64 73

Temporary help services

14.7 27.5 25.5 30.8

Education and health services(1)

22 31 46 28

Health care and social assistance

20.7 37.0 26.5 26.1

Leisure and hospitality

14 63 38 43

Other services

0 -1 -8 4

Government

-8 13 -16 -11

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES(2)
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES

Total nonfarm women employees

49.4 49.3 49.3 49.3

Total private women employees

47.8 47.8 47.8 47.9

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.6 82.6 82.6 82.6

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.5 34.6 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$23.42 $23.82 $23.83 $23.87

Average weekly earnings

$807.99 $821.79 $824.52 $821.13

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

96.3 97.9 98.3 97.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 0.5 0.4 -0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

107.6 111.2 111.7 111.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.7 0.4 -0.2

HOURS AND EARNINGS
PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.7 33.8 33.8 33.7

Average hourly earnings

$19.72 $20.03 $20.04 $20.06

Average weekly earnings

$664.56 $677.01 $677.35 $676.02

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)(3)

103.6 105.6 105.7 105.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 0.9 0.1 -0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)(4)

136.4 141.2 141.4 141.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 1.1 0.1 -0.1

DIFFUSION INDEX(5)
(Over 1-month span)

Total private (266 industries)

58.3 61.7 56.2 53.9

Manufacturing (81 industries)

54.9 56.8 51.9 44.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of   employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a   smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change   than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.pdf.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.

   In order for severe weather conditions to reduce the estimate of payroll employment,
   employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay period. Slightly more
   than 20 percent of all employees in the payroll survey sample have a weekly pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. It is not possible to quantify the effect
   of extreme weather on estimates of over-the-month change in employment.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours. Current and historical
   data are available on the  household survey's most requested statistics page at
   http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 145,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 557,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment’s principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 90,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-40,000 to +140,000 (50,000 +/- 90,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2012
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Dec.
2012
Jan.
2013
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

242,784 244,995 245,175 242,784 244,350 244,663 244,828 244,995 245,175

Civilian labor force

153,905 154,512 154,739 154,451 155,511 155,654 155,524 155,028 155,238

Participation rate

63.4 63.1 63.1 63.6 63.6 63.6 63.5 63.3 63.3

Employed

141,995 142,698 143,724 141,934 143,305 143,322 143,492 143,286 143,579

Employment-population ratio

58.5 58.2 58.6 58.5 58.6 58.6 58.6 58.5 58.6

Unemployed

11,910 11,815 11,014 12,518 12,206 12,332 12,032 11,742 11,659

Unemployment rate

7.7 7.6 7.1 8.1 7.8 7.9 7.7 7.6 7.5

Not in labor force

88,879 90,483 90,436 88,332 88,839 89,008 89,304 89,967 89,936

Persons who currently want a job

6,328 6,399 6,329 6,387 6,750 6,631 6,821 6,722 6,413

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,081 118,204 118,296 117,081 117,902 118,033 118,117 118,204 118,296

Civilian labor force

81,629 82,133 82,201 82,064 82,545 82,940 82,823 82,584 82,621

Participation rate

69.7 69.5 69.5 70.1 70.0 70.3 70.1 69.9 69.8

Employed

75,074 75,521 76,029 75,301 76,060 76,290 76,375 76,329 76,239

Employment-population ratio

64.1 63.9 64.3 64.3 64.5 64.6 64.7 64.6 64.4

Unemployed

6,555 6,611 6,172 6,762 6,486 6,650 6,447 6,255 6,382

Unemployment rate

8.0 8.0 7.5 8.2 7.9 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.7

Not in labor force

35,452 36,071 36,095 35,017 35,357 35,093 35,295 35,619 35,675

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

108,396 109,635 109,736 108,396 109,308 109,448 109,541 109,635 109,736

Civilian labor force

78,839 79,529 79,551 79,103 79,695 80,016 79,910 79,747 79,803

Participation rate

72.7 72.5 72.5 73.0 72.9 73.1 72.9 72.7 72.7

Employed

73,010 73,588 74,042 73,145 73,949 74,139 74,249 74,228 74,159

Employment-population ratio

67.4 67.1 67.5 67.5 67.7 67.7 67.8 67.7 67.6

Unemployed

5,829 5,941 5,509 5,958 5,746 5,877 5,661 5,519 5,644

Unemployment rate

7.4 7.5 6.9 7.5 7.2 7.3 7.1 6.9 7.1

Not in labor force

29,557 30,107 30,184 29,292 29,613 29,432 29,631 29,888 29,933

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,703 126,791 126,878 125,703 126,447 126,630 126,710 126,791 126,878

Civilian labor force

72,276 72,379 72,538 72,387 72,965 72,715 72,701 72,443 72,617

Participation rate

57.5 57.1 57.2 57.6 57.7 57.4 57.4 57.1 57.2

Employed

66,921 67,176 67,695 66,632 67,245 67,032 67,116 66,956 67,340

Employment-population ratio

53.2 53.0 53.4 53.0 53.2 52.9 53.0 52.8 53.1

Unemployed

5,355 5,203 4,843 5,755 5,721 5,682 5,585 5,487 5,277

Unemployment rate

7.4 7.2 6.7 8.0 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.6 7.3

Not in labor force

53,427 54,412 54,340 53,315 53,482 53,916 54,009 54,348 54,261

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,353 118,520 118,612 117,353 118,170 118,348 118,433 118,520 118,612

Civilian labor force

69,643 69,675 69,833 69,580 70,059 69,749 69,772 69,544 69,744

Participation rate

59.3 58.8 58.9 59.3 59.3 58.9 58.9 58.7 58.8

Employed

64,822 65,038 65,533 64,454 64,954 64,675 64,867 64,707 65,101

Employment-population ratio

55.2 54.9 55.3 54.9 55.0 54.6 54.8 54.6 54.9

Unemployed

4,820 4,637 4,300 5,126 5,105 5,074 4,905 4,837 4,642

Unemployment rate

6.9 6.7 6.2 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.0 7.0 6.7

Not in labor force

47,711 48,845 48,778 47,774 48,111 48,599 48,661 48,976 48,868

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,034 16,840 16,827 17,034 16,871 16,867 16,854 16,840 16,827

Civilian labor force

5,423 5,309 5,355 5,768 5,756 5,889 5,842 5,737 5,692

Participation rate

31.8 31.5 31.8 33.9 34.1 34.9 34.7 34.1 33.8

Employed

4,163 4,072 4,149 4,334 4,402 4,508 4,376 4,351 4,320

Employment-population ratio

24.4 24.2 24.7 25.4 26.1 26.7 26.0 25.8 25.7

Unemployed

1,260 1,237 1,206 1,434 1,355 1,381 1,466 1,386 1,372

Unemployment rate

23.2 23.3 22.5 24.9 23.5 23.4 25.1 24.2 24.1

Not in labor force

11,611 11,531 11,473 11,266 11,115 10,978 11,012 11,103 11,135

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2012
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Dec.
2012
Jan.
2013
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

192,893 193,946 194,041 192,893 193,849 193,776 193,859 193,946 194,041

Civilian labor force

122,997 122,809 123,048 123,585 123,774 123,971 123,626 123,382 123,504

Participation rate

63.8 63.3 63.4 64.1 63.9 64.0 63.8 63.6 63.6

Employed

114,313 114,354 115,231 114,438 115,289 115,266 115,250 115,080 115,266

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.0 59.4 59.3 59.5 59.5 59.5 59.3 59.4

Unemployed

8,684 8,454 7,817 9,147 8,485 8,705 8,376 8,302 8,238

Unemployment rate

7.1 6.9 6.4 7.4 6.9 7.0 6.8 6.7 6.7

Not in labor force

69,896 71,138 70,993 69,308 70,076 69,805 70,233 70,565 70,537

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,212 64,253 64,441 64,451 64,646 64,924 64,720 64,549 64,674

Participation rate

73.3 72.8 73.0 73.6 73.3 73.7 73.4 73.1 73.2

Employed

59,975 59,974 60,450 60,054 60,609 60,652 60,659 60,594 60,540

Employment-population ratio

68.5 68.0 68.5 68.6 68.7 68.8 68.8 68.7 68.6

Unemployed

4,237 4,280 3,992 4,396 4,037 4,272 4,061 3,955 4,135

Unemployment rate

6.6 6.7 6.2 6.8 6.2 6.6 6.3 6.1 6.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,421 54,291 54,300 54,470 54,452 54,318 54,224 54,255 54,221

Participation rate

58.8 58.3 58.3 58.8 58.5 58.4 58.2 58.2 58.2

Employed

50,919 51,077 51,374 50,777 51,015 50,869 50,946 50,940 51,123

Employment-population ratio

55.0 54.8 55.1 54.8 54.8 54.7 54.7 54.7 54.8

Unemployed

3,502 3,214 2,926 3,693 3,437 3,450 3,278 3,315 3,098

Unemployment rate

6.4 5.9 5.4 6.8 6.3 6.4 6.0 6.1 5.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,365 4,264 4,307 4,665 4,676 4,729 4,682 4,578 4,608

Participation rate

34.4 34.0 34.4 36.8 37.2 37.7 37.3 36.5 36.8

Employed

3,419 3,304 3,408 3,607 3,665 3,746 3,645 3,546 3,603

Employment-population ratio

26.9 26.4 27.2 28.4 29.1 29.8 29.1 28.3 28.8

Unemployed

946 960 899 1,057 1,011 983 1,037 1,032 1,005

Unemployment rate

21.7 22.5 20.9 22.7 21.6 20.8 22.1 22.5 21.8

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,824 30,255 30,290 29,824 30,093 30,190 30,223 30,255 30,290

Civilian labor force

18,227 18,461 18,532 18,298 18,403 18,641 18,639 18,524 18,617

Participation rate

61.1 61.0 61.2 61.4 61.2 61.7 61.7 61.2 61.5

Employed

15,940 16,090 16,240 15,910 15,827 16,073 16,059 16,068 16,167

Employment-population ratio

53.4 53.2 53.6 53.3 52.6 53.2 53.1 53.1 53.4

Unemployed

2,286 2,371 2,292 2,388 2,577 2,568 2,580 2,456 2,450

Unemployment rate

12.5 12.8 12.4 13.1 14.0 13.8 13.8 13.3 13.2

Not in labor force

11,597 11,794 11,758 11,526 11,690 11,549 11,583 11,731 11,673

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,133 8,447 8,326 8,166 8,298 8,382 8,437 8,447 8,377

Participation rate

67.0 68.1 67.0 67.3 67.4 67.8 68.2 68.1 67.4

Employed

7,018 7,322 7,287 7,049 7,134 7,262 7,352 7,370 7,319

Employment-population ratio

57.8 59.1 58.7 58.1 58.0 58.8 59.4 59.4 58.9

Unemployed

1,114 1,125 1,039 1,118 1,164 1,120 1,085 1,077 1,058

Unemployment rate

13.7 13.3 12.5 13.7 14.0 13.4 12.9 12.7 12.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,459 9,344 9,543 9,454 9,454 9,545 9,491 9,365 9,529

Participation rate

62.9 61.2 62.4 62.9 62.2 62.7 62.2 61.3 62.3

Employed

8,503 8,305 8,531 8,440 8,305 8,367 8,302 8,226 8,425

Employment-population ratio

56.6 54.4 55.8 56.2 54.7 54.9 54.4 53.9 55.1

Unemployed

956 1,039 1,012 1,013 1,149 1,178 1,189 1,139 1,105

Unemployment rate

10.1 11.1 10.6 10.7 12.2 12.3 12.5 12.2 11.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

635 670 663 679 651 714 711 713 711

Participation rate

23.9 25.9 25.7 25.5 25.1 27.5 27.4 27.6 27.5

Employed

419 463 422 421 387 444 404 472 423

Employment-population ratio

15.7 17.9 16.3 15.8 14.9 17.1 15.6 18.2 16.4

Unemployed

216 207 241 257 264 270 307 241 287

Unemployment rate

34.1 30.9 36.4 37.9 40.5 37.8 43.1 33.8 40.5

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

12,774 13,223 13,244 - - - - - -

Civilian labor force

7,965 8,524 8,456 - - - - - -

Participation rate

62.4 64.5 63.9 - - - - - -

Employed

7,553 8,101 8,025 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

59.1 61.3 60.6 - - - - - -

Unemployed

412 423 431 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

5.2 5.0 5.1 - - - - - -

Not in labor force

4,809 4,699 4,788 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2012
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Dec.
2012
Jan.
2013
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

36,546 37,242 37,320 36,546 37,231 37,094 37,169 37,242 37,320

Civilian labor force

24,201 24,282 24,475 24,248 24,539 24,572 24,563 24,354 24,512

Participation rate

66.2 65.2 65.6 66.3 65.9 66.2 66.1 65.4 65.7

Employed

21,839 21,986 22,412 21,749 22,195 22,199 22,215 22,122 22,310

Employment-population ratio

59.8 59.0 60.1 59.5 59.6 59.8 59.8 59.4 59.8

Unemployed

2,362 2,295 2,063 2,499 2,344 2,373 2,348 2,232 2,202

Unemployment rate

9.8 9.5 8.4 10.3 9.6 9.7 9.6 9.2 9.0

Not in labor force

12,345 12,960 12,845 12,298 12,692 12,522 12,606 12,888 12,808

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

13,284 13,518 13,640 - - - - - -

Participation rate

80.8 80.5 81.1 - - - - - -

Employed

12,146 12,407 12,602 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

73.9 73.9 74.9 - - - - - -

Unemployed

1,138 1,111 1,037 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

8.6 8.2 7.6 - - - - - -

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,826 9,805 9,796 - - - - - -

Participation rate

59.7 58.3 58.2 - - - - - -

Employed

8,886 8,890 9,062 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

54.0 52.9 53.8 - - - - - -

Unemployed

939 915 734 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

9.6 9.3 7.5 - - - - - -

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,092 959 1,039 - - - - - -

Participation rate

29.9 26.3 28.5 - - - - - -

Employed

807 690 748 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

22.1 18.9 20.5 - - - - - -

Unemployed

285 269 291 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

26.1 28.1 28.0 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2012
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Dec.
2012
Jan.
2013
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

11,490 11,137 11,072 11,379 11,120 11,125 11,256 11,264 10,999

Participation rate

45.7 45.5 45.1 45.3 45.1 45.5 47.2 46.0 44.8

Employed

10,069 9,803 9,810 9,952 9,821 9,784 9,999 10,012 9,725

Employment-population ratio

40.1 40.0 39.9 39.6 39.8 40.0 41.9 40.9 39.6

Unemployed

1,421 1,334 1,262 1,428 1,298 1,341 1,257 1,252 1,274

Unemployment rate

12.4 12.0 11.4 12.5 11.7 12.0 11.2 11.1 11.6

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,812 36,090 36,224 36,740 36,663 36,557 36,143 36,121 36,200

Participation rate

59.3 58.5 58.7 59.2 59.1 58.7 58.1 58.6 58.7

Employed

33,959 33,088 33,614 33,825 33,713 33,585 33,289 33,359 33,510

Employment-population ratio

54.7 53.7 54.5 54.5 54.3 54.0 53.6 54.1 54.3

Unemployed

2,852 3,003 2,610 2,915 2,950 2,972 2,854 2,762 2,689

Unemployment rate

7.7 8.3 7.2 7.9 8.0 8.1 7.9 7.6 7.4

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,966 37,193 37,058 37,248 37,397 37,201 37,291 37,232 37,371

Participation rate

68.6 68.1 67.8 69.1 68.7 68.3 68.0 68.1 68.4

Employed

34,270 34,813 34,820 34,437 34,831 34,587 34,776 34,845 34,992

Employment-population ratio

63.6 63.7 63.7 63.9 64.0 63.5 63.5 63.8 64.1

Unemployed

2,696 2,380 2,238 2,812 2,566 2,614 2,515 2,387 2,379

Unemployment rate

7.3 6.4 6.0 7.5 6.9 7.0 6.7 6.4 6.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

48,075 49,560 49,663 47,988 48,859 48,991 49,436 49,236 49,492

Participation rate

76.4 75.8 75.9 76.2 75.9 75.8 75.9 75.3 75.6

Employed

46,310 47,723 47,888 46,065 46,954 47,172 47,555 47,371 47,563

Employment-population ratio

73.6 73.0 73.2 73.2 72.9 72.9 73.0 72.5 72.7

Unemployed

1,765 1,837 1,775 1,923 1,905 1,819 1,881 1,865 1,929

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,256 21,467 19,444 19,247 1,812 2,220

Civilian labor force

11,114 11,185 9,994 9,766 1,120 1,420

Participation rate

52.3 52.1 51.4 50.7 61.8 63.9

Employed

10,329 10,492 9,266 9,139 1,063 1,353

Employment-population ratio

48.6 48.9 47.7 47.5 58.7 61.0

Unemployed

785 693 729 627 57 66

Unemployment rate

7.1 6.2 7.3 6.4 5.0 4.7

Not in labor force

10,142 10,282 9,450 9,481 692 800

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,701 2,804 2,214 2,245 487 558

Civilian labor force

2,127 2,256 1,814 1,874 314 381

Participation rate

78.8 80.5 81.9 83.5 64.3 68.3

Employed

1,932 2,086 1,650 1,732 283 354

Employment-population ratio

71.5 74.4 74.5 77.1 58.0 63.4

Unemployed

195 170 164 143 31 27

Unemployment rate

9.2 7.5 9.0 7.6 9.9 7.2

Not in labor force

574 548 400 371 174 177

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,950 3,425 2,471 2,738 478 687

Civilian labor force

2,479 2,850 2,114 2,337 366 513

Participation rate

84.1 83.2 85.5 85.4 76.5 74.6

Employed

2,351 2,693 1,994 2,198 357 495

Employment-population ratio

79.7 78.6 80.7 80.3 74.6 72.0

Unemployed

129 157 120 139 9 18

Unemployment rate

5.2 5.5 5.7 5.9 2.4 3.5

Not in labor force

470 575 358 401 112 174

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

9,949 9,916 9,627 9,538 322 378

Civilian labor force

3,293 3,135 3,170 3,009 122 126

Participation rate

33.1 31.6 32.9 31.5 38.1 33.4

Employed

3,072 2,915 2,956 2,799 116 116

Employment-population ratio

30.9 29.4 30.7 29.3 36.0 30.7

Unemployed

221 220 215 210 7 10

Unemployment rate

6.7 7.0 6.8 7.0 5.3 8.3

Not in labor force

6,656 6,781 6,457 6,529 199 252

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,656 5,322 5,131 4,726 525 596

Civilian labor force

3,214 2,944 2,897 2,545 318 399

Participation rate

56.8 55.3 56.4 53.9 60.6 66.9

Employed

2,974 2,798 2,666 2,409 308 389

Employment-population ratio

52.6 52.6 52.0 51.0 58.7 65.2

Unemployed

240 146 230 136 10 10

Unemployment rate

7.5 5.0 8.0 5.3 3.1 2.6

Not in labor force

2,441 2,378 2,235 2,181 207 197

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

212,630 214,659 93,088 94,424 119,542 120,236

Civilian labor force

141,057 141,712 70,766 71,577 70,291 70,134

Participation rate

66.3 66.0 76.0 75.8 58.8 58.3

Employed

130,362 131,871 65,175 66,284 65,187 65,588

Employment-population ratio

61.3 61.4 70.0 70.2 54.5 54.5

Unemployed

10,695 9,840 5,591 5,293 5,104 4,547

Unemployment rate

7.6 6.9 7.9 7.4 7.3 6.5

Not in labor force

71,572 72,948 22,321 22,847 49,251 50,101

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Beginning with data for January 2013, estimates for veterans incorporate population controls derived from the updated Department of Veterans Affairs' population model.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,209 28,908 214,574 216,267

Civilian labor force

5,736 5,985 148,169 148,754

Participation rate

20.3 20.7 69.1 68.8

Employed

5,021 5,215 136,974 138,509

Employment-population ratio

17.8 18.0 63.8 64.0

Unemployed

715 770 11,195 10,245

Unemployment rate

12.5 12.9 7.6 6.9

Not in labor force

22,473 22,922 66,406 67,513

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,488 2,680 74,867 75,010

Participation rate

33.4 35.0 81.9 81.9

Employed

2,163 2,312 68,876 69,465

Employment-population ratio

29.1 30.2 75.4 75.8

Unemployed

325 367 5,991 5,545

Unemployment rate

13.1 13.7 8.0 7.4

Not in labor force

4,951 4,966 16,541 16,614

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,296 2,281 66,573 66,597

Participation rate

29.1 28.7 70.4 70.2

Employed

1,964 1,943 61,761 62,273

Employment-population ratio

24.9 24.5 65.3 65.6

Unemployed

332 338 4,811 4,325

Unemployment rate

14.5 14.8 7.2 6.5

Not in labor force

5,592 5,659 27,996 28,297

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

952 1,024 6,729 7,147

Participation rate

7.4 7.7 23.5 24.0

Employed

894 960 6,337 6,771

Employment-population ratio

6.9 7.2 22.2 22.8

Unemployed

58 64 393 375

Unemployment rate

6.1 6.3 5.8 5.3

Not in labor force

11,930 12,297 21,869 22,602

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

37,215 37,842 18,249 18,500 18,966 19,342

Civilian labor force

24,460 24,982 14,220 14,572 10,241 10,410

Participation rate

65.7 66.0 77.9 78.8 54.0 53.8

Employed

22,619 23,292 13,233 13,636 9,386 9,656

Employment-population ratio

60.8 61.6 72.5 73.7 49.5 49.9

Unemployed

1,842 1,690 986 936 855 754

Unemployment rate

7.5 6.8 6.9 6.4 8.3 7.2

Not in labor force

12,755 12,860 4,030 3,929 8,725 8,932

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

205,569 207,332 98,831 99,796 106,737 107,537

Civilian labor force

129,444 129,757 67,409 67,629 62,035 62,128

Participation rate

63.0 62.6 68.2 67.8 58.1 57.8

Employed

119,376 120,432 61,840 62,393 57,535 58,039

Employment-population ratio

58.1 58.1 62.6 62.5 53.9 54.0

Unemployed

10,068 9,325 5,569 5,236 4,500 4,089

Unemployment rate

7.8 7.2 8.3 7.7 7.3 6.6

Not in labor force

76,124 77,575 31,422 32,167 44,702 45,409

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2012
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Dec.
2012
Jan.
2013
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,107 1,904 1,951 2,166 2,088 2,057 2,065 2,001 2,017

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,282 1,162 1,144 1,355 1,295 1,245 1,258 1,250 1,227

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

798 700 783 789 747 775 792 710 772

Unpaid family workers

26 42 23 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

139,888 140,793 141,774 139,734 141,190 141,255 141,415 141,317 141,592

Wage and salary workers(1)

131,257 132,417 133,065 131,104 132,113 132,445 132,694 132,761 132,847

Government

20,356 20,965 20,635 19,957 20,686 20,696 20,571 20,633 20,269

Private industries

110,901 111,452 112,429 111,166 111,406 111,746 112,141 112,147 112,558

Private households

724 659 617 - - - - - -

Other industries

110,176 110,792 111,813 110,427 110,632 110,873 111,411 111,462 111,932

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,558 8,264 8,632 8,557 8,935 8,746 8,686 8,407 8,651

Unpaid family workers

72 113 77 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

7,694 7,734 7,709 7,896 7,918 7,973 7,988 7,638 7,916

Slack work or business conditions

4,997 4,857 4,920 5,210 4,928 5,126 5,136 4,906 5,129

Could only find part-time work

2,467 2,578 2,530 2,393 2,616 2,630 2,578 2,576 2,527

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,443 19,262 19,829 18,868 18,763 18,464 18,908 18,745 18,908

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

7,581 7,598 7,590 7,770 7,812 7,867 7,865 7,544 7,793

Slack work or business conditions

4,909 4,771 4,845 5,116 4,887 5,047 5,045 4,832 5,058

Could only find part-time work

2,456 2,563 2,513 2,347 2,583 2,610 2,542 2,510 2,454

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,097 18,949 19,494 18,475 18,469 18,182 18,549 18,435 18,542

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2012
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Dec.
2012
Jan.
2013
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

141,995 142,698 143,724 141,934 143,305 143,322 143,492 143,286 143,579

16 to 19 years

4,163 4,072 4,149 4,334 4,402 4,508 4,376 4,351 4,320

16 to 17 years

1,304 1,298 1,361 1,429 1,405 1,453 1,520 1,482 1,490

18 to 19 years

2,859 2,774 2,787 2,889 2,985 3,048 2,866 2,868 2,834

20 years and over

137,832 138,626 139,576 137,599 138,903 138,814 139,116 138,935 139,260

20 to 24 years

13,224 13,199 13,444 13,339 13,570 13,471 13,527 13,382 13,569

25 years and over

124,608 125,426 126,132 124,209 125,406 125,311 125,604 125,615 125,678

25 to 54 years

94,307 94,044 94,591 94,143 94,253 94,147 94,387 94,409 94,393

25 to 34 years

30,750 30,983 31,185 30,706 31,115 31,137 31,152 31,180 31,133

35 to 44 years

30,640 30,577 30,749 30,550 30,524 30,480 30,521 30,620 30,637

45 to 54 years

32,917 32,484 32,658 32,886 32,614 32,531 32,714 32,610 32,623

55 years and over

30,300 31,383 31,540 30,067 31,153 31,164 31,217 31,206 31,285

Men, 16 years and over

75,074 75,521 76,029 75,301 76,060 76,290 76,375 76,329 76,239

16 to 19 years

2,064 1,933 1,987 2,156 2,111 2,151 2,126 2,101 2,080

16 to 17 years

633 574 607 681 690 673 713 645 653

18 to 19 years

1,431 1,359 1,380 1,473 1,422 1,472 1,408 1,444 1,426

20 years and over

73,010 73,588 74,042 73,145 73,949 74,139 74,249 74,228 74,159

20 to 24 years

6,778 6,851 6,877 6,869 7,104 7,070 7,073 7,006 6,990

25 years and over

66,232 66,737 67,166 66,165 66,902 67,002 67,149 67,205 67,095

25 to 54 years

50,290 50,176 50,543 50,320 50,370 50,474 50,603 50,669 50,565

25 to 34 years

16,566 16,719 16,837 16,613 16,799 16,889 16,940 16,980 16,887

35 to 44 years

16,417 16,532 16,666 16,439 16,443 16,519 16,597 16,655 16,673

45 to 54 years

17,308 16,925 17,040 17,268 17,127 17,066 17,066 17,034 17,005

55 years and over

15,942 16,560 16,623 15,845 16,532 16,528 16,546 16,536 16,530

Women, 16 years and over

66,921 67,176 67,695 66,632 67,245 67,032 67,116 66,956 67,340

16 to 19 years

2,099 2,139 2,162 2,178 2,291 2,357 2,250 2,250 2,239

16 to 17 years

671 724 755 748 715 780 807 837 837

18 to 19 years

1,427 1,415 1,408 1,416 1,563 1,576 1,458 1,424 1,408

20 years and over

64,822 65,038 65,533 64,454 64,954 64,675 64,867 64,707 65,101

20 to 24 years

6,446 6,348 6,567 6,470 6,467 6,402 6,455 6,376 6,578

25 years and over

58,376 58,690 58,966 58,044 58,504 58,309 58,455 58,411 58,583

25 to 54 years

44,017 43,867 44,048 43,822 43,883 43,674 43,784 43,740 43,828

25 to 34 years

14,185 14,264 14,348 14,093 14,315 14,248 14,212 14,200 14,246

35 to 44 years

14,223 14,045 14,083 14,111 14,080 13,961 13,925 13,965 13,964

45 to 54 years

15,609 15,559 15,618 15,618 15,487 15,465 15,648 15,575 15,619

55 years and over

14,359 14,822 14,918 14,222 14,621 14,636 14,671 14,670 14,755

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

43,530 43,656 43,905 43,623 43,924 44,117 43,934 44,007 44,024

Married women, spouse present

34,369 34,409 34,442 34,230 34,611 34,271 34,400 34,319 34,346

Women who maintain families

9,530 9,309 9,465 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

113,999 114,796 115,674 114,441 115,868 115,918 115,841 115,903 116,053

Part-time workers(2)

27,996 27,902 28,050 27,483 27,502 27,467 27,569 27,442 27,549

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

6,947 7,192 7,029 6,873 7,017 6,919 7,259 7,102 6,983

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.9 4.8 5.1 5.0 4.9

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,258 5,419 5,342 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,357 8,964 9,415 9,345 9,682 9,521 9,478 9,117 9,423

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2012
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Dec.
2012
Jan.
2013
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

12,518 11,742 11,659 8.1 7.8 7.9 7.7 7.6 7.5

16 to 19 years

1,434 1,386 1,372 24.9 23.5 23.4 25.1 24.2 24.1

16 to 17 years

503 550 559 26.0 25.8 28.4 27.6 27.1 27.3

18 to 19 years

950 813 827 24.8 22.6 20.8 23.0 22.1 22.6

20 years and over

11,084 10,356 10,287 7.5 7.2 7.3 7.1 6.9 6.9

20 to 24 years

2,033 2,049 2,053 13.2 13.7 14.2 13.1 13.3 13.1

25 years and over

9,040 8,237 8,204 6.8 6.5 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.1

25 to 54 years

7,011 6,414 6,429 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.4

25 to 34 years

2,702 2,490 2,497 8.1 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.4 7.4

35 to 44 years

2,138 1,969 1,897 6.5 6.6 6.5 6.2 6.0 5.8

45 to 54 years

2,171 1,955 2,036 6.2 5.8 6.0 5.5 5.7 5.9

55 years and over

2,016 1,832 1,825 6.3 5.9 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.5

Men, 16 years and over

6,762 6,255 6,382 8.2 7.9 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.7

16 to 19 years

804 736 738 27.2 25.9 26.4 27.0 25.9 26.2

16 to 17 years

280 286 297 29.1 25.1 31.3 31.1 30.7 31.2

18 to 19 years

529 442 447 26.4 26.3 23.7 24.3 23.4 23.9

20 years and over

5,958 5,519 5,644 7.5 7.2 7.3 7.1 6.9 7.1

20 to 24 years

1,135 1,182 1,135 14.2 13.5 15.3 13.4 14.4 14.0

25 years and over

4,797 4,301 4,518 6.8 6.5 6.5 6.3 6.0 6.3

25 to 54 years

3,732 3,301 3,521 6.9 6.5 6.6 6.4 6.1 6.5

25 to 34 years

1,462 1,303 1,383 8.1 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.1 7.6

35 to 44 years

1,128 991 1,006 6.4 6.2 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.7

45 to 54 years

1,142 1,008 1,132 6.2 5.7 5.9 5.7 5.6 6.2

55 years and over

1,065 1,000 998 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.0 5.7 5.7

Women, 16 years and over

5,755 5,487 5,277 8.0 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.6 7.3

16 to 19 years

629 650 635 22.4 21.2 20.5 23.2 22.4 22.1

16 to 17 years

224 264 262 23.0 26.6 25.7 24.3 24.0 23.8

18 to 19 years

421 371 379 22.9 18.9 17.9 21.7 20.7 21.2

20 years and over

5,126 4,837 4,642 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.0 7.0 6.7

20 to 24 years

898 867 918 12.2 13.9 13.1 12.7 12.0 12.3

25 years and over

4,243 3,936 3,686 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.4 6.3 5.9

25 to 54 years

3,278 3,114 2,909 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.2

25 to 34 years

1,239 1,187 1,114 8.1 7.7 7.7 7.9 7.7 7.3

35 to 44 years

1,010 979 890 6.7 7.1 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.0

45 to 54 years

1,029 948 904 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.3 5.7 5.5

55 years and over(1)

878 808 756 5.8 5.1 5.9 5.6 5.2 4.8

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

2,345 1,973 2,017 5.1 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.4

Married women, spouse present

1,916 1,707 1,582 5.3 5.2 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.4

Women who maintain families(1)

1,078 1,120 1,086 10.2 11.3 11.3 11.0 10.7 10.3

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

10,707 9,963 9,892 8.6 8.3 8.3 8.1 7.9 7.9

Part-time workers(3)

1,845 1,719 1,760 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.2 5.9 6.0

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2012
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Dec.
2012
Jan.
2013
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

6,555 6,638 6,079 6,880 6,408 6,637 6,522 6,329 6,410

On temporary layoff

1,009 1,312 1,080 1,108 1,085 1,155 1,078 1,107 1,170

Not on temporary layoff

5,546 5,325 4,998 5,772 5,323 5,483 5,443 5,223 5,240

Permanent job losers

4,397 4,029 3,840 4,526 4,075 4,208 4,128 3,959 3,976

Persons who completed temporary jobs

1,149 1,296 1,158 1,245 1,248 1,275 1,315 1,264 1,264

Job leavers

962 947 836 989 983 981 956 986 864

Reentrants

3,184 3,061 2,966 3,336 3,587 3,515 3,340 3,176 3,151

New entrants

1,210 1,169 1,133 1,362 1,291 1,287 1,279 1,316 1,280

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

55.0 56.2 55.2 54.7 52.2 53.4 53.9 53.6 54.8

On temporary layoff

8.5 11.1 9.8 8.8 8.8 9.3 8.9 9.4 10.0

Not on temporary layoff

46.6 45.1 45.4 45.9 43.4 44.1 45.0 44.2 44.8

Job leavers

8.1 8.0 7.6 7.9 8.0 7.9 7.9 8.4 7.4

Reentrants

26.7 25.9 26.9 26.5 29.2 28.3 27.6 26.9 26.9

New entrants

10.2 9.9 10.3 10.8 10.5 10.4 10.6 11.1 10.9

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4.3 4.3 3.9 4.5 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.1

Job leavers

0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Reentrants

2.1 2.0 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.0

New entrants

0.8 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2012
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Dec.
2012
Jan.
2013
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,165 2,067 2,045 2,567 2,676 2,766 2,667 2,464 2,474

5 to 14 weeks

2,368 3,040 2,375 2,841 2,838 3,028 2,782 2,838 2,848

15 weeks and over

7,377 6,708 6,594 7,023 6,661 6,566 6,493 6,348 6,320

15 to 26 weeks

2,109 2,051 2,106 1,984 1,895 1,858 1,695 1,737 1,967

27 weeks and over

5,268 4,657 4,488 5,040 4,766 4,708 4,797 4,611 4,353

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

42.0 37.9 39.0 39.1 38.1 35.3 36.9 37.1 36.5

Median duration, in weeks

22.3 19.0 20.0 19.3 18.0 16.0 17.8 18.1 17.5

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

18.2 17.5 18.6 20.6 22.0 22.4 22.3 21.1 21.3

5 to 14 weeks

19.9 25.7 21.6 22.9 23.3 24.5 23.3 24.4 24.5

15 weeks and over

61.9 56.8 59.9 56.5 54.7 53.1 54.4 54.5 54.3

15 to 26 weeks

17.7 17.4 19.1 16.0 15.6 15.0 14.2 14.9 16.9

27 weeks and over

44.2 39.4 40.8 40.5 39.1 38.1 40.2 39.6 37.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013

Total, 16 years and over(1)

141,995 143,724 11,910 11,014 7.7 7.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

54,055 54,767 2,062 1,980 3.7 3.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

22,590 22,737 934 836 4.0 3.5

Professional and related occupations

31,465 32,031 1,128 1,144 3.5 3.4

Service occupations

25,303 25,840 2,426 2,294 8.8 8.2

Sales and office occupations

33,290 33,616 2,745 2,501 7.6 6.9

Sales and related occupations

15,320 15,457 1,266 1,151 7.6 6.9

Office and administrative support occupations

17,970 18,159 1,478 1,349 7.6 6.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12,377 12,680 1,608 1,483 11.5 10.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

913 858 196 104 17.6 10.8

Construction and extraction occupations

6,734 6,786 1,137 1,137 14.4 14.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,731 5,036 276 242 5.5 4.6

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

16,970 16,821 1,822 1,601 9.7 8.7

Production occupations

8,348 8,009 863 726 9.4 8.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,622 8,811 959 875 10.0 9.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013

Total, 16 years and over(1)

11,910 11,014 7.7 7.1

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

9,197 8,608 7.7 7.1

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

43 73 4.2 6.1

Construction

1,156 1,077 14.5 13.2

Manufacturing

1,046 963 6.9 6.4

Durable goods

620 583 6.5 6.2

Nondurable goods

427 379 7.4 6.7

Wholesale and retail trade

1,603 1,484 7.9 7.4

Transportation and utilities

453 355 7.6 5.7

Information

243 152 8.3 5.4

Financial activities

505 515 5.5 5.4

Professional and business services

1,322 1,259 8.5 8.1

Education and health services

1,058 983 4.8 4.4

Leisure and hospitality

1,290 1,327 9.8 9.6

Other services

478 420 7.4 6.7

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

233 110 16.0 9.1

Government workers

786 715 3.7 3.3

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

484 447 4.9 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2012
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Dec.
2012
Jan.
2013
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013
Apr.
2013

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

4.8 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

4.3 4.3 3.9 4.5 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.1

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

7.7 7.6 7.1 8.1 7.8 7.9 7.7 7.6 7.5

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

8.3 8.1 7.6 8.7 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.1 8.0

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.1 9.0 8.5 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 8.9 8.9

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

14.1 13.9 13.4 14.5 14.4 14.4 14.3 13.8 13.9

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2013

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

88,879 90,436 35,452 36,095 53,427 54,340

Persons who currently want a job

6,328 6,329 3,141 2,958 3,187 3,370

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,363 2,347 1,311 1,220 1,053 1,127

Discouraged workers(2)

968 835 611 496 357 339

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,395 1,512 699 724 696 788

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

6,947 7,029 3,501 3,493 3,446 3,536

Percent of total employed

4.9 4.9 4.7 4.6 5.1 5.2

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,549 3,761 2,026 2,177 1,523 1,583

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,914 1,934 621 587 1,293 1,347

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

289 198 194 104 95 93

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,134 1,089 634 608 500 481

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)
Change from:
Mar.2013 - Apr.2013(p)

Total nonfarm

133,400 133,752 134,562 135,494 133,397 135,171 135,309 135,474 165

Total private

111,051 111,542 112,295 113,232 111,464 113,300 113,454 113,630 176

Goods-producing

18,178 18,105 18,256 18,429 18,408 18,638 18,653 18,644 -9

Mining and logging

841 853 856 854 852 867 867 864 -3

Logging

45.3 48.3 47.1 46.0 49.1 49.9 49.7 49.7 0.0

Mining

795.4 804.3 808.6 808.4 802.7 817.0 817.4 813.9 -3.5

Oil and gas extraction

184.2 191.2 191.0 192.3 185.2 193.4 192.3 193.2 0.9

Mining, except oil and gas(1)

221.3 217.7 220.1 220.0 224.6 226.9 226.2 223.0 -3.2

Coal mining

88.4 84.9 85.8 83.8 88.5 84.7 85.2 83.6 -1.6

Support activities for mining

389.9 395.4 397.5 396.1 392.9 396.7 398.9 397.7 -1.2

Construction

5,487 5,373 5,485 5,645 5,636 5,783 5,796 5,790 -6

Construction of buildings

1,197.0 1,199.9 1,211.1 1,230.5 1,231.7 1,259.8 1,262.4 1,263.8 1.4

Residential building

553.4 546.5 551.8 568.5 572.0 578.3 580.2 586.4 6.2

Nonresidential building

643.6 653.4 659.3 662.0 659.7 681.5 682.2 677.4 -4.8

Heavy and civil engineering construction

844.7 791.2 808.7 856.7 869.9 897.9 887.1 883.3 -3.8

Specialty trade contractors

3,444.8 3,382.0 3,465.6 3,557.3 3,534.3 3,624.9 3,646.6 3,642.6 -4.0

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,435.8 1,418.2 1,452.9 1,507.0 1,476.1 1,529.2 1,538.3 1,545.4 7.1

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,009.0 1,963.8 2,012.7 2,050.3 2,058.2 2,095.7 2,108.3 2,097.2 -11.1

Manufacturing

11,850 11,879 11,915 11,930 11,920 11,988 11,990 11,990 0

Durable goods

7,436 7,460 7,489 7,501 7,460 7,511 7,518 7,519 1

Wood products

335.0 337.9 340.4 342.2 337.2 347.3 346.0 344.3 -1.7

Nonmetallic mineral products

363.5 352.3 358.8 363.6 367.2 366.9 367.4 366.1 -1.3

Primary metals

401.6 395.1 397.4 397.0 401.5 397.1 398.3 397.0 -1.3

Fabricated metal products

1,400.4 1,420.6 1,425.8 1,429.9 1,407.3 1,429.8 1,432.2 1,434.7 2.5

Machinery

1,095.9 1,099.4 1,104.6 1,107.5 1,099.3 1,103.3 1,106.0 1,109.6 3.6

Computer and electronic products(1)

1,094.1 1,083.0 1,082.3 1,078.9 1,097.4 1,084.5 1,084.0 1,082.0 -2.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

157.9 159.0 159.4 160.2 158.4 159.4 159.8 160.6 0.8

Communications equipment

109.4 107.7 107.8 107.3 110.0 107.9 108.0 107.7 -0.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

384.2 380.1 379.3 379.0 384.7 380.6 379.8 379.6 -0.2

Electronic instruments

401.9 396.9 396.6 393.4 403.1 396.8 396.9 394.7 -2.2

Electrical equipment and appliances

369.1 363.4 363.5 363.9 370.8 365.5 365.6 365.6 0.0

Transportation equipment(1)

1,447.6 1,482.9 1,491.4 1,493.7 1,447.3 1,485.7 1,488.8 1,491.8 3.0

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

768.4 793.3 802.2 804.0 766.5 794.1 798.2 800.6 2.4

Furniture and related products

351.3 348.7 350.5 350.8 352.9 352.4 352.2 351.5 -0.7

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

577.0 576.6 574.4 573.8 579.5 578.5 577.4 576.5 -0.9

Nondurable goods

4,414 4,419 4,426 4,429 4,460 4,477 4,472 4,471 -1

Food manufacturing

1,436.2 1,442.3 1,444.5 1,447.3 1,468.3 1,475.0 1,475.1 1,477.4 2.3

Textile mills

118.5 114.3 114.4 114.3 118.6 115.1 114.6 114.5 -0.1

Textile product mills

116.9 115.5 115.1 115.1 117.0 116.7 115.9 115.2 -0.7

Apparel

150.3 148.5 146.0 142.9 149.7 148.2 145.7 142.8 -2.9

Paper and paper products

378.6 376.7 375.7 375.3 380.7 378.3 377.7 377.3 -0.4

Printing and related support activities

463.2 452.9 454.3 451.2 465.2 456.8 456.0 452.9 -3.1

Petroleum and coal products

112.4 112.1 112.8 113.9 113.2 115.6 115.6 114.9 -0.7

Chemicals

780.5 790.1 793.6 793.7 782.8 793.2 793.6 794.5 0.9

Plastics and rubber products

640.9 650.1 654.3 654.6 643.9 654.2 656.4 657.1 0.7

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

216.3 216.6 214.9 220.2 220.7 223.4 221.8 224.3 2.5

Private service-providing

92,873 93,437 94,039 94,803 93,056 94,662 94,801 94,986 185

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25,207 25,417 25,492 25,628 25,409 25,808 25,800 25,837 37

Wholesale trade

5,638.2 5,683.2 5,705.1 5,726.6 5,654.0 5,733.7 5,736.6 5,740.7 4.1

Durable goods

2,812.0 2,835.6 2,842.8 2,846.5 2,822.9 2,854.1 2,854.3 2,855.1 0.8

Nondurable goods

1,961.9 1,974.1 1,980.7 1,995.3 1,964.4 1,998.3 1,996.9 1,998.5 1.6

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

864.3 873.5 881.6 884.8 866.7 881.3 885.4 887.1 1.7

Retail trade

14,673.6 14,766.7 14,814.0 14,921.7 14,829.5 15,052.3 15,048.4 15,077.7 29.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers(1)

1,728.2 1,731.1 1,747.6 1,758.7 1,727.1 1,756.0 1,760.3 1,758.6 -1.7

Automobile dealers

1,085.0 1,098.6 1,106.1 1,112.2 1,085.2 1,108.8 1,110.9 1,113.1 2.2

Furniture and home furnishings stores

431.1 446.9 443.8 445.8 438.9 451.1 450.8 452.9 2.1

Electronics and appliance stores

509.3 510.3 498.5 495.7 515.2 510.3 503.9 502.1 -1.8

Building material and garden supply stores

1,221.9 1,132.1 1,167.6 1,225.4 1,175.2 1,178.8 1,174.6 1,177.4 2.8

Food and beverage stores

2,817.6 2,866.3 2,863.2 2,867.9 2,842.6 2,896.1 2,893.9 2,895.1 1.2

Health and personal care stores

990.6 1,017.0 1,018.3 1,024.1 998.6 1,024.1 1,025.6 1,031.0 5.4

Gasoline stations

834.3 836.2 837.5 845.2 840.0 849.4 849.6 850.3 0.7

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,336.4 1,389.7 1,391.5 1,395.6 1,380.7 1,449.0 1,446.4 1,446.8 0.4

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

562.6 571.7 562.4 564.0 581.5 582.4 580.6 581.9 1.3

General merchandise stores(1)

3,037.5 3,029.0 3,061.3 3,069.7 3,097.2 3,099.5 3,107.5 3,122.3 14.8

Department stores

1,471.9 1,447.7 1,451.0 1,455.7 1,516.1 1,481.8 1,485.7 1,493.6 7.9

Miscellaneous store retailers

776.0 796.1 785.5 796.8 789.9 809.4 808.2 812.2 4.0

Nonstore retailers

428.1 440.3 436.8 432.8 442.6 446.2 447.0 447.1 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

4,342.0 4,413.4 4,418.9 4,425.4 4,372.4 4,466.3 4,459.6 4,463.8 4.2

Air transportation

459.6 442.3 444.2 446.9 460.4 446.3 446.5 448.3 1.8

Rail transportation

232.1 229.4 229.5 230.9 231.6 230.9 230.2 230.4 0.2

Water transportation

61.4 60.2 61.5 61.7 62.6 62.3 62.9 62.9 0.0

Truck transportation

1,321.3 1,346.8 1,347.8 1,367.5 1,340.3 1,380.2 1,373.9 1,385.6 11.7

Transit and ground passenger transportation

440.7 477.0 481.7 481.6 427.3 464.0 468.8 467.9 -0.9

Pipeline transportation

43.5 44.4 44.5 44.3 43.9 44.4 44.6 44.6 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

25.6 19.9 21.4 23.0 28.0 26.8 26.8 25.9 -0.9

Support activities for transportation

575.9 587.6 584.0 582.6 575.1 588.8 586.2 583.0 -3.2

Couriers and messengers

512.9 525.7 522.0 510.1 527.7 534.5 532.2 529.9 -2.3

Warehousing and storage

669.0 680.1 682.3 676.8 675.5 688.1 687.5 685.3 -2.2

Utilities

552.7 553.4 554.0 554.1 553.4 555.9 555.3 555.1 -0.2

Information

2,674 2,704 2,699 2,684 2,679 2,698 2,700 2,691 -9

Publishing industries, except Internet

737.2 726.0 727.3 727.4 739.8 728.7 730.1 730.0 -0.1

Motion picture and sound recording industries

367.3 406.9 401.6 385.5 369.6 399.1 400.3 389.8 -10.5

Broadcasting, except Internet

287.0 285.8 286.0 285.9 287.0 285.8 285.9 285.6 -0.3

Telecommunications

860.2 857.1 856.0 855.4 861.4 854.2 854.9 856.1 1.2

Data processing, hosting and related services

251.7 251.1 250.6 251.2 250.0 251.5 250.3 249.8 -0.5

Other information services

170.3 177.4 177.6 178.3 171.3 178.7 178.9 179.5 0.6

Financial activities

7,740 7,808 7,821 7,840 7,768 7,853 7,858 7,867 9

Finance and insurance

5,807.1 5,873.6 5,875.0 5,877.0 5,820.1 5,879.7 5,880.3 5,890.2 9.9

Monetary authorities - central bank

17.0 16.5 16.5 16.5 17.0 16.7 16.7 16.6 -0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities(1)

2,562.3 2,603.6 2,601.1 2,605.3 2,569.0 2,603.9 2,603.8 2,612.4 8.6

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,736.4 1,737.5 1,735.3 1,733.7 1,740.9 1,738.8 1,737.9 1,738.1 0.2

Commercial banking

1,319.4 1,311.8 1,308.9 1,305.8 1,322.1 1,312.9 1,310.1 1,309.0 -1.1

Securities, commodity contracts, investments

809.4 824.1 826.0 827.5 812.3 825.0 826.7 829.8 3.1

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,331.6 2,343.6 2,345.1 2,341.2 2,334.7 2,347.7 2,346.5 2,344.6 -1.9

Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles

86.8 85.8 86.3 86.5 87.1 86.4 86.6 86.8 0.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,932.5 1,934.5 1,945.9 1,963.2 1,947.9 1,973.7 1,978.1 1,976.5 -1.6

Real estate

1,406.8 1,409.2 1,416.5 1,426.8 1,414.0 1,432.6 1,436.5 1,432.4 -4.1

Rental and leasing services

501.5 502.0 506.0 513.7 509.6 517.7 518.1 521.2 3.1

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

24.2 23.3 23.4 22.7 24.3 23.4 23.5 22.9 -0.6

Professional and business services

17,805 18,021 18,169 18,409 17,841 18,291 18,355 18,428 73

Professional and technical services(1)

7,910.6 8,104.7 8,126.7 8,155.7 7,842.7 8,030.4 8,061.4 8,084.2 22.8

Legal services

1,116.0 1,117.7 1,122.9 1,126.6 1,120.7 1,125.1 1,128.6 1,130.7 2.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,006.9 1,058.1 1,054.3 1,043.3 905.7 922.5 935.4 939.1 3.7

Architectural and engineering services

1,311.4 1,320.9 1,325.9 1,335.2 1,322.5 1,340.2 1,343.2 1,345.9 2.7

Computer systems design and related services

1,598.3 1,669.7 1,667.2 1,674.8 1,601.5 1,671.4 1,675.0 1,678.3 3.3

Management and technical consulting services

1,103.5 1,150.7 1,159.9 1,170.3 1,109.1 1,161.2 1,169.3 1,175.0 5.7

Management of companies and enterprises

1,992.3 2,018.2 2,024.6 2,030.7 2,001.7 2,030.9 2,032.7 2,039.9 7.2

Administrative and waste services

7,901.8 7,898.1 8,017.3 8,222.8 7,996.5 8,230.0 8,261.0 8,304.3 43.3

Administrative and support services(1)

7,533.5 7,529.3 7,647.4 7,850.5 7,624.5 7,853.1 7,883.5 7,928.0 44.5

Employment services(1)

3,041.8 3,123.4 3,186.2 3,258.6 3,122.3 3,267.5 3,291.4 3,326.0 34.6

Temporary help services

2,414.4 2,478.8 2,539.2 2,598.6 2,480.4 2,608.3 2,633.8 2,664.6 30.8

Business support services

815.5 839.8 834.5 833.9 821.3 836.1 835.4 839.0 3.6

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,839.4 1,698.6 1,744.6 1,862.7 1,837.1 1,859.0 1,862.9 1,863.0 0.1

Waste management and remediation services

368.3 368.8 369.9 372.3 372.0 376.9 377.5 376.3 -1.2

Education and health services

20,414 20,660 20,746 20,785 20,243 20,542 20,588 20,616 28

Educational services

3,510.4 3,482.3 3,516.0 3,522.5 3,343.7 3,337.7 3,356.6 3,359.3 2.7

Health care and social assistance

16,903.3 17,177.6 17,229.6 17,262.9 16,899.5 17,204.4 17,230.9 17,257.0 26.1

Health care(3)

14,221.3 14,454.9 14,487.3 14,507.3 14,241.5 14,491.5 14,510.2 14,529.2 19.0

Ambulatory health care services(1)

6,269.4 6,438.8 6,453.9 6,472.6 6,276.6 6,455.1 6,466.3 6,479.9 13.6

Offices of physicians

2,370.7 2,416.8 2,417.3 2,418.6 2,378.9 2,423.0 2,421.9 2,427.3 5.4

Outpatient care centers

643.8 676.6 679.6 680.4 642.9 675.9 678.9 679.8 0.9

Home health care services

1,185.2 1,249.8 1,256.4 1,266.8 1,184.4 1,252.3 1,258.4 1,264.5 6.1

Hospitals

4,768.8 4,821.5 4,831.2 4,826.0 4,778.5 4,827.2 4,833.5 4,836.2 2.7

Nursing and residential care facilities(1)

3,183.1 3,194.6 3,202.2 3,208.7 3,186.4 3,209.2 3,210.4 3,213.1 2.7

Nursing care facilities

1,662.1 1,656.1 1,659.9 1,661.2 1,664.9 1,664.8 1,664.0 1,664.3 0.3

Social assistance(1)

2,682.0 2,722.7 2,742.3 2,755.6 2,658.0 2,712.9 2,720.7 2,727.8 7.1

Child day care services

877.0 874.1 879.4 882.1 854.2 859.1 859.6 859.3 -0.3

Leisure and hospitality

13,620 13,403 13,670 13,993 13,698 13,995 14,033 14,076 43

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,915.7 1,788.6 1,868.3 1,961.6 1,964.1 1,997.8 2,008.8 2,006.9 -1.9

Performing arts and spectator sports

412.4 388.3 410.3 444.2 405.3 422.6 430.0 433.1 3.1

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

132.6 126.6 131.1 135.7 135.5 138.6 139.1 138.6 -0.5

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,370.7 1,273.7 1,326.9 1,381.7 1,423.3 1,436.6 1,439.7 1,435.2 -4.5

Accommodation and food services

11,703.9 11,614.8 11,802.1 12,031.3 11,733.7 11,996.8 12,024.0 12,069.1 45.1

Accommodation

1,771.7 1,735.6 1,762.3 1,789.7 1,821.7 1,827.9 1,830.2 1,837.4 7.2

Food services and drinking places

9,932.2 9,879.2 10,039.8 10,241.6 9,912.0 10,168.9 10,193.8 10,231.7 37.9

Other services

5,413 5,424 5,442 5,464 5,418 5,475 5,467 5,471 4

Repair and maintenance

1,188.4 1,190.3 1,193.3 1,199.1 1,184.7 1,200.0 1,195.9 1,196.4 0.5

Personal and laundry services

1,308.5 1,313.3 1,321.5 1,332.7 1,305.3 1,329.3 1,328.3 1,329.9 1.6

Membership associations and organizations

2,915.7 2,920.5 2,927.2 2,932.3 2,927.9 2,945.4 2,943.0 2,944.4 1.4

Government

22,349 22,210 22,267 22,262 21,933 21,871 21,855 21,844 -11

Federal

2,827.0 2,775.0 2,762.0 2,763.0 2,828.0 2,793.0 2,777.0 2,769.0 -8.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,204.9 2,169.9 2,173.5 2,172.8 2,210.6 2,188.6 2,184.1 2,179.2 -4.9

U.S. Postal Service

621.9 605.3 588.8 590.5 617.2 604.7 593.0 589.5 -3.5

State government

5,212.0 5,172.0 5,199.0 5,208.0 5,064.0 5,046.0 5,054.0 5,053.0 -1.0

State government education

2,539.0 2,523.4 2,548.1 2,553.5 2,389.6 2,387.1 2,396.1 2,397.8 1.7

State government, excluding education

2,672.9 2,648.1 2,650.7 2,654.4 2,674.5 2,658.5 2,657.5 2,655.2 -2.3

Local government

14,310.0 14,263.0 14,306.0 14,291.0 14,041.0 14,032.0 14,024.0 14,022.0 -2.0

Local government education

8,122.7 8,107.2 8,141.7 8,105.8 7,775.9 7,762.3 7,759.5 7,758.0 -1.5

Local government, excluding education

6,186.8 6,156.2 6,164.6 6,184.9 6,265.3 6,269.8 6,264.4 6,264.4 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.5 34.6 34.4

Goods-producing

40.3 40.5 40.4 40.2

Mining and logging

43.9 43.3 43.3 43.1

Construction

38.8 39.2 39.0 38.9

Manufacturing

40.8 40.9 40.8 40.7

Durable goods

41.2 41.2 41.1 41.0

Nondurable goods

40.2 40.3 40.3 40.0

Private service-providing

33.4 33.3 33.4 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.6 34.5 34.7 34.5

Wholesale trade

38.7 38.6 38.7 38.6

Retail trade

31.7 31.5 31.7 31.4

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 38.6 38.8 38.7

Utilities

41.8 42.5 42.5 42.1

Information

36.6 36.3 36.4 36.5

Financial activities

37.2 37.2 37.2 37.2

Professional and business services

36.0 36.1 36.1 36.0

Education and health services

32.9 32.9 32.9 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 26.1 26.2 26.1

Other services

31.7 31.7 31.8 31.6

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.3 3.4 3.3

Durable goods

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)

Total private

$23.42 $23.82 $23.83 $23.87 $807.99 $821.79 $824.52 $821.13

Goods-producing

24.67 24.94 24.96 24.97 994.20 1,010.07 1,008.38 1,003.79

Mining and logging

28.68 28.83 28.99 28.99 1,259.05 1,248.34 1,255.27 1,249.47

Construction

25.67 26.03 26.04 26.07 996.00 1,020.38 1,015.56 1,014.12

Manufacturing

23.91 24.14 24.16 24.15 975.53 987.33 985.73 982.91

Durable goods

25.30 25.52 25.56 25.56 1,042.36 1,051.42 1,050.52 1,047.96

Nondurable goods

21.52 21.77 21.75 21.72 865.10 877.33 876.53 868.80

Private service-providing

23.12 23.55 23.56 23.61 772.21 784.22 786.90 786.21

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.36 20.77 20.83 20.89 704.46 716.57 722.80 720.71

Wholesale trade

26.69 27.32 27.51 27.57 1,032.90 1,054.55 1,064.64 1,064.20

Retail trade

16.17 16.54 16.59 16.62 512.59 521.01 525.90 521.87

Transportation and warehousing

22.02 22.02 22.05 22.15 843.37 849.97 855.54 857.21

Utilities

33.70 35.02 34.92 34.70 1,408.66 1,488.35 1,484.10 1,460.87

Information

31.75 32.44 32.58 32.80 1,162.05 1,177.57 1,185.91 1,197.20

Financial activities

28.90 29.97 29.99 30.07 1,075.08 1,114.88 1,115.63 1,118.60

Professional and business services

27.97 28.35 28.41 28.39 1,006.92 1,023.44 1,025.60 1,022.04

Education and health services

24.15 24.58 24.47 24.52 794.54 808.68 805.06 806.71

Leisure and hospitality

13.35 13.39 13.41 13.42 348.44 349.48 351.34 350.26

Other services

20.75 21.23 21.12 21.18 657.78 672.99 671.62 669.29

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2013 - Apr.
2013(p)
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2013 - Apr.
2013(p)

Total private

96.3 97.9 98.3 97.9 -0.4 107.6 111.2 111.7 111.5 -0.2

Goods-producing

84.5 86.0 85.9 85.4 -0.6 94.2 96.9 96.9 96.4 -0.5

Mining and logging

117.5 118.0 118.0 117.0 -0.8 135.3 136.5 137.3 136.2 -0.8

Construction

75.4 78.1 77.9 77.6 -0.4 84.1 88.4 88.2 87.9 -0.3

Manufacturing

87.5 88.2 88.0 87.8 -0.2 97.3 99.0 98.9 98.6 -0.3

Durable goods

86.5 87.1 87.0 86.8 -0.2 97.2 98.7 98.8 98.5 -0.3

Nondurable goods

89.5 90.0 89.9 89.2 -0.8 97.7 99.5 99.3 98.4 -0.9

Private service-providing

99.8 101.2 101.6 101.5 -0.1 111.7 115.4 116.0 116.1 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

95.6 96.8 97.4 96.9 -0.5 104.8 108.3 109.2 109.0 -0.2

Wholesale trade

95.5 96.6 96.9 96.7 -0.2 106.3 110.1 111.2 111.2 0.0

Retail trade

95.5 96.3 96.9 96.2 -0.7 102.1 105.3 106.3 105.7 -0.6

Transportation and warehousing

95.8 98.7 99.0 98.9 -0.1 107.1 110.3 110.8 111.1 0.3

Utilities

100.1 102.2 102.1 101.1 -1.0 111.4 118.3 117.8 115.9 -1.6

Information

89.5 89.4 89.8 89.7 -0.1 101.2 103.3 104.1 104.8 0.7

Financial activities

94.6 95.7 95.7 95.8 0.1 106.7 111.8 112.0 112.4 0.4

Professional and business services

101.0 103.9 104.2 104.3 0.1 114.5 119.3 120.0 120.0 0.0

Education and health services

108.4 110.0 110.3 110.4 0.1 122.7 126.7 126.4 126.8 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

102.0 104.2 104.9 104.8 -0.1 109.9 112.6 113.5 113.5 0.0

Other services

95.2 96.2 96.3 95.8 -0.5 112.1 115.9 115.5 115.1 -0.3

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)

Total nonfarm

65,832 66,680 66,729 66,846 49.4 49.3 49.3 49.3

Total private

53,320 54,204 54,259 54,376 47.8 47.8 47.8 47.9

Goods-producing

4,090 4,107 4,101 4,101 22.2 22.0 22.0 22.0

Mining and logging

112 116 117 118 13.1 13.4 13.5 13.7

Construction

720 734 736 737 12.8 12.7 12.7 12.7

Manufacturing

3,258 3,257 3,248 3,246 27.3 27.2 27.1 27.1

Durable goods

1,732 1,734 1,732 1,734 23.2 23.1 23.0 23.1

Nondurable goods

1,526 1,523 1,516 1,512 34.2 34.0 33.9 33.8

Private service-providing

49,230 50,097 50,158 50,275 52.9 52.9 52.9 52.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,220 10,430 10,448 10,484 40.2 40.4 40.5 40.6

Wholesale trade

1,701.6 1,705.0 1,700.9 1,702.3 30.1 29.7 29.6 29.7

Retail trade

7,362.9 7,548.4 7,567.5 7,600.0 49.7 50.1 50.3 50.4

Transportation and warehousing

1,018.0 1,038.0 1,042.7 1,044.6 23.3 23.2 23.4 23.4

Utilities

137.6 138.5 136.9 137.1 24.9 24.9 24.7 24.7

Information

1,082 1,073 1,071 1,065 40.4 39.8 39.7 39.6

Financial activities

4,511 4,541 4,538 4,544 58.1 57.8 57.8 57.8

Professional and business services

7,890 8,109 8,126 8,161 44.2 44.3 44.3 44.3

Education and health services

15,523 15,772 15,801 15,826 76.7 76.8 76.7 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

7,158 7,293 7,300 7,323 52.3 52.1 52.0 52.0

Other services

2,846 2,879 2,874 2,872 52.5 52.6 52.6 52.5

Government

12,512 12,476 12,470 12,470 57.0 57.0 57.1 57.1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)

Total private

92,102 93,584 93,677 93,805

Goods-producing

13,311 13,431 13,435 13,426

Mining and logging

647 643 642 639

Construction

4,260 4,367 4,383 4,379

Manufacturing

8,404 8,421 8,410 8,408

Durable goods

5,151 5,170 5,165 5,164

Nondurable goods

3,253 3,251 3,245 3,244

Private service-providing

78,791 80,153 80,242 80,379

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21,568 21,855 21,839 21,848

Wholesale trade

4,549.3 4,617.6 4,618.7 4,618.7

Retail trade

12,795.2 12,928.4 12,914.3 12,927.0

Transportation and warehousing

3,781.5 3,861.6 3,859.3 3,855.1

Utilities

441.6 447.3 447.0 446.9

Information

2,163 2,181 2,183 2,178

Financial activities

5,966 6,040 6,038 6,057

Professional and business services

14,705 15,139 15,190 15,240

Education and health services

17,759 18,018 18,049 18,073

Leisure and hospitality

12,095 12,347 12,379 12,415

Other services

4,535 4,573 4,564 4,568

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.8 33.8 33.7

Goods-producing

41.2 41.3 41.3 41.3

Mining and logging

47.3 45.5 45.5 45.6

Construction

39.3 39.7 39.7 39.7

Manufacturing

41.7 41.9 41.8 41.7

Durable goods

42.1 42.3 42.2 42.1

Nondurable goods

41.0 41.3 41.2 41.2

Private service-providing

32.5 32.5 32.5 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 33.7 33.8 33.6

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.8 38.7 38.6

Retail trade

30.6 30.2 30.3 30.0

Transportation and warehousing

37.8 38.4 38.8 38.7

Utilities

41.0 42.0 42.0 41.8

Information

35.9 35.7 35.7 35.7

Financial activities

36.6 36.7 36.7 36.7

Professional and business services

35.3 35.4 35.5 35.3

Education and health services

32.3 32.4 32.4 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 25.0 25.0 25.0

Other services

30.7 30.8 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.2 4.3 4.4 4.3

Durable goods

4.4 4.3 4.4 4.3

Nondurable goods

3.9 4.3 4.3 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)

Total private

$19.72 $20.03 $20.04 $20.06 $664.56 $677.01 $677.35 $676.02

Goods-producing

20.94 21.16 21.19 21.21 862.73 873.91 875.15 875.97

Mining and logging

25.92 26.30 26.29 26.43 1,226.02 1,196.65 1,196.20 1,205.21

Construction

23.90 24.22 24.26 24.30 939.27 961.53 963.12 964.71

Manufacturing

19.08 19.23 19.24 19.24 795.64 805.74 804.23 802.31

Durable goods

20.18 20.24 20.28 20.31 849.58 856.15 855.82 855.05

Nondurable goods

17.30 17.59 17.55 17.51 709.30 726.47 723.06 721.41

Private service-providing

19.46 19.79 19.80 19.82 632.45 643.18 643.50 642.17

Trade, transportation, and utilities

17.40 17.58 17.59 17.62 588.12 592.45 594.54 592.03

Wholesale trade

22.17 22.39 22.44 22.50 855.76 868.73 868.43 868.50

Retail trade

13.78 13.92 13.95 13.93 421.67 420.38 422.69 417.90

Transportation and warehousing

19.66 19.56 19.49 19.56 743.15 751.10 756.21 756.97

Utilities

31.53 32.09 32.07 32.14 1,292.73 1,347.78 1,346.94 1,343.45

Information

26.93 27.78 27.76 27.90 966.79 991.75 991.03 996.03

Financial activities

22.60 23.55 23.66 23.72 827.16 864.29 868.32 870.52

Professional and business services

23.22 23.57 23.58 23.56 819.67 834.38 837.09 831.67

Education and health services

21.05 21.34 21.32 21.34 679.92 691.42 690.77 689.28

Leisure and hospitality

11.62 11.71 11.73 11.74 289.34 292.75 293.25 293.50

Other services

17.50 17.87 17.79 17.86 537.25 550.40 546.15 548.30

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2013 - Apr.
2013(p)
Apr.
2012
Feb.
2013
Mar.
2013(p)
Apr.
2013(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2013 - Apr.
2013(p)

Total private

103.6 105.6 105.7 105.5 -0.2 136.4 141.2 141.4 141.3 -0.1

Goods-producing

83.8 84.8 84.8 84.7 -0.1 107.5 109.8 110.0 110.1 0.1

Mining and logging

162.6 155.5 155.2 154.8 -0.3 245.2 237.8 237.3 238.0 0.3

Construction

83.8 86.8 87.1 87.0 -0.1 108.2 113.5 114.1 114.2 0.1

Manufacturing

80.4 81.0 80.7 80.5 -0.2 100.4 101.9 101.5 101.3 -0.2

Durable goods

81.5 82.2 81.9 81.7 -0.2 102.7 103.8 103.7 103.6 -0.1

Nondurable goods

78.6 79.1 78.8 78.7 -0.1 96.1 98.3 97.7 97.4 -0.3

Private service-providing

109.3 111.2 111.3 111.2 -0.1 145.7 150.8 151.0 151.0 0.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

101.6 102.7 102.9 102.3 -0.6 126.1 128.8 129.1 128.6 -0.4

Wholesale trade

103.4 105.5 105.3 105.0 -0.3 135.1 139.2 139.1 139.2 0.1

Retail trade

99.1 98.8 99.0 98.2 -0.8 117.1 117.9 118.4 117.2 -1.0

Transportation and warehousing

107.6 111.6 112.7 112.3 -0.4 134.2 138.5 139.4 139.3 -0.1

Utilities

92.6 96.1 96.0 95.5 -0.5 121.9 128.7 128.5 128.2 -0.2

Information

88.6 88.9 88.9 88.7 -0.2 118.2 122.2 122.2 122.6 0.3

Financial activities

102.8 104.4 104.3 104.6 0.3 142.9 151.2 151.8 152.7 0.6

Professional and business services

116.3 120.1 120.9 120.6 -0.2 160.8 168.5 169.6 169.0 -0.4

Education and health services

123.7 125.9 126.1 125.9 -0.2 171.2 176.7 176.8 176.7 -0.1

Leisure and hospitality

110.3 113.1 113.4 113.7 0.3 145.6 150.4 151.0 151.6 0.4

Other services

97.6 98.8 98.3 98.4 0.1 124.5 128.6 127.4 128.0 0.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: May 03, 2013